Article

Making Use of Guava Seed (Psidium guajava L): The Effects of Pre-treatments on Its Chemical Composition

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Abstract

The guava processing industry in Malaysia produces by-products in the form of seed core and peel. These by-products can be regarded as underused resources but there are concerns about their composition that prevent their use in the food and feed industries. This study aims to analyze the respective effects of heat treatments (boiling or autoclaving) and germination periods on the nutritional composition and phytochemical content of guava seeds. The guava seeds were found to contain 618, 78, 72, and 5 mg/g dry weight total dietary fiber, fat, protein, and ash, respectively. The tannin and saponin contents, but not the phytic acid content, were below the respective anti-nutritional thresholds. The heat treatments did not affect the total dietary fiber and ash contents but reduced all other chemical components to different extents (15–91 %). Boiling did not reduce the phytic acid content substantially but autoclaving caused a reduction of 91 % to a level below the anti-nutritional threshold. Germination for 14 days caused a significant reduction in nutrient contents in the range of 16–79 %. Germination also reduced the phytic acid content by 90%in the seed but did not significantly affect the saponin content. Thus, guava seed can be treated thermally or germinated to manipulate its chemical composition to enable its use in the food and feed industries.

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... The phenolic compounds were extracted at the highest concentration with 60% methanol solution, with further purification through ultrafiltration membranes (Sukeksi et al., 2016). Chang et al. (2014) quantified the total phenolic components, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of different parts such as seeds, peel, and pulp of white-fleshed guava fruit by high-performance liquid chromatography-quantitative time-of-flight-mass spectrometric (HPLC-QTOF-MS) analysis of an ethanol extract. They detected 69 phenolic compounds, phenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, phenylethanoids, lignans, stilbenoids, and dihydrochalcones, while nine polar compounds like triterpenoids and iridoids were also detected. ...
... In addition, guava wastes and by-products can be processed by various heat treatments for the inactivation of anti-nutritional components, thereby enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients. Chang et al. (2014) studied the impact of processing techniques like boiling or autoclaving and different periods of germination on the nutritional contents and phytochemical composition of guava seeds. It has been reported that, following various processing treatments, there was a decrease in the concentrations of anti-nutritional components such as tannins and saponins. ...
... The phenolic compounds were extracted at the highest concentration with 60% methanol solution, with further purification through ultrafiltration membranes (Sukeksi et al., 2016). Chang et al. (2014) quantified the total phenolic components, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of different parts such as seeds, peel, and pulp of white-fleshed guava fruit by high-performance liquid chromatography-quantitative time-of-flight-mass spectrometric (HPLC-QTOF-MS) analysis of an ethanol extract. They detected 69 phenolic compounds, phenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, phenylethanoids, lignans, stilbenoids, and dihydrochalcones, while nine polar compounds like triterpenoids and iridoids were also detected. ...
... In addition, guava wastes and by-products can be processed by various heat treatments for the inactivation of anti-nutritional components, thereby enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients. Chang et al. (2014) studied the impact of processing techniques like boiling or autoclaving and different periods of germination on the nutritional contents and phytochemical composition of guava seeds. It has been reported that, following various processing treatments, there was a decrease in the concentrations of anti-nutritional components such as tannins and saponins. ...
... Among these ANFs, tannins can be decreased by roasting; however, phytic acid, being heatstable, requires a higher temperature and longer time for deactivation (El Anany, 2015). Autoclaving guava seeds was found to reduce the phytic acid content by 91%, whereas germination of guava seeds for 14 days reduced the content by 90% (Chang et al., 2014). ...
... In addition to phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, dietary fibre, and some ANFs were also reported in guava seeds, as shown in Table 2. The amount of tannins and saponins was found to be below the threshold level in guava seeds, while the phytic acid content was higher than the threshold level, which can be reduced by adopting physical and biological methods (Chang et al., 2014). The structures of a few important phytochemical compounds present in guava seeds are shown in Fig. 1. ...
Article
Guava processing industries generate peel and seeds as primary waste fractions. Guava seeds obtained after fruit processing possess untapped potential in the field of food science due to the presence of a diversity of nutritional and bioactive compounds. Along with offering a detailed understanding of the nutritional attributes of guava seeds, the present review comprehensively elaborates on the therapeutic activities of their bioactive compounds, their techno-functional properties, and their other edible and nonedible applications. The limited molecular and biochemical mechanistic studies outlining the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, neuroprotective and antidiabetic activities of guava seeds available in the literature are also extensively discussed in this review. The use of guava seed constituents as food additives and food functional and structural modulators, primarily as fat reducers, emulsifiers, water and oil holding agents, is also conceptually explained. Additional human intervention and molecular mechanistic studies deciphering the effects of guava seeds on various diseases and human health are warranted.
... Guava or Psidium guajava is widely grown in the tropical and subtropical regions with India, China and Thailand being the leading countries in cultivation (Worldatlas, 2018). Despite having unique taste and pleasant odor, guava is also rich in other functional nutrients such as antioxidant, fiber and vitamins (Chang, Tan, & Lok, 2014;Güémes-vera & Bernardino-nicanor, 2015). Other than fresh consumption, guava can be processed into other potential products such as fermented fruit. ...
... The fat content in 80% FGC indicating the probable presence of linoleic acid due to significant amount of it was found in previous study on guava seed (Silva & Morais, 2014). However, high heat exposure may significantly reduce fat content in guava seed (Chang et al., 2014). ...
Conference Paper
A research collaborative work was initiated with local fermented-fruits producer in Penang. It was aimed to focus on the by-products, turning them into beneficial products. Our goal was to develop guava condiment powder (SAP); in order to reduce the imports of plum condiment powder (SAB). Sensory evaluation for comparing product acceptance was conducted (N=110), with attributes on odor, color, taste, texture and overall acceptability were evaluated. ANOVA analysis indicated significant difference (p<0.05) for all attributes and SAB was being favored by panelists (Score:6.27) while SAP acceptance was neither like nor dislike (Score:4.13). This finding has proven that the unusual SAP texture and taste has yet to be accepted. However, the nutritional analysis indicated that SAP is nutritious than SAB which contains 15 times more insoluble fiber, 2 times higher of soluble fiber and 4 times higher in protein than SAB. Furthermore, SAP has 2.70g of fat while none was detected for SAB. As conclusion, SAP is high in fiber, fat and protein. SAP was neither like or dislike by the panelists. However, through adequate consumer education, this new alternative product might be marketable. Nonetheless, pure fermented guava core powder can be potential functional food ingredient which benefit human's digestive system.
... Lira et al. [93] found that inclusion of up to 12% guava waste in broiler chickens' feed promotes performance and carcass yield similar to that obtained with the feed based on corn and soybean meal. However, livestock is not suitable to feed solely on guava seed because of the presence of excessive phytic acid [94], which may reduce the bioavailability of minerals and protein digestibility [95]. This limitation of feed value for guava seeds may be overcome by pretreatments such as autoclaving and germination as reported by Chang et al. [94]. ...
... If compared to crude protein in guava seed (Table 3), the supply is below the basic requirement. However, individual amino acids in guava seeds are enough for keeping the poultry healthy [94]. On the other hand, guava seeds also have some traces of mineral (Table 3). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
India has witnessed tremendous increase in the production of horticultural crops, especially fruits since its independence, the country is now among the top fruit producing countries of the world ranking second next only to China. However, the productivity has still remained low as against area under the fruit cultivation. Several neglecting issues related to the production technology have remained unattended so far. The old and senile orchards are now reverting towards a declining trend of production because of plant age factor, non-compatible varieties and poor canopy management. Such a type of decline may be seen in whole orchards, on a single tree or in patches. It is a rare site to get any plantation free of this malady; even intensity varies from plant to plant and from month to month in the same plant. The growers do not adopt the proper management practices in terms of plant protection; manuring, irrigation; mulching, pruning etc. and the orchards become sick. In general, the canopy of fruit crops has an irregular shape. Trees of irregular shape and size are difficult to deal with and even culminate a poor yield in the subsequent years, as the lower branches of canopy gradually turns inert and infertile as well. The present paper aims at highlighting the basics of rejuvenating the old and senile orchards for sustaining the fruit production to meet the present need and optimize the fruit potential of our country.
... Lira et al. [93] found that inclusion of up to 12% guava waste in broiler chickens' feed promotes performance and carcass yield similar to that obtained with the feed based on corn and soybean meal. However, livestock is not suitable to feed solely on guava seed because of the presence of excessive phytic acid [94], which may reduce the bioavailability of minerals and protein digestibility [95]. This limitation of feed value for guava seeds may be overcome by pretreatments such as autoclaving and germination as reported by Chang et al. [94]. ...
... If compared to crude protein in guava seed (Table 3), the supply is below the basic requirement. However, individual amino acids in guava seeds are enough for keeping the poultry healthy [94]. On the other hand, guava seeds also have some traces of mineral (Table 3). ...
Chapter
Mango (Magnifera indica L) and guava (Psidium guajava) have been widely acknowledged as nutritionally valuable fruits that formed great sources of vitamins and minerals. They have been cultivated in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Many research investigations revealed that both plants exhibited numerous medicinal properties. They have been used to treat many ailments by acting as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhoea, hypolipidaemic, and anti-cancer properties Mangoes have been found to be widely used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries while guavas are processed into a number of food products. However, their physical, chemical, and sensory attributes undergo changes during ripening. Thus, different methods of storage and packaging are developed to prolong the shelf life and maintain the qualities of these fruits. The present chapter outlines the nutritional profiles, health benefits and industrial applications of mango and guava. Postharvest, physiology and safety assessment of these fruits are also discussed.
... Lira et al. [93] found that inclusion of up to 12% guava waste in broiler chickens' feed promotes performance and carcass yield similar to that obtained with the feed based on corn and soybean meal. However, livestock is not suitable to feed solely on guava seed because of the presence of excessive phytic acid [94], which may reduce the bioavailability of minerals and protein digestibility [95]. This limitation of feed value for guava seeds may be overcome by pretreatments such as autoclaving and germination as reported by Chang et al. [94]. ...
... If compared to crude protein in guava seed (Table 3), the supply is below the basic requirement. However, individual amino acids in guava seeds are enough for keeping the poultry healthy [94]. On the other hand, guava seeds also have some traces of mineral (Table 3). ...
Chapter
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a tropical fruit very appreciated for its flavor and pleasant aroma. Besides, this fruit is rich source of vitamins, minerals, fiber and dietary antioxidants, especially acid ascorbic and lycopene. The respiration pattern of guavas is contradictory, but is usually classified as climacteric fruit. Guavas harvested at all maturity stages presented the ripening processes after harvest and present high perishability under ambient conditions, with profound changes in skin color, firmness and sweetness until complete the ripening process. Guavas should be harvest when the fruits are still green and firm for commercialization due its high perishability, but is fundamental not harvest immature fruit, because it has low quality. The harvest maturity of guava could be determined based on peel colour, days from fruit set, firmness and total soluble solids/acidity ratio. Several authors indicate the peel color as a good index for harvest. Due the high perishability of guavas the shelf life at room temperature is only a few days, so storage under refrigeration can be extend the shelf-life of guavas, because it reduces the metabolism such as respiratory rate and ethylene production. The use of modified atmosphere also extend the life of guava, and edible coating can do this modification. However, in research performed in Embrapa which aimed was evaluate the possible changes promoted by different edible coatings on the quality attributes of guavas 'Pedro Sato,‘ stored at 10°C, the use the use of refrigeration was more efficient to extend the shelf-life of guava than the use of edible coatings.
... Lira et al. [93] found that inclusion of up to 12% guava waste in broiler chickens' feed promotes performance and carcass yield similar to that obtained with the feed based on corn and soybean meal. However, livestock is not suitable to feed solely on guava seed because of the presence of excessive phytic acid [94], which may reduce the bioavailability of minerals and protein digestibility [95]. This limitation of feed value for guava seeds may be overcome by pretreatments such as autoclaving and germination as reported by Chang et al. [94]. ...
... If compared to crude protein in guava seed (Table 3), the supply is below the basic requirement. However, individual amino acids in guava seeds are enough for keeping the poultry healthy [94]. On the other hand, guava seeds also have some traces of mineral (Table 3). ...
Chapter
Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) a commercially relevant crop and is an important agricultural commodity in the global trade and economy of its producing countries. This fruit, the second most important food for the inhabitants of tropical countries, is considered as a source of antioxidants including ascorbic acid (mango fruit provides about 50% of the recommended daily intake of vitamin C) and carotenoids. However a significant amount of production is wasted is estimated at 2 e 33%, before even reaching the consumer. This happend due to several factors included mechanical damage caused during harvesting or improper field handling. Collateral effects of damage include water loss, moisture loss of a single bruised. The development of adequate packaging is essential to protect the fruit from postharvest mechanical injuries. In this work, it was design an appropriate packaging for different size e shapes of mango using conceptual and 3D models. The new packaging was composed by thermo injected and thermoformed pieces. It was evaluate the quality and shelf life of ―Palmer‖ mangoes packed in the conventional and in the new packaging. All mangoes were storage and transport in 10°C and kept in environment temperature, 22 ± 2°C and 66 ± 5% RH. It was bserved the new packing has more capacity to pack and is more effective to protect the fruits from damages and injuries when compared with the convectional packaging.
... The wide range of metabolites found in guava pomace has demonstrated a number of bioactivities (El Anany et al., 2015), including anti-in ammatory (Lin et al., 2020), neuroprotective (Joseph et al., 2011), anticancer (Correa et al., 2020) (Jamieson et al., 2021) (Lin et al., 2021), antioxidant (Chen et al., 2015), and anti-diabetic (Kobori et al., 2005) characteristics. Guava seeds can also be used as an alternative to modify the functional qualities of foods, such as their solubility, ability to hold onto water, foaming and emulsion activity, stability, and functionality, as well as their ability to cut down on fat (Chang et al., 2014). Considering the requirement to dispose of fruit waste from the fruit processing industries and the need to decrease the ensuing waste generation, strategies have been devised to recover guava pomace for commercial use in the food and nonfood industries (Campos et al., 2020). ...
Preprint
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The potential effect of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric (DBDA) plasma pre-treatment of the guava pomace powder on the evolution of physicochemical, structural and functional properties have been investigated. By single-factor experiments using response surface methodology (RSM), the Box–Behnken experimental results showed that optimum extraction conditions as follows: DBDA plasma treatment condition as 35 kV for 15 min and solvent extraction conditions was determined as 80°C for 360 min caused an increment of the oil yield up to 16.54% when extracted using solvent extractor with ethanol as a solvent. These results indicate that the DBDA plasma treatment previous to the extraction step in the edible oil extraction process can contribute to reduce the duration, increase the oil yield and improves the nutritional quality of the oil. This research helps to develop a novel and economical method for improving the extraction efficiency of oil and to fully valorize the guava fruit processing industrial waste into biomaterial.
... Germination for 14 days caused significant reductions in nutrient contents of 16-79% and also reduced the phytic acid content by 90%. Thus, P. guajava seeds can be treated thermally or germinated to manipulate their composition and enable their use in both food and feed industries (Chang et al. 2014). ...
Book
There has been growing academic interest in food plants. This is a subject that lies at the frontiers of knowledge of various areas, such as environmental sciences, nutrition, public health, and humanities. To date, however, we do not have a book bringing these multi-disciplinary perspectives to bear on this complex field. This book presents the current state of knowledge on Brazilian food plants through a multidisciplinary approach, including an overview of food plants in Brazil, as well as comprehensive nutritional data. It compiles basic theories on the interrelationship between biodiversity and the security of food and nutrition, ethnobotanical knowledge of Brazilian food plants, as well as various methods of learning and teaching, including through social media, artificial intelligence, and through workshops.
... Germination for 14 days caused significant reductions in nutrient contents of 16-79% and also reduced the phytic acid content by 90%. Thus, P. guajava seeds can be treated thermally or germinated to manipulate their composition and enable their use in both food and feed industries (Chang et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
Many food plants in Brazil possess technological potential that might well increase their economic value. Fruits found in the Cerrado biome are considered a good source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, which makes them important functional foods. However, only the most promising species can present competitive potential as final products. Further knowledge concerning the importance of species found in the Cerrado might help preserve the biome, a positive ecological impact. This chapter provides information concerning Cerrado fruits and highlights the species presenting technological potential. Species such as Anacardium occidentale L. (caju), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), and Pterodon emarginatus Vogel (sucupira) are among the food plants described here. Bringing light to these plant species helps provide economic perspectives and can contribute to preservation of the Cerrado biome.
... Germination for 14 days caused significant reductions in nutrient contents of 16-79% and also reduced the phytic acid content by 90%. Thus, P. guajava seeds can be treated thermally or germinated to manipulate their composition and enable their use in both food and feed industries (Chang et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
Brazil is the most biodiverse country in the world, but the areas covered by native vegetation have been decreasing progressively since the arrival of Portuguese colonizers in the 1500. Different economic cycles based on exploitation of land and natural resources have occurred, and the degradation of natural ecosystems has been aggravated since the intense industrialization and urbanization implemented in the 1950s. Our research group has focused on recovering historical information concerning useful native Brazilian plant species, gathering data from manuscripts and documents published until the 1950s. These are added to a database named Dataplamt, which to date contains information recovered from 66 documents on 3400 species of Brazilian useful plants, including scientific names, traditional uses, and places where the plant occurs. For this work, we have retrieved data on plant species traditionally used as food. From nine selected authors who published their works from the XVI to the XX centuries, data on 64 roots/tubercles, 52 leaves, 3 flowers, and 2 sprouts were recovered. Although some have been studied to identify bioactivity and evaluate their composition, many have never been investigated so their potential remains unknown. The data recovered from this historical review covered four of the six main phytogeographic domains of the country, all of which are under constant pressure and at risk of rapidly disappearing. We highlight that the sustainable use of underexploited species is a way to slow down the loss of valuable native species. Moreover, studies with these plants can lead to development of innovative bio-products with high commercial value.
... Germination for 14 days caused significant reductions in nutrient contents of 16-79% and also reduced the phytic acid content by 90%. Thus, P. guajava seeds can be treated thermally or germinated to manipulate their composition and enable their use in both food and feed industries (Chang et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
A principal challenge to biodiversity education is promoting engagement in the urban population. Among the youth, lack of any real interaction with different life forms can lead to plant blindness, which poses a real hazard to the environment and human life. To tackle the problem, educators have been both adopting information technology (IT) and engaging students in outdoor educational activities, which results in better outcomes for both students and the environment. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) are now being successfully used in a wide range of image classification tasks, including plant image identification, with state-of-the-art models performing as well as human experts. CNN’s robustness comes from its ability to extract image features, i.e., colors, shapes, and edges. To harness its potential, we proposed a web-based app using a CNN to identify nine species of unconventional food plants (UFP) in an urban community garden at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. In this chapter, we provide a narrative summary of the main ideas involved in our web-based app, including its elaboration, and show how widely used CNN architectures, namely, ResNet and VGG, performed when identifying food plants in our dataset. Finally, we discuss the educational implications of innovative methods in biodiversity conservation and provide all code and datasets.
... Germination for 14 days caused significant reductions in nutrient contents of 16-79% and also reduced the phytic acid content by 90%. Thus, P. guajava seeds can be treated thermally or germinated to manipulate their composition and enable their use in both food and feed industries (Chang et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cacti such as Cereus jamacaru DC. (mandacaru), Opuntia fícus-indica (prickly pear), Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus), and Pilosocereus gounellei (xique-xique), found in the Caatinga biome, in the semiarid region in northeastern Brazil, have been highlighted for their environmental, economic, and medicinal importance, as well as their use in animal and human food. They are expressive sources of phenolic compounds, sugars and fibers, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Recent studies have verified their antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory potential in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The prebiotic effect and its benefits on the intestinal health and on an individual’s general health status have been increasingly evident. The fruits are appreciated when consumed in natura, and the pulp extracted from the stem is used in preparing various products such as cocada (coconut candy), cakes, cookies, sweets, jellies, flour, juices, bakery products, stews, etc. In addition, the use of xique-xique may be highlighted in popular medicine for constipation, gastritis, urethra and prostate inflammation, jaundice, and hypoglycemia; mandacaru has medicinal use for urethral problems, syphilis, cervical spine pain, respiratory problems, gastric ulcers, infections in the liver or kidneys, and diabetes and scurvy control; and prickly pear and cochineal have therapeutic potential for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, ulcers, and bacterial and viral infections. Although they are mostly consumed in periods when there is a lack of food, its valorization and cultural recovery have occurred with their use as “unconventional food plants” due to the demand for functional foods and the search for new herbal medicines. This chapter aims to present the nutritional composition of Brazilian food plants of the Caatinga biome, especially xique-xique, mandacaru, prickly pear, and cochineal. Informative abstract: Cacti found in the Caatinga biome, in the semiarid region in northeastern Brazil, have been highlighted for their environmental, economic, and medicinal importance, as well as their use in animal and human food. They are expressive sources of phenolic compounds, sugars and fibers, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Recent studies have verified their antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory potential in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The prebiotic effect and its benefits on the intestinal health and on an individual’s general health status have been increasingly evident. Although they are mostly consumed in periods when there is a lack of food, its valorization and cultural recovery have occurred with their use as “unconventional food plants” due to the demand for functional foods and the search for new herbal medicines. This chapter aims to present the nutritional composition of Brazilian food plants of the Caatinga biome, especially Cereus jamacaru DC. (mandacaru), Opuntia fícus-indica (prickly pear), Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus), and Pilosocereus gounellei (xique-xique).
... guajava L.) is traditionally used like food and in folk medicine, including infusions and decoctions of guava's root, bark, leaves, fruits, and/or seeds for oral and topical use for treating many diseases including cancers [34][35][36]. However, making use of guava seeds for health purposes has attracted much attention in recent years [2,3,18,28,37]. Crude guava seed polysaccharides (GSPS) were found to inhibit the growth of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells through decreasing pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion ratios by macrophages in a tumor microenvironment [2]. After being purified and characterized, GSF3 was found to inhibit MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth via the decreasing of Bcl-2 mRNA expression levels but the increasing of pro-(Bax)/anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) mRNA expression ratios in the treated cells [18,28]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The inhibitory effects of purified fractions isolated from guava seed polysaccharides (GSPS) including guava seed polysaccharide fraction 1 (GSF1), GSF2, and GSF3 on prostate cancer cells remain unclear. To clarify the anti-prostate cancer potential, GSPS, GSF1, GSF2, and GSF3 were isolated using Sepharose 6B gel filtration chromatography to assay their inhibitory effects on prostate PC-3 cell growth with direct action or indirect immunotherapy using either splenocyte conditioned media (SCM) or macrophage conditioned media (MCM). Correlations between cytokine profiles in the conditioned media and pro-apoptotic gene expression levels in the corresponding treated PC-3 cells were analyzed. Results showed that GSPS, GSF1, GSF2, and GSF3, particularly GSF3, through either direct action or indirect treatments using SCM or MCM, significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited PC-3 cell growth. GSF3 direct treatments increased pro-apoptotic Bax/anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 mRNA expression ratios in corresponding treated PC-3 cells. Either SCM or MCM cultured with GSF3 increased Fas mRNA expression levels in corresponding treated PC-3 cells. Both Th2-polarized and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 either secreted in SCM or MCM were positively correlated with Fas mRNA expression levels in corresponding treated PC-3 cells. Our results suggest that GSF3 is a potent biological response modifier to decrease PC-3 cell growth through inducing apoptosis.
... 10.5-16% fat and 53.6-67.7% crude fiber (Chang et al., 2014). ...
Article
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The objective of this study was carried out to evaluating the productive performance, the physical-chemical quality of the milk, the physical-chemical and sensorial quality of rennet cheeses obtained from the milk of goats submitted to diets with diferente levels of guava agroindustrial waste (GAW). The goats were randomly distributed in a Latin square (4x4) according to the substitution levels (0, 14, 28, and 42%) of inclusion GAW in the diet. The consumption of natural and dry matter increased with the increase in hay substitution. However, the physical-chemical requirements of milk and cheese were not altered.
... ibge.gov.br). According to Chang et al. (2014) the edible part of guava fruits is only about 50% of the whole fruit; while the peel and seed core represent 20 and 30%, respectively, thereby generating agro-industrial waste. The seed content in guavas can reach around 12% in weight, so the total seed mass produced annually in Brazil can be estimated at 70 thousand tons. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this work is to show the potential of guava seeds (agro-industrial waste) for obtaining pyrolytic sugar like levoglucosan by fast pyrolysis. Firstly, guava seeds were ground to 30 mesh and then subjected to fast pyrolysis in a pyro-probe reactor coupled to GC/MS at temperatures of 350–600 °C. Thus, in addition to the production of levoglucosan, it was possible to verify the formation profiles of different compounds derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin which may also add value to biomass or be undesirable in the extraction and purification stages of these sugars. Simultaneously, the seeds were subjected to a treatment with acetic acid to leach alkali and alkaline earth metals and to increase the formation of levoglucosan, achieving a yield at 550 ºC after acid washing that was around 14 times higher than that obtained with untreated biomass. These results can be attributed not only to the reduction in K, Mg and Ca but also to the partial removal of fractions of hemicellulose and lignin during the biomass acid washing, thus resulting in a higher cellulose content in the treated biomass. In fact, TG/DTG analyses confirmed that the treated biomass is more thermally stable and that there was a reduction in residual biochar from 23 to 19%, thereby having more cellulose available for levoglucosan formation. The results of this study can contribute to the production of renewable fuels from alternative feedstocks and at the same time add value to the agribusiness of commercialization and processing of guava.
... In this regard, polyphenols added to the feed of ruminant animals are subjected to the effect of chewing, rumen bacteria, and microbial gut metabolism before being absorbed in the small intestine, metabolized in the liver, and finally deposed in the tissues (Vasta and Luciano, 2011). The GAW has low degradability in the ruminal environment, which may interfere with the availability of nutrients (carbohydrates and proteins) for the production of microbial protein due to the high contents of anti-nutritional components such as tannin and lignin, thereby reducing the digestibility of the feed (Chang et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of guava agroindustrial waste (GAW) on ruminal parameters (pH, N-NH3, and microbial protein), volatile fatty acid (VFA), and morphometry of the rumen and intestine of sheep. A total of forty Santa Inês sheep (120 days old and 21.3±2.62 kg) were used. The animals were fed diets with 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% inclusion of GAW. The pH, ammonia nitrogen, microbial protein, and VFA were evaluated in the ruminal fluid, alongside the morphometric characteristics of the rumen and intestine. The inclusion of GAW linearly increased fasting and postprandial pH, N-NH3 only showed a quadratic effect for fasting animal, whereas MP presented a quadratic effect for pre- and post-prandial animals. There was a quadratic effect for papilla width, with a maximum value of 393.33 μm at the level of 34.43% GAW in the diet. The papilla absorption area showed a linear effect, in which increasing levels of GAW in the diet had a smaller area of papillae absorption. The inclusion of GAW in the diet of Santa Inês sheep favored pH neutrality, reduced N-NH3 and ruminal MP concentrations, decreased the thickness of the rumen muscular layer, and increased the intestinal mucosa, favoring greater absorption of nutrients.
... The pulp and peel have been known to exert anti-neoplastic effects on the induction of apoptosis and cell differentiation [9]. Guava seeds, a by-product of the beverage and juice processing industry, are abundant in dietary fiber, proteins, fats, phenolics, flavonol glycosides, glutelins, tannins, saponin and amino acids [10][11][12][13][14]. In addition, guava seed oil (GSO) obtained from red (P. ...
Article
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Plant seeds have been found to contain bioactive compounds that have potential nutraceutical benefits. Guava seeds (Psidium guajava) are by-products in the beverage and juice industry; however, they can be utilized for a variety of commercial purposes. This study was designed to analyze the phytochemicals of the n-hexane extract of guava seed oil (GSO), to study its free-radical scavenging activity, and to monitor the changes in serum lipids and fatty acid profiles in rats that were fed GSO. The GSO was analyzed for phytochemicals using chromatographic methods. It was also tested for free-radical scavenging activity in hepatoma and neuroblastoma cells, and analyzed in terms of serum lipids and fatty acids. GSO was found to contain phenolic compounds (e.g., chlorogenic acid and its derivatives) and phytosterols (e.g., stimasterol, β-sitosterol and campesterol), and exerted radical-scavenging activity in cell cultures in a concentration-dependent manner. Long-term consumption of GSO did not increase cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rat serum, but it tended to decrease serum fatty acid levels in a concentration-dependent manner. This is the first study to report on the lipid, phytosterol and phenolic compositions, antioxidant activity, and the hepato- and neuro-protection of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress levels in the GSO extract.
... The main countries producing guava are India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Mexico, Indonesia, and Brazil (Rajan & Hudedamani, 2019). Particularly for Brazil, its processing generates a waste (guava agroindustrial waste, GAW) composed of peel, seed and pulp and, which stands out as one of main by-products of the agroindustry and cause environment impact if inappropriately discarded in land fields (Chang, Tan, Lok, Pakianathan, & Supramaniam, 2014). Regarding GAW composition, it contains crude protein (39.5 g/kg dry matter), ether extract (16.3 g/kg dry matter), neutral detergent fiber (761.8 ...
... The guava (Psidium guajava L.) is one of the most popular tropical fruit, cultivated and consumed throughout the world; the largest part of its production is utilized in pastry, juice, jelly, nectar and the icecream industry, which exploit the pulp. The disposal of the seeds and peels corresponds to approximately 30% of the fruit's weight (18) . El Anany (19) identified the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in guava (P. ...
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Changes in the feeding pattern of the population have recently led to a greater occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors that contribute to a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The presence of beneficial bioactive compounds in fruits and processed sub-products have proven to have a negative association with risk factors, such as blood pressure reduction, plasmatic lipoproteins control and increased resistance of LDL-c to oxidation, in addition to glycemic control and antioxidant effects. The aim of this review is to show that several studies have demonstrated many different chemical compounds in seeds, leaves and fruit peels, including their metabolic and physiologic effects on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We reviewed the relevant literature by searching English-language publications in Pubmed, Google Scholar, Scielo and Lilacs, and references from relevant articles published since 2010, especially in the last five years. Eighty-seven relevant articles were included.
... Among the alternative foods available in Brazil, guava (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae family) stands out. Guava agroindustrial by-product (GAB), which is mainly discarded in landfills without any treatment causing damage to the environment, consists of peeling, pulping and mainly pulp processing seeds (Chang et al., 2014). Thus, the search for food alternatives, such as guava by-product (Psidium guajava L.), to minimise nutritional deficiency is crucial for the development of the sheep industry, which is an alternative during periods of food scarcity. ...
Article
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The aim of this work was to determine the sensory quality (flavour, odour, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability) and physicochemical characteristics of meat from Santa Inês lambs fed with diets containing guava agroindustrial by-product (GAB). Was used samples of the longissimus lumborum of 40 entire males with an average slaughter weight of 32.0 kg, after approximately 105 days in a feedlot. Animals were randomly placed into four treatments (10 replicates per treatment) and fed with different levels of GAB (0, 20, 40 and 60%). Among the attributes examined, only odour was not influenced by the GAB. Inclusion of 40% GAB in diets (in place of corn) produced meat which satisfied consumer demands in terms of fresh colour, although with less intense flavour and tenderness. Although the factors juiciness and overall acceptability did not differ among the highest levels of GAB, we recommend to use GAB addition of up to 40% to avoid compromising on animal performance and consumer sensory characteristics.
... The byproduct contains significant amounts of unsaturated fatty acids and fiber (Uchôa-Thomaz et al., 2014). The protein content ranges from 7.9 to 9.6%, fat content from 10.5 to 16%, and crude fiber content from 53.6 to 67.7% (Chang et al., 2014). ...
Article
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This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with dehydrated guava (Psidium guajava L.) byproduct, at concentrations of 0.0, 8.2, 16.4, and 24.6% on the intake and digestibility of nutrients as well as on productive and economic performance of lambs. The study included 40 uncastrated feedlot Santa Inês sheep with an average age of 120 days and an average initial weight of 17.4±1.27 kg, distributed in individual stalls in a completely randomized design with four treatments and 10 replicates. Santa Inês sheep fed diets containing higher levels (16.4%) of guava byproduct showed lower weight gain and feed conversion and reached slaughter weight later. Replacing corn with guava byproduct at higher levels increased acid detergent fiber and reduced non-fiber carbohydrate intake and nutrient digestibility. The inclusion of up to 16.4% of guava byproduct in the diet of feedlot sheep is appropriate for maintaining good performance and economic viability of the system.
... 10.5-16% fat and 53.6-67.7% raw fiber (Chang et al. 2014). The main deterrent for greater inclusion of GAW in diets is the presence of tannin, lignin, saponin and phytic acid, which are anti-nutritional factors found mainly in the guava seeds (Maniyan et al. 2015). ...
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The objective of this research was to evaluate the biochemical and hormonal parameters of Santa Inês sheep that received diets with different levels of guava agro-industrial waste (GAW). Forty non-castrated male animals of the Santa Inês breed were used, with an average initial weight of 21.3 ± 2.6 kg, and an average age of 120 days. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and eight replicates, and fed with increasing GAW levels replacing hay (0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5 and 30.0%). After the beginning of the diet period, blood samples were collected every 2 weeks approximately 3 h after feeding. Cholesterol concentration had a significant effect (P < 0.01) with the inclusion of GAW. The animals that ingested the control diet had the highest concentrations of cholesterol. T3 and T4 hormones showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) among the treatments, i.e. the animals that ingested the control diet had the lowest concentrations of these hormones. We concluded that the inclusion of GAW in up to 30% decreases the concentration of cholesterol and increases the concentrations of T3 and T4 in the blood, aiding the metabolism of the animals.
... The content of dietary fibre and their fractions of the by-products evaluated in this study is shown in Table 1. Guava by-product presented the greatest content of total DF when compared with the other samples (>2-fold), which could be related to the higher content of DF in seeds (Chang, Tan, Lok, Pakianathan, & Supramaniam, 2014;Ramulu & Udayasekhara-Rao, 2003), since this by-product is composed mainly by seeds (Jiménez-Escrig, Rincón, Pulido, & Saura-Calixto, 2001). ...
... Grain storage proteins are partially hydrolyzed to peptides and amino acids improving protein digestibility and technofunctional properties [11]. Soaking and germination process lead to reduced phytic acid content [12] that results in a higher mineral bioaccesibility [13,14]. Likewise, dietary fiber (DF) content increases [15] and the substantial higher content of insoluble fiber can provide potential benefits in the prevention of diabetic vascular complications [16]. ...
Article
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Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered healthier than brown rice (BR) but its nutritive value has been hardly studied. Since nutritive quality of GBR depends on genetic diversity and germination conditions, six Ecuadorian BR varieties were germinated at 28 and 34 ºC for 48 and 96 h in darkness and proximate composition, dietary fiber fractions, phytic acid content as well as degree of protein hydrolysis and peptide content were studied. Protein, lipids, ash and available carbohydrate ranged 7.3-10.4 %, 2.0-4.0 %, 0.8-1.5 % and 71.6 to 84.0 %, respectively, in GBR seedlings. Total dietary fiber increased during germination (6.1-13.6 %), with a large proportion of insoluble fraction, while phytic acid was reduced noticeably. In general, protein hydrolysis occurred during germination was more accused at 28 ºC for 48 h. These results suggest that GBR can be consumed directly as nutritive staple food for a large population worldwide contributing to their nutritional requirements.
Chapter
The farmers have to deal with a difficult time disposing surplus and rejected farm produce during the peak production season. Due to certain inappropriate and/or inadequate pre- and post-harvest management factors, the fruits and vegetables are spoilt. Further, a large amount of highly perishable wastes are obtained from agro-based industries through different series of processes like sorting, grading, processing, packaging, and distribution. Kitchen wastes also contributed majorly from fruits and vegetables. Increasing food waste generation, improper waste disposal, and poor waste management strategies have an adverse environmental issue, especially in developing countries. The search for feed substitutes due to decreasing fodder production and higher input for production pave ways for efficient waste disposal of fruits and vegetables by creating the perfect solution for developing feed resources. The study on the potential of fruit and vegetable wastes is gaining importance due to their rich nutrient and phytochemical contents, rendering them suitable as animal feed substitutes while providing a complete supplement of nutrients required for the normal growth and development of livestock. It also leads to lower cost of feeding, resulting in increased earnings for farmers. Thus livestock feed production using fruit and vegetable wastes is an eco-friendly, sustainable, and efficient waste management option. This review demonstrates the importance of fruit and vegetable wastes as an alternative source of phytochemicals and nutrients for livestock feeds.KeywordsLivestock feedsFruit and vegetable wastesWaste management
Article
Agro-industrial and food waste generation are increasing and alternatives are necessary for better use of these biomasses, such as conversion by liquid hot water (LHW), due to environmental and economic advantages. Moreover, it could be an alternative for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass to produce xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and other value-added products. This study evaluated the production of XOS via LHW of industrial fruit and food waste. The application of LHW treatment showed a maximum of 32.60% XOS and 5.07% of xylose with banana peel residue, 8.21% of XOS and 1.99% of xylose with guava bagasse, 67.01% XOS and 4.02% xylose with orange bagasse, and 33.42% XOS and 2.56% xylose with restaurant residue. The results showed that the ideal conditions to obtain XOS are by using a high temperature and a low reaction time (160 °C and 15 min) for banana peel residue, a high temperature and medium time (172.43 °C and 35 min) for guava bagasse, a medium temperature and time for orange bagasse (130 °C and 35 min), and for restaurant waste, a medium temperature and a low reaction time (130 °C and 6.72 min). The best residue was orange bagasse with potential XOS production of 208 kg per ton of the material. This study determined LHW conditions that maximized XOS production with a low amount of xylose and degradation products, probably with no need for purification. However, attention is needed for the extractives to be solubilized with the LHW treatment of industrial fruit and food waste.
Article
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The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of guava agro-industrial waste (GAW) on the ingestive behavior of Santa Inês lambs. Forty non-castrated sheep of the Santa Inês breed were used, at an initial weight of 21.33 ± 2.62 kg, and at the age of 120 days, distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and fed with increasing GAW levels (0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5 and 30.0%). The average daily gain (ADG) showed orthogonal contrast (P <0.05), in which the animals that ingested the control diet had lower performances. The animals with GAW added to the diet obtained more significant weight gains reflected by a better feed conversion. Among the variables, idleness, feeding, and total chewing time had a significant effect (P<0.05); animals spent more time idle at the 30.0% inclusion level and less time in the control group. However, the means of the 7.5, 15.0, and 22.5% GAW inclusion levels were statistically similar to the control group and the 30.0% level. There was a significant effect (P<0.05) on feed efficiency, with the lowest values being presented for the control group and the highest values at the 30% inclusion level of GAW. The 30.0% GAW feed for lambs in confinement reduces feed time, and total chewing prolongs idleness and increases feed efficiency without compromising dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber intake, and ADG. Keywords: alimentary efficiency; alternative feed; ethology; GAW; idle
Article
Guava (Psidium guajava) is a widely consumed fruit and has been commercialized in markets. The seeds are by‐products of the processing procedures performed by the commercial guava juice industry. They are considered a nutritional resource that has been poorly utilized as they contain essential fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA) and phenolics in abundance. In the study, guava seed oil (GSO) was used, which was obtained by hexane extraction of guava seeds to determine composition and test toxicity, cell migration, cancer cell viability, and plasmodium growth. GSO was found to be relatively nontoxic to normal hepatocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, with mice for 14 days showing median lethal dose (LD50) > 10 mg/kg and rats for up to 90 days. Surprisingly, the oil inhibited the proliferation of the human erythroleukemic cells in a dose‐dependent manner with the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 155 and 137 μg/ml at 24 and 48 hr, respectively. Importantly, GSO at 500 μg/ml was found to increase the degree of migration of keratinocytes (HaCaT). These observations suggest that edible P. guajava seed oil, which is abundant with linoleic acid and antioxidants, can promote skin wound healing and inhibit the proliferation of leukemic cells.
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The valorization of guava waste requires compositional and functional studies. We tested three byproducts of guava purée processing, namely refiner, siever, and decanter. We analyzed the chemical composition and quantified the prebiotic activity score and selected carbohydrates; we also determined the water holding (WHC), oil holding (OHC), cation exchange capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose dialysis retardation (GDR) of the solid fraction and the antioxidative and α‐amylase inhibitory capacities (AIC) of the ethanolic extract. Refiner contained 7.7% lipid, 7.08% protein and a relatively high phytate content; it had a high prebiotic activity score and possessed the highest binding capacity with deoxycholic acid. Siever contained high levels of low molecular weight carbohydrates and total tannin but relatively low crude fiber and cellulose contents. It had the highest binding with chenodeoxycholic acid (74.8%), and exhibited the highest 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. Decanter was rich in cellulose and had a high prebiotic activity score. The WHC and OHC values of decanter were within a narrow range and also exhibited the highest binding with cholic acid (86.6%), and the highest values of GDR and AIC. The refiner waste could be included in animal feed but requires further processing to reduce the high phytate levels. All three guava byproducts had the potential to be a source of antioxidant dietary fiber (DF), a finding that warrants further in vivo study. Practical Application To differing extents, the guava byproducts exhibited useful physicochemical binding properties and so possessed the potential for health‐promoting activity. These byproducts could also be upgraded to other marketable products so the manufacturers of processed guava might be able to develop their businesses sustainably by making better use of them.
Article
Guava seeds are produced as a waste product by the guava processing industry. Their high carbohydrate contents may suit the carbohydrate needs of the feed sector but their high dietary fiber content limits their feed value. The feed values of fruit seeds can be improved through germination, which involves the mobilization of nutrients through seed enzymes and alters the seed carbohydrate composition. The changes of selected carbohydrates in guava (Psidium guajava L.) seeds brought by germination to those in red bean (Vigna angularis) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were compared. The contents of soluble carbohydrates, digestible starch, resistant starch and cellulose in the seeds were determined. The radial diffusion method was used to detect carbohydrate-degrading enzymes in the seed extracts. Guava seeds were rich in cellulose (402.2 mg/g), which decreased progressively during germination, probably through the action of cellulase. Winter wheat contained the highest starch content (412.2 mg/g) and also distinct quantities of α-amylase and cellulase. The starch contents of all the seeds decreased, but the soluble carbohydrate contents in red beans and guava seeds increased significantly by the end of germination, suggesting the transient oversupply of reserve metabolites. The content of hydrolyzed polysaccharides increased in the germinated seeds with detectable amounts of cellulose-degrading enzymes present, indicating improved value as feed. Further research is warranted to explore the potential of guava seeds as a source of low-cost animal feed supplements.
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The effect of germination on the level of phytase activity and the contents of phytates and phosphorus of five Nigeria grown cereal grains was studied. The cereals screened were rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Phytase activity was high (0.21-0.67 U g(-1)) in all samples. Phytate content ranged between 5.6 and 6.2 mg g(-1) while total phosphorus content ranged between 3.3 and 4.3 mg g(-1). During germination, the level of phytase activity increased and reached its maximal value after seven (16-fold), six (5-fold), five (7-fold), seven (3-fold) and eight (6-fold) days of germination for rice, maize, millet, sorghum and wheat respectively. After this initial increase, phytase activity declined slightly (P < 0.05). The increase in phytase activity during germination was accompanied by a significant reduction in phytate (P < 0.05) and a small but significant increase in total phosphorus.
Article
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Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) plays a key role in phenylpropanoid metabolism, catalyzing the deamination of phenylalanine (Phe) to form trans-cinnamic acid. Inhibitors of PAL have been used to study the physiological role of the different compounds derived from trans-cinnamic acid, and to test theories about a trade-off between growth and defence in plants. In a previous study with birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) seedlings, the PAL inhibitor 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid monohydrate (AIP) caused an accumulation of Phe and a strong decrease in the quantity of simple phenolics, soluble condensed tannins and growth, whereas flavonol glycosides were generally not affected. The present study demonstrates restoration of secondary metabolism in the previously AIP treated birch seedlings. Our results indicate that Phe accumulated during PAL inhibition could be partly used to increase the content of the phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols and to some extent the soluble condensed tannins. Seedling growth also increased when the supply of PAL inhibitor ceased. We thereby show that the inhibition of PAL by AIP in vivo is reversible, at least for moderate AIP concentrations and the rate of restoration is dependent on the inhibitor concentration.
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Phytic acid (PA) is the primary storage compound of phosphorus in seeds accounting for up to 80% of the total seed phosphorus and contributing as much as 1.5% to the seed dry weight. The negatively charged phosphate in PA strongly binds to metallic cations of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn making them insoluble and thus unavailable as nutritional factors. Phytate mainly accumulates in protein storage vacuoles as globoids, predominantly located in the aleurone layer (wheat, barley and rice) or in the embryo (maize). During germination, phytate is hydrolysed by endogenous phytase(s) and other phosphatases to release phosphate, inositol and micronutrients to support the emerging seedling. PA and its derivatives are also implicated in RNA export, DNA repair, signalling, endocytosis and cell vesicular trafficking. Our recent studies on purification of phytate globoids, their mineral composition and dephytinization by wheat phytase will be discussed. Biochemical data for purified and characterized phytases isolated from more than 23 plant species are presented, the dephosphorylation pathways of phytic acid by different classes of phytases are compared, and the application of phytase in food and feed is discussed.
Book
This updated and much revised third edition of Seeds: Physiology of Development, Germination and Dormancy provides a thorough overview of seed biology and incorporates much of the progress that has been made during the past fifteen years. With an emphasis on placing information in the context of the seed, this new edition includes recent advances in the areas of molecular biology of development and germination, as well as fresh insights into dormancy, ecophysiology, desiccation tolerance, and longevity. Authored by preeminent authorities in the field, this book is an invaluable resource for researchers, teachers, and students interested in the diverse aspects of seed biology. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013. All rights are reserved.
Chapter
Phytic acid, a cyclic compound (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate myoinositol) is a common storage form of phosphorus in seeds and is also considered as an antinutritional factor. Phytic acid, as a result of possessing negative charge at a wide range of pH values, has strong affi nity to bind metal ions such as with calcium, zinc, and iron (Fig. 1). This leads to interference in the absorption of these minerals from small intestine and adversely affects various metabolic processes. In addition, phytic acid is also known to complex with proteins and starch, resulting in reduced digestibility of these nutrients. The phosphorus in phytic acid is not nutritionally available to monogastric animals. Nonetheless, non-antinutritive concentration of phytic acid in dietary sources is recently considered to be a potential antioxidant. Reduction in ironinduced oxidative injury and reversal in initiation of colorectal tumorigenesis have also been observed. Phytic acid has recently been suggested to have a protective role in carcinogenesis.
Chapter
Mobilization of the major reserves within seed storage tissues occurs following the completion of germination to provide nutrients for the growing seedling until it becomes autotrophic. Starch, hemicelluloses, triacylglycerols (oils), and proteins are mobilized by distinct suites of enzymes, many of which are transcribed and synthesized de novo. Starch and proteins are converted to sugars and amino acids within the starch granules and protein storage vacuoles, respectively, before these catabolites are moved into the cytosol; hemicelluloses are released from cell wall polymers by specific hydrolases. Oils, in contrast, require the additional participation of two non-storage organelles within the cell, one of which, the glyoxysome, is formed de novo to accommodate the enzymes required for the catabolism of fatty acids. The final carbon product of reserve catabolism is sucrose that is translocated to the growing tissues, with proteins also yielding transportable amino acids. Regulation of starch mobilization from the endosperms of cereals, which is hormonally controlled, is well understood; in contrast, while the participation of hormones in hemicellulose mobilization in dicot endosperms is known, their role in the hydrolysis of the major cotyledon reserves is uncertain.
Article
The goal of this work was to analyze the effect of different treatments on functional properties (Color parameters, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, water imbibition capacity, protein solubility and apparent viscosity) and microstructure of three cowpea varieties. Proteins present in flours obtained from heat-treated seeds exhibited a significant increase in water and oil absorption values, water imbibition capacity, and apparent viscosity, whereas solubility decreased. Color determinations on flours showed a reduction in L* and H*, and an increment in C* with treatment intensity. Structural changes in seeds would explain the variations in the functionality of flours. This study shows that cooking and autoclaving affect significantly the functional properties of flours, while soaking had a lower impact. The knowledge about these changes will be very useful for developing and obtaining new preparations based on cowpea flour.
Article
Guava seeds were chemically evaluated for their moisture, fat, protein, ash, fibre and minerals content. The fatty and amino acids composition was also studied. Guava seed meal was used in the preparation of cookies. Chemical composition, dough characteristics as well as cookies baking quality were studied to evaluate its possible utilization. The water absorption, dough development time and stability were decreased and dough weakening was increased as the level of guava seed meal in the dough increased. Adding guava seed meal to wheat flour improved volume, specific volume, diameter and thickness of the cookies after baking. Using 9% guava seed meal gave an acceptable, but comparatively inferior product.
Article
Differences were observed in saponin contents of eight varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and four of black gram (Phaseolus mungo). Common domestic processing and cooking treatments reduced the saponin level of the pulses significantly. Sprouting had the most pronounced effect followed by autoclaving, soaking and ordinary cooking. Cooking of soaked as well as unsoaked seeds had a similar diminishing effect.
Article
A method for gravimetric determination of tannins based on binding with insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is presented. The gravimetric method gives the absolute amount of tannins and avoids problems of standards associated with spectrophotometric methods. The method was applied to nine browse and tree leaves. The values obtained correlate significantly with tannins determined spectrophotometrically, protein precipitation capacities and protein precipitable phenotics. This method together with other tannin assays will be useful in nutritional studies. The present study also demonstrates the different behaviour of tannic acids from different commercial sources towards PVP suggesting the presence of different moieties in tannic acids from different commercial sources and even among batches from the same source thereby affecting the results obtained using the spectrophotometric methods. Use of well-defined tannic acid as a standard in spectrophotometric methods is suggested which will allow meaningful comparison of values obtained from different laboratories.
Article
ABSTRACTA protein isolate from the guava seed meal (Psidium guajava) was obtained by use of isoelectric precipitation, with 78% extraction yield (extracted protein to that in raw material) and 96.7% protein content of the product. Protein solubilization was done at pH 11.5 and 40C for 30 min, followed by precipitation at its isoelectric point (pH 5). Solubility of the isolate was minimal at pH 4 to 6, and increased below pH 4 and above pH 6. Emulsifying capacity and stability of the emulsion was maximum at pH 8. However, the water and oil absorption capacity, as well as the foaming capacity and foam stability, were relatively low. The essential amino acid profile of the guava seed protein isolate, except for lysine content, is above that proposed in the FAO/WHO pattern for adults. The isolate is also an important source of tryptophan. Its in-vitro protein digestibility was higher than for soybean isolate.
Article
Soysaponins are considered major bioactive components. Ethanol extractives prepared from mature soybean and germinated seeds (0–4 days) were examined for saponin content (found to be 2.8 and 6.1–8.9%, respectively). The saponin content increased 3.2 times after germination. The predominant hydrolytic product of saponin – soysapogenol I – content increased from 1.8 to 7.3% during the course of germination. Defatted soy flour, soy protein isolate and toasted flour contain saponins at 2.3–3.5%, suggesting that the germinated soybean seeds are the richest source of saponins among soybean products.
Article
The proximate composition of guava seed and the physicochemical characteristics of the solvent-extracted oil are reported. The fatty acid profile of the oil indicates the presence of linoleic acid (C18∶2) to the extent of 76.4% and resembles that of safflower oil in composition. The oil is easily refined and bleached on laboratory scale.
Article
The palatability of 14 species of woody plant was assessed for three species of browsing ruminant, namely kudus, impalas and goats. Results show that palatability was most clearly related to leaf contents of condensed tannins. The effect was a threshold one, with all plants containing more than 5% condensed tannins being rejected as food during the wet season period. In contrast palatability was not influenced by concentrations of protein-precipitating polyphenols, and only weakly related to contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, cations, fibre components and other secondary metabolites. Insect herbivory shows a different pattern. These findings support the hypotheses that (i) condensed tannins function to protect plant cell walls against microbial attack; (ii) hydrolyzable tannins function to inactivate the digestive enzymes of insect herbivores. Large mammalian herbivores are influenced by condensed tannins due to their dependance upon microbial fermentation of plant cell walls for part of their energy needs.
Article
The effects of hydrothermal cooking on the functional properties of defatted soy flour, aqueous alcohol washed soy protein concentrate, and soy protein isolate were determined in samples that were treated at 154°C by infusing steam under pressure for 11, 19, 30, and 42 s, and then spray dried. Hydrothermal cooking increased the nitrogen solubility index (NSI) of the concentrate from 15 to 56% and altered the solubility profile from a flat profile to one more typical of native soy protein. Hydrothermal cooking also improved foaming and emulsifying properties of the concentrate. For isolate, hydrothermal cooking also improved NSI and foaming and emulsifying properties, although the improvements were less dramatic than with concentrate. NSI and emulsifying properties of the flour were improved by some processing conditions, but foaming properties were not improved by hydrothermal cooking. Dramatically increased protein solubility of concentrate and modestly improved protein solubilities of flour and isolate by hydrothermal cooking, which will also inactivate trypsin inhibitors and microorganisms, have considerable practical significance to protein ingredient manufacturers and those who use these ingredients in foods and industrial products.
Article
The effect of soaking, cooking and autoclaving on the levels of total free phenolics, tannins, phytic acid and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were studied in Vigna aconitifolia and Vigna sinensis. Though soaking significantly reduced the content of tannins alone in V. aconitifolia, both total free phenolics and tannins were markedly reduced in V. sinensis. Greater loss of total free phenolics as well as tannins occurred under autoclaving compared to soaking and cooking in both the legumes investigated. In V. aconitifolia, soaking in distilled water for 6 h and cooking for 30 min reduced the phytic acid content by up to 43%. Maximum reduction in the level of phytic acid (36%) was observed under distilled water soaking compared to cooking and autoclaving in V. sinensis. Limited loss in content of phytic acid was noticed under autoclaving compared to soaking and cooking in both the pulses studied. In vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of V. aconitifolia and V. sinensis was enhanced to 12.5 and 14.8%, respectively, under autoclaving. Of all the processing methods, autoclaving seemed to be the most efficient for reduction in content of the antinutrients, except phytic acid, and improving IVPD in both the pulses.
Article
The use of plant-derived materials such as legume seeds, different types of oilseed cake, leaf meals, leaf protein concentrates, and root tuber meals as fish feed ingredients is limited by the presence of a wide variety of antinutritional substances. Important among these are protease inhibitors, phytates, glucosinolates, saponins tannins, lectins, oligosaccharides and non-starch polysaccharides, phytoestrogens, alkaloids, antigenic compounds, gossypols, cyanogens, mimosine, cyclopropenoid fatty acids, canavanine, antivitamins, and phorbol esters. The effects of these substances on finfish are reviewed. Evidently, little unanimity exists between the results of different studies as to the specific effects of antinutrients, since most studies have been conducted using an ingredient rich in one particular factor and the observed effects have been attributed to this factor without considering other antinutrients present in the ingredient, or interactions between them. Tentatively, protease inhibitors, phytates, antigenic compounds, and alkaloids, at levels usually present in fish diets containing commercially available plant-derived protein sources, are unlikely to affect fish growth performance. In contrast, glucosinolates, saponins, tannins, soluble non-starch polysaccharides, gossypol, and phorbol esters, are more important from a practical point of view. The effectiveness of common processing techniques such as dry and wet heating, solvent extraction and enzyme treatment in removing the deleterious effects of antinutrients from feed materials is discussed. More insights into the nutritional, physiological and ecological effects of antinutrients on fish need to be accumulated through studies using purified individual antinutrients and their mixtures in proportions similar to those in alternative nutritional sources in fish feeds. Such studies would provide data useful for designing optimum inclusion levels of plant-derived materials and treatment methods that would neutralise the negative effects of the antinutritional factors.
Article
The effects of tannic acid (TA) supplementation (0·02 %, wt/wt) were compared with the effects of clofibrate (CF) supplementation (0·02 %, wt/wt) in apo E-deficient (apo E(- / -)) mice fed a AIN-76 semi-synthetic diet (normal diet) over 20 weeks. The mice were monitored for the modulation of hepatic mRNA expression and the activities of lipid-regulating enzymes. Both TA and CF supplementation lowered hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity and prevented atherosclerotic lesion formation in comparison with the control group. Hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase and β-oxidation activities were significantly higher in the TA and CF groups than in the control group. Both CF and TA supplementation resulted in significant decreases in hepatic HMGR mRNA levels in association with its enzyme activity. However, in contrast to CF supplementation, TA supplementation seemed to decrease the accumulation of hepatic lipids in the apo E(- / -) mice without increasing liver weight. These results suggest that the overall effect of TA is more desirable than CF for the alleviation of hepatic lipogenesis and atherogenesis in apo E(- / -) mice.
Article
Aging is a multifactorial phenomenon. Several clinical conditions directly related to lipid metabolism that induces hypertriglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease occur during aging. Attention has been focused on possible intervention strategies to control serum lipid levels. Phytic acid is a plant component in most grains that is the main source of energy intake for the aged, and its antioxidant and antinutrient effects have been reported. However, its effect on lipid metabolism in the aged model has not been evaluated. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of phytic acid on serum and hepatic lipid levels in aged mice. A total of 40 aged ICR male mice were fed purified diets supplemented with 0% (P0), 0.5% (P5), 1.0% (P10), and 1.5% (P15) sodium phytate for 12 weeks. There were no significant differences in food intake, body weight, and organ weight among the experimental groups. The concentrations of the serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hepatic triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol, and the apparent absorption rates of total lipid and cholesterol were lower in the P15 group than in the P0 group. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of all groups fed phytate-containing diets were higher than that of the P0 group. The severity of fatty liver decreased as phytate percentage in the diet increased. The amounts of fecal total lipid, triacyglycerol, and total cholesterol were higher in the P10 and the P15 groups. These results suggested that phytate affect the serum and hepatic lipid levels in aged mice by increasing their fecal lipid content. Consuming phytate-rich foods may reduce serum and hepatic lipid levels in the aged.
Article
This study was designed to determine the effect of soaking, sprouting, fermentation and cooking on nutrient composition and some antinutritional factors of sorghum seeds (guinesia). Standard assay procedures were adopted to resolve both the nutrients and the antinutritional factors content of the products. Combination of cooking and fermentation improved the nutrient quality and drastically reduced the antinutritional factors to safe levels much greater than any of the other processing methods tested.
Article
The influence of four saponins, three triterpenoid glycosides and one steroidal amine glycoside, upon intestinal transport was investigated in vitro. In the presence of Gypsophylla saponin, carrier-mediated galactose transport was inhibited, although the uptake of the passively transported L-isomer of glucose increased. The uptake of the extracellular space marker, polyethylene glycol 4000, was also higher, indicating that the saponin inhibited active transport by increasing the general permeability of the enterocytes. Gypsophylla saponin, in contact only with the mucosal surface of everted jejunal sacs, induced a rapid decline in glucose-stimulated transmural potential difference. The rate of decline increased as the saponin concentration was raised over the approximate range of 0.3 to 8 mM. Saponaria saponin and alpha-tomatine also reduced transmural potential difference, but soya saponins were much less effective. The results indicate that some saponins readily increase the permeability of the small intestinal mucosal cells, thereby inhibiting active nutrient transport, and facilitating the uptake of materials to which the gut would normally be impermeable.
Article
Effects of soaking, cooking and autoclaving on changes in polyphenols, phytohaemagglutinating activity, phytic acid, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), oligosaccharides and in vitro protein digestibility were investigated in seeds of Dolichos lablab var. vulgaris. Both distilled water and NaHCO3 solution soaking and autoclaving significantly reduced the contents of total free phenolics (85-88%) compared to raw seeds. Autoclaving (45 min) reduced the content of tannins by upto 72%. Soaking seemed to have limited effect in eliminating phytohaemagglutinating activity, whereas autoclaving (45 min) seemed to eliminate the haemagglutinating activity completely. The reduction in content of phytic acid was found to be some what greater in distilled water soaking (28%) compared to NaHCO3 solution soaking (22%). Only a limited loss in content of phytic acid was observed under cooking as well as autoclaving. Loss of HCN was greater under autoclaving (87%) compared to the other processes studied. Of the three sugars analysed, soaking reduced the level of verbascose more than that of stachyose and raffinose. Autoclaving reduced the content of oligosaccharides more efficiently (67-86%) than ordinary cooking (53-76%). Autoclaving improved the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) significantly (13%). Of all the different water and hydrothermal treatments studied autoclaving seemed to be the most efficient method in improving IVPD and eliminating the antinutrients investigated except phytic acid.
Article
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a tropical fruit, widely consumed fresh and also processed (beverages, syrup, ice cream, and jams). Pulp and peel fractions were tested, and both showed high content of dietary fiber (48.55-49.42%) and extractable polyphenols (2.62-7.79%). The antioxidant activity of polyphenol compounds was studied, using three complementary methods: (i) free radical DPPH* scavenging, (ii) ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and (iii) inhibition of copper-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. All fractions tested showed a remarkable antioxidant capacity, and this activity was correlated with the corresponding total phenolic content. A 1-g (dry matter) portion of peel contained DPPH* activity, FRAP activity, and inhibition of copper-induced in vitro LDL oxidation, equivalent to 43 mg, 116 mg, and 176 mg of Trolox, respectively. These results indicate that guava could be a suitable source of natural antioxidants. Peel and pulp could also be used to obtain antioxidant dietary fiber (AODF), a new item which combines in a single natural product the properties of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds.
Article
There is considerable loss of DM during wet heat treatment of vegetables, leading to an increase in dietary fibre. Correction for the loss of DM indicates that the effects on total dietary fibre are minor. There is, however, depolymerization of the dietary fibre polysaccharides. The degradation is related to the severity of the heat treatment. Souring, freezing and mild microwave treatment have no effects. The viscosity is in general related to the extent of polymerisation. Microwave treatment has different effects on various cultivars of green beans, and the addition of salt (NaCl and CaCl2) to the boiling water changes the physico-chemical properties of soluble fibre in carrots, depending on the cation. The higher viscosity of the soluble fibre in raw carrots may partly explain the lower glucose and hormonal responses observed in healthy subjects when compared with blanched and microwave-cooked carrots. In studies on rats the amount of butyric acid in the distal colon has been shown to be higher with dietary components containing high amounts of resistant starch. Further, the fermentability is lower and the butyric acid concentration higher with composite foods than with the corresponding purified fibre fractions. In human studies the faecal concentration of butyric acid has been shown to increase in patients with ulcerative colitis when [beta-glucan-enriched oat bran (20 g fibre) is added to the diet for 12 weeks. Also, an improvement of symptoms was reported.
Article
Plant saponins are widely distributed amongst plants and have a wide range of biological properties. The more recent investigations and findings into their biological activities were summarized. Isolation studies of saponins were examined to determine which are the more commonly studied plant families and in which families saponins have been identified.
Article
Dormancy of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) seeds is alleviated by a chilling treatment during which cytological, hormonal, and biochemical changes occur. Phytic acid and phosphate mobilization have been examined during this treatment. Phytic acid accounted for 0.7% and up to 3.2% of dry weight in axiferous and cotyledonary tissue, respectively. Phytic acid levels in embryonic axes were reduced by 60% within the first 3 weeks of chilling, with little subsequent change, in contrast to warm-imbibed tissue where levels did not change significantly. In cotyledons, phytic acid was mobilized to a lesser extent. Phosphate levels expressed on a fresh weight basis remained almost unaltered suggesting either the operation of a homeostatic mechanism for intracellular concentration or rapid utilization due to active metabolism. Phytase activity increased during stratification in both axiferous and cotyledonary tissue. The initial rise observed was associated with dormancy alleviation, since it occurred before the realization of full germination potential by the seeds and not in warm-imbibed tissue. Protein bodies were isolated from hazel seeds by non-aqueous density gradients. Phytase activity was closely associated with the purified organelles, where phytic acid was located by light microscopy. Overall, these findings suggest that phytic acid mobilization by phytase and previously described processes associated with protein bodies, such as considerable proteolysis, are early participants in the plethora of events leading to seed dormancy relief and germination in hazel.
Article
Plant secondary metabolites, which include a wide variety of phytochemicals, have always been constituents of the diets of man and other animals. Although a high proportion of these phytochemicals have been considered to be of little value in plants (although this view is changing), they have frequently been shown to have adverse effects on animals when ingested. The effects depend to a great extent on the chemistry of the compounds, their concentration in the diet and the amount consumed, and are further dependent on the health status of the animals. Traditionally, most studies of the effects of these compounds on animals have focused on their adverse effects and how to alleviate them. However, recent public concern about the use of synthetic compounds in animal diets to enhance performance and health and welfare issues, coupled with changes in regulations on the use of synthetic medicaments, has stimulated interest and research in the use and effects of phytochemicals in the diets of farmed animals. Phytochemicals vary in their chemistry but can be divided into hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds, of which a wide variety of polyphenolic and terpenoid compounds, as well as alkaloids, carbohydrates and non-protein amino acids, invoke special interest. The chemistry, biochemistry and mechanisms of action of these compounds in plants and their effects in animals when ingested will be explored.
Methods in molecular biology: plant secondary metabolite
  • Makkar Hps
  • S Siddhuraju
  • Becker
Makkar HPS, Siddhuraju S, Becker K (2007) Methods in molecular biology: plant secondary metabolite. Humana Press Inc, Totowa, pp 23–100
Mobilization of stored reserves In: Seeds: physiology of develop-ment, germination and dormancy
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  • Bradford K Jd
  • Hilhorst Hm
  • Nonogaki
Bewley JD, Bradford K, Hilhorst HM, Nonogaki H (2013) Mobilization of stored reserves. In: Seeds: physiology of develop-ment, germination and dormancy, 3rd edn. Springer, New York, pp 183–246
Indian horticulture database 2010. Gurgaon, India: National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India
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  • N C Mistry
  • B Singh
  • C P Gandhi
Kumar B, Mistry NC, Singh B, Gandhi CP (2010) Indian horticulture database 2010. Gurgaon, India: National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. http://nhb.gov.in/ area-pro/database-2011.pdf. Accessed 06 Nov 2013