Ground Beef Handling and Cooking Practices in Restaurants in Eight States

ArticleinJournal of food protection 76(12):2132-40 · December 2013with9 Reads
DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-126 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Eating in table-service restaurants has been implicated as a risk factor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. To explore this association and learn about the prevalence of risky ground beef preparation practices in restaurants, the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) assessed ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Eligible restaurants prepared and served hamburgers. EHS-Net specialists interviewed a restaurant employee with authority over the kitchen (defined as the manager) using a standard questionnaire about food safety policies, hamburger preparation policies, and use of irradiated ground beef. Interviews were followed by observations of ground beef preparation. Data from 385 restaurants were analyzed: 67% of the restaurants were independently owned and 33% were chain restaurants; 75% of the restaurants were sit down, 19% were quick service or fast food, and 6% were cafeteria or buffet restaurants. Eighty-one percent of restaurants reported determining doneness of hamburgers by one or more subjective measures, and 49% reported that they never measure the final cook temperatures of hamburgers. At least two risky ground beef handling practices were observed in 53% of restaurants. Only 1% of restaurants reported purchasing irradiated ground beef, and 29% were unfamiliar with irradiated ground beef. Differences in risky ground beef handling policies and practices were noted for type of restaurant ownership (independently owned versus chain) and type of food service style (sit down versus quick service or fast food). This study revealed the pervasiveness of risky ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants and the need for educational campaigns targeting food workers and managers. These results highlight the importance of continued efforts to reduce the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef.
    • "Microbiological analysis at the verification step helps to determine the impact of improvement actions [14]. In addition, educational campaigns targeting food workers and consumers may play an important role in the prevention of foodborne illness [15, 16]. The aims of this work were therefore a) to perform a comprehensive evaluation of butcher shops, including risk quantification and determination of the bacteriological quality in raw ground beef and environmental samples; b) to implement improvement actions for both butcher shops and consumers; and c) to verify the impact of such improvement actions. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foodborne pathogens can cause acute and chronic diseases and produce a wide range of symptoms. Since the consumption of ground beef is a risk factor for infections with some bacterial pathogens, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of butcher shops, implemented improvement actions for both butcher shops and consumers, and verified the impact of those actions implemented. A comprehensive evaluation was made and risk was quantified on a 1–100 scale as high-risk (1–40), moderate-risk (41–70) or low-risk (71–100). A total of 172 raw ground beef and 672 environmental samples were collected from 86 butcher shops during the evaluation (2010–2011) and verification (2013) stages of the study. Ground beef samples were analyzed for mesophilic aerobic organisms, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus enumeration. Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and Listeria monocytogenes were detected and isolated from all samples. Risk quantification resulted in 43 (50.0%) high-risk, 34 (39.5%) moderate-risk, and nine (10.5%) low-risk butcher shops. Training sessions for 498 handlers and 4,506 consumers were held. Re-evaluation by risk quantification and microbiological analyses resulted in 19 (22.1%) high-risk, 42 (48.8%) moderate-risk and 25 (29.1%) low-risk butcher shops. The count of indicator microorganisms decreased with respect to the 2010–2011 period. After the implementation of improvement actions, the presence of L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and stx genes in ground beef decreased. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 10 (11.6%) ground beef samples, without detecting statistically significant differences between both study periods (evaluation and verification). The percentage of pathogens in environmental samples was reduced in the verification period (Salmonella spp., 1.5%; L. monocytogenes, 10.7%; E. coli O157:H7, 0.6%; non-O157 STEC, 6.8%). Risk quantification was useful to identify those relevant facts in butcher shops. The reduction of contamination in ground beef and the environment was possible after training handlers based on the problems identified in their own butcher shops. Our results confirm the feasibility of implementing a comprehensive risk management program in butcher shops, and the importance of information campaigns targeting consumers. Further collaborative efforts would be necessary to improve foodstuffs safety at retail level and at home.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2016
    • "The infection by these bacteria in animals is usually asymptomatic, whereas these bacterial infections in humans usually show clinical symptoms of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome [1,11,12] . The human infection usually occurred when proper hygiene is not strictly implemented especially in many developing countries and human consumed undercooked food products [2,13] . In Indonesia, several studies related to E. coli O157:H7, have been carried out by researchers. "
    Dataset · Feb 2016 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
    • "The infection by these bacteria in animals is usually asymptomatic, whereas these bacterial infections in humans usually show clinical symptoms of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome [1,11,12] . The human infection usually occurred when proper hygiene is not strictly implemented especially in many developing countries and human consumed undercooked food products [2,13] . In Indonesia, several studies related to E. coli O157:H7, have been carried out by researchers. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the zoonotic potency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through arbitrarily primed-PCR (AP-PCR) methods as one of the DNA fingerprinting methods. Methods: A total of 14 isolates consisted of 11 isolates originated from human feces with renal failure symptoms, 2 isolates originated from cattle feces, and 1 control isolate were used in this study. DNA of each isolate was extracted, and their profiles were studied by using AP-PCR method with M13 F and M13 R arbitrary primers. Results: The results founded that all of 14 isolates had similarity range from 54.6% to 88.5%. Isolates KL-106(3) and KL-55(6) originated from humans showed the degree of similarity with isolates SM-25(1) and SM-7(1) originated from cattle as high as 85% and 77%, respectively. Conclusions: The high degree of similarity between isolates originated from cattle and human indicated the high potency of zoonoses. The results also concluded AP-PCR method as a briefly fingerprinting method in order to trace the epidemiological of E.coli O157:H7.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
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