Psychopathology and Its Risk and Protective Factors in Hearing-Impaired Children and Adolescents A Systematic Review

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
JAMA pediatrics 12/2013; 168(2). DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.3974
Source: PubMed


Pediatric hearing impairment is a chronic handicap that can potentially lead to the development of psychopathology. Yet, for hearing-impaired children and adolescents, the exact occurrence of various forms of psychopathology and its causes are unclear, while this knowledge is essential to enable targeted screenings and interventions.Objective
To investigate the level of psychopathological symptoms in hearing-impaired children and adolescents as compared with normally hearing peers. Second, the influence of type of hearing device and possible risk and protective factors on psychopathology were examined.Evidence Review
A systematic literature search was performed covering relevant databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Two independent researchers identified the relevant articles. The final search was performed on May 2, 2013, and resulted in a total of 35 articles.Findings
Literature consistently demonstrated that hearing-impaired children and adolescents were more prone to developing depression, aggression, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and psychopathy than their normally hearing peers. Levels of anxiety, somatization, and delinquency were elevated in some, but not all, hearing-impaired participants, for reasons related to sex, age, and type of school. Divergent results were obtained for the level of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the influence of type of hearing device on psychopathology. Possible risk and protective factors were identified, including age at detection and intervention of hearing loss, additional disabilities, communication skills, intelligence, type of school, and number of siblings.Conclusions and Relevance
Literature on psychopathology in hearing-impaired children and adolescents is scarce and sometimes inconsistent. To define a more precise occurrence of psychopathology, more studies are needed. These studies should have a longitudinal design to draw firmer conclusions on causality. Hopefully, this will lead to more knowledge in the future to help and support each hearing-impaired individual.

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    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To estimate the extent to which exposure to music through earphones or headphones with MP3 players or at discotheques and pop/rock concerts exceeded current occupational safety standards for noise exposure, to examine the extent to which temporary and permanent hearing-related symptoms were reported, and to examine whether the experience of permanent symptoms was associated with adverse perceived general and mental health, symptoms of depression, and thoughts about suicide. Methods A total of 943 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their sociodemographics, music listening behaviors and health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations. Results About 60% exceeded safety standards for occupational noise exposure; about one third as a result of listening to MP3 players. About 10% of the participants experienced permanent hearing-related symptoms. Temporary hearing symptoms that occurred after using an MP3 player or going to a discotheque or pop/rock concert were associated with exposure to high-volume music. However, compared to participants not experiencing permanent hearing-related symptoms, those experiencing permanent symptoms were less often exposed to high volume music. Furthermore, they reported at least two times more often symptoms of depression, thoughts about suicide and adverse self-assessed general and mental health. Conclusions Risky music-listening behaviors continue up to at least the age of 25 years. Permanent hearing-related symptoms are associated with people’s health and wellbeing. Participants experiencing such symptoms appeared to have changed their behavior to be less risky. In order to induce behavior change before permanent and irreversible hearing-related symptoms occur, preventive measurements concerning hearing health are needed.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Hearing impairment can have an impact on adolescent's quality of life and cause them to sustain depression and isolation. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to study the effectiveness of positive-thinking skills training on increasing happiness in a group of hearing-impaired girls and boys. This research is an experimental study that uses a pre test and post test plan with a control group. The statistical community of this research is hearing-impaired students (girls and boys) in high schools of the southern parts of Tehran, during the year 2012-2103. Altogether, 48 hearing-impaired girls and boys were selected using a 2-stage sampling method. They were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the experimental group and the control group. Each group consisted of 12 students comprising boys and girls. Positive thinking skills training were given to experimental groups during eight 45-minute sessions, twice a week. We used the Oxford happiness questionnaire as our tool in this research. Results from analysis of ANCOVA, showed that positive-thinking skills training had meaningful and positive effect in increasing happiness of hearing-impaired boys and girls in the experimental groups (p< .001). Positive-thinking skills training increases the happiness scores of hearing-impaired adolescents. Hence, the approach taken in this study can be considered as an appropriate method for psychological-education interventions and counselling and therapeutic intervention in hearing-impaired adolescents.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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