Book

Here Comes Everybody

Authors:
... La presente investigación tiene por objetivo determinar los retos y perspectivas de la universidad del futuro en la labor docente en los últimos años. Como base teórica, se asume los estudios de Rodríguez (2013), Sexton, Christensen & Sims (2016), Meriño, Hernández & Meriño (2017), Shirky (2008), Pedreño (2013), Caro (2015), , entre otros. Este artículo científico es producto de la aplicación de la técnica Revisión Sistemática de Literatura (RSL), que según la categorización teórica de Barrera (2007), pertenece a la descripción de técnicas de análisis de contenido, o forma por la que se puede efectuar el estudio cualitativo documentado y reflexivo en la medida de precisar las condiciones de un evento cualquiera, determinar acerca de qué trata, en qué términos de manifiesta, de qué manera ocurre y con que alcance. ...
... Palabras clave: universidad del futuro, retos, educación superior, labor docente Challenges and perspectives of the University of the Future in teaching Abstract The purpose of this research is to determine the challenges and perspectives of the university of the future in teaching in recent years. As a theoretical basis, the studies of Rodríguez (2013), Sexton, Christensen & Sims (2016), Meriño, Hernández & Meriño (2017), Shirky (2008), Pedreño (2013), Caro (2015), Martinez, Chirinos are assumed & Meriño (2017), among others. This scientific article is a product of the application of the Systematic Review of Literature (RSL) technique, which according to the theoretical categorization of Barrera (2007), belongs to the description of content analysis techniques, or the way in which the Qualitative documented and reflective study to the extent of specifying the conditions of any event, determine what it is about, in what terms it manifests, how it occurs and how it reaches. ...
... Ser capaz de trasmitir este conocimiento también es algo real. La gente, en el futuro, va a encontrar formas alternativas de enseñar estas cosas", comenta Shirky (2008). Así el proyecto Polymath es uno de los ejemplos citados por Shirky (2008), ya que se diferencia de otras universidades digitales por "enfocarse en educar a los estudiantes para completar un proyecto". ...
... Although, a number of scholars originally believed the internet would break this trend (Anderson 2006;Shirky 2008), others have concluded that audience attention is just as concentrated online as it is everywhere else (Gentzkow and Shapiro 2011;Hindman 2009Hindman , 2018Napoli 2016;Nelson and Taneja 2018;Webster 2014;Webster and Ksiazek 2012). Their findings are consistent with well-established theories of audience behavior that draw on both structural conditions and audience preferences to explain the tenacity of the most recognizable brands in even the most saturated of markets (O'Connor 2013;Webster 2014;Webster and Ksiazek 2012). ...
... This preference-driven perspective provides the logic behind the idea that, in a digital world with seemingly limitless media to choose from, audiences will likely fracture into small niches of media that most align with their tastes (Anderson 2006). Those who believe the strength of audience preferences will inevitably lead to audience fragmentation either applaud this shift as a normative good for societyfor instance, because it will lead to a more egalitarian media environment (Shirky 2008)or decry it as a normative illfor instance, because it will cause audiences to segment into ideological "filter bubbles" (Pariser 2011) and thus, increase political polarization (Stroud 2011). ...
... In particolare, la classificazione dei movimenti, sulla base del principio di democrazia orizzontale -prodotta da processi di disintermediazione e degerarchizzazione delle strutture politiche tradizionali -non tiene conto della pluralità di fattori diversi che intervengono nei contesti specifici. Indubbiamente, i social media offrono alcune opportunità nuove ai gruppi che -per usare il linguaggio castellsiano -si oppongono alla strumentalità del capitale, come la semplificazione nelle forme di organizzazione di eventi collettivi, la facoltà di pubblicare contenuti scomodi senza passare dai canali mediali ufficiali, la possibilità di servirsi della "gratuità dei fallimenti", ovvero, secondo il modello "prima pubblica, poi filtra", l'opportunità di sfruttare il collasso dei costi di transazione per dar vita a esplorazioni contemporanee di molteplici possibilità (Shirky 2008(Shirky , 2010. Tuttavia, il ruolo dei media digitali va ponderato attentamente assieme all'incidenza di altri fenomeni, come l'organizzazione territoriale delle opposizioni e la conformazione fisica dei luoghi delle proteste (Campanelli 2013). ...
... In particolare, la classificazione dei movimenti, sulla base del principio di democrazia orizzontale -prodotta da processi di disintermediazione e degerarchizzazione delle strutture politiche tradizionali -non tiene conto della pluralità di fattori diversi che intervengono nei contesti specifici. Indubbiamente, i social media offrono alcune opportunità nuove ai gruppi che -per usare il linguaggio castellsiano -si oppongono alla strumentalità del capitale, come la semplificazione nelle forme di organizzazione di eventi collettivi, la facoltà di pubblicare contenuti scomodi senza passare dai canali mediali ufficiali, la possibilità di servirsi della "gratuità dei fallimenti", ovvero, secondo il modello "prima pubblica, poi filtra", l'opportunità di sfruttare il collasso dei costi di transazione per dar vita a esplorazioni contemporanee di molteplici possibilità (Shirky 2008(Shirky , 2010. Tuttavia, il ruolo dei media digitali va ponderato attentamente assieme all'incidenza di altri fenomeni, come l'organizzazione territoriale delle opposizioni e la conformazione fisica dei luoghi delle proteste (Campanelli 2013). ...
... Bonding social capital is strengthened by the relationships, connections and trust within a group with common values. As members of a group connect in clusters within small-world networks, bonding occurs within these clusters (Shirky 2008;Hennig et al. 2012; Van Dijk 2012; ...
... Bridging social capital is created by new connections between heterogeneous groups (Islam & Walkerden 2014). Bridging relationships are outward looking, "horizontal" relationships among similar entities (Nakagawa & Shaw 2004) and can occur between individuals as well as clusters (Shirky 2008;Hennig et al. 2012;Van Dijk 2012;Kadushin 2018 ...
Thesis
Bangladesh is considered one of the most vulnerable countries in the world due to its unique geographical location, and is set to become even more vulnerable in the face of the inevitable effect of climate change. Bangladesh faces many natural disasters, including tidal surges, cyclones, monsoons, river erosion and floods. Among these, riverbank erosion is considered one of the most devastating. Due to regular and intense river erosion, many families in Bangladesh experience loss of life, home, lands and livelihoods. The repeated losses of lands and livelihoods prompt internal and external emigration. In each affected community, women are more vulnerable than men because of persistent social, economic and political gender disparities. This research aims to examine the vulnerabilities and survival strategies of climate-migrant women in Bangladesh and to look for pragmatic and realistic solutions to reduce their vulnerabilities. To accomplish this, it answers five research questions. First, what are the living conditions faced by climate-migrant women? Second, what survival strategies are climate-migrant women following to address these living conditions? Third, how appropriate is Nussbaum’s capabilities approach for understanding the lives of climate- displaced women in Bangladesh? Fourth, how are the capabilities and social capital of climate-migrant women in Bangladesh related to each other? And, lastly, what are the policy recommendations to improve climate-migrant women’s living condition? The research findings explore both the antecedents and consequences for the situation of climate-migrant women in Bangladesh. First, the study results show that the cultural and religious constraints that these women experienced kept them from achieving resilience after river-erosion events. Second, the study indicates how the constraints on their resilience became more intense after each event and made them increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters. Further analysis has found that the women’s significant reliance on their bonding networks upheld their capabilities and survival strengths. Thus, the loss of bonding networks due to emigration caused severe disempowerment in their lives. Third, this study explores the suitability of Nussbaum’s capability lists as a useful framework to examine the current living conditions of climate-migrant women’s lives in Bangladesh. Fourth, this thesis also finds that social capital is interwoven with the capabilities of climate-migrant women in Bangladesh.
... The BLM movement supporters, for instance, raised awareness of police repression and racial discrimination by expressing their negative perceptions, reactions and feelings about racial violence. These activities amplify marginalised voices, spread them virally through public networks and intensify public debate (Shirky, 2010;Dennis, 2019: 51). Twitter users also communicate with others to seek and provide psychosocial support around issues of racial inequality (De Choudry et al., 2017). ...
... Channels of contestation appear when social media users challenge hegemonic ideas. The feelings of solidarity emerge as users join around a hashtag such as #MeToo or #BlackLivesMatter (Shirky, 2010;Dennis, 2019: 51). As the social media users come together, they form bonds of sentiments, their feelings towards the issue become more intense and they perceive the protests as more important. ...
... From an initial celebration of democratising potential of participatory media, which made largescale many-to-many communication possible (Benkler, 2006;Hindman, 2009;Shirky, 2008), media organisations and journalists, global organisations, national governments and political actors, as well as scholars, now increasingly raise concerns about social network sites' and other digital media's influence on the public debate. ...
Article
Whereas the amount of hostility found online increases, scholarly interest in online hostility is decreasing. In this paper, I discuss three questions central to the study of online hostility, namely 1) what role the text, the speaker’s intention and the targets’ perception should play in definitions of hostility; 2) whether hostility is always destructive or if it can also be productive in public debate; and 3) how to distinguish between destructive and productive hostility. I demonstrate the difficulties in defining online hostility and argue that rather than aiming for specific definitions, we should acknowledge the situatedness of rhetorical practice and, consequently, that the effects and ethical implications of utterances depend on given situations. In doing so, I aim to encourage renewed academic interest in flaming and trolling.
... Niet alleen leidt dit ertoe dat er meer cijfers worden geproduceerd, maar doordat heel andersoortige partijen die cijfers produceren, ontstaan er ook andersoortige cijfers (Surowiecki, 2004;Shirky, 2008 ...
... Clay Shirky (2009) [9] [10] writes about the terrible earthquake that rocked the Sichuan province in China on May 12, 2008. With 70,000 deaths; 350,000 wounded and 5 Million left homeless; this was a major, international news story but, according to Shirky (2009), the first reports came not from traditional news media but from Sichuan residents who sent messages on QQ, China's largest social network, and on Twitter, the world's most popular micro-blogging service. ...
Research
Full-text available
With the success and the user base of Social Networking Sites as tools for digital communication and exchange of information and its advancement in industrialization, science, technology, and various environmental issues taking place locally and globally, this social media can be utilized as a tool to promote awareness regarding various current environmental issues in a much faster way and to a large mass within a very short span of time, this study aims to investigate how Nigerians use social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Whatsapp as a platform to reach out to the world and Nigeria government to create awareness on police brutality in Nigeria which started with their request to End SARS( Special Anti-robbery Squad ) department.
... And if anyone can be a journalist, then journalistic privilege suddenly becomes a loophole too large to be borne by society." 45 Gant approached the question differently, concluding that the very definition of journalism must be rethought, and ultimately broadened to include a range of activities and far less focus on the credentials of the communicator. 46 Yochai Benkler, who has examined legal and economic concerns as they apply to networked technology, has focused more on the nature and intent of citizen journalists' messages as they compare to those of traditional news media. ...
... However, many contemporary protest campaigns are indeed characterized by digitally enabled spontaneous participation and personalized actions (Cheng & Chan, 2017;Lee & Chan, 2018). In the absence of leadership by a formal organization, one basic challenge for protesters is how they can organize without organization (Shirky, 2008). Bennett et al.'s (2014) work on Occupy Wall Street, for instance, pinpointed the role of stitching technologiesespecially Twitterin the processes of production, curation, and dynamic integration in peer production. ...
Article
Full-text available
Much contemporary social mobilization is digitally enabled. Digital media may provide the communication platforms on which supporters deliberate movement goals, share information, discuss tactics, and generate discourses in response to ongoing happenings. Yet digital media’s capability to serve these functions should depend on platform-specific affordances and movement dynamics. Based on such premises, this article examines how the online forum LIHKG became the central communication platform in the Anti-Extradition Bill Movement in Hong Kong. Empirically, digital media and content analysis data help establish the forum’s prominence during the first few months of the movement, while analyses of protest onsite survey data show how the use of LIHKG systematically related to several movement-related attitudes among the protesters. The article highlights the affordances and movement dynamics that allow the forum to play the role. It contributes to understanding the factors that shape the role and impact of digital media platforms in social mobilization.
... Yet because their business models involve creating and monetizing online discussion fora-social media sites, messaging software and so on-they are also hosts of social and political debate. This has given rise to a depiction of the platform companies as stewards of a new 'public sphere,' and debates about the character of the 'public sphere' represented by these new platforms (Rauchfleisch & Kovic, 2016;Shirky, 2008). These debates often take for granted that the platforms are, or should be, neutral marketplaces of ideas, implicitly accepting and analogizing from the platforms' self-depiction as neutral marketplaces for products and services. ...
Article
In recent years, the power of large technology corporations has become a focus of public debate in both developed and developing countries. This growing chorus brings together complaints about breaches of privacy and data protection, competition and market consolidation, and electoral and other political interference. The most powerful of these companies have grown into behemoths by establishing themselves both as purveyors of their own products, and as the hosts of “platforms” that circumscribe, and profit from, the activities of other organizations. This platform function gives these companies substantial power over their commercial rivals, who depend upon these platforms to operate. More fundamentally, this article argues, the dual function of these “platform companies” allows them to straddle the very categories that we use to organize our understanding of the political and economic world. They are at once product companies, service companies and infrastructure companies; players in the market and markets of the marketplace; private platforms and public spheres. The straddling of these categories places these companies in the institutional cracks of the regulatory system. Moreover, companies consciously exploit this regulatory straddling to thwart challenges to their power. This article argues that such deliberate shape-shifting has allowed these companies to control the political and economic stage on which their own power must be contested, and compromised the ability of scholars, the public and ultimately states to see clearly, and therefore constrain, that power.
... A number of analysts argue that ICTs facilitate the participation of citizenamateurs in formerly professionalised activities, thus signalling the 'open sourcing' of journalism (Gillmor 2004), politics (Castells 2007;Jenkins 2006), science (Benkler 2002b) and culture (Jenkins 2006;Lessig 2004). The power of 'everybody' (Shirky 2008), the 'crowd' (Surowiecki 2004) or the 'mob' (Rheingold 2003) is giving rise to a new populist renaissance of democratic participation and inclusion. ...
Book
Full-text available
This book explores the potential creation of a broader collaborative economy through commons-based peer production (P2P) and the emergent role of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The book seeks to critically engage in the political discussion of commons-based peer production, which can be classified into three basic arguments: the liberal, the reformist and the anti-capitalist. This book categorises the liberal argument as being in favour of the coexistence of the commons with the market and the state. Reformists, on the other hand, advocate for the gradual adjustment of the state and of capitalism to the commons, while anti-capitalists situate the commons against capitalism and the state. By discussing these three viewpoints, the book contributes to contemporary debates concerning the future of commons-based peer production. Further, the author argues that for the commons to become a fully operational mode of peer production, it needs to reach critical mass arguing that the liberal argument underestimates the reformist insight that technology has the potential to decentralise production, thereby forcing capitalism to transition to post-capitalism. Surveying the three main strands of commons-based peer production, this book makes the case for a post-capitalist commons-orientated transition that moves beyond neoliberalism.
... For Hesse, the potential change in the book's mode of temporality becomes a pivotal difference when moving from print to digital form. Hesse's modes of temporality are an elegant way of expressing the umbrella concept of Shirky's (2008) well-known formulation of new information technologies: "faster is different" (p. 161). ...
... One challenge is to maintain information flowing throughout the different parties to make sure all participants are well in agreement as to where the project stands and what the next steps may be. Another challenge is to carefully assign roles and responsibilities (Shirky, 2008). The case described here has been complicated because at least three divisions of a large university were interested in participating; there was no obvious central home for the project; the faculty involved were also the project's principal staff and were in charge of coming up with its structure and pedagogical vision as well as overseeing its implementation; and finally to this day there is no multi-year funding that would permit us to set up an infrastructure to oversee the work. ...
Article
Full-text available
Under the umbrella terms of "humanitarian design," "social design" and "social responsibility," educational institutions and specifically design programs are more and more searching for opportunities to engage their students in critical and hands-on learning via collaborations between students, faculty, communities in need and non-profit organizations. Such active learning is rich and meaningful for all parties involved, but the challenges are rarely discussed and yet compromise the collaborations' sustainability and potential for activating local change and development. This article uses the first two years of "The New School Collaborates," (TNSC) an ongoing project between The New School's divisions of Parsons (design), Milano (non-profit management and urban development) and General Studies (international affairs) in New York, several external partners and groups of Mayan artisan women in Guatemala, as the central case study for the abovementioned type of work. Of particular interest is the central role that organization and communication play in immersive international field programs. This article argues that the key to a successful collaborative process includes a clear and transparent partnership upfront, with a clear understanding of the roles and opportunities for each 2lt{) /visible language ltlt.2 organization involved and a communication infrastructure that is sensitive to participants' skills and resources. The article refers to, and includes, documentation from specific experiences from two years of courses on campus as well as in Guatemala and the overall process and evaluation of this particular case. Of particular interest is a reflection on challenges faced and how an active and thoughtful analysis of them can lead to a more appropriate, and in the long-term more sustainable structure for this type of work.
... Human nature dictates the need to form alliances or networks in order to form communities for family, education, religion, work and personal interests. In the last six to seven years, innovative online social communities have crept into employees' personal spaces and by extension the workplace [6]. ...
Article
Organizational success largely depends on employees who are considered as one of the most important assets of any organization because they are capable of creating value and enable organizations have a sustainable competitive advantage. Success of any organizations depends on the productivity of employees. Social media, which has become very popular, has infiltrated the workplace and most employees are utilizing social media in the workplace. The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent of social media participation by employees and its effect on their productivity. A sample was randomly selected from a population that has internet connectivity in the workplace. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Pearson's correlation was undertaken to ascertain the degree of relationship between the variables. Primary data was collected by use of a questionnaire. The research found both negative and positive relationship between social media participation and employee productivity. The negative relationship was however found to be stronger as employees spend most of their time on social media enhancing personal networks. Positive relationship exists in employee use of social media for seeking and viewing general information. The study concluded that employees participate in social media in the workplace for both work and non-work related activity. Social media has the potential to allow employees to form collaborations and communities for knowledge creation and sharing, better channels of communication, which enhance employee productivity. However, it can draw employees in to an addiction that distracts performance as well as straining the organizational resource.
... Indeed, one could argue, as it was put in 1994, that on the web the "eminent and the crackpot" stand side-byside, a feature once celebrated as a productive collision (Rheingold, 1994;Rogers, 2004). Indeed, in early internet studies, next to the blurring of the real and the virtual, conspiracy theory in particular but also the production and circulation of rumor were subjects of study, before notions as the "wisdom of the crowd" and projects as Wikipedia appeared to place the web on a less shaky epistemological footing (Dean, 1998;Shirky, 2008). Arguably, social media have put paid to that brief period of relative stability. ...
Article
Full-text available
The following reports on research undertaken concerning the “misinformation problem” on social media during the run-up to the U.S. presidential elections in 2020. Employing techniques borrowed from data journalism, it develops a form of cross-platform analysis that is attuned to both commensurability as well as platform specificity. It analyses the most engaged-with or top-ranked political content on seven online platforms: TikTok, 4chan, Reddit, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and Google Web Search. Discussing the extent to which social media platforms marginalize mainstream media and mainstream the fringe, the analyses found that TikTok parodies mainstream media, 4chan and Reddit dismiss it and direct users to alternative influencer networks and extreme YouTube content. Twitter prefers the hyperpartisan over it. Facebook’s “fake news” problem also concerns declining amounts of mainstream media referenced. Instagram has influencers (rather than, say, experts) dominating user engagement. By comparison, Google Web Search buoys the liberal mainstream (and sinks conservative sites), but generally gives special interest sources, as they were termed in the study, the privilege to provide information rather than official sources. The piece concludes with a discussion of source and “platform criticism”, concerning how online platforms are seeking to filter the content that is posted or found there through increasing editorial intervention. These “editorial epistemologies”, applied especially around COVID-19 keywords, are part of an expansion of so-called content moderation to what I call “serious queries”, or keywords that return official information. Other epistemological strategies for editorially moderating the misinformation problem are also treated.
... It can be challenging to compile and interpret information during a disaster or crisis, unless the applied data collection systems can help EROs to track, analyze, and monitor the quality and relevance of the data. The integration of AI into EROs' knowledge management systems includes the 'application of drones that are useful for crowd-mapping to help fact-check and verify sources' (Shirky, 2008). In this context the researcher intends to contribute with additional human aspects to complement the effectiveness of the successful application of the proposed themes. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Knowledge management (KM) discipline includes the convergence of people, processes, and systems. This research intends to promote new ways of approaching KM by examining the conjunction of human capital, social capital, structural capital, and artificial intelligence. It entails valuing human capital for effective transfer of tacit and implicit knowledge, reinventing organizational structural capital, adapting current knowledge governance to meet employees’ aspirations, deregulating social capital, and allowing employees to exercise creativity and to enable bottom-up knowledge creation and improved collaboration. It considers the application of Artificial Intelligence in the aid sector as a means of achieving this and it proposes its use for providing ready-to-use knowledge for decision-making in emergencies. This research found that the employees’ age is not related to their attitude in communicating across organizational boundaries to exchange knowledge (X2 [1, N = 743] = 0.23, p > 0.05), yet age is a factor in the use of organizational social networks as the main communication tool (t [142] = 2.08; p<0.05). It also found the age is related to employees’ designation in the organizational hierarchy (X2 [4, N = 996] = 123.92, p < 0.0001). Further, it found that age is a key factor in the frequency of changing jobs, which contributes to the loss of tacit and implicit knowledge in aid organizations (X2 [4, N = 296] = 18.48, p < 0.001). Finally, it finds that frontline employees prefer using artificial intelligence technologies to help in filling the gap that adds value to bottom-line activities (f [4,715] = 5.05, p < 0.001). This paper proposes a new holistic framework to enhance the transferability of tacit and implicit knowledge in EROs and concludes by providing recommendations for action within each of the knowledge dimensions. Keywords: artificial intelligence, contingent workforce, knowledge management, knowledge transfer. relief organizations, human capital, structural capital, and social capital
... Clay Shirky (2009) [9] [10] writes about the terrible earthquake that rocked the Sichuan province in China on May 12, 2008. With 70,000 deaths; 350,000 wounded and 5 Million left homeless; this was a major, international news story but, according to Shirky (2009), the first reports came not from traditional news media but from Sichuan residents who sent messages on QQ, China's largest social network, and on Twitter, the world's most popular micro-blogging service. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the success and the user base of Social Networking Sites as tools for digital communication and exchange of information and its advancement in industrialization, science, technology, and various environmental issues taking place locally and globally, this social media can be utilized as a tool to promote awareness regarding various current environmental issues in a much faster way and to a large mass within a very short span of time, this study aims to investigate how Nigerians use social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Whatsapp as a platform to reach out to the world and Nigeria government to create awareness on police brutality in Nigeria which started with their request to End SARS( Special Anti-robbery Squad ) department. Primary Data were collected from people with Google form to know the level of their involvement in the campaign and their view on what impact did social media had on creating the awareness. The findings indicate that the integral factor that helped in notifying the general public and pushed the government into taking fast action on the matter was social media, from where we know that it was the involvement of social media in the campaign that made the awareness to spread at the speed of light, and made the Nigerian Police to take responsibility of their actions, which might not have been so, if it's through traditional means. This study differs from past research as it focus on the involvement of the people and the role social media platform(s) played in creating the awareness.
... It can be challenging to compile and interpret information during a disaster or crisis, unless the applied data collection systems can help EROs to track, analyze, and monitor the quality and relevance of the data. The integration of AI into EROs' knowledge management systems includes the 'application of drones that are useful for crowd-mapping to help fact-check and verify sources' (Shirky, 2008). In this context the researcher intends to contribute with additional human aspects to complement the effectiveness of the successful application of the proposed themes. ...
Thesis
Knowledge management (KM) discipline includes the convergence of people, processes, and systems. This empirical research intends to promote new ways of approaching KM by examining the conjunction of human, social, structural capital, and artificial intelligence (AI). It examines the valuing human capital for effective transfer of tacit and implicit knowledge, reinventing organisational structural capital, adapting current knowledge governance to meet employees’ aspirations, deregulating social capital, and allowing employees to exercise creativity and to enable bottom-up knowledge creation and improved collaboration. It considers the application of AI as a means of achieving this and it proposes its use for providing ready-to-use knowledge for decision-making in emergencies. The results reveal that the employees’ age is not related to their attitude in exchange knowledge across organisational boundaries (X2 [1, N = 743] = 0.23, p > 0.05), yet age is a factor in the use social networks is the main communication tool (t [142] = 2.08; p<0.05). it found that age is related to employees’ designation in the organisational hierarchy (X2 [4, N = 996] = 123.92, p < 0.0001),and is also, a key factor in the frequency of changing jobs, contributing to the loss of tacit and implicit knowledge (X2 [4, N = 296] = 18.48, p < 0.001). Frontline employees prefer using AI to help in filling the gap that adds value to bottom-line activities (f [4,715] = 5.05, p < 0.001). This paper proposes a new holistic framework and recommendations to enhance the transferability of tacit and implicit knowledge in EROs.
... Christensen's [10] theory of disruptive technology argued that implementation and adoption success is grounded in conflict resolution and change management. Shirky [41] stated: "Revolution does not happen when society adopts new technology, it happens when society adopts new behaviors." ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a pragmatic approach to understanding how and why organizational culture influences the successful adoption of new technology. In order to maintain a competitive global position in an increasingly borderless virtual society, non-profit and for-profit organizations face critical problem-solving and decision-making dilemmas whether to convert current enterprise systems to new innovative technologies, to modify, upgrade, or enhance existing technologies, or to maintain the status quo while awaiting the next product diffusion even more agile, powerful, all-encompassing, and cutting-edge. Through the lens of secondary literature, the reader is led through a series of phases, processes, and roles while examining the potential successes and pitfalls of technology selection and implementation. This research then tests and demonstrates the relevance of organizational culture's influence on the phases of technology adoption and acceptance within a 21 st century digital environment.
... The ability to connect people across time and space is the power that roots social media. According to Shirky (2008), social media has been defined as internet applications that rely on openly shared digital content that is authored, reviewed and used by a mass of users. The way these tools are used has changed a number of practices; including communication, interaction, information dissemination, and social organization. ...
... The widespread access to information and communication technologies (ICT) was considered as a remedy for many traditional social problems, e.g. social inequalities and divides, because the Internet allows access to information, knowledge and contacts in a simple and cheap way (Tapscott and Williams, 2006;Benkler, 2006;Shirky 2008). However, the practice of social life has shown that the use of new technologies is more complicated and specific skills and competences are necessary for effective use of ICT (Jasiewicz, Filiciak, Mierzecka et al. 2015). ...
Conference Paper
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The article presents issues regarding the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) by older adults and senior citizens. Over 55 years old people who attend the Jagiellonian University of Third Age, took part in the survey conducted in 2019. The aim of the study was to find out if respondents use social network sites (SNS) and how they participate in specific activities on these websites in order to gratify their needs (questions focused most on the issues connected with privacy management and data security).The study was attended by 89 people (78 correctly completed survey sheets were analysed). The results show that respondents use the internet willingly and that they are also active in SNS. One of the main factors motivating them to do so is curiosity. They prefer Facebook, rarely use Instagram or Twitter. Through SNS, they contact both friends and family. Respondents are cautious about sharing private content and their skills are not sufficient to protect their privacy effectively. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of older adults' SNS use. The topic is relevant from a social (e.g. digital exclusion) and economic (e.g. older adults as consumers) point of view.
... According to Shirky (2008), social media is a medium of sharing, collaborating, and taking collective action outside the institutional and organizational framework (Clay Shirky 2008). The functions of traditional media are already covered through the internet network today (Nasrullah 2015). ...
Article
The Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia since March 2020 has tested the Indonesian government's capacities in various aspects, including public health communication. The existence of communication media both from the government and the mass media is considered insufficient in providing information related to Covid-19. The advancement of the internet and new media has made social media, especially Instagram, play an essential role in disseminating information related to Covid-19. The information gap that occurs encourages netizens to collaborate to fill it. One of the information volunteers regarding Covid-19 is the Instagram account Pandemictalks, with educational content and criticism of the responses of Covid-19 response in Indonesia. This study captures how the discourse on the Covid-19 response was published by the volunteer account Pandemictalks. This study uses Norman Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis Model. This model analyze discourse not only from the linguistic aspect but also linked to the social aspect and the context involved in it. This study provides an overview of the various forms of criticism that Pandemictalks conveyed, their production and distribution, social changes that occurred, and related policy changes.
... Dominant and submissive interactions have been found to emerge gradually in groups that are even comprised of total strangers or individuals with equal status [44]. Thus, scholars have asserted that the social inequality is an essential feature and the driver of all collaborative acts [45], and individuals spontaneously accept dominant or submissive roles as the collaboration process unfolds [46]. ...
Article
This study explores the potential of emotional mimicry in identifying the leader and follower students in collaborative learning settings. Our data include video recorded interactions of 24 high school students who worked together in groups of three during a collaborative exam. A facial emotions recognition method was used to capture participants' facial emotions during the collaborative work. Cross-recurrence quantification analysis was applied on the detected facial emotions to see the level and direction of emotional mimicry among the dyads in the same groups. In order to validate the cross-recurrence quantification analysis results, student interactions in terms of leading or following the task were video coded. Our findings showed that the leaders and followers identified by cross-recurrence quantification analysis findings matched the leaders and followers identified by the video coding in 70% of the dyadic interactions across the collaborating groups. The current findings show that video-based facial emotions recognition as a method can add to collaborative learning research, especially explaining some social, and affective dynamics about it. The study further discusses the possible variables that might confound the relationship between emotional mimicry and leader-follower interactions during collaboration.
... Allowing isolated activists to maintain informal networks and to "organize without organization" (Shirky 2008), new media were for example instrumental in organizing the signature campaign of the Charter 08, published in 2008 on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 10th anniversary of the signing by the PRC of the UN Convention on Civil and Political Rights. This text, inspired by Charter 77 and promoted by Liu Xiaobo, was signed by 303 intellectuals, ordinary citizens, but also party cadres and people's congress deputies at various levels, and then online by more than 5,000 people. ...
... Social media, specifically Twitter, allows for voices outside of news media and traditional media outlets to be heard by the public (Everbach et al., 2018). This has often resulted in the use of these platforms as tools to express political views and organize political movements (Hodges, 2015;Jackson & Foucault-Wells, 2015), while (Ahead of Print) also acting as a virtual "water cooler" for people to communicate with each other about a variety of hobbies and interests (Shirky, 2008), including sports (Sanderson, 2011). While Twitter has its benefits as a platform for underrepresented and underserved voices, its anonymity also makes it a convenient place to post angry, aggressive, and harmful content (Cisneros & Nakayama, 2015;Whittaker & Kowalski, 2015;Usher, Holcomb, & Littman, 2018). ...
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Between 2000 and 2018, the number of fights in professional hockey decreased by more than half, reflecting rule changes intended to preserve player health. A 2019 playoff fight ignited debate on social media over the place of fighting in hockey. This research involved a content analysis of an incendiary tweet and the 920 replies it solicited. Content analysis confirmed that cultural backlash exists in sport and provided insight into manifestations of backlash. Comments exhibiting backlash varied by subject (i.e., what or who is being discussed in the tweet) and attitude (i.e., positive approval for fighting and negative attitude toward change), with many defending hockey masculinity. Connections are drawn to manifestations of backlash in the political realm, the extant hockey masculinity literature, and implications for sociological theory and the sport of hockey are discussed.
... Niet alleen leidt dit ertoe dat er meer cijfers worden geproduceerd, maar doordat heel andersoortige partijen die cijfers produceren, ontstaan er ook andersoortige cijfers (Surowiecki, 2004;Shirky, 2008 ...
... Mobile crowdsourcing is about sociology and psychology more than technology and is becoming socio technical in China. One of the great promises of mobile networks in China is that it offers new ways of bringing people together and various online communities are converted from 'smart mobs' (Rheingold, 2002) to 'crowdsourcing' (Shirky, 2008). The culture of youth innovation in China is getting intensified in the term 'user-created-content' and that creativity should be encouraged. ...
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The ubiquity of crowdsourcing has become a new tool for creativity activities of online communities by participating on social platforms in marketing spheres. Mobile crowdsourcing is emerging as new approach to attract mobile crowd in online creativity tasks. The aim of this research is to contribute to the current body of knowledge on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to crowdsourcing via social networks by analyzing various motivational factors influencing users to perform tasks in online activities. This paper provides exploration of several motivational factors in online communities and we develop a research model to explain various motives in crowdsourcing activities. We then proceed to identify the driving factors to attract online users to participate in contribution through social platforms. Using a survey based research design, involving mobile users in China, we analyzed the impacts of intrinsic motivation and incentive factors to use Chinese social networks linked with online creativities. We find that intrinsic motivations are linked to higher level of online users' to contribute in crowdsourcing rather than extrinsic motivations in Chinese context. The findings of the study have significant practical implications for online creativities in crowdsourcing for crowds in China.
... Il faut aussi prendre en compte, dans l'intersection des niveaux géographiques, les tensions provoquées, émergeantes, entre global et local, entre global et national. La dynamique abrasive des plateformes, à travers les concurrences inattendues qu'elles provoquent, débouche sur la promotion de ce « n'importe qui », qui fait le titre du livre de Clay Shirky (Shirky, 2008). Les Nouvelles technologies de l'information et de la communication (NTIC) mettent en crise les professionnalités et les corporatismes locaux. ...
... Podría decirse que el desarrollo de Internet y las redes sociales ha revivido el sueño de la esfera pública apuntado por Habermas (1981), un espacio dedicado a la discusión racional, liberado de los poderes sociales y jerarquías oficiales existentes en el mundo offline. Son bien conocidas las apuestas de Benkler (2006) y Shirky (2008), entre otros muchos, por una esfera pública digital democrática y mayoritaria, adaptada a los intereses de individuos y comunidades, ajenos a las distorsiones y censuras de las instituciones tradicionales, ya sean partidos políticos, medios de comunicación de masas o agencias del Estado. Sin embargo, dejando de lado los beneficios innegables de este medio, Internet también muestra un lado oscuro que reproduce, aunque de forma refractada, las jerarquías y diferenciaciones sociales que encontramos en el mundo real (Levmore y Nussbaum, 2010). ...
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En los últimos años, el auge del movimiento feminista, especialmente desde la convocatoria del 8M de 2018, se ha encontrado con resistencias importantes. En el ámbito digital, esta renovación del feminismo ha supuesto un aumento del activismo digital feminista y una mayor visibilidad de las mujeres. Sin embargo, también han surgido múltiples obstáculos que muestran el carácter androcéntrico y misógino de la cultura digital. Uno de los fenómenos asociado a la misoginia digital es el "troleo de género" (gendertrolling), propio de la subcultura troll. En este trabajo, analizaremos el troleo antifeminista en la plataforma Twitter, centrándonos en la etiqueta #STOPfeminazis. A partir del análisis de contenidos, mediante la aplicación de categorías específicas, observamos cómo esta etiqueta utiliza métodos de la subcultura troll, relacionados con la remezcla y la resignificación, para llevar a cabo una ofensiva general contra el movimiento feminista.
Chapter
The decision to use a virtual world for training and development is a potentially treacherous one. Legal issues, adoption barriers, a pedagogical design complexities often inhibit true engagement and adoption. Strategic planning is required for every step from the choice of a virtual world to instruction design and user adoption. In this chapter, Keesey and Smith-Robbins offer guide to avoiding common pitfalls while suggesting a plan for maximum training benefit in virtual world implementations. Included are considerations about sound pedagogical practices, advice regarding the assessment of a corporate culture’s ability to engage in a virtual world, as well as recommendations for alleviating common fears and concerns. Special attention is paid to the complexities of virtual world cultures as they interact with organizational cultures. Finally, the authors offer a rubric to aid training designers evaluate whether a virtual world is the right choice for their organization through a series of question and adoption concerns.
Conference Paper
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The sales reduction of several companies or businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic caused they find other ways to maintain their business, as was done by McDonald's Indonesia by issuing a new BTS meal menu in collaboration with the South Korean boy group BTS. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of brand ambassador and brand image on purchasing decisions by using case studies of Kpop and non-Kpop fans. This research used a questionnaire to obtain data on brand ambassadors, brand image, and consumer purchasing decisions, then analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and the rotational method of varimax factor analysis. From the result, 64 respondents showed brand ambassadors influenced brand image in BTS meal purchasing decisions by 28.6%, brand ambassadors influenced BTS meal purchasing decisions by 19.4%, brand image influenced BTS meal purchasing decisions by 6.4 %, and brand image can mediate brand ambassadors to influence BTS Meal purchasing decisions. The impact of using BTS as a brand ambassador does not directly affect BTS Meal purchasing decisions but the brand image of McDonald's Indonesia can mediate the brand ambassador to influence BTS Meal purchasing decisions.
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The regulation of peer production projects is usually achieved by the users themselves. Ideally, this self‐organization and self‐management depend on shared social norms and rules. This chapter provides an overview and comparison of peer production's institutions, traces their origins, and describes their implications for cooperation and governance. It charts and discusses rules and norms as potentially conducive "forms of closure" in peer production. The chapter asks why peer production needs any sort of rules and norms. Based on this discussion of institutional conditions, it maps what sorts of rules and norms prevail in peer production. The chapter delineates the three institutional levels of policies, guidelines, and basic normative understandings that are geared towards the products and the processes of peer production. Next, it examines how rules and norms come into existence and are made to function. Finally, the chapter reflects to what end peer production's institutions congeal into governance regimes, bureaucracy, and hierarchies.
Chapter
This chapter attempts to explore the concepts, components, and applications of social technologies, an umbrella term used to capture a wide variety of terminologies depicting internet-enabled communications, platforms, and tools, which has the potential to establish collaborative connectivity among billions of individuals over the globe. Further, we explicate the impacts of social technologies in twenty-first century wherein individuals or communities benefit from its collaborative spirit. Socially mediated platforms such as Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, etc., are formed to create collaborative virtual spaces among different actors. Businesses, learning spaces, and personal relationships, harnessed by social technologies, are giving rise to the concept of platform/sharing economy. Keeping in mind the overall objective of the book, this chapter further focuses on the positive impact of social technologies in education and learning (both formal and informal). Learners from any socio-economic background can get benefitted from different components of social technologies. However, learners remain segregated among themselves owing to the persistent “digital divide” wherein one group of learners from a certain socio-economic-cultural background gets access to the necessary technologies while others’ do not. Thus, the chapter establishes the need to utilize appropriate social technology-driven tools and platforms in order to bridge the extant education divide.
Chapter
The sense that we are in the midst of a period of profound cultural change where technology is a crucial driver, but from which we are at insufficient distance to make an objective assessment of its implications has permeated discussion of the topic. In attempting to understand how people themselves experience this change, it also helps to understand some of the many approaches that have been taken to characterise or pick the situation apart. Two key strands of thought are identified as important to contextual understanding of online political discussion and explored. These are reflections on the Habermasian public sphere in the social media age and a critical summary of twenty-first-century perspectives on the internet and political participation as a whole. Concluding thoughts argue why an interdisciplinary, person-focused approach might aid further understanding.
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n recent years the power and reach of prominent hacker groups such as Anonymous and LulzSec has been clearly demonstrated. However, in a world where hackers are able to wield significant online power, can they do so ethically as legitimate agents? To answer this question this paper will develop an ethical framework based on the premise that hackers have exhibited instances where they have acted to protect people from harm at a time when there was no one else to do so. At its core this paper will argue that political hacking can be justified when it is done to protect the vital interests of oneself or others. Moreover, it will also argue that just because hackers are outside the state does not automatically discount them as ethical actors and that when the state fails to protect people – whether it is due to a lack of ability, political will or because the state is the source of the threat – hackers can fill the void. In order to achieve this, first it is necessary to highlight the space for hackers to operate; second, guide hacker activity by creating an ethical framework detailing what actions are justified towards what end; third, to offer mechanisms that can aid in reaching these ethically justified decisions; and as a result, inform further ethical debates on how to react to these political hackers. This means that the framework can be used to both justify and condemn hacking depending on the circumstances, allowing those on the outside to distil and evaluate a political hack, both past and present, while guiding hacker collectives by providing clearer ethical tools for determining the appropriate agendas and methods.
Thesis
La radio ha sufrido serias transformaciones en los últimos años debido a la emergencia de nuevas plataformas digitales y las posibilidades que ha abierto Internet al medio. Este estudio plantea el horizonte que se divisa para la empresa radiofónica española con la creación de nuevos formatos y la integración multimedia en plena era tecnológica.
Article
The purpose of this community service event is to improve the thinking skills of students or citizens learning at PKBM Negeri 26 Bintaro in utilizing social media for business promotion. The method in carrying out community service activities used is brainstorming and discussion. Techniques in the implementation of community service activities used are group work with the number of participants 21 (twenty one) students or residents learning class X (ten) and class XI (eleven) in PKBM Negeri 26 Bintaro. The output of this community service activity is in the form of a scientific article published through the Pamulang University PKM Dedication Journal, as well as an increase in the knowledge, understanding and skills of students or residents learning at PKBM 26 Bintaro on the use of social media for business promotion.Keywords: PKBM, Social Media, Business Promotion (Business).
Chapter
This chapter offers a critique of current UK social media legislation and prosecutions and a defence of online freedom of speech. It argues that a newspaper-led ‘anti-troll’ campaign from 2011 helped to push the issue of online ‘abuse’ and ‘offence’ onto the political agenda, allowing the government to assert more control online. From 2011, prosecutions for online speech offences increased and new legislation in 2015 significantly increased the available punishment. The chapter explores the relevant legislation, considers the range of prosecutions and offers a critique of the legislation’s use. It argues the legislation was created for an earlier era, to regulate letters and the telephone network and, as such fails to reflect technological and cultural changes in messaging and communication, criminalising a range of speech behaviours that could not previously be captured, and serving the political purpose of reasserting controls over the public sphere and public expression. The chapter concludes that ongoing threats to online freedoms and the vision of the future offered by China’s social credit system mean that we need a stronger defence not just of online speech but of the right of personal singularity and its expression.
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Informirano, obrazovano i odgovorno donošenje odluka utemeljeno na kritičkom mišljenju je ideal i izazov s kojim se pojedinac i društvo kontinuirano susreću. Živimo doba tzv. liminalnih trenutaka, kada stara pravila prestaju da vrijede, a zajednice kojima ljudi pripadaju prestaju značiti ono što su nekada bile, vrijeme liminalnog prostora iz kojeg je izronila novomedijska zbilja upravljana vladajućom teorijom, tačnije uvjerenjem, da će tehnološka organizacija informacija stvoriti red iz haosa. Ako su tehnološke platforme imale za cilj organizirati svjetske informacije i učiniti ih univerzalno dostupnim i korisnim (Google), učiniti svijet otvorenijim i povezanijim (Facebook), zašto je sve onda toliko haotično? Ova dva navedena poslovna kreda, misije, poslovne filozofije, Googlea i Facebooka, direktno opisuju da je upravljanje diskursom društvene disrupcije, tačnije informacijskim neredom nastalim digitalnim stanjem (Stalder 2018) korporativna fantazma vrijednosti platformski posredovanog svijeta.
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Digital advocacy for social and political change is emerging as a strategic choice by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in India. On the social front, menstrual activism has taken flight in compelling and powerful forms across the world to address the issue of menstrual equity across the globe. The present study looked at how a non-government organization, She Says, framed menstrual issues and policy change in their campaign #LahuKaLagaan (Blood Tax) directed against indiscriminate tax policy on menstrual hygiene in India. A qualitative framing analysis of the NGO's Twitter handle was done from April 2017 to July 2018, along with in-depth interviews with advocacy specialists in India. Results show that the organization optimally utilized the three core framing techniques: diagnostic, prognostic, and motivational frames in their advocacy. NGO's thrust on prognostic framing was new and made the campaign potent. Extensive use of themes like gender injustice, female identity, solidarity, participation, and action in framing the issue helped the organization transform its message into action, making #LahuKaLagaan an effective advocacy campaign.
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Studimi i komunikimit politik ka qenë vazhdimisht i lidhur ngushtë me mediet dhe me zhvillimin e tyre. Në dekadën e fundit fokusi ka kaluar te mediet sociale, për shkak të përdorimit të gjerë të tyre dhe, rrjedhimisht, edhe të ndikimit të tyre në proceset zgjedhore. Përqendrimi i akterëve politik në medie sociale i ka yshtë edhe studiuesit që të merren më dendur me mundësinë e efektit që mund të ketë media sociale në fushatë zgjedhore dhe në zgjedhje. Sikundër në shtetet më të zhvilluara, edhe në Kosovë, përdorimi i medieve sociale nga akterët politikë është në rritje. Por, siç konfirmohet në konkludimet e studiuesve të ndryshëm, që do të shkoqiten më tepër në kapitullin e tretë, mënyra e përdorimit të medieve sociale dhe, mbi të gjitha, qëllimi i përdorimit të tyre ndryshon nga shteti në shtet, ose edhe nga rajoni në rajon. Politikanët mëtojnë të shpërndajnë idetë e tyre dhe të fitojnë besimin e qytetarëve duke komunikuar drejtpërdrejt me ta nëpërmjet medieve sociale, Facebook apo Twitter. Ky lloj komunikimi ka përjashtuar tashmë rolin e madh të gazetarit në procesin e komunikimit politik dhe, njëherësh, i ka dhënë politikanit mjetin më të përshtatshëm për të shpërndarë një mesazh, pa frikën se mund t'i 'censurohet', apo t'i filtrohet ai mesazh nga politikat redaktoriale të radios, televizionit, gazetës, apo portalit. Facebook-u dhe Twitter-i e kanë shkrirë distancën që kishin politikani dhe qytetari. Në shikim të parë, kjo duket tejet pozitive, sepse shmangia e distancës mundëson një komunikim më të drejtpërdrejtë, më të shpejtë, më të shpeshtë, më të lehtë dhe, kësisoj, qytetarët, çdo herë mund t'i drejtohen me shqetësimet e tyre politikanit të cilin ata e shohin si faktor që mund t'ua zgjidh problemet. Por, historikisht, politika gjithëherë ka synuar ta ketë medien në dorë, me qëllimin që media të jetë në shërbim të saj dhe, që media ta përçojë mesazhin te publiku ashtu siç ajo, pra politika dëshiron dhe ashtu siç asaj i konvenon. Objekt i këtij studimi është përdorimi i medieve sociale nga partitë politike për komunikim politik me qytetarët, gjegjësisht me zgjedhësit në zgjedhjet e përgjithshme të vitit 2017.
Chapter
In seiner „Unabhängigkeitserklärung des Cyberspace“ zeichnete John Perry Barlow (1996) eine Welt jenseits staatlicher Kontrolle und kapitalistischer Verwertungslogiken. Diese frühe egalitäre, anarchistische und antikapitalistische Utopie des Internet ist einer gewissen Ernüchterung gewichen. Zwar vermag es das Netz, besonders in seiner Eigenschaft als Agglomeration von vernetzten Öffentlichkeiten, traditionelle Hierarchien und Zugangsbeschränkungen abzubauen und auf diese Weise Partizipation und Teilhabe inklusiver und egalitärer zu gestalten.
Book
الهاتف الذكي هو حرفيًا أمام أنفنا باستمرار، وهو الأمر الذي يجعلك تعتقد اننا نعرف ما هو. لكن هل نحن نعرفه فعلاً؟ للإجابة على ذلك، قام 11 من علماء الأنثروبولوجيا بقضاء 16 شهرًا في مجتمعات في إفريقيا وآسيا وأوروبا وأمريكا الجنوبية، مع التركيز على استخدام كبار السن للهواتف الذكية. وقد أسفر ناتج بحثهم عن أن الهواتف الذكية هي تقنية للجميع ، وليس فقط من أجل الشباب. قدم الهاتف الذكي العالمي سلسلة من وجهات النظر الأصلية المشتقة من هذا المشروع البحثي العالمي والمقارن. الهواتف الذكية أصبحت مكانًا نعيش فيه بقدر ما هو جهاز نستخدمه لتوفير “الانتهازية الدائمة” ، وذلك نظراً لوجودهم الدائم معنا. يوضح المؤلفون كيف يتخطى الهاتف الذكي كونه أكثر من مجرد “جهاز تطبيقي”، ويقوموا باستكشاف الاختلافات بين ما يقوله الناس عن الهواتف الذكية وكيفية استخدامهم لها الهاتف الذكي هو غير مسبوق من حيث الدرجة التي يمكننا القيام بتحويلات له. ونتيجة لذلك ، فإنه يستوعب القيم الشخصية بشكل سريع. من أجل فهم الهاتف الذكي ، يجب أن نأخذ في الاعتبار مجموعة من الفروق الوطنية والثقافية ، مثل الاتصال المرئي في الصين واليابان ، الأموال المتنقلة في الكاميرون و أوغندا ، والوصول إلى المعلومات الصحية في تشيلي وأيرلندا – كل ذلك جنبًا إلى جنب مسارات متنوعة للشيخوخة في القدس والبرازيل وإيطاليا، وعندها فقط نستطيع معرفة ماهية الهاتف الذكي وفهم عواقبه على حياة الناس حول العالم دانيال ميللر هو أستاذ الأنثروبولوجيا في جامعة كاليفورنيا. ليلى عبد ربه هي باحثة في معهد هاري س. ترومان لتعزيز السلام. باتريك أووندو هو باحث ما بعد الدكتوراه في الأنثروبولوجيا بجامعة كاليفورنيا ، ومحاضر في جامعة ياوندي. مايا ده - فريس هي باحثة ما بعد الدكتوراه في الجامعة العبرية في القدس. ماريليا دوكي هي باحثة في المدرسة العليا للإعلام والتسويق بساو باولو. بولين غارفي هي أستاذة مساعدة في الأنثروبولوجيا في جامعة ماينوث بمقاطعة كيلدير بإيرلندا. لورا هابيو كيرك لورا هابيو كيرك هي طالبة دكتوراه بقسم الأنثروبولوجيا في كلية لندن الجامعية، وزميلة ببرنامج ال “ليتش / راي” في الأنثروبولوجيا العامة. شارلوت هوكينز هي باحثة ما بعد الدكتوراه بقسم الأنثروبولوجيا في كلية لندن الجامعية. ألفونسو أوتيغي هو محاضر في الجامعة البابوية الكاثوليكية في شيلي. شيرين والتون هي محاضرة في الأنثروبولوجيا في كلية جولد سميث بجامعة لندن. شينيوان وانغ هي باحثة ما بعد الدكتوراه في كلية لندن الج
Article
In the era of social media, journalism is no longer the preserve of journalists. In specialised fields, such as law, the public in general and lawyers and legal academics specifically are able to “push in” and report and comment publicly on legal matters including trials, commissions, acts of law passed in parliament and other legal processes. These contributions, as this paper explores, are reshaping the contours and content of public discussions of legal matters and of legal journalism in South Africa. This paper suggests that recent theorising of journalism role theory can help understand not just the motivations of these legal interlopers in the journalism space but also how they are shaping a new informational ecosystem in which legal issues, including human rights, administrative and criminal law, and other topics, are brought into the public domain. The paper explores what some South African lawyers understand about the roles they are playing in digital public spaces and how they perceive their contributions and their relationship to the journalism profession and to journalists within that profession. The paper suggests that these lawyers’ practices challenge our understanding about how digital media informational ecosystems work and explores how this is impacting journalism in South Africa.
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