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Growth, development and yield of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Ex. Fr.) Kummer as affected by different spawn rates

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Abstract

The oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex. Fr.) Kummer was cultivated on wheat straw in polythene bags (containing 500 g wheat straw on dry weight basis per bag) using sorghum grain spawn at different rates. The spawning was done followed by boiling of substrate and sterilization of bags. The bags were kept in mushroom growing room at 25 to 35 o C with 80 to 100% humidity under regular white fluorescent light arranged by the tube lights in mushroom growing room (10'x14'x14'). The pinheads first appeared 32.33 days after spawning by using 70 g spawn rate per kg on substrate dry weight basis. The minimum period of 4.66 days after pinhead formation for maturation of fruiting bodies was recorded by using 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 g spawn rate. The minimum period between flushes (6.33 days) was taken by using 20 g spawn rate. The maximum flushes (4.00) were harvested by using 70 g spawn rate. The maximum number of bunches per bag (7.66) were obtained by using 100 g spawn rate. The maximum number of fruiting bodies per bunch (7.30) was observed by using 70 g spawn rate. The maximum yield on fresh weight basis (45.4%) as well as on dry weight basis (4.63%) was also obtained by using 70 g of spawn rate per bag. The results were highly significant from each other. It is concluded that spawning at 70 g per kg on substrate dry weight basis found to be the best dose for obtaining early and high yielding crop of oyster mushroom, with minimum period for maturation of fruiting bodies, maximum number of flushes and fruiting bodies per bag.
Pak. J. Bot., 39(7): 2685-2692, 2007.
GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF OYSTER
MUSHROOM, PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS (JACQ. EX. FR.)
KUMMER AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT SPAWN RATES
M.I. BHATTI1, M.M. JISKANI1*, K. H. WAGAN1,
M.A. PATHAN1 AND M.R. MAGSI2
1Department of Plant Pathology, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan.
2Cotton Research Institute Sakrand, Sindh, Pakistan
Abstract
The oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex. Fr.) Kummer was cultivated on wheat
straw in polythene bags (containing 500 g wheat straw on dry weight basis per bag) using sorghum
grain spawn at different rates. The spawning was done followed by boiling of substrate and
sterilization of bags. The bags were kept in mushroom growing room at 25 to 35oC with 80 to
100% humidity under regular white fluorescent light arranged by the tube lights in mushroom
growing room (10'x14'x14').
The pinheads first appeared 32.33 days after spawning by using 70 g spawn rate per kg on
substrate dry weight basis. The minimum period of 4.66 days after pinhead formation for
maturation of fruiting bodies was recorded by using 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 g spawn rate. The
minimum period between flushes (6.33 days) was taken by using 20 g spawn rate. The maximum
flushes (4.00) were harvested by using 70 g spawn rate. The maximum number of bunches per bag
(7.66) were obtained by using 100 g spawn rate. The maximum number of fruiting bodies per
bunch (7.30) was observed by using 70 g spawn rate. The maximum yield on fresh weight basis
(45.4%) as well as on dry weight basis (4.63%) was also obtained by using 70 g of spawn rate per
bag. The results were highly significant from each other. It is concluded that spawning at 70 g per
kg on substrate dry weight basis found to be the best dose for obtaining early and high yielding
crop of oyster mushroom, with minimum period for maturation of fruiting bodies, maximum
number of flushes and fruiting bodies per bag.
Introduction
The mushrooms are naturally grown in fields, forests, on manure heaps, water
channels and hilly areas, mostly during and just after rains. The most popular varieties
are Agaricus bisporus (European or white button mushroom), Pleurotus spp., (Oyster
mushrooms or dhingri), Volvariella volvacea (Chinese or paddy straw mushroom)
Lentinus edodes (Shiitake mushrooms) and Auricus laria (Black ear mushroom).
The oyster mushroom is grown under natural conditions on living trees as parasite or
dead woody branches of trees as saprophyte and primary decomposer. The chemical
composition of the fresh fruiting bodies of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus indicates a
large quantity of moisture (90.8%), whereas fresh as well as dry oyster mushrooms are rich
in proteins (30.4%), fat (2.2%), carbohydrates (57.6%), fiber (8.7%) and ash (9.8%) with
345 K (cal) energy value on 100 g dry weight basis; while vitamins such as thiamin (4.8
mg), riboflavin (4.7 mg) and niacin (108.7 mg), minerals like calcium (98 mg), phosphorus
(476 mg), ferrous (8.5 mg) and sodium (61 mg) on 100 g dry weight basis, are also found
present (Pandey & Ghosh, 1996). Rambelli & Menini (1985) reported that this mushroom is
reputed to be antitumoural because of its chemical composition.
*Corresponding author E-mail: mithaljiskani@yahoo.com
M.I. BHATTI ET AL.,
2686
The oyster mushrooms can be cultivated successfully under semi controlled
conditions in a small space by using agricultural as well as industrial waste and other
refuse as substrate. Badshah et al., (1992) have grown Pleurotus ostreatus on wheat
straw, sugarcane bagasse, corn cobs or sawdust by mixing 120-130 g of spawn with 2 kg
of substrate and placing the mixture in sterilized polyethylene bags which were kept in
the dark at 25OC for 2-3 weeks. Fruiting bodies were harvested at maturity with yields of
49.8 g/2 kg substrate (sawdust), 432.8 g/2 kg substrate (wheat straw), whereas control
(grown in the field) yielded only 18.5 g/2 kg substrate. Bernabe-Gonzalez & Arzeta-
Gomez (1994) mixed P. ostreatus inoculum at 4 g/100 g substrate in 4-kg plastic bags
using peanut hulls and maize leaves cut to 5- or 10-cm lengths. Kausar & Iqbal (1994)
used 5% spawn of Pleurotus (w/w basis) in 15kg paddy straw, pinheads formed 28 days
after spawning. The yield varied from 18.6 to 83.5% based on different nitrogen
supplements amended with straw. Cangy & Peerally (1995) used spawning rates 0.75,
1.50, 3.00 and 6.00% of substrate fresh weight for 10 species of Pleurotus. Results
showed that 1% spawning rate was found to be adequate when using the smaller bags
(yields >16% of spawned substrate weight) at mean temperature 18OC (range 13-23O).
Marimuthu (1995) reviewed the use of crop residues as growing media for oyster
mushroom (Pleurotus) production. Paddy and wheat straw, cotton waste, maize cobs,
waste paper and cotton stalks are all suitable for high production capacity, whole grains
of sorghum, bajra (Pennisetum glaucum) or maize are recommended. Patra & Pani
(1995) cultivated five different species of Pleurotus in polythene [polyethylene] bags
containing chopped paddy straw (2 kg) + spawn (200 g) + boiled wheat (200 g). The
fungi took 13-16 days for complete mycelial run in the bags and 20-24 days for initiation
of fruiting bodies, producing the heaviest (12.2 g), and the lightest (6.9 g) fruiting bodies.
Singh et al., (1995) recorded the maximum yield from baggase than from the paddy
straw and wheat straw respectively. Mathew et al., (1996) have grown P. ostreatus on
various substrates for both (spawn production and cultivation) and found that sorghum,
wheat and paddy grains were equally good for spawn production. Fan et al., (2000)
carried out the studies with 2.5-25% spawn rates, 25% spawn rate appeared superior, but
recommended 10% spawn rate in view of the process economics. The first fructification
occurred after 20-23 days of inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about
90-97% after 50-60 days. Labuschagne et al., (2000) reported wheat straw as main raw
material for cultivation. Bughio (2001) cultivated the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus
ostreatus on combination of wheat straw, cotton boll locules, paddy straw, sugarcane and
sorghum leaves at 1:1 ratio in polythene bags (650 g/bag) using sorghum grain spawn @
30 grams per bag, followed by boiling of substrates and sterilization of bags. The present
studies were undertaken on the effect of sorghum grain spawn rate on growth,
development and yield of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus by using wheat straw as
substrate, with a target to find out the best grain spawn rate for getting early and high
yield crop with short duration.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was carried out at the Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of
Crop Protection, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam from July 2001 to January
2002. The primary inoculum was prepared from the fresh fruiting body of the mushroom
through tissue culture method and was maintained and multiplied by sub-culturing on
sterilized PDA medium in Petri dishes and test tubes, incubated at room temperature
(30±2°C).
GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF OYSTER MUSHROOM 2687
The spawn was prepared on white sorghum grains. The grains were half boiled and
filled in transparent glass bottles at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 g/ bottle.
The bottles (containing half boiled grains) were sterilized in an autoclave at 15 psi for 30
minutes. The inoculation was made on the following day under aseptic conditions
provided in isolation chamber and then were incubated at room temperature (32±2°C),
till the grains were covered with white mycelial growth.
The wheat straw was used as such of a wheat threshing machine. Initially, the
substrate (wheat straw) was boiled for 15-20 minutes to get rid of insects and other
micro- organisms. The moist straw was taken out from the water and spread in thin layers
over cemented floor till the remaining excess of water was removed. When the
temperature of substrate dropped down to about 25 to 30oC and moisture content become
about 70 to 90%, the substrate was filled in the polythene bags of 30x45 cm size @ 500
g of wheat straw in each bag on dry weight basis. The filled bags were sterilized in the
autoclave at 15 psi for an hour. After cooling of sterilized bags, the spawning was done
with pure sorghum grain spawn @ 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 grams per
kg on substrate dry weight basis.
The spawned bags were placed on iron racks in order to provide them maximum
space, in a mushroom growing room. When the bags become full of mycelial growth and
or pinheads started appearing on the mycelial surface, the bags mouth were opened or
required portion of the bags were cut-off with blade to facilitate the development of
fruiting bodies. As soon as the fruiting bodies developed with full size, these were
harvested just above surface of the substrate with sharp knife or blade.
Temperature, humidity and light are basic factors for the proper growth and
development of mushroom. Efforts were made to maintain these requirements by
furnishing mushroom growing room (14'x10'x14') with one desert room cooler (Woods,
China) and two fluorescent lamps (Philips tube lights, 40 W/54) for the promising
cultivation of mushroom. The temperature and humidity remained within the required
range i.e., 25-35°C and 80-100% respectively, during the course of experiment.
The experiment was laid out as complete randomized block design with arrangement
of three replications and ten treatments. The growth and development of mushroom was
observed daily. The time taken for pinhead formation from the date of spawning and time
taken from the date of pinhead formation to maturation of fruiting bodies (ready for
harvesting) was recorded by counting the taken days, but the time taken between flushes
was calculated by using the following formula:
Days taken from first harvest to last
Period between flushes = Total number of flushes (harvesting)
The total numbers of flushes from harvesting of first flush up to last flush were also
recorded. The total number of bunches harvested from each bag (or replication) were
counted. The data on number of fruiting bodies per bunch was calculated by applying the
following formula:
Total no. of fruiting bodies
No. of fruiting bodies per bunch = Total no. of bunches
M.I. BHATTI ET AL.,
2688
Table 1. Effect of grain spawn rate on time taken (mean days) for pinhead
formation, maturation of fruiting bodies and period between flushes of oyster
mushroom.
Spawn rate (g per kg
substrate DW basis) Pinhead
formation Maturation of
fruiting bodies Period between
flushes
10 76.00 i 5.66 0.00 a
20 71.33 h 5.33 6.33 ab
30 67.33 g 5.33 12.42 cde
40 64.00 ef 5.00 8.16 cd
50 61.33 e 5.00 16.72 e
60 35.00 ab 4.66 16.72 e
70 32.33 a 4.66 15.11 de
80 38.00 c 4.66 14.05 cde
90 38.67 c 4.66 15.67 de
100 46.67 d 4.66 16.72 e
LSD 0.05 3.919 Non-significant 8.004
Similar letters do not differ from one another.
The weight of fresh mushrooms was recorded after harvesting of each flush. The dry
weight of mushroom (g) was recorded by keeping the fresh mushroom in hot air oven at
70oC for 48 hours. The total yield was recorded by adding the fresh as well as dry weight
of mushrooms of all flushes, while the fresh and dry yield percentage (g) was calculated
on substrate dry weight basis using the following formula:
Total yield of all flushes from each replication (g)
% Age yield (g)
= Substrates dry weight of each replication (500 g constant) x 100
Results and Discussion
Pinhead formation: The mean number of days taken for pinhead formation of oyster
mushroom from the date of spawning exhibited significant difference between different
spawn rates (Table 1). The pinheads first appeared (32.33 days) by using spawn rate at
70 g per kg substrate dry weight basis, which proved to be the best spawn rate followed
by 60 g (35.00 days), 80 g (38.00 days), 90 g (38.67 days), 100 g (46.67 days), 50 g
(61.33 days), 40 g (64.00 days), 30 g (67.33 days), 20 g (71.33 days and 10 g (76.00
days) respectively. Kausar & Iqbal (1994) and Kausar & Zafar (1995) reported 28 days
for pinhead formation after spawning. Patra & Pani (1995) revealed that mushroom took
20-24 days but Jiskani (1999) stated 25-50 days for pinhead formation, whereas Jiskani
et al., (1999) concluded that pinhead formation took 51.6 days after spawning in case of
using wheat straw. Fan et al., (2000) observed that first fructification occurred after
20-23 days of inoculation, Bughio (2001) reported 43.25 to 53.00 days after spawning by
using sorghum grains @ 30 g per 650 g in case of using wheat straw, sugarcane and
sorghum leaves at 1:1 ratio on substrate dry weight basis.
GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF OYSTER MUSHROOM 2689
Maturation of fruiting bodies: The mean number of days taken from pinhead formation
to maturation of fruiting bodies exhibited significant difference between different spawn
rates (Table 1). The minimum period (4.66 days) for maturation of fruiting bodies was
taken by using 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 g spawn per kg substrate dry weight basis followed
by 40 and 50 g (5.00 days), 30 and 20 g (5.33 days) and 10 g (5.66 days) respectively
(Table 1). Jiskani (1999) reported 30-55 days, Jiskani et al., (1999) recorded 60 days
after spawning for maturation of fruiting bodies, Fan et al., (2000) observed that the first
fructification occurred 20-23 days after inoculation, whereas, Bughio (2001) reported
that maturation of fruiting bodies took 5 to 6 days after pinhead formation.
Period between flushes: The mean numbers of days between flushes are given in Table 1.
The results revealed significant difference at LSD 0.05 on average basis. The minimum
period (6.33 days) between flushes was taken by using 20 g per kg substrate dry weight
basis, followed by 40 g (8.16 days), 30 g (12.42 days), 80 g (14.05 days), 70 g (15.11 days),
90 g (15.67 days), 70, 50 and 100 g (16.72 days). However, only one flush was harvested
by using spawn at 10 g per kg on substrate dry weight basis, hence, no days were recorded
between flushes. Lozano (1990) reported that seven harvesting were carried during 60 days,
whereas Jiskani et al., (1999) reported 7.5 days, but Bughio (2001) recorded 8.53 to 14.33
days between flushes.
Number of flushes: The observations for total number of flushes from each spawn rate
are given in Table 2 as mean numbers. The results indicating highly significant
difference between different spawn rates and has been proved that the oyster mushroom
gave maximum (4.00 flushes) by using 70 g per kg substrate dry weight basis. It was
followed by 60 g (3.66 flushes), 80 g (3.00 flushes), 90 and 100 g (2.66 flushes), 40 and
50 g (2.33 flushes), 30 g (2.00 flushes) 20 g (1.33 flushes) and 10 g (1.00 flushes)
respectively. Lozano (1990) reported 7 flushes, Moorthy & Mohanan (1991), Kausar &
Zafar (1995), Jiskani et al., (1999) harvested 3 flushes, but Bughio (2001) reported 3.00
to 6.25 flushes.
Number of bunches: The data recorded for total number of bunches (per bag) of oyster
mushroom (Table 2) indicates highly significant difference between different spawn rates.
The maximum number of bunches per bag (7.66 bunches) were obtained by using 100 g
spawn per kg on substrate dry weight basis. It was followed by 80 and 90 g (6.37 bunches),
70 g (5.33 bunches), 60 g (5.00 bunches), 50 g (3.33 bunches), 40 g (3.00 bunches). The
spawn @ 30, 20 and 10 g gave 2.00 bunches (Table 2). No reference from different
research journals, text books, reports and internet etc. could be obtained on this aspect.
Number of fruiting bodies: The mean number of fruiting bodies per bunch exhibited
significant difference between different spawn rates (Table 2). The result showed that the
maximum number of fruiting bodies (7.30/bunch) was recorded by using 100 g/kg
substrate dry weight basis followed by 90 and 80 g (5.33 fruiting bodies), 70 g (4.98
fruiting bodies), 60 g (4.83 fruiting bodies), 50 g (4.61 fruiting bodies), 40 g (4.22
fruiting bodies), 30 g (4.13 fruiting bodies), 20 g (3.07 fruiting bodies), and 10 g (2.73
fruiting bodies) respectively (Table 2). Similar to that of number of bunches per bag no
any single reference is available on number of fruiting bodies per bunch.
M.I. BHATTI ET AL.,
2690
Table 2. Effect of grain spawn rate on number of flushes, number of bunches and
number of fruiting bodies of oyster mushroom (P. ostreatus).
Spawn rate (g per kg
substrate DW basis) Number of
flushes/bag Number of
bunches/bag Number of fruiting
bodies/bunch
10 1.00 e 2.00 b 2.73 b
20 1.33 de 2.00 b 3.07 b
30 2.00 cde 2.00 b 4.13 ab
40 2.33 cd 3.00 ab 4.22 ab
50 2.33 cd 3.33 ab 4.61 ab
60 3.66 ab 5.00 ab 5.33 ab
70 4.00 a 5.33 ab 7.30 a
80 3.00 abc 6.33 ab 5.33 ab
90 2.66 bc 6.33 ab 4.98 ab
100 2.66 bc 7.66 a 4.83 ab
LSD 0.05 1.155 4.934 3.775
Similar letters do not differ from one another.
Table 3. Effect of grain spawn rate on percentage yield on fresh and dry weight
of oyster mushroom (P. ostreatus).
Spawn rate
(g per kg substrate DW
basis)
Fresh yield
(%) Dry yield
(%)
10 10.53 f 1.15 e
20 15.13 e 1.55 e
30 15.66 e 1.62 e
40 27.20 d 2.65 d
50 32.00 c 3.30 c
60 44.26 a 4.10 ab
70 45.40 a 4.63 a
80 39.93 b 3.96 b
90 38.26 b 3.72 bc
100 33.40 c 3.70 bc
LSD 0.05 1.903 0.5307
Similar letters do not differ from one another.
Yield percentage: The results obtained for percentage yield of oyster mushroom on
fresh (wet) and dry weight basis are highly significant at LSD 0.05 (Table 3). The results
reveals that the maximum percentage yield (45.40% on fresh and 4.63% on dry weight
basis) was obtained by using spawn at 70 g/kg on substrate dry weight basis, which is
near to 60 g spawn per kg substrate (44.27% fresh and 4.10% dry). These spawn rates
were found to be the best followed by 80, 90, 100, 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10 g per kg (39.93
and 3.96%, 38.27 and 3.72%, 33.40 and 3.70%, 32.00 and 3.30%, 27.20 and 2.65%,
15.67 and 1.62%, 15.13 and 1.55% and 10.53 and 1.15%) fresh and dry yield
respectively (Table 3). Lozano (1990) reported 43% yield, Moorthy & Mohanan (1991)
recorded 332 to 474 g/bag yield from polyethylene bags containing 1.2 kg dry
GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF OYSTER MUSHROOM 2691
substrate/bag when inoculated with 150 g spawn/bag using a multi-layered spawning
technique. Badshah et al., (1992) reported 49.8 g on saw dust, 432.8 g on wheat straw
and 18.5 g per 2kg substrate grown in the field (control). Kausar & Iqbal (1994) reported
that yield varied from 18.6 to 83.5% on the basis of different nitrogen supplements
amended with straw. Kausar & Zafar (1995) reported that average yield varied from
57.17- 73.39%. Jiskani et al., (1999) obtained 24 and 7.6% fresh and dry yield on the
basis of substrate dry weight, in case of using wheat straw. Jiskani (1999) reported that
100% of substrate dry weight, means one kg of fresh mushroom can be obtained from
one kg of dry substrate (before soaking and boiling). According to Bughio (2001) the
maximum fresh (wet) and dry yield percentage on substrate dry weight basis (29.61 to
77.91 and 5.91 to 21.70) were obtained from wheat straw using in combination with
cotton boll locules, paddy straw, sugarcane and sorghum leaves at 1:1 ratio in case of
using sorghum grain spawn @ 30 g per bag.
The difference between achievement with the results reported by other research
workers may be due to the variation in controlled, semi controlled conditions,
physiological requirements for cultivation of oyster mushroom e.g., constant temperature,
humidity and light arrangements. The response of different substrates also show
differences in respect of time taken for formation of pinheads, maturation of fruiting
bodies, period between flushes, number of flushes and yield. However, our results are
very much closer to other research workers. It is concluded that spawning at 70 g per kg
on substrate dry weight basis found to be the best dose for obtaining early and high
yielding crop of oyster mushroom, with minimum period for maturation of fruiting
bodies, maximum number of flushes and fruiting bodies per bag.
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Bernabe-Gonzalez, T. and J. M. Arzeta-Gomez. 1994. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus on peanut
hulls and dry maize leaves. Revista Mexicana de Micologia, 10: 15-20.
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combination of different straws. M. Sc. Thesis, Deptt. of P. Path. S.A.U. Tandojam. pp. 69.
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(Received for publication 14 February 2006)
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Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) is gaining demand owing to its benefits and taste. But, the prevailing manual method of cultivation is compromised with limited spawn spreading capacity and high chance of contamination which could be overcome by use of a spawn spreading machine. Currently no such machine is available which has prompted us to develop the same. The benefaction of the developed machine to the farmers is lightweight, portable, autoclavable, affordable, uncomplicated design, unskilled person can operate and minimize contamination chance that leads to increase in yield of mushroom. It constitutes the main frame, truncated conical hopper and ball valve metering mechanism. The machine evaluated in the lab shown that a highest spawn spreading capacity of 288 bags/h as compared to manual spreading operation of 110 bags/h for rice straw substrate at spawning rate of 50 g. In this context, the result clearly indicate that, the spawn spreading machine is very cost effective, save time and reduce labour requirement as compared to manual operation.
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The objective of the study aimed to compare the yield effect of edible mushroom Pleurotus florida by different spawn rates. The moist substrates were sterilized and packed in heat resistant plastic bags seeded with different rates of spawn. The Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus florida) was cultivated on wheat straw as substrates using different grain spawn at different rates (5% and 6%). In the experiment the different substrates (grain spawn) such as maize spawn, bajra spawn, paddy spawn, and wheat spawn were used in different rates (5% and 6%) for production of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Different growth parameters such as (DFSR, DFPF, DFFH, NOPI, Yield, Av. Wt. of fruiting body and BE %) were evaluated for each substrate with four replicate. The result of this study indicates, maximum yield (550.00 g/kg dry substrates with 55.00% biological efficiency.) was observed in 6% spawn rate of paddy, Minimum days for spawn run (15.00 days) were observed in 6% spawn rate of maize, Minimum days for pin head formation (17.00 days) were observed in 6% spawn rate of maize, Minimum days for first harvesting (19.66 days) were observed in 6% spawn rate of maize, Maximum number of pin head initiation (56.66) were observed in 6% spawn rate of wheat (control), Maximum number of fruiting bodies (28.33) were observed in 6% spawn rate of wheat (control), Maximum average weight fruiting bodies (41.00 g) was observed in 6% spawn rate of bajra. Based on the results obtained paddy spawn would be recommended as most suitable grain as substrates for production of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). INTRODUCTION Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation has increased tremendously throughout the world during the last few decades [5, 17]. Mushroom are macro fungi eukaryotic, fleshy, spore bearing fruiting body fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on the food source and also unique within the fungal kingdom itself. There are more than 5000 mushroom varieties which could be employed for foods and medicines. The fungal classification system proposed by Ainsworth and followed by J. Webster [18], includes almost all edible mushrooms as the members of the subdivision Basidiomycotina and Ascomycotina [7, 2, 3]. These fungi are obviously non-toxic as these have been in an intimate human consumption of native and tribal, since antiquity [15]. Mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) are also known as Oyster mushroom or Dhingri or abalone mushroom, these are the second most important mushroom after button mushroom all over the world. Spawn comprises mycelium of the mushroom and a supporting medium which provides nutrition to the fungus during its growth. The propagating material used by the mushroom growers for planting beds is called spawn. [16], Growing medium of the mushroom is generally known as substrate. The substrates used for cultivation of oyster mushroom are normally nitrogen deficit. Among many kinds of edible mushrooms, oyster mushrooms have been commercialized and consumed remarkably because of its medicinal and nutritive value. Oyster mushrooms could prevent and reduce several serious diseases, including high blood pressure and cholesterols [1], breast cancer and prostate cancer [11]. The oyster mushroom is grown under natural conditions on living trees as parasite or dead woody branches of trees as saprophyte and primary decomposer. The oyster mushrooms have three distinct parts, a fleshy shell or spatula shaped cap (pileus), a short or long lateral stalk called stipe, long ridges and furrows underneath the pileus called gills or lamellae. The gill stretches from the edge of the cap down to the stalk that bears the spores. The spores are smooth, cylindrical and germinate very
... The variation in the amount of the total mushroom yield (on the basis of wet weight) may be due to the different substrates in their ability to provide the mycelium with the nutrients, with different substrates content of cellulose and hemicellulose compounds, hemicellulose degrades faster than cellulose compounds due to their low polymerization and amorphous nature 20 . The biological efficiency and production cycle differ according to the different components of the substrate itself from cellulose and hemicellulose in addition to the strength of the mushroom spawn and the generation and the strain used of the spawn 21 , the additives to the substrate and the amount of the mushroom spawn 22 . On the other hand, research did not agree on a specific efficacy and vitality for a particular species of mushroom or a substrate 8,19 . ...
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This study was conducted in order to test some agricultural wastes from fruits and sterilization method in the production of oyster mushroom Pleurotus sapidus. This study included two factors, the first is the type of substrate which consisting of seven combinations: A0 (wheat straw 80% + flour bran 20%), A1 (pomegranate peel 25% + wheat straw 75%), A2 (pomegranate peel 50% + wheat straw 50%), A3 (pomegranate peel 75% + wheat straw 25%), A4 (date fruit residues 25% + wheat straw 75%), A5 (date fruit residues 50% + wheat straw 50%), A6 (date fruit residues 75% + straw wheat 25%). The second factor is the sterilization method, represented by two methods of sterilization, the first is sterilization by Autoclave (P0) and the second is sterilization using hydrogen peroxide H2O2 at two concentrations of 3% (P1) and 5% (P2). A2 achieved the shortest period of growth and spread of mycelium which was 51.67 days and the highest amount of total wet yield was 199.2 g.kg-1. A0 and A6 had the shortest period for primordia formation which was 61.0 and 62.8 days, respectively. The mixture of A6 substrate gave the longest production cycle duration of 40.8 days and the highest biological efficiency rate was 44.78%. A1 and A2 gave the shortest fruiting period of 6.22 days. The P0 sterilization method recorded the shortest period for the growth and spread of mycelium, shortest period for the formation of primordia and the longest production cycle resulting in 48.88, 47.4 and 43.6 days, respectively, while the P1 sterilization method recorded highest wet yield of 175.6 g.kg-1 and the highest biological efficiency rate of 39.85%. Keywords. Pleurotus sapidus, hydrogen peroxide, sterilization, substrate
... The importance of spawn material quality in successful mushrooms production was recognized as far back as 1905, by B. M. Duggar in one of the first books on industrial cultivation of mushrooms "The principles of mushroom growing and mushroom spawn making" (Duggar, B. M., 1905). The large num-ber of scientific publications dedicated to improving the quality and methods of spawn production, and its application in different countries, indicate its importance in the mushroom industry (Alekseyenko et al., 2010;Bhatti et al., 2007;Hoa & Wang, 2015;Royse & Chalupa, 2009). The search for the best cereals grain for use in spawn production is complicated by factors related to the types of available local grains, as well as their moisture and nutritional contents, including the cultivation conditions i.e. soil and climate (Stanley & Awi-Waadu, 2010;Jiskani et al., 2007;Rosado et al., 2002;Ivanova & Kovalyshyna, 2018). ...
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Quality spawn, which is also dependent on grain composition, is a critical factor that must be optimized to achieve successful and profitable mushroom farming. The characteristics of grain spawn composition (Factor A) and two microclimatic fruiting conditions (Factor B) were studied in the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus . Eight different grain material combinations (GMC1-8) made from wheat, barley, oat, and millet were used to prepare spawn and tested for mushroom cultivation under unregulated and regulated fruiting conditions. The physicochemical characteristics of the different grain spawn, substrate, time to attain the first flush, and BE (biological efficiency) in the different GMCs under the two fruiting conditions were determined. The differences in nutrient compositions of the GMCs tested did not result in a significant difference in the nutrient composition of the cultivation substrate. GMCs containing barley and oat gave BE values that were not significantly different under the two microclimatic conditions tested. GMCs containing 100 % wheat and millet resulted in the poorest BE recorded. However, equal combination of wheat, barley, and oat (GMC8) gave the best results among GMCs tested. Furthermore, it is more cost-efficient to use the GMC8 combinations since wheat is cheaper than all other grains tested.
... The fruiting body of oyster mushroom was obtained from local oyster mushroom farming, Celebes Mushroom, in Desa Taeng, Gowa District, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Agar culture (F0) was prepared through the tissue culture method by inoculating mycelium from the fresh fruiting body into potato dextrose agar (PDA) (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) and incubated at room temperature (30±2°C) for seven days [8]. ...
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The study aimed to find alternative substrates for growing spawn of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with three compositions of substrates. The substrate compositions were: (1) Substrate A (corn 100%), (2) Substrate B (corn and sawdust mix in a ratio of (1:1, v/v)), and (3) Substrate C (corn and sawdust mix in a ratio of (3:1, v/v)). All compositions were replicated 18 times. The complete colonization (days) and mycelium growth rate (cm day ⁻¹ ) were recorded. Means were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and duncan test was performed if there were significant between the substrate compositions. The results showed that substrate C was the best substrate indicated with the fastest complete colonization of 14.17±0.92 and the highest growth rate of 0.85±0.06 cm day ⁻¹ .
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This study conducted in the Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture /University of Baghdad during 2008-2009 season to find the possibility of using the weeds of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) and common reed (Phragmites communis) as a replacement for wheat straw in cultivation oyster mushroom [ Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr.)]because it is hard to find wheat straw around the year and it is high price and it is using as an animal feed. The white strains of oyster mushroom was imported from Jordan as a pure culture and used for spawn production. Supplement of wheat bran, sawdust and crushed cotton seeds was added to the weed substrate to increase the biological efficiency. Storage ability of the cultivation mushroom was also studied using small incubator at the flowing storage temperatures 2±1, 4±1, 8±1 ºC and 23±2 ºC as a marke-ting temperature. The results showed that common reed substrate reduced incubation time to 28.00 days and increased fresh weight to 876.40 gm/kg of dry substrate with wheat straw and cogon grass. While protein content of the fruiting bodies produced from common reed and cogon grass substrate. Carbohydrate content percentage and sugar content percentage and dry mater percentage in the fruiting bodies produced from common reed was higher than those produced from wheat straw and cogon grass substrate. Phenolic content percentage in the fruiting bodies produced from cogon grass substrates was higher than those produced from common reed and wheat straw substrate. Using different supplement reduced incubation time to 25.00 days. Addition of 10 % wheat bran to cogon grass substrate increased yield to 921.50 gm/kg of dry substrate and increased the biological efficiency to 92.15 % and this increase was significantly compared with other substrate, or supplement. Increasing the percentage of wheat bran to 20% in cogon grass substrate increased protein content to 27.20 %, and this increase was also significantly compared with other treatments. Addition of crushed cotton seed (10 %) to cogon grass substrate increased carbohydrate content to 49.10 % while addition of 10% wheat bran to common reed substrate increased carbohydrate content in the fruiting bodies to 67.7 %, and this increase was significantly compared with other treatment. The highest sugar content percentage in the fruiting bodies was reached when 10% wheat bran was added to cogon grass substrate and 10% sawdust added to common reed substrate. Studying storage temperature showed that 2±1ºC was the best degree for postharvest oyster mushroom storage. This temperature reduced the weight loss and inhibit the degradation of the chemical compounds with high food value in the fruiting bodies such as protein content and phenolic compounds. Addition of 10 % crushed cotton seed to common reed substrate reduced protein loss in the fruiting bodies to the less in the fruiting bodies (2.93 %) , compared with other treatment during storage, while adding 10 % wheat bran to cogon grass reduced protein loss during storage to 3.337 %. Weight loss in oyster mushroom during storage was the less at 2±1 ºC with all kinds of substrates and supplements used. Addition of crushed cotton seed (10 %) to cogon grass substrate reduced weight loss to 8.75 % which is the lowest compared with other treatment. Losses in sugar content and phenolic compounds content was the less during storage at 2±1ºC. Compared with other degrees at all kinds of substrate, wheat straw was the best substrate that reduces the loss in sugar content and phenolic compounds compared with other substrate during storage of oyster mushroom.
Thesis
This study conducted in the Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture /University of Baghdad during 2008-2009 season to find the possibility of using the weeds of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) and common reed (Phragmites communis) as a replacement for wheat straw in cultivation oyster mushroom [ Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr.)]because it is hard to find wheat straw around the year and it is high price and it is using as an animal feed. The white strains of oyster mushroom was imported from Jordan as a pure culture and used for spawn production. Supplement of wheat bran, sawdust and crushed cotton seeds was added to the weed substrate to increase the biological efficiency. Storage ability of the cultivation mushroom was also studied using small incubator at the flowing storage temperatures 2±1, 4±1, 8±1 ºC and 23±2 ºC as a marke-ting temperature. The results showed that common reed substrate reduced incubation time to 28.00 days and increased fresh weight to 876.40 gm/kg of dry substrate with wheat straw and cogon grass. While protein content of the fruiting bodies produced from common reed and cogon grass substrate. Carbohydrate content percentage and sugar content percentage and dry mater percentage in the fruiting bodies produced from common reed was higher than those produced from wheat straw and cogon grass substrate. Phenolic content percentage in the fruiting bodies produced from cogon grass substrates was higher than those produced from common reed and wheat straw substrate. Using different supplement reduced incubation time to 25.00 days. Addition of 10 % wheat bran to cogon grass substrate increased yield to 921.50 gm/kg of dry substrate and increased the biological efficiency to 92.15 % and this increase was significantly compared with other substrate, or supplement. Increasing the percentage of wheat bran to 20% in cogon grass substrate increased protein content to 27.20 %, and this increase was also significantly compared with other treatments. Addition of crushed cotton seed (10 %) to cogon grass substrate increased carbohydrate content to 49.10 % while addition of 10% wheat bran to common reed substrate increased carbohydrate content in the fruiting bodies to 67.7 %, and this increase was significantly compared with other treatment. The highest sugar content percentage in the fruiting bodies was reached when 10% wheat bran was added to cogon grass substrate and 10% sawdust added to common reed substrate. Studying storage temperature showed that 2±1ºC was the best degree for postharvest oyster mushroom storage. This temperature reduced the weight loss and inhibit the degradation of the chemical compounds with high food value in the fruiting bodies such as protein content and phenolic compounds. Addition of 10 % crushed cotton seed to common reed substrate reduced protein loss in the fruiting bodies to the less in the fruiting bodies (2.93 %) , compared with other treatment during storage, while adding 10 % wheat bran to cogon grass reduced protein loss during storage to 3.337 %. Weight loss in oyster mushroom during storage was the less at 2±1 ºC with all kinds of substrates and supplements used. Addition of crushed cotton seed (10 %) to cogon grass substrate reduced weight loss to 8.75 % which is the lowest compared with other treatment. Losses in sugar content and phenolic compounds content was the less during storage at 2±1ºC. Compared with other degrees at all kinds of substrate, wheat straw was the best substrate that reduces the loss in sugar content and phenolic compounds compared with other substrate during storage of oyster mushroom.
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The development of the mushroom industry in Cambodia through the production of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus) and lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) species requires local knowledge about growth rates, quality control, disease management and other biological characteristics to be produced. This study compares the growth rate and yield of these 33 species in both bag and log cultures. Mushrooms were cultivated by transferring tissues from P. ostreatus and G. lucidum strains to potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. Then, these strains were multiplied through transferring their spawn to successive grain bottles. Finally, the spawn was harvested and transferred to either plastic bags filled with sawdust (rubber tree) or prepared logs. In the case of the strains grown in logs, 19 of the P. ostreatus cultures and 22 of the G. lucidum cultures were contaminated; while this occurred for only 5 and 13 of the bag cultures, respectively. Different mushroom species require different growing conditions. For instance, P. ostreatus strains thrive at a temperature between 20°C and 30°C at 70 to 90% humidity. However, G. lucidum strains thrive at a temperature between 18°C and 25°C, at a humidity of 85 to 90%. The choice of substrate also affects yield. In the Cambodian context, a sawdust substrate was found to produce higher yields, in terms of both biological efficiency and the number of fruiting bodies. It is recommended that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on a sawdust substrate is promoted to rice farmers in Cambodia.
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The main raw material for Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) cultivation is wheat straw. Estimation of straw biodegradability from 15 different spring wheat cultivars under irrigation in South Africa was determined using linear discriminant analysis to discriminate or group the 15 cultivars by combining chemical analysis and in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were found between ash, nitrogen, reducing sugars, anthrone reactive-carbohydrates, water-soluble dry matter, and oyster mushroom yields. The significance of these measurements was investigated and discussed.
Article
Studies were carried out to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee industry residues, viz. coffee husk, coffee leaves and spent coffee ground as substrates in solid state fermentation (SSF) to cultivate edible mushrooms Pleurotus. Eight strains of Pleurotus ostreatus and two strains of Pleurotus sajor-caju were screened on a medium prepared from aqueous extract of coffee husk and agar. Based on best mycelial growth (9.68 mm/day) and biomass production (43.4 mg/plate in 9 days at 24°C), the strain P. ostreatus LPB 09 was selected for detailed studies. SSF was carried out using these substrates under different moisture conditions (45–75%) and spawn rates (2.5–25%). In general, although a 25% spawn rate appeared superior, the 10% spawn rate was recommended for all the three substrates in view of the process economics, as there was not any significant difference in the increase with 10 to 15%. The ideal moisture content for mycelial growth was 60–65% for coffee husk and spent coffee ground, and 60–70% for coffee leaves. The biological efficiency (BE), which is defined as the ratio of the weight of fresh fruiting bodies to the weight of dry substrate, multiplied by 100, and which indicates the fructification ability of the fungus for utilizing the substrate, was best with coffee husk. With coffee husk as the substrate, the first fructification occurred after 20 days of inoculation, and the biological efficiency reached about 97% after 60 days. When coffee leaves were used as the substrate, no fructification was observed even upon prolonged cultivation. With spent ground as the substrate, the first fructification occurred 23 days after inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 90% in 50 days. There was a significant decrease in the caffeine and tannin contents (61 and 79%, respectively) of coffee husk after 60 days. It was remarkable to observe that caffeine was adsorbed onto the fruiting body (0.157%), indicating that it was not completely degraded by the fungal culture. However, no tannins were found in the fruiting body, indicating that the fungal strain was capable of degrading them. The results showed the feasibility of using coffee husk and spent coffee ground as substrates without any pre-treatment for the cultivation of edible fungi in SSF, and provided one of the first steps towards an economical utilization of these otherwise unutilized or poorly utilized residues.
Introduction of tower system for the cultivation of mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.)
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