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Resumen Se reconocen para Perú 28 géneros y 150 especies de Gesneriaceae. Se presenta una clave para los géneros y una breve discusión de cada uno, junto con el listado de las especies y los departamentos en donde cada especie es conocida. La mayor parte de las especies han sido coleccionadas en los departamentos de Huánuco (79), Loreto (73), Cuzco (69), San Martín (69) y Amazonas (66). La más alta diversidad se encuentra en los flancos orientales de la cordillera Andina, en bosques montañosos de neblina, siendo los de relativamente baja elevación (500-1000 m) y alta humedad especialmente ricos en ellas. Se encuentra una menor diversidad en las selvas bajas de la cuenca Amazónica y en los bosques secos en la costa Pacífica en el norte, donde sólo se registran 7 especies; de igual manera hay pocas o ninguna especie de Gesneriaceae en las partes secas de la Sierra. Unas 50 especies peruanas son epifitas frecuentemente con vástagos trepadores, y las demás son hierbas, arbustos, y subarbustos terrestres. Los géneros más grandes en Perú son Besleria, Columnea, Drymonia y Alloplectus con 35, 21, 17 y 12 especies. Sin embargo, existe una inquietud con respecto al verdadero número de especies en estos géneros debido a la falta de tratamientos taxonómicos modernos de Drymonia y Besleria. Lo mismo ocurre con varios de los géneros más pequeños cuya variación y taxonomía no han sido revisadas. Palabras claves: Gesneriaceae, Perú, clave de géneros, diversidad, tipos de vegetación, distribución.
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A new species of the genus Besleria (Gesneriaceae), endemic to the department of Cauca, Colombia, is described and illustrated here. The new species, Besleria santaclarensis Clavijo & Sánchez-Taborda, was discovered in the Regional Protective Forest Reserve “Serranía El Pinche”, Cordillera Occidental of the Colombian Andes. B. santaclarensis is distinguished by the epedunculate inflorescences, usually in the leafless axils near the base, with up to eight orange flowers, and by the magenta calyx that covers 2/3 of the corolla.
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Gesneriaceae are represented in the New World (NW) by a major clade (c. 1000 species) currently recognized as subfamily Gesnerioideae. Radiation of this group occurred in all biomes of tropical America and was accompanied by extensive phenotypic and ecological diversification. Here we performed phylogenetic analyses using DNA sequences from three plastid loci to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Gesnerioideae and to investigate its relationship with other lineages of Gesneriaceae and Lamiales. Our molecular data confirm the inclusion of the South Pacific Coronanthereae and the Old World (OW) monotypic genus Titanotrichum in Gesnerioideae and the sister-group relationship of this subfamily to the rest of the OW Gesneriaceae. Calceolariaceae and the NW genera Peltanthera and Sanango appeared successively sister to Gesneriaceae, whereas Cubitanthus, which has been previously assigned to Gesneriaceae, is shown to be related to Linderniaceae. Based on molecular dating and biogeographical reconstruction analyses, we suggest that ancestors of Gesneriaceae originated in South America during the Late Cretaceous. Distribution of Gesneriaceae in the Palaeotropics and Australasia was inferred as resulting from two independent long-distance dispersals during the Eocene and Oligocene, respectively. In a short time span starting at 34Mya, ancestors of Gesnerioideae colonized several Neotropical regions including the tropical Andes, Brazilian Atlantic forest, cerrado, Central America and the West Indies. Subsequent diversification within these areas occurred largely in situ and was particularly extensive in the mountainous systems of the Andes, Central America and the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Only two radiations account for 90% of the diversity of Gesneriaceae in the Brazilian Atlantic forest, whereas half of the species richness in the northern Andes and Central America originated during the last 10 Myr from a single radiation.
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