ArticlePDF Available
Embracing
work
breaks:
Recovering
from
work
stress
Charlotte
Fritz,
Allison
M.
Ellis,
Caitlin
A.
Demsky,
Bing
C.
Lin,
Frankie
Guros
According
to
recent
reports
from
the
National
Institute
for
Occupational
Safety
&
Health
(NIOSH),
as
many
as
40%
of
U.S.
employees
report
their
jobs
as
being
‘very
or
extremely’
stressful.
Despite
this
fact,
many
U.S.
employees
end
the
year
with
unused
vacation
days!
These
and
other
examples
show
how
uncertain
economic
times
and
increased
work
demands
impact
employees’
work
and
home
lives.
The
costs
of
work
stress
appear
not
just
in
lost
productivity
and
absences,
but
also
in
impaired
employee
well-being
and
health.
Because
stressful
work
environments
may
to
a
certain
extent
be
unavoidable,
recent
research
has
made
significant
strides
toward
understanding
the
processes
and
the
factors
relevant
for
unwinding
and
recovering
from
work
demands
and
for
creating
a
healthy
work-life
balance.
Not
surprisingly,
research
to
date
suggests
that
a
key
to
unwind-
ing
and
combating
the
effects
of
work
stress
is.
.
..taking
breaks!
In
this
article,
we
examine
the
role
of
breaks
from
work
(vacations,
weekends,
evenings,
and
breaks
at
work)
in
employee
recovery
and
unwinding
from
work.
We
review
findings
from
organizational
psychology
and
occupational
health
psychology
to
address
the
following
questions:
First,
do
breaks
from
work
have
measurable
effects
on
employee
well-being
and
job
performance?
Second,
are
there
specific
experiences
and
activities
associated
with
work
breaks
that
impact
the
recovery
process?
Furthermore,
are
there
specific
individual
or
organizational
factors
that
can
hinder
or
facil-
itate
the
process
of
recovery
during
work
breaks?
Based
on
these
empirical
findings,
we
will
discuss
implications
for
management
practice.
RECOVERY
DURING
WORK
BREAKS
Breaks
from
work
take
many
forms,
ranging
from
several
days
or
weeks
off
of
work,
as
in
the
case
of
vacations
or
sabbaticals,
to
very
short
breaks
lasting
only
an
hour
or
less.
Common
among
these
breaks
is
the
opportunity
for
employ-
ees
to
step
away
from
their
work
and
experience,
for
how-
ever
long,
the
absence
of
work-related
demands.
We
believe
that
it
is
precisely
this
absence
of
work-related
demands
that
allows
for
the
process
of
recovery
from
work
to
occur.
Specifically,
when
work
demands
are
removed
for
exam-
ple,
during
evenings
after
work
employees
have
the
opportunity
to
replenish
their
psychological
resources
(e.g.,
energy,
positive
mood)
that
may
have
been
lost
during
work,
due
to
effort
expended
in
the
process
of
performing
work
tasks
and
coping
with
work-related
demands.
In
turn,
the
ability
to
recover
is
presumed
to
directly
relate
to
employees’
well-being
and
health,
as
well
as
employees’
performance
capacity
(i.e.,
an
employee’s
readiness
to
per-
form,
attentional
capacity,
and/or
feelings
of
being
focused,
energized,
and
motivated
to
work).
So,
what
makes
for
a
good
break?
How
does
it
occur?
Are
there
circumstances,
experiences,
or
activities
that
facil-
itate,
or
hinder
effective
recovery?
And,
does
effective
employee
recovery
really
matter
for
organizations?
The
answers
to
these
questions
appear
to
depend–—at
least
par-
tially–—on
the
activities
one
engages
in
during
their
breaks
from
work,
as
well
as
the
broader
psychological
experiences
these
activities
bring
about.
For
example,
recovery
activities
might
include
taking
a
walk
or
reading
a
book,
while
recovery
experiences
would
group
activities
such
as
these
under
the
common
experience
of
relaxation.
By
looking
at
the
recovery
process
in
this
way,
researchers
are
able
to
not
only
identify
specific
activities
important
for
recovery,
but
are
also
able
to
account
for
the
fact
that
individuals
might
experience
dif-
ferent
activities
in
different
ways
(e.g.,
rock
climbing
might
be
relaxing
for
some
and
stress-inducing
for
others).
In
the
following
subsections,
we
review
recent
empirical
findings
related
to
recovery
activities
and
experiences
across
differ-
ing
lengths
of
time
away
from
work.
Organizational
Dynamics
(2013)
42,
274—280
Available
online
at
www.sciencedirect.com
ScienceDirect
jo
ur
n
al
h
o
mep
ag
e:
www
.elsevier
.co
m
/loc
ate/o
r
gd
yn
0090-2616/$
see
front
matter
#
2013
Elsevier
Inc.
All
rights
reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2013.07.005
TYPES
OF
WORK
BREAKS
Vacations
Perhaps
the
most
obvious
breaks
from
work
are
vacations.
In
most
organizations,
employees
are
allotted
a
specific
number
of
days,
or
hours
per
year,
that
they
are
encouraged
to
take
as
time
away
from
work
to
‘recharge
their
batteries.’
The
assumption
is
that
providing
vacation
time
means
employees
will
come
back
to
work
reinvigorated,
re-energized,
and
ready
to
work.
The
Internet
subscription
service
company
Netflix
believes
so
much
in
this
philosophy
that
they
have
adopted
vacation
policies
that
allow
employees
to
take
as
much
time
off
as
they
like.
In
addition
to
better
performance,
so
they
argue,
these
policies
help
attract
and
retain
top
talent.
But,
do
employees
really
benefit
from
taking
vaca-
tions?
If
so,
are
there
certain
aspects
of
vacations
that
are
more
or
less
beneficial
for
employees
in
terms
of
subsequent
well-being
and
job
performance?
To
date,
research
on
employee
recovery
during
vacation
generally
finds
that
employee
well-being
and
performance
capacity
increases
from
before
to
immediately
after
vaca-
tion.
However,
unfortunately,
those
positive
effects
seem
to
‘fade
out’
relatively
quickly
(i.e.,
within
a
few
weeks
after
vacation).
This
pattern
of
findings
emerges
across
a
variety
of
countries
(e.g.,
Israel,
Germany,
Netherlands,
U.S.)
as
well
as
across
different
occupations
(e.g.,
clerical
employees,
academic
employees,
industrial
plant
workers,
teachers).
For
example,
in
a
study
of
employees
from
an
electronics
firm
in
Israel,
employees
felt
less
burned
out
(i.e.,
less
exhausted
and
less
disengaged)
after
vacation
compared
with
right
before
vacation.
However,
feelings
of
burnout
returned
to
their
pre-vacation
levels
within
three
weeks
of
returning
to
work.
While
these
findings
may
be
somewhat
discouraging
in
the
short-term,
it
is
important
to
note
that
research
has
also
shown
that
not
taking
vacations
for
several
years
is
associated
with
increased
cardiovascular
risk.
There-
fore,
it
may
be
that
while
the
positive
effects
of
vacations
fade
out
relatively
quickly,
regular
vacations
may
be
protect-
ing
against
the
long-term
health
effects
of
chronic
work
stress.
Beyond
the
positive
links
with
well-being,
employees
report
higher
work
engagement
and
job
performance
right
after
the
vacation.
While
vacations
generally
seem
to
increase
employee
well-being
and
performance,
those
ben-
efits
may
be
enhanced
or
impaired
through
specific
experi-
ences
during
vacation
as
well
as
the
factors
present
upon
returning
to
work.
For
example,
the
positive
effects
of
vacation
are
hindered
by
high
levels
of
workload
upon
return-
ing
to
work.
In
essence,
a
greater
number
of
demands
placed
on
the
employee
upon
their
return
may
accelerate
the
fade-
out
of
vacation
effects.
Additionally,
not
every
vacation
may
be
a
positive
experience
for
every
employee.
For
example,
in
a
study
of
workers
in
the
Netherlands,
as
much
as
23%
of
the
study
participants
reported
experiencing
no
positive
effects
from
their
vacation,
and
17%
of
the
workers
actually
reported
a
decline
in
their
health
and
well-being
after
vacation.
To
better
understand
how
vacations
may
be
more
or
less
beneficial
for
employees,
research
on
recovery
and
unwind-
ing
from
work
has
begun
to
examine
specific
factors
and
experiences
related
to
the
vacation
that
may
impact
employee
well-being
and
performance
capacity.
For
exam-
ple,
relevant
factors
may
be
the
length
(number
of
days)
or
the
location
(staying
at
home
vs.
leaving
town)
of
the
vaca-
tion.
Although,
research
has
not
yet
been
able
to
indicate
the
ideal
length
of
vacation
or
the
advantages
of
leaving
versus
staying
at
home
during
time
off,
it
has
identified
a
number
of
activities
and
experiences
that
seem
to
be
impor-
tant
for
maximizing
the
beneficial
effects
of
vacation.
For
instance,
a
study
of
school
teachers,
found
that
having
relaxing
experiences
(e.g.,
going
for
walks,
reading
books)
during
vacation
was
related
to
feeling
less
emotionally
drained
and
more
engaged
at
work
after
vacation.
In
another
study,
engaging
in
experiences
that
involved
learning
or
broadening
one’s
horizons
(i.e.,
mastery)
was
associated
with
reduced
exhaustion.
On
the
other
hand,
thinking
about
the
negative
aspects
of
one’s
job
(i.e.,
negative
work
reflection)
during
vacation
has
been
associated
with
greater
burnout,
more
health
com-
plaints,
and
lower
job
performance
after
vacation.
Addition-
ally,
having
to
deal
with
‘non-work
hassles’
(i.e.,
ongoing
day-to-day
demands
such
as
dealing
with
car
trouble
or
arguing
with
a
spouse
during
the
vacation)
is
linked
to
greater
exhaustion
after
vacation.
In
summary,
vacations
appear
to
be
an
important
time
for
employees
to
replenish
resources
and
recover
both
physically
and
mentally
from
work-related
demands.
Taking
vacations
is
associated
with
increased
well-being
and
job
performance
upon
returning
to
work,
although
these
effects
seem
to
fade
out
within
a
few
weeks.
Significant
progress
has
been
made
in
identifying
how
different
activities
and
experiences
that
one
engages
in
during
time
off
impact
the
beneficial
effects
of
vacations.
Relaxing,
avoiding
negative
work-related
thoughts,
and
engaging
in
experiences
that
provide
oppor-
tunities
for
learning
or
growth
are
especially
important
for
recovery
from
work.
Worrying
about
work
or
having
to
cope
with
substantial
non-work
hassles
appears
to
impair
the
recovery
process
during
vacation
by
additionally
draining
individual
resources.
Weekends
While
it
would
be
nice
to
schedule
a
vacation
from
work
whenever
we
are
beginning
to
feel
a
bit
burned
out,
or
in
need
of
recovery,
the
reality
is
that
most
employees
have
only
a
limited
amount
of
vacation
days
each
year.
Rather,
the
weekend
is
used
by
many
as
a
time
to
recover
from
work
demands
and
to
regain
energy
that
translates
into
employee
well-being
and
that
can
be
invested
into
work.
Much
like
research
on
vacations,
the
focus
of
researchers
has
been
aimed
at
understanding
whether
or
not
recovery
can,
and
does
occur
over
the
weekend,
and
which
specific
factors
(e.g.,
activities,
experiences,
or
otherwise)
impact
the
recovery
process.
Employees
who
do
not
completely
recover
during
the
weekend
(i.e.,
they
feel
that
a
free
weekend
is
not
enough
time
to
recover
from
the
work
week)
over
time
are
at
an
increased
risk
for
depressive
symptoms,
fatigue,
energy
loss,
and
cardiovascular
disease.
What
makes
for
a
‘good
weekend’
in
the
sense
that
it
translates
into
higher
employee
well-being
and
job
perfor-
mance
during
the
following
workweek?
Thinking
about
the
positive
aspects
of
one’s
work
(i.e.,
positive
work
reflection)
Embracing
work
breaks
275
is
associated
with
higher
levels
of
well-being
and
job
per-
formance
after
the
weekend.
More
specifically,
positively
thinking
about
one’s
work
has
been
shown
to
predict
higher
levels
of
proactive
behavior,
creativity,
and
helping
others
at
work,
as
well
as
lower
levels
of
exhaustion
and
disengage-
ment
during
the
following
workweek.
Spending
time
enga-
ging
in
joint
activities
with
a
partner
during
the
weekend
is
linked
with
increased
positive
mood
and
lower
exhaustion
at
the
beginning
of
the
work
week.
Furthermore,
getting
a
chance
to
not
think
about
work
at
all
(i.e.,
psychological
detachment
from
work)
fosters
a
sense
of
happiness
and
serenity
in
employees.
Employees
report
feeling
more
refreshed
(i.e.,
‘feeling
recovered’’)
after
a
weekend
in
which
they
were
able
to
detach
from
work-related
demands.
In
addition,
psychological
detach-
ment
during
the
weekend
is
linked
to
more
proactive
beha-
viors
at
work
during
the
following
work
week.
Using
the
weekend
to
pursue
activities
that
are
relaxing
as
well
as
activities
that
provide
opportunities
for
mastery
or
growth
(e.g.,
learning
a
new
hobby,
taking
on
a
challenge)
is
related
to
better
mood.
Relaxation
over
the
weekend,
similar
to
psychologically
detaching
from
work,
seems
to
promote
a
sense
of
happiness
and
self-assurance
in
employees,
and
also
reduces
negative
emotions
such
as
fear,
hostility,
and
sadness.
Employees
also
report
lower
levels
of
exhaustion
and
higher
levels
of
vigor
after
a
relaxing
weekend.
Furthermore,
mastery
experiences
show
similar
positive
effects
as
detaching
from
work
and
relaxation
in
increasing
employee
happiness.
In
contrast,
having
to
deal
with
non-work
‘hassles’’
over
the
weekend,
such
as
conflicts
with
other
people,
financial
problems,
or
other
demands,
is
detrimental
for
employee
recovery.
For
instance,
employees
experiencing
hassles
over
the
weekend
report
greater
disengagement
and
exhaustion
at
work
and
lower
overall
levels
of
well-being
at
the
begin-
ning
of
the
following
workweek.
These
hassles
are
also
linked
to
an
increase
in
negative
emotions,
such
as
hostility,
fear,
and
sadness.
Furthermore,
weekend
hassles
also
seem
to
be
associated
with
lower
job
performance
and
less
proactive
behaviors
at
work
during
the
following
workweek.
In
summary,
it
seems
that
specific
experiences
(e.g.,
relaxing,
mentally
disengaging
from
work,
mastery
experi-
ences)
during
the
weekend
can
help
‘recharge
one’s
bat-
teries.’
However,
certain
other
experiences
during
the
weekend
(e.g.,
not
being
able
to
mentally
disengage
from
work,
dealing
with
financial
or
relationship
problems)
can
manifest
themselves
during
the
following
workweek
in
the
form
of
exhaustion,
negative
mood,
and
lower
performance
capacity.
Evenings
After
Work
In
addition
to
engaging
in
recovery
from
work
during
longer
breaks,
like
vacations
and
weekends,
unwinding
from
work
on
a
day-to-day
basis
is
critical.
This
is
especially
true
for
employees
who
have
demanding
jobs.
Specific
job
demands,
such
as
high
time
pressure,
overtime,
or
dealing
with
difficult
customers,
can
drain
an
individual’s
resources
and
may
con-
tribute
to
lower
employee
well-being.
Lower
well-being
includes
increased
feelings
of
fatigue
and
emotional
exhaus-
tion,
all
of
which
can
also
be
linked
to
increased
rumination
about
work
and
poorer
sleep.
How
do
employees
best
recover
from
work
demands
and
unwind
at
the
end
of
a
workday?
And
do
these
processes
impact
employee
experiences
and
beha-
viors
the
following
workday?
So
far,
research
examining
recovery
during
evenings
after
work
shows
that
engaging
in
activities
associated
with
‘low
effort’
(such
as
reading
a
magazine),
with
socializing
with
others,
or
with
physical
activity
during
evening
hours,
is
associated
with
higher
employee
well-being,
an
increased
sense
of
vigor,
positive
mood,
and
less
fatigue
at
bedtime.
In
contrast,
engaging
in
work-related
activities
during
evening
hours
after
work
relates
to
lower
well-being.
Accordingly,
employees
who
used
their
Smartphone
shortly
before
bed-
time
reported
reduced
sleep
quality
as
compared
to
those
who
did
not
use
their
Smartphone.
Finally,
household
activ-
ities
seem
to
not
impact
employees’
well-being
at
bedtime.
Volunteering
is
associated
with
a
sense
of
mastery
and
spending
time
exercising
is
related
to
greater
psychological
detachment
and
better
mood
at
the
end
of
the
day.
With
regard
to
psychological
experiences
during
evenings
after
work,
opportunities
for
mentally
distancing
oneself
from
work
(i.e.,
psychological
detachment),
for
mastery
experiences,
and
for
relaxation,
all
seem
to
be
associated
with
higher
positive
mood
the
next
morning.
While
certain
activities
and
experiences
during
evenings
after
work
seem
to
affect
employee
well-being,
they
can
also
translate
into
performance
capacity
at
work
the
following
day.
For
example,
when
feeling
recovered
in
the
morning,
employees
report
higher
levels
of
work
engagement,
higher
job
performance,
and
a
greater
willingness
to
be
proactive
and
help
others
during
the
workday.
In
addition,
employees
who
feel
recovered
in
the
morning
report
that
their
job
requires
less
effort.
Furthermore,
feeling
recovered
in
the
morning
may
actually
help
employees
deal
with
job
demands
more
effectively.
Specifically,
one
study
found
that
demands
at
work
were
associated
with
higher
engagement
throughout
the
workday
(i.e.,
feeling
highly
vigorous,
dedicated,
and
absorbed
in
one’s
work),
but
only
for
those
employees
who
reported
feeling
recovered
at
the
start
of
the
workday.
In
other
words,
feeling
recovered
at
the
start
of
the
workday
may
help
employees
confront
demands
at
work
(e.g.,
time
pressure)
in
a
way
that
facilitates
high
levels
of
engagement
throughout
the
day.
Another
important
experience
that
is
highly
relevant
for
recovery
from
work
on
a
day-to-day
basis
is
sleep.
The
quantity,
as
well
as
the
quality
of
sleep–—or
lack
thereof–
can
have
powerful
effects
on
both
well-being
and
perfor-
mance
at
work.
Sleep
helps
employees
restore
and
replenish
important
individual
resources
that
are
especially
important
for
effortful
behaviors
(such
as
those
at
work).
Therefore,
lack
of
adequate
sleep
(especially
over
several
or
more
days),
can
lead
to
decrements
in
both
emotional
and
mental
func-
tioning
that
can
ultimately
translate
into
negative
individual
and
organizational
outcomes.
For
example,
low
sleep
quan-
tity
and
quality
have
been
associated
with
poorer
concentra-
tion,
lower
job
satisfaction,
work
motivation,
and
task
performance,
as
well
as
with
increased
absences
from
work
and
increased
number
of
injuries
at
work.
The
relationships
between
sleep
and
work
outcomes
may
be
more
complex
than
previously
thought.
For
example,
a
recent
large-scale
U.S.
study
found
that
employees
who
spent
more
time
on
work-related
tasks
(at
work
or
at
home)
and
on
addressing
family
demands
spent
less
time
sleeping.
Thus,
while
poor
276
C.
Fritz
et
al.
sleep
seems
to
affect
performance-related
outcomes
at
work,
performance-related
behaviors
also
seem
to
contri-
bute
to
sleep.
At
Work
One
may
wonder
if
the
same
processes
that
occur
during
work
breaks
away
from
work
(such
as
vacations,
weekends,
and
evenings)
apply
to
break
periods
while
at
work?
Specifically,
what
keeps
employees
energized
throughout
the
workday?
After
all,
employees
do
not
spend
every
moment
at
work
engaging
in
behaviors
dedicated
to
the
fulfillment
of
job-
related
tasks.
Behaviors
can
range
from
performance-related
behaviors
to
those
relevant
for
maintaining
the
employees’
health
and
wellness,
such
as
taking
lunch
breaks
or
rest
breaks.
These
breaks
can
vary
both
in
length
and
structure.
While
research
examining
recovery
processes
at
work
is
still
sparse,
we
believe
it
is
a
growing
stream
of
research
with
implications
for
management
practice.
One
common
at-work
break
is
the
lunch
break,
during
which
employees
are
allowed
and
encouraged
to
halt
their
work
in
the
middle
of
the
workday.
Depending
on
an
employ-
ee’s
work
schedule,
‘lunch
breaks’
may
not
always
be
during
lunch
time.
However,
they
are
usually
in
the
middle
of
one’s
workday
or
shift,
are
between
20
and
60
min
long,
and
employees
are
expected
to
use
them
to
eat,
use
the
bath-
room,
rest,
etc.
The
limited
research
on
lunch
breaks
so
far
indicates
that
lunch
breaks
do
not
seem
to
increase
employee
well-being
across
the
board.
Instead,
specific
experiences
during
lunch
breaks
seem
to
enable
higher
performance
capacity
after
the
break.
Specifically,
employees
who
report
higher
levels
of
relaxation
and
mastery
during
the
break
experience
higher
attentiveness
and
less
fatigue,
immedi-
ately
after
lunch.
Furthermore,
employees
who
engaged
in
respite
activities
during
breaks,
such
as
socializing
or
nap-
ping,
felt
more
positive
emotions
and
fewer
negative
emo-
tions
after
their
breaks.
Thus,
in
and
of
themselves,
lunch
breaks
may
not
improve
well-being,
but
rather
actively
seeking
out
activities
that
may
enhance
the
likelihood
of
experiencing
critical
recovery
experiences
may
be
crucial
for
recovery
during
these
breaks.
In
contrast,
employees
who
engaged
in
work
activities,
such
as
preparing
work
materials
for
the
next
meeting,
during
breaks
experienced
more
nega-
tive
emotions
later.
Not
all
breaks
are
as
structured
as
the
lunch
break,
where
the
scheduling
and
activities
are
relatively
pre-established.
Employees
often
insert
shorter
breaks
(so
called
‘micro-
breaks’’)
throughout
the
workday
to
help
stay
energized
(i.e.,
alleviate
fatigue
and
physical
discomfort).
From
a
manager’s
perspective,
while
these
breaks
may
be
important
for
maintaining
employee
well-being
throughout
the
work-
day,
the
time
spent
away
from
work
due
to
breaks
may
be
seen
as
detrimental
to
employee
performance.
After
all,
the
time
spent
not
working
results
in
less
time
to
complete
the
same
amount
of
work.
However,
research
in
blue
collar
occupations
so
far
suggests
otherwise
meaning
that
short
rest
breaks
either
have
no
impact
on
employee
job
perfor-
mance,
or
even
improve
employee
job
performance.
Recently,
attention
has
been
directed
toward
examining
specific
strategies
that
employees
use
during
micro-breaks
to
stay
energized
during
the
workday
with
the
intention
of
uncovering
the
particular
activities
and
experiences
that
maximize
employee
well-being
and
performance
capacity.
For
example,
common
break
activities
such
as
drinking
coffee
or
smoking
cigarettes
may,
on
the
surface,
increase
employee
vitality.
However,
the
health
detriments
of
smoking
(e.g.,
cardiovascular
complications,
cancer
onset)
and
coffee
(e.g.,
nervousness,
anxiety,
and
sleep
disturbances)
out-
weigh
the
health
benefits
from
taking
frequent
breaks.
Find-
ings
form
a
study
including
business
consulting
and
software
development
employees
indicate
that
work-related
micro-
break
activities
seem
to
be
more
strongly
related
to
employ-
ees’
sense
of
feeling
energized
at
work.
Specifically,
activ-
ities
related
to
learning
something
new,
creating
meaning,
and
building
positive
relationships
at
work
are
associated
with
higher
experienced
energy
and
less
fatigue.
In
contrast,
micro-breaks
including
non-work-related
activities
(e.g.,
checking
personal
e-mails)
are
linked
to
lower
levels
of
energy.
These
findings
seem
counterintuitive
at
first.
How-
ever,
these
findings
possibly
indicate
that
the
short
time
frame
of
micro-breaks
limits
the
positive
effects
of
non-
work-related
activities.
Thus,
work-related
energy
manage-
ment
strategies
(such
creating
positive
relationships
at
work)
may
be
more
beneficial
during
micro-breaks,
while
non-work-
related
strategies
may
be
more
helpful
during
longer
breaks
(e.g.,
lunch
breaks
or
evenings
after
work)
(Table
1).
COMMON
FINDINGS
ACROSS
DIFFERENT
TYPES
OF
WORK
BREAKS
Our
work,
as
well
as
that
of
others
in
the
field
of
recovery
from
work,
suggests
that
specific
activities
and
experiences
during
breaks
play
an
important
role
in
‘recharging
one’s
batteries’
after
coping
with
the
exigencies
of
work.
Ade-
quate
recovery
from
work
demands
in
turn
is
associated
with
increased
employee
well-being,
performance
capacity,
and
performance-related
outcomes
at
work.
Across
the
different
types
of
work
breaks
we
discussed
there
are
a
number
of
experiences
that
research
has
identified
as
especially
impor-
tant
to
recovery
from
work.
Perhaps
the
most
consistent
finding
is
that
engaging
in
relaxing
experiences
is
linked
to
increased
employee
well-being
regardless
of
the
length
of
the
break
(e.g.,
vacation,
weekend,
evening,
lunch
breaks).
More
specifically,
we
find
that
relaxation
is
associated
with
positive
mood,
a
sense
of
vigor
and
attentiveness,
as
well
as
with
less
fatigue
and
negative
emotions.
Similarly,
pursuing
opportunities
to
mentally
and
physical
distance
oneself
from
work
(i.e.,
psychological
detachment)
appears
to
play
an
important
role
in
promoting
recovery
and
subsequent
well-
being
during
breaks
AWAY
from
work
(e.g.,
vacations,
week-
ends,
evenings).
When
considering
employee
job
perfor-
mance,
the
relationship
is
curvilinear:
very
low
and
very
high
levels
of
psychological
detachment
are
detrimental
for
job
performance,
while
moderate
levels
appear
to
be
most
beneficial.
Furthermore,
findings
suggest
that
during
very
short
breaks
while
at
work
(i.e.,
micro-breaks),
mentally
detaching
from
work
may
be
less
useful
in
terms
of
benefiting
well-being
and
performance.
Rather,
engaging
in
activities
related
to
work
in
some
positive
capacity
(e.g.,
building
social
relationships
with
co-workers),
may
be
more
benefi-
cial.
In
addition,
engaging
in
experiences
during
non-work
time
that
offer
opportunities
for
learning
and
growth
(i.e.,
Embracing
work
breaks
277
mastery
experiences)
appears
to
be
another
recovery
experience
that
demonstrates
positive
associations
with
well-being
regardless
of
the
length
of
the
work
break.
For
example,
mastery
experiences
have
been
linked
to
increases
in
positive
mood
upon
returning
to
work
after
vacations,
weekends,
evenings,
and
even
lunch
breaks.
Although
enga-
ging
in
activities
such
as
learning
a
new
skill,
may
require
additional
psychological
and/or
physical
resources,
research
suggests
that
doing
so
may
provide
additional
resources
in
the
form
of
increased
self-efficacy
and
skills
that
translate
in
to
greater
feelings
of
self-worth
and
com-
petence
at
work.
WHICH
FACTORS
CAN
HELP
OR
HINDER
RECOVERY
FROM
WORK?
The
growing
body
of
research
on
recovery
from
work
under-
scores
the
importance
of
finding
time
to
unwind
and
reju-
venate,
but
as
we
know,
this
is
easier
said
than
done.
For
example,
various
circumstances
(e.g.,
responsibilities
at
work
or
at
home)
can
influence
our
success
at
recovery.
Research
has
begun
to
examine
those
factors
that
may
impact
recovery
during
work
breaks.
While
some
of
these
factors
have
been
studied
with
regard
to
longer
work
breaks
such
as
vacations,
most
research
has
focused
on
evenings
after
work.
Individual
Factors
There
are
a
number
of
factors
related
to
the
employee
that
are
associated
with
the
experience
of
recovery
from
work
across
different
types
of
breaks.
For
longer
work
breaks,
such
as
vacations
or
sabbatical
leave,
one’s
level
of
respite
self-efficacy
(i.e.,
a
sense
of
confidence
that
one
can
recover
even
under
unfamiliar
situations
and
circumstances)
and
perceptions
of
control
(e.g.,
locus
of
control)
have
been
shown
to
relate
to
greater
psychological
detachment
from
work.
Further,
employees
high
in
respite
self-efficacy
and
perceived
control
also
tend
to
view
their
time
away
from
work
as
more
positive
and
experience
more
beneficial
effects,
in
terms
of
their
well-being.
Employees
differ
in
their
approach
to
creating
bridges
and
boundaries
between
their
work
and
non-work
lives.
For
example,
employees
who
prefer
to
segment
(i.e.,
create
boundaries
between)
work
and
home
life
tend
to
use
less
work-related
technology
at
home,
which
in
turn
is
linked
to
greater
psychological
detachment
from
work
during
non-
work
time.
However,
other
individual
factors
(e.g.,
high
non-work
demands,
low
levels
of
respite
self-efficacy)
have
been
shown
to
hinder
recovery
during
work
breaks.
In
con-
trast,
employees
who
are
highly
involved
in
their
jobs
tend
to
have
a
harder
time
psychologically
detaching
from
work.
Organizational
Factors
Certain
features
of
the
workplace
may
help
or
hinder
recov-
ery
during
work
breaks.
Specifically,
high
workload
(i.e.,
having
a
lot
to
do
in
a
limited
amount
of
time)
and
long
work
hours
are
associated
with
less
psychological
detach-
ment
and
higher
fatigue.
In
addition,
emotionally
draining
work
situations,
such
as
conflicts
with
customers
or
generally
having
to
continuously
display
certain
emotions
at
work,
are
associated
with
reflecting
more
negatively
on
one’s
job
and
being
less
able
to
psychologically
detach
from
work
during
work
breaks.
Furthermore,
organizational
constraints
(i.e.,
Table
1
Relationships
Between
Work-break
Activities/Experiences
and
Employee
Outcomes.
Activities
and
Experiences
Health,
Well-being,
and
Performance
Outcomes
Relaxing
experiences
(taking
a
walk
or
reading
a
book)
Increased
positive
mood
and
vigor
Decreased
negative
mood
and
exhaustion
Mastery
or
growth
opportunities
(learning
something
new)
Increased
positive
mood
and
sense
of
vitality
Decreased
fatigue
Psychological
detachment
from
work
(mentally
and
physically
distancing
oneself
from
work)
Increased
positive
mood
and
life
satisfaction
Decreased
burnout
Highest
levels
of
task
performance
and
proactive
behavior
at
medium
levels
of
detachment
Social
activities
(spending
time
with
friends
or
family)
Increased
positive
mood,
vigor,
and
overall
well-being
Decreased
disengagement
Increased
job
performance
Physical
activities
(exercise
or
outdoor
activities)
Increased
positive
mood
and
vigor
Sleep
and
napping
Decreased
fatigue
Increased
work
motivation
Increased
task
performance
Work-related
activities
(spending
time
working
during
the
work
break)
Decreased
well-being
Decreased
sleep
quality
Increased
negative
mood
Reflecting
on
work
(thinking
about
the
negative
or
positive
aspects
of
work
during
time
off)
Negative
work
reflection
Increased
health
complaints
and
exhaustion
Positive
work
reflection
Decreased
burnout
Increased
proactive
behaviors,
creativity,
helping
behaviors,
and
pursuit
for
learning
behaviors
278
C.
Fritz
et
al.
lack
of
adequate
materials,
equipment,
or
information
to
complete
one’s
work
tasks)
have
been
linked
to
recovery
processes.
Specifically,
organizational
constraints
seem
to
be
associated
with
less
time
spent
on
exercise
and
more
time
spent
on
‘low-effort’’
activities
(e.g.,
watching
television)
during
evenings,
and
generally
a
higher
need
for
recovery.
IMPLICATIONS
FOR
MANAGEMENT
PRACTICE
We
suggest
the
following
implications
for
management
prac-
tice:
Encourage
Employees
to
Take
Vacations
Providing
employees
with
time
away
from
work
in
which
they
can
pursue
opportunities
for
recovery
from
work
demands
should
be
a
priority
for
management.
Specifically,
manage-
ment
should
provide
employees
with
vacation
time
and
make
sure
that
employees
actually
use
this
time,
rather
than
trading
it
in
for
additional
monetary
rewards
or
accruing
it
over
consecutive
years.
Evernote,
a
software
startup
located
in
California,
has
taken
this
message
to
heart
and
has
actually
started
paying
employees
up
to
$1000
to
take
their
vacation
days.
Companies
such
as
REI,
DreamWorks
Animation,
Intel,
and
Microsoft
even
go
a
step
further
by
offering
their
employ-
ees
fully
paid
sabbaticals,
and
encouraging
them
to
make
use
of
this
time.
During
vacations
and
sabbatical,
management
should
minimize
contact
with
the
employee.
This
may
require
some
preparation
(such
as
the
redistribution
of
responsibilities
while
the
employee
is
away)
and
commit-
ment
from
management,
as
well
as
from
employees
them-
selves.
In
addition,
because
the
positive
effects
of
vacation
often
fade
out
quickly,
encouraging
employees
to
take
a
few
days
(or
more)
off
more
than
once
a
year
will
help
maintain
employee
well-being
in
the
long
term.
Furthermore,
provid-
ing
employees
with
a
‘transition
day’
before
and
after
vacation
would
allow
them
to
phase
in
and
out
of
their
work
responsibilities
gradually.
Be
Aware
of
the
Importance
of
Psychological
Detachment
from
Work
Research
findings
across
all
types
of
breaks
away
from
work
(vacations,
weekends,
evenings)
indicate
that
mentally
dis-
tancing
oneself
from
work
is
linked
to
employee
well-being,
specifically
higher
life
satisfaction,
lower
burnout,
and
fewer
health
complaints.
Therefore,
managers
should
encourage
their
employees
to
psychologically
detach
from
work
during
non-work
hours.
For
example,
this
could
include
limiting
work-related
phone
calls
or
e-mails
during
evenings,
week-
ends,
and
vacations.
In
accordance,
companies
such
as
McDonald’s
and
Volkswagon
have
agreed
to
stop
sending
e-
mails
to
their
employees
after
hours.
In
fact,
according
to
a
recent
survey
published
by
the
Society
for
Human
Resource
Management
(SHRM),
as
many
as
one
in
four
companies
have
created
similar
no-e-mail
policies.
It
may
also
be
helpful
for
employees
to
create
a
‘transition
time’
that
allows
them
to
psychologically
detach
from
work
at
the
beginning
of
a
work
break
(e.g.,
the
weekend)
and
‘reattach’’
at
the
end
of
the
break.
Specifically,
before
leaving
work
on
Friday,
employees
may
write
a
‘to-do
list’
for
Monday.
They
may
also
decide
to
check
their
e-mails
on
Sunday
night
or
early
Monday
morning
to
help
them
mentally
prepare
for
the
upcoming
workweek.
On
a
day-to-day
basis,
employees
may
choose
to
use
the
commute
to
and
from
work
in
a
similar
manner,
using
the
commute
home
as
a
time
to
begin
transitioning
to
the
non-
work
role.
The
following
morning’s
commute
may
be
spent
‘reattaching’’
by
thinking
about
goals
to
be
accomplished
that
day
at
work.
Understand
that
Employees
May
Differ
in
their
Needs
for
Recovery
It
is
important
for
managers
to
acknowledge
that
employees
may
differ
in
their
need
for
recovery
from
work
as
well
as
in
their
preferences
for
segmenting
or
integrating
work
and
non-work
life.
Therefore,
creating
workplaces
with
enough
flexibility
to
allow
employees
to
fulfill
their
needs
with
regard
to
work-life
balance
is
crucial
for
employees’
job
satisfaction
and
their
commitment
to
the
organization.
Supervisors’
support
of
employees’
work-life
balance
is
espe-
cially
important.
In
the
worst
case,
employees
may
even
consider
leaving
an
organization
if
their
needs
for
recovery
and
work-life
balance
are
not
being
met.
Utilize
Lunch
Breaks
and
Micro-breaks
We
know
that
lunch
breaks
can
help
employees
regain
energy,
and
maintain
high
job
performance
throughout
the
after-
noon.
In
addition,
and
somewhat
in
contrast
to
lunch
breaks,
micro-breaks
may
be
better
used
to
enhance
employees’
work
experiences.
Specifically,
creating
a
work
environment
that
allows
for
learning,
a
sense
of
meaning,
and
connecting
with
others
can
help
employees
feel
more
energized
and
less
fatigued
at
work.
CONCLUDING
REMARKS
Work
stress
has
serious
implications
for
employees
and
the
organizations
they
work
for.
Therefore,
encouraging
employ-
ees
to
take
advantage
of
their
time
away
from
work
to
recover
and
re-energize
is
crucial
to
the
health
of
employees,
as
well
as
the
long-term
health
and
sustainability
of
organizations.
Recovery
from
work-related
demands
can
occur
during
longer
breaks
away
from
work
(e.g.,
vacations),
during
the
weekend,
on
a
daily
basis
after
work,
and
even
during
certain
breaks
at
work.
Although
findings
vary
somewhat
in
terms
of
the
activ-
ities
and
experiences
that
promote
optimal
recovery
during
different
types
of
breaks,
overall
findings
show
that
it
is
important
to
take
time
to
step
away
from
work
and
allow
for
the
recovery
process
to
occur.
Organizations
that
under-
stand
their
role
in
facilitating
employee
recovery,
and
that
encourage
their
employees
to
leverage
work
breaks
for
the
purpose
of
recharging
and
unwinding,
will
benefit
from
a
workforce
that
is
healthy,
energized,
and
ready
to
work.
Embracing
work
breaks
279
SELECTED
BIBLIOGRAPHY
For
a
research
article
focusing
on
the
concept
of
recovery
from
work
and
specific
recovery
experiences,
see
S.
Sonnen-
tag
and
C.
Fritz,
‘The
Recovery
Experience
Questionnaire:
The
Development
and
Validation
of
a
Measure
for
Assessing
Recuperation
and
Unwinding
from
Work,’
Journal
of
Occu-
pational
Health
Psychology,
2007,
12,
204—221.
For
more
information
on
findings
related
to
recovery
during
vacations,
see
Fritz
and
Sonnentag,
‘Recovery,
Well-Being,
and
Performance-Related
Outcomes:
The
Role
of
Workload
and
Vacation
Experiences,’
Journal
of
Applied
Psychology,
2006,
91,
936—945.
A
surge
in
interest
regarding
recovery
during
evenings
after
work
has
produced
many
rigorous
and
important
find-
ings.
For
example,
see
S.
Sonnentag,
‘Work,
Recovery
Activ-
ities,
and
Individual
Well-Being:
A
Diary
Study,’’
Journal
of
Occupational
Health
Psychology,
2001,
6,
196—210.
The
following
two
studies
also
address
recovery
during
evenings
after
work:
S.
Sonnentag,
C.
Binnewies,
and
E.
J.
Mojza,
‘Did
You
Have
a
Nice
Evening?
A
Day-Level
Study
on
Recovery
Experiences,
Sleep,
and
Work-Relevant
Affect,’
Journal
of
Applied
Psychology,
2008,
93,
674—684.
For
a
specific
focus
on
sleep
as
it
relates
to
recovery,
see
C.
M.
Barnes,
‘Working
in
Our
Sleep:
Sleep
and
Self-Regulation
in
Organizations,’
Organizational
Psychology
Review,
2012,
2,
234—257.
Finally,
breaks
at
work
is
an
emerging
area
in
the
field
of
recovery.
One
of
the
first
studies
to
examine
micro-breaks
is
C.
Fritz,
C.
F.
Lam,
and
G.
M.
Spreitzer,
‘It’s
the
Little
Things
That
Matter:
An
Examination
of
Knowledge
Workers’
Energy
Management,’
Academy
of
Management
Perspectives,
2011,
25,
28—39.
To
learn
more
about
the
effects
of
recovery
on
employee
engagement
and
performance-related
behaviors
such
as
proactive
work
behaviors,
see
S.
Sonnentag,
‘Recovery,
Work
Engagement,
and
Proactive
Behavior:
A
New
Look
at
the
Interface
Between
Work
and
Non-work,’
Journal
of
Applied
Psychology,
2003,
88,
518—528.
280
C.
Fritz
et
al.
... These are voluntary non-work phases at work that can be considered on-the-job recovery experiences (Hunter & Wu, 2016;Kühnel et al., 2016). Breaks have been found to have positive effects on well-being and performance (Fritz et al., 2013;Fritz et al., 2011). On the other hand, there are interruptions at work. ...
... This differentiates idle time from other work situations or behaviors at work in which tasks are not completed because employees have to or want to focus on another task or non-work activity for some time. These situations and behaviors, including breaks, interruptions, procrastination, and withdrawal behavior have been the focus of previous investigations of nonworking periods at work (e.g., Baethge et al., 2014;Fritz et al., 2013;Paulsen, 2014;Steel, 2007). Table 1 summarizes definitions of each of these constructs and provides an overview of dimensions that help to differentiate idle time. ...
... Second, independent of people's own motivation, skills, and abilities to work, during idle time no work tasks are available. During breaks, interruptions, withdrawal behavior, and procrastination, individuals decide to or are asked to focus on another task or non-work activity for a certain period of time (Baethge et al., 2014;Fritz et al., 2013;Paulsen, 2014;Steel, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Idle time at work is a phase of involuntary downtime during which employees experience that they cannot carry out their work tasks. In contrast to breaks, interruptions, procrastination, or withdrawal behavior, employees cannot work because of the absence of work-related tasks. Based on action regulation theory, we develop an integrative conceptual model on the antecedents and consequences of the subjective experience of idle time. We propose that work constraints (i.e., regulation problems) have negative effects on occupational well-being and task performance, and that these effects are mediated by subjective idle time. The strength of these effects is further assumed to be influenced by individuals’ use of proactive (i.e., prevention) and adaptive (i.e., coping) strategies. Results of a supplemental qualitative study, for which we interviewed 20 employees from different occupations, provided preliminary support for the propositions. Finally, we develop theory on how individual, situational, and organizational characteristics may influence the proposed effects on and of idle time. Overall, this conceptual development paper contributes to a better theoretical understanding of idle time at work by extending its definition and applying action regulation theory to this practically important phenomenon.
... Many interactions among colleagues are work-related, but depending on factors like the workplace environment, the type of work, and the individual personalities of the workers, work talk intertwines with small talk. The worker who engages in small talk interactions pursues essential goals, such as building and keeping relationships with coworkers, taking a break from the work routine, contributing to a friendly work environment (see Di Ferrante 2013;Holmes, 1998Holmes, , 2000Koester 2006;Mullany 2006), and also "managing their human energy" (Fritz et al. 2011: 32-33; see also Fritz et al. 2013). This paper concerns the pragmatic implications of the alternation between task-oriented and non-task oriented discourse among coworkers. ...
... By looking again at Table 3, it is possible to see that most of those discourse markers indirectly and implicitly frame transitions between interactions and this is due to at least two reasons. First, alternating small talk and work talk is typical of most workplaces and it is a shared social norm among workers that a portion of the time they spend at work will consist of microbreaks (Fritz et al. 2011(Fritz et al. , 2013Kim et al. 2017Kim et al. , 2018) that include non-transactional talk with co-workers. When Tess, in Example 6, decides to switch to work talk, she does not need to explicitly and directly say so because both her co-worker and she share the same workplace culture and norms. ...
Article
Full-text available
The focus of this article revolves around discourse markers (DMs) that are used when switching between work talk and small talk in workplace interactions. Research in this field has showed how discourse markers are used to manage several interpersonal dynamics in interaction. This study is aimed at identifying which DMs are used in the workplace to operate a shift of topic, how often DMs are used at the juncture of interaction, and what are their specific pragmatic and discursive function when they are used in these situations. This study is based on a workplace small-talk corpus of spoken American English. Results show that DMs are often used to mark the shift to a different topic or mode of discourse; in particular, shifts to work talk are marked more often than shifts to more small talk on different topics. Also, speakers may select different DMs based on the type of shift. The role and function of the highest-ranking discourse markers were observed, as well as pragmatic implications and impact in the daily interactions among co-workers.
... This is also aligned with a finding that rest breaks are generally effective for managing fatigue and maintaining performance during shift work, particularly when taken during periods of fatigue (Tucker, 2003). Second, low-effort or relaxing activities (e.g., shuteye, resting) and activities that allow for mental disengagement or social connections (e.g., interacting with colleagues, keeping in touch with friends and family) were reported as helping officers to recover, which corroborates previous findings (Fritz et al., 2013;Sonnentag et al., 2017). Third, the potential impact of missing on-the-job breaks appeared salient, which aligns with previous research documenting suboptimal outcomes among workers who do not have rest breaks (e.g., Arlinghaus et al., 2012;Lombardi et al., 2014). ...
... Second, physical activities and learning activities during on-the-job breaks were not perceived to help officers' recovery. This is contrary to the literature, wherein physical activities and mastery activities have been shown to facilitate recovery from job stress (Fritz et al., 2013;Sonnentag et al., 2017). We suspect that having the time to not engage in physical activities might have been more refreshing for the officers, likely due to the physically demanding nature of policing. ...
Article
This qualitative study examined on-the-job breaks taken by shift-duty police officers. We explored the nature of on-the-job breaks among officers, their perception of these breaks as helping them to recover and replenish resources, and what factors shaped their on-the-job breaks. Data were collected from 21 shift-duty police officers via semi-structured interviews. Findings show that on-the-job breaks were categorized into official and unofficial breaks, each of which had fairly distinctive characteristics. The timing, activities engaged in during breaks, and subjective experiences during breaks were thought to determine the effectiveness of on-the-job breaks. Officers reported that the adverse impacts of skipping a break tended to exceed the benefits of taking a break. On-the-job breaks were shaped by various work and non-work factors. As the first study delving into on-the-job breaks among shift-duty police officers, this study expands our understanding of specific strategies employed by police officers to deal with ongoing work demands.
... Having the option to take micro-breaks during a shift can help ameliorate the negative outcomes from ongoing work stress (Bennett, Gabreil, & Calderwood, 2020;Fritz et al., 2013). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Providing stress-management training for workers is often customized for occupations and understanding more about the healthcare workers experience could help inform the development of stress-management interventions. A qualitative, multiple case study was conducted to identify specific added stressors from the COVID 19 pandemic and to understand more about the coping strategies used by healthcare workers in different work settings. Purposive criterion sampling was used to recruit six participants from a variety of healthcare facilities and date were collected from four female and two male workers between the ages of 25 and 48 with at least one year of full-time healthcare work. Data were analyzed throughout the research process and with Taquette software. Workers had uncertainty and increased daily hassles, but some workers found benefits from the pandemic. The coping strategies deployed included taking micro-breaks, reframing events, accessing social media, connecting with family, and taking walks. Supervisors and upper level managers need to be informed about the value of allowing micro-breaks during the work shift. Participants reported using reframing skills attained from work trainings, which supported the transfer of training for skill enhancement. Implications for practice include offering a variety of training opportunities and coping resources. This research contributes to work motivation and organizational health literature by providing descriptive data about current stressors and coping strategies used by healthcare workers. *** This research was presented in a poster sessions and was chosen to represent Division 14 at the 2021 APA Conference.
... Having the option to take micro-breaks during a shift can help ameliorate the negative outcomes from ongoing work stress (Bennett, Gabreil, & Calderwood, 2020;Fritz et al., 2013). ...
... Fortunately, adverse consequences of resource depletion are reversible or reduced when workers disengage from work because it allows functional systems to return to baseline levels (Meijman & Mulder, 1998). It is well established that respite activities outside the work placesuch as weekends, evenings after work, or vacations-protect employees against psychological pressure, fatigue, and impaired performance (de Bloom et al., 2015;Fritz et al., 2013;Fritz & Sonnentag, 2005;Sonnentag et al., 2008; see Demerouti et al., 2009, for a review). By contrast, little is known about the effects of momentary recovery inside the work place (i.e., during working hours), which consists in work interruptions called work breaks, rest breaks, or microbreaks. ...
Article
Maintaining productivity is of primary importance in organizational settings. Nowadays, the pressure for work efficacy is required until advanced age given the increased longevity in western societies. Worryingly, performing a work for a long‐lasting duration may induce cognitive fatigue, which can alter job performance or cause work accidents. Regarding laboratory studies, cognitive fatigue, as induced in Time‐on‐Task designs, has been shown to increase reaction times (RTs). According to the Effort‐Recovery Model (ERM), work breaks are able to relieve cognitive fatigue and to maintain performance. However, few studies have investigated age‐related effects in such a context. In this study, young, middle‐aged, and older people performed a 160‐minute Stroop task in a “NoBreak” or a “Breaks” condition. To assess changes in RTs with Time‐on‐Task, the task duration was divided into four 40‐minute blocks in which the ex‐Gaussian τ parameter (i.e., an index of longer RTs) was extracted from individual RT data. Our main results showed that young and middle‐aged people increased their τ with Time‐on‐Task while older people did not. Importantly, participants in the NoBreak condition increased their τ with Time‐on‐Task while those in the Breaks condition kept this parameter constant, suggesting a beneficial effect of breaks independently of age.
Article
The patronage can guide you to learning about how productivity is related to workload burnout, its relation to taking breaks. It also further dwells into how the project can help to increase overall productivity and better lifestyle among its users.
Article
Full-text available
We present a design fiction, which is set in the near future as significant Mars habitation begins. Our goal in creating this fiction is to address current work-life issues on Earth and Mars in the future. With shelter-in-place measures, established norms of productivity and relaxation have been shaken. The fiction creates an opportunity to explore boundaries between work and life, which are changing with shelter-in-place and will continue to change. Our work includes two primary artifacts: (1) a propaganda recruitment poster and (2) a fictional narrative account. The former paints the work-life on Mars as heroic, fulfilling, and fun. The latter provides a contrast that depicts the lived experience of early Mars inhabitants. Our statement draws from our design fiction in order to reflect on the structure of work, stress identification and management, family and work-family communication, and the role of automation.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
People started stay and work from, with the Coronavirus (Covid-19) epidemic, and this situation negatively affected many industries. The necessity of social isolation to prevent the transmission of the disease has caused tourism to come to a standstill. However, precautionary quarantines and curfew restrictions have been effective in controlling the spread of the disease, while the introduction of vaccines in many countries in the fight against Covid-19 has allowed the normalization process to begin gradually. It is known that current and potential tourists use the internet and social media the most to get information about touristic products during the Covid-19. For this reason, it can be stated that effective digital marketing and online reputation management are of great importance for the preference of hotel businesses. In this context, the aim of this study is to determine the thoughts of the managers of tourism businesses about effective digital marketing and online reputation management in tourism for the Coronavirus (Covid-19) era and beyond. It was observed that 10 interviewed tourism business managers indicated the holiday destinations and tourism businesses have received reservations for the summer of 2021. According to the interviewed tourism business managers, this situation has created significant opportunities in the sector, especially in digital marketing. The participants also stated that the online reputation management is very important in the context of strengthening the communication for existing and potential tourists.
Book
Full-text available
The edited volume Age and Work: Advances in Theory, Methods, and Practice presents a systematic collection of key advances in theory, methods, and practice regarding age(ing) and work. This cutting-edge collection breaks new ground by developing novel and useful theory, explaining underutilized but important methodological approaches, and suggesting original practical applications of emerging research topics. The book begins with a prologue by the World Health Organization’s unit head for aging and health, an introduction on the topic by the editors, and an overview of past, current, and future workforce age trends. Subsequently, the frst main section outlines theoretical advances regarding alternative age constructs (e.g., subjective age), intersectionality of age with gender and social class, paradoxical age-related actions, generational identity, and integration of lifespan theories. The second section presents methodological advances regarding behavioral assessment, age at the team and organizational levels, longitudinal and diary methods, experiments and interventions, qualitative methods, and the use of archival data. The third section covers practical advances regarding age and job crafting, knowledge exchange, the work/nonwork interface, healthy aging, and absenteeism and presenteeism, and organizational meta-strategies for younger and older workers. The book concludes with an epilogue by an eminent scholar in age and work. Written in a scientifc yet accessible manner, the book ofers a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, academics in the felds of psychology and business, as well as practitioners working in the areas of human resource management and organizational development.
Article
Full-text available
This study extends previous research on respite from work and addresses the question of how individuals use their leisure time to recover from work. It is hypothesized that time spent on work-related and household activities has a negative effect on well-being, whereas low-effort, social, and physical activities are assumed to have a positive effect. One hundred Dutch teachers completed a diary on leisure time activities and situational well-being for 5 days, and work situation variables were assessed with a questionnaire. Multilevel analyses in which preleisure well-being and work situation variables were entered as control variables supported 4 of the 5 hypotheses. Moreover, a lagged effect of high time pressure on poor situational well-being was found. The study showed that leisure time activities and a low-stress work situation contribute independently to an individual's well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
A large body of sleep physiology research highlights a broad array of effects of sleep on human functioning. Until recently, this literature has been completely isolated from the organizational psychology literature. The purpose of this paper is to further extend the sleep literature into the organizational psychology literature, with a focus on self-regulation in the workplace. I summarize the sleep literature into a model of sleep self-regulation. Next, I highlight initial research in organizational psychology which has drawn from basic sleep physiology research. Following this, I generate new propositions linking sleep to work withdrawal, goal level, incivility, and defection in workplace social dilemmas. Finally, I close with a discussion of methods for conducting sleep research in organizational psychology, as well as some promising areas for future research.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined work-related outcomes of recovery during leisure time. A total of 147 employees completed a questionnaire and a daily survey over a period of 5 consecutive work days. Multilevel analyses showed that day-level recovery was positively related to day-level work engagement and day-level proactive behavior (personal initiative, pursuit of learning) during the subsequent work day. The data suggest considerable daily fluctuations in behavior and attitudes at work, with evidence that these are related to prior experience and opportunity for recovery in the nonwork domain.
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on the mood regulation and job-stress recovery literature, four self-report measures for assessing how individuals unwind and recuperate from work during leisure time were developed (Study 1). Confirmatory factor analyses with a calibration and a cross-validation sample (total N=930) showed that four recovery experiences can be differentiated: psychological detachment from work, relaxation, mastery, and control (Study 2). Examination of the nomological net in a subsample of Study 2 (N=271) revealed moderate relations of the recovery experiences with measures of job stressors and psychological well-being; relations with coping and personality variables were generally low (Study 3). Potential applications for the future use of these short 4-item measures in longitudinal and diary research are discussed.