Article

A new method for the release of Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, 1959) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in a young apple orchard

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Abstract

Abstract. The use of phytoseiid species in biological plant protection is widespread. However, the echniques used to release them differ. The possible release of Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, 1959) using a new method was tested. High numbers of this mite overwinter in the ground litter in Hungarian orchards. By transferring such ground litter to plots in young orchards, the population density was found to be significantly increased in the release compared to control plots; A. andersoni became the dominant phytoseiid species in the new orchard. Due to the rate at which it spreads, this species was also recorded in the control plots towards the end of the growing season (Aug., Sept.), at which time there was no significant difference in the numbers of this species in the treated and control plots. In the winter following release, A. andersoni was found in the ground litter of the orchard.

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... In Europe, G. (G.) occidentalis was noted only in Austria [59], whereas N. fallacis has been recorded in Germany [60] and in Poland [61,62]. By contrast, A. andersoni is widespread in Europe [57] and may overwinter on trees and in ground litter [63,64]. According to McMurtry et al. [65], A. andersoni has been classified as a type III-b among Phytoseiidae lifestyles; species from this category are considered to be generalist predators living on glabrous leaves of deciduous plants, but A. andersoni was recorded many times on different species of coniferous plants, e.g., [29,[66][67][68], often sympatric with O. ununguis [30,69]. ...
... We can, however, compare values of the parameters achieved by A. andersoni feeding on P. taxi with those estimated on other prey species that have been studied as targets of this predator. Amblyseius andersoni has been evaluated as a biocontrol agent against spider mites occurring in vineyards [76][77][78], and orchards [64,[79][80][81]. Amano and Chant [82] studied its developmental and reproductive parameters on Tetranychus pacificus McGregor, one of the most important spider mite pests in California vineyards [83]. ...
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Development, survival and reproduction of Ambyseius andersoni (Chant), a predatory mite widely distributed in Europe, were assessed on different food items. These included two key pests of ornamental coniferous plants, i.e., Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) and Pentamerismus taxi (Haller) and pollen of Pinus sylvestris L. The rationale behind these experiments was to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential of A. andersoni as a biocontrol agent of the above phytophagous arthropods and evaluate pine pollen as an alternative food source for the predator. Under laboratory conditions (23 ± 0.5 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 16L:8D) A. andersoni was able to feed, develop and reproduce on all tested diets. The shortest development time (egg to female) was obtained when the predator fed on P. taxi (mean = 5.12 d) and the longest was on pine pollen (mean = 6.55 d). The rm value was significantly higher on both tested prey (0.166 on P. taxi and 0.160 on O. ununguis) than on pollen (0.139). Thus, we do not recommend pine pollen for mass rearing of A. andersoni; however, we conclude that pollen may provide sufficient sustenance for the predator population under field conditions when prey are absent. The potential of A. andersoni as a biocontrol agent of O. ununguis and P. taxi is discussed.
... However, growers can encourage natural establishment of predatory mites. Orchard leaf litter, the growing tips from other crops, such as strawberry or vines with a high predator population density can be transferred during the autumn [126,127]. Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten, the main predator of phytophagous mites on apple trees, can be introduced into orchards by removing prunings from orchards with high populations and laying the prunings in the canopy of the trees [128]. ...
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Growers of organic tree fruit face challenges in controlling some pests more easily suppressed by broad-spectrum insecticides in conventionally managed orchards. In recent decades, there has been a move towards organically growing varieties normally reliant on synthetic chemical pesticides (e.g., Gala), often to meet retailer/consumer demands. This inevitably makes crop protection in organic orchards more challenging, as modern varieties can be less tolerant to pests. In addition, there have been substantial reductions in plant protection product (PPP) approvals, resulting in fewer chemical options available for integrated pest management (IPM)-maintained orchards. Conversely, the organic management of fruit tree pests involves many practices that could be successfully implemented in conventionally grown crops, but which are currently not. These practices could also be more widely used in IPM-maintained orchards, alleviating the reliance on broad-spectrum PPP. In this review, we evaluate organic practices, with a focus on those that could be incorporated into conventional apple and pear production. The topics cover cultural control, biological control, physical and pest modifications. While the pests discussed mainly affect European species, many of the methods could be used to target other global pests for more environmentally sustainable practices.
... Two species of predatory mites, Amblyseius andersoni Chant and Neoseiulus neoreticuloides Liang & Hu were found on wild Chinese wolfberry, L. barbarum, in Inner Mongolia (Liu et al. 2019a). Amblyseius andersoni is a type III generalist predator that feeds on a variety of prey and non-prey foods (Zhang & Sanderson 1993;Koveos and Broufas 2000;Duso et al. 2011;Lorenzon et al. 2012;Li et al. 2019;McMurtry et al. 2013), and it is used in the biological control of spider mites (Tetranychidae) in orchards (Markó et al. 2012;Szabó & Pénzes 2013). Neoseiulus neoreticuloides was initially described on elms in China (Liang & Hu 1988), but no further studies have been conducted on this species. ...
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... Apply as a preventative treatment or to active mite infestations in vegetable crops, strawberries, raspberries and fruit trees, and it might be a stronger competitor under low humidity conditions [80,81]. High numbers of this mite overwinter in the ground litter in apple orchards and by transferring such ground litter to young orchards, the population density has been found to be significantly increased in the released compared to control fields [82]. ...
Chapter
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Mites are numerous species of minute arthropods, members of class Arachnida subclass Acari or Acarina and pests of many economic prominence living in a wide range of habitats. Mites are predators and parasites, performing crucial means of biological control, essential herbivores and detritivores, acting fungivorous and saprophytic, vectors of diseases, and play vital role in soil formation. These live on plants and animals, in the depths of ocean, in soil and fresh or brackish water, in lungs of birds and animals, in stored grains and stored products, on leaves of rain forest, and in human clothes and bedding. In spite of magnificent diversity of predaceous, phytophagous and granary mites found on plants and stored grains, these are often overlooked, and even skilled zoologists may be unaware of their importance. This chapter aims to provide an updated analysis of their biology, life history, reproduction and ecology to fill gap in our understanding of these fascinating creatures for pests controlling.
... Croft and McGroarty (1977) reported that N. fallacis wintered in the grass under the apple trees and then migrated to the trees in summer, when prey was scarce in the ground cover. Because A. andersoni winters in litter, Szabo and Penzes (2013) proposed a new method to release A. andersoni in apple orchards by bringing litter into a new orchard. Higher densities of this species were observed in the plots where the litter was introduced. ...
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Phytoseiidae mites are efficient predators, able to control pest mites and small arthropods in crops all over the world, using three biological control strategies: (i) augmentation, (ii) classical, and (iii) conservation. This paper focuses on the latter strategy. Most of those predatory mite species are generalist predators; they are naturally present in agro-ecosystems both on crops and adjacent natural vegetation. Because of such characteristics, their occurrence is usually associated with the use of fewer pesticides, providing relief to ecosystem services. As a first baseline for managing their occurrence in agro-ecosystems, a review of the present knowledge of plants and predatory mite interactions and predator dispersal ability is proposed. In addition, based on the author's own occurrence database, the study aims at analyzing (i) plant traits and the potential co-evolutionary relationships between plants and predatory mite species and (ii) how this can be used to forecast favorable plants to key predatory mites. For this, some examples were taken, i.e., vine and citrus crops, and three species, Kampimodromus aberrans, Euseius stipulates, and Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) pyri. The main conclusion is that the occurrence database can help in determining the probability of finding predatory mite species on crops and non-crop plants. However, because some elements are lacking, especially predatory mite density, plant traits and the true overall distribution, it is currently, difficult to associate plant traits and plant phylogeny to Phytoseiidae diversity. Additional meta-analyses in collaboration with plant specialists would be required. Finally, the paper presents some examples of agroecosystem management at different scales (intercropping, agroforestry, borders management, landscape).
... In North American, European, and Arabian countries, A. andersoni is the dominant phytoseiid species in apple and citrus orchards (Barbar, 2014;Tixier et al., 2014), and an effective biocontrol agent in orchards (Lorenzon et al., 2012;Szabó and Pénzes, 2013). In Japan, however, Typhlodromus vulgaris, Amblyseius orientalis, Neoseiulus californicus, and N. womersleyi were reported to be the dominant species in apple, pear, and citrus orchards (Kishimoto, 2002;Toyoshima 2003;Katayama et al., 2006). ...
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The effects of fungicides containing mancozeb or copper oxychloride, as principal active ingredients, on phytoseiid mites were investigated in a vineyard comprising four varieties (Prosecco, Cabernet Franc, Pinot gris and Merlot) and located in north-eastern Italy. Phytoseiid colonisation was different among the four varieties: Amblyseius andersoni and Kampimodromus aberrans were dominant on Pinot gris and Merlot, respectively, while Typhlodromus pyri was more common than the above species on Prosecco and Cabernet Franc. Applications of mancozeb fungicides significantly affected K. aberrans populations. Concerning T. pyri, a significant effect was observed on Cabernet but not on Prosecco. The effects of mancozeb fungicides on A. andersoni were less clear. The response of phytoseiids to fungicides containing mancozeb appeared to be mediated by the variety. Therefore, the choice of one or two varieties as a standard reference for field tests is recommended. These results also suggest that the side effects of fungicides on predatory mites should be studied on different phytoseiid species and, possibly, on susceptible and resistant strains in order to gain useful insights.
Article
The effect of apple cultivar on the distribution of Amblyseius andersoni was studied in an experimental orchard where tetranychids were virtually absent and eriophyids reached low to moderate populations. Seven apple scab-resistant cultivars, showing some differences in their leaf morphology, were compared. Each cultivar was grafted onto three different rootstocks inducing increasing vigor. The intraplant distribution of A. andersoni was also studied by monitoring predator densities on basal and apical leaves. In the first year, the colonization of different cultivars by A. andersoni showed definite patterns, sometimes associated with the abundance of the eriophyid Aculus schlechtendali. In the second experimental season, eriophyids reached negligible levels and the effect of cultivar on A. andersoni abundance was less clear. Florina and N.Y. 18 491 cultivars were colonized in both years by relatively high phytoseiid numbers, while TSR 29T219 and Priscilla showed low populations in at least one season. The results observed on the remaining cultivars were intermediate or indefinite. The role of leaf pubescence on phytoseiid colonization is discussed.
Article
The ‘Mikulov’ strain of the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten from south Moravian vineyards was released on cultivated strawberries infested with the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. The strawberries were grown in field plantations and under glass. Typhlodromus pyri on vine shoots were successfully introduced into the field strawberry plantation but they produced no demonstrable control of the spider mites and they eventually declined in density with their prey. In contrast, T. pyri gave good control of spider mites in the glasshouse despite the occurrence of low humidity and water stress of the plants.
Article
Side effects of ten pesticides used in orchards and vineyards were tested with a laboratory method on several Dutch and Italian strains of the predatory mitesTyphlodromus pyri Scheuten andAmblyseius andersoni (Chant). Resistant and susceptible strains of both species were studied. Results showed that a test which evaluates mortality of various developmental stages and fecundity of adult females is better than one that measures only survival of adult females. A definite resistance to certain pesticides was found in ItalianT. pyri andA. andersoni. The level of resistance to parathion, azinphos-methyl and carbaryl was particularly high in some strains ofA. andersoni. The high level of resistance to certain pesticides was often associated with a marked reduction in fecundity. Les effects secondaires de 10 pesticides fréquemment employés dans les vergers et les vignobles ont été étudiés en laboratoire sur 8 souches d'acariens prédateursTyphlodromus pyri etAmblyseius andersoni. Ces effects ont été testés sur des souches considérées comme sensibles ou résistantes au parathion au cours d'essais préliminaires. Certaines souches ont démontré une certaine tolérance ou résistance à plusieurs pesticides. Un haut facteur de résistance au parathion, azinphos-méthyl et carbaryl a été trouvé dans des souches deA. andersoni originaires de cultures différentes mais une réduction marquée de la fécondité a été démontrée après l'emploi de certaines insecticides. Les résultats montrent l'importance qu'il y a d'évaluer non seulement la mortalité ou le facteur de résistance aux pesticides mais aussi l'effet sur la fécondité des femelles adultes. Ces aspects sont discutés dans le cadre de la lutte intégrée.
Article
The seasonal history and phenology of an indigenous field population ofTyphlodromus pyri Scheuten inhabiting a commercial apple orchard in South Bohemia are described. Data on population dynamics, number of generations, feeding, mating and reproductive habits as well as seasonal distribution within the apple tree canopy are discussed. Recommendations for mass retrieval ofT. pyri from apple orchards, their transfer to, and release in other orchards, are given. The conclusions and recommendations can be used for improving integrated pest management strategies in commercial apple orchards.
Article
This review briefly describes characteristics and occurrence of diapause in phytoseiid mites. This is followed by a discussion of factors involved in induction, maintenance and termination of diapause (e.g. photoperiod, temperature and food availability), of the physiological mechanism of diapause induction (photoperiodic perception and comparison of photoperiodic and thermoperiodic induction mechanisms), and of applied aspects of diapause in phytoseiid mites.
Article
The lethal humidity (LH50) responses at 20C of eggs of two strains of Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) were 71.6 and 69.7%; of three strains of Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) were 62.9, 62.0 and 62.4% and of one strain each of Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Metaseiulus occidentalis Nesbitt were 55.0 and 28.4%, respectively. Eggs of three genetically distinct strains of A. andersoni from Oregon, the Netherlands and Italy did not respond differently from one another nor did eggs of freely hybridizing N. fallacis from Michigan and Oregon. Mortality of larvae through development to early protonymphs at 50% RH, 20C. was 91.9, 82.3, 46.2 and 31.0% for fed mites and 98.1, 83.2, 67.0 and 89.7% for unfed mites of Oregon strains of N. fallacis, A. andersoni, T. pyri and M. occidentalis, repectively. Fed larvae-protonymphs of M. occidentalis and T. pyri were more tolerant of low humidity than fed larvae-protonymphs of N. fallacis and A. andersoni. Mortality was less for fed than unfed larvae-protonymphs of M. occidentalis and T. pyri, but there were no differences for A. andersoni and N. fallacis. Levels of feeding by predator larvae on T. urticae and cannibalism by phytoseiid protonymphs contributed to species differences. Responses to humidity are discussed in relation to geographic and host plant distributions and biological control by single or mixed species populations of phytoseiids.
Article
In a three-year study, mite populations were monitored in two vineyards, each having two grape varieties with different leaf hair density. In both vineyards native phytoseiids were present: Amblyseius andersoni in one vineyard, and Phytoseius finitimus in the other. The economically important predators Kampimodromus aberrans and Typhlodromus pyri were released in both vineyards in order to study their efficacy in controlling tetranychids and eriophyids and their persistence during periods of prey scarcity. In both vineyards, relative abundances of the mite species, especially phytoseiids, were found to differ on different varieties in the same vineyard. In the first experiment, A. andersoni reached higher densities and was more persistent on the variety with slightly pubescent leaf under-surface (Merlot). Typhlodromus pyri and K. aberrans releases were successful and the mites became more abundant on the variety with pubescent leaf under-surface (Verduzzo). In the second experiment, P. finitimus was more abundant on a variety with pubescent leaf under-surface (Prosecco) than with glabrous leaf under-surface (Riesling). The most interesting results of the present study concerned the interactions between native and released predators. In the first vineyard, different results were obtained when releasing T. pyri on the two varieties. On the variety with pubescent leaves, A. andersoni was rapidly displaced by T. pyri, whereas the former species persisted on the other variety throughout the three-year study, apparently becoming dominant during the last season. In contrast to T. pyri, interactions between K. aberrans and A. andersoni in this vineyard did not depend on variety. The results of the experiments carried out in the second vineyard stressed the importance of interspecific competition for phytoseiid releases. Typhlodromus pyri colonization failed on both varieties. Kampimodromus aberrans releases appeared to be more successful on Riesling than on Prosecco; where P. finitimus was more abundant. At the end of the experiments, K. aberrans displaced P. finitimus on both varieties.
Article
In peach orchards of northern Greece Euseius finlandicus Oudemans overwinters in various sites on the trees, usually in groups of 5-15 females. Overwintering females were mostly found in bark crevices near the hibernation cocoons of the peach moth Adoxophyes orana (Fischer von Rosslerstamm), and also in small crevices of the bark and in pedicels left after fruit harvesting. Empty scales of dead diaspidids and dead coccids, cocoons of lacewings and mummies of parasitized aphids sporadically found on trees, were less common overwintering sites for females of the mite. In two successive years, mortality of overwintering females was very low, approximately 4 and 4.5% which could be due to the mild climate of northern Greece and the high cold tolerance of the mite.
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