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Formulation, Nutritional Evaluation and Storage Study of Supplementary Food (Panjiri)

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ISSN:2157-7110
Journal of Food Processing & Technology
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Journal of Food Processing & Technology
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University of Viterbo, Italy
Noureddine Benkeblia, Ph.D
UWI Mona Campus, JAMAICA
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Digital Object Identier: http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000131
Volume 2 • Issue 6 • 1000131
J Food Process Technol
ISSN:2157-7110 JFPT, an open access journal
Open Access
Research Article
Food
Processing & Technology
Salve et al., J Food Process Technol 2011, 2:6
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000131
Keywords: Supplementary food; Malnutrition; Nutritional quality;
Mineral value; Sensory value
Introduction
Human childhood may be divided in to three stages Infancy,
Weaning and Pre-school stage. Although breast feeding is benecial for
the optimum growth of the children, prolonged breast feeding without
appropriate complementary feeding is crucial contributory factor for
malnutrition among young children. erefore, supplementation has
to be implemented aer four to six months to overcome malnutrition
and related complications. ese supplementary foods are worked as
balanced diet for pre-school children. When the child is 1 to 1.5 years
old, breast milk may not be available to it or milk is no longer sucient
to meet its nutritional requirements. It needs some more calories and
other nutrients as supplement to milk till he/she is ready to eat adult’s
food. is is the post weaning stage of a child. In this stage proper
nutritional care of the child is essential to ensure normal growth. It
helps to avoid malnutrition in pre-school children [1].
Problem of malnutrition in children continues to be critical in most
underdeveloped and developing countries like India. is problem
associated with inadequate protein and amino acids supply to the
growing child. Malnutrition and poor growth during infancy aect a
large portion of the world’s population; more than 800 million children
under 5 years of age suer from malnutrition and growth failure. Such
morbidity is responsible for more than 10 million deaths per year in this
age group. Malnutrition accounts for the higher infant mortality rate in
India (95/1000 live births) compared to that in developed countries [2].
Several types of supplementary foods are being marketed in
India. Some are Balamul, Farex, Cerelac and Nustem. ey contain
about 14% protein and are nutritionally balanced. Most of these
baby foods being nutritious blends of cereals, legumes and milk, are
excellent supplements to child milk food and they are convenient to
feed also. But they are quite expensive and are beyond the purchasing
power of the parents belonging to middle and lower income groups.
Due to this, parents belonging to lower income strata feed their own
children with foods that the adults eat
[
3
]
. Flax et al. [4] studied 504
Malawian mothers attitudes towards the use of two supplementary
foods lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) versus corn-soy blend
(CSB) for moderately malnourished children and found that both the
supplementary foods were highly acceptable, children learned to eat
them within two weeks, and mothers were willing to use them again.
e cereals commonly used are wheat, rice maize etc. cereals
in general provide about 350 calories per 100g. ey are however,
relatively poor source of protein, the content varying from 7.7 in rice to
about 12% in wheat. Pulses are good source of protein (17-24%) they
also provide vitamins, minerals and bers. Pulses being rich in lysine
and threonine, they complement the amino acid of cereals based diet
[5]. Soybean being rich in protein and lysine can play an important
role in the enhancement of protein quality of cereal based diet which
may help in the reduction of malnutrition of the community and easily
available to anyone [6].
e present investigations were carried out to formulate and
develop low cost supplementary food for children. Nutritional and
sensory quality characteristics of the product (Panjiri) were evaluated,
where as eorts were taken to increase the shelf life of product by using
dierent packaging materials.
Materials and Methods
Materials
Wheat, chickpea, soybean, sugar, skimmed milk powder, polythene
bags and laminated pouches etc. were procured from the local market,
Aurangabad.
*Corresponding author: Mehrajfatema ZM, Dept of Food Chemistry, MGM
College of Food Technology, Aurangabad (MS), India, E-mail: mehraj.udct@
gmail.com
Received October 21, 2011; Accepted November 15, 2011; Published November
19, 2011
Citation: Salve RV, Mehrajfatema ZM, Kadam ML, More SG (2011) Formulation,
Nutritional Evaluation and Storage Study of Supplementary Food (Panjiri). J Food
Process Technol 2:131. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000131
Copyright: © 2011 Salve RV, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
Abstract
Supplementary foods were formulated from locally available ours of cereal grain and legumes such as wheat
our, soybean our and chick pea our using household technologies like blending and roasting. The proximate
composition of product used for preparation of supplementary food fortied with 10% skimmed milk powder contained
higher amount of protein and other nutrients. They contained proteins (16.2 to 21.1%), fat (1.9 to 4.5%), ber (1.28
to 1.78%), ash (0.7 to 1.40%) and carbohydrates (67.66 to 77.2%). Also showed that soy our / chickpea our alone
or in combination, both increased the amount of protein signicantly. Soy our fortication was considered the best
because it is rich in protein with good product acceptability. The total energy expressed in terms of Kcal per 100 g of
product varied from 350.7 to 395.8. The various minerals viz., calcium, phosphorus and iron were found to increase
on supplementation with 10% skimmed milk powder. Shelf life of the product was good in both polyethylene and
laminate packaging materials for the period of three months.
Formulation, Nutritional Evaluation and Storage Study of Supplementary
Food (
Panjiri
)
Salve RV1, Mehrajfatema ZM1*, Kadam ML1 and More S G2
1
Dept of Food Chemistry, MGM College of Food Technology, Aurangabad (MS) India
2
Dept of Home Science, Sant Gandgebaba Amravati University, Amravati (MH) India
Citation: Salve RV, Mehrajfatema ZM, Kadam ML, More SG (2011) Formulation, Nutritional Evaluation and Storage Study of Supplementary Food
(Panjiri). J Food Process Technol 2:131. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000131
Page 2 of 5
Volume 2 • Issue 6 • 1000131
J Food Process Technol
ISSN:2157-7110 JFPT, an open access journal
Preparation of wheat our
Wheat grains were thoroughly cleaned to remove dirt, dust, insect
excreta/ feathers and admixture of other food grains. e clean graded
materials were ground in the electric grinder to make ne our and
sieved by 80-100 mesh sieves. e our samples obtained were roasted
and then kept in airtight container before use.
Preparation of chickpea our
Chickpea grains were cleaned to remove the foreign materials and
then dehulled in a hand-operated chakki for removal of husk. e
dehulled grains were ground in an electric grinder to make ne powder
and sieved by 80-100 mesh sieve. e obtained ours were roasted on
low ame and then stored in airtight container before use.
Preparation of full fat soy our
Soybean grains were thoroughly cleaned to remove the dust and
other foreign materials. e clean grains were tempered with water to
20-25% moisture content and then autoclaved for 25 min in a pressure
cooker. ey were removed and dried directly in the sun for 3-4 days
till the material was completely dried having 6-8% moisture content.
Soybean was then ground to make ne our and sieved through 80-100
mesh sieves. e our samples obtained were roasted and then stored
in airtight container before use.
Roasting
e prepared ours were roasted before storage in airtight
container. Roasting was done at 70-80ºC on a low ame to avoid
burning of our. Roasting gave a pleasant avor to our.
Formulation of supplementary foods
Dierent types of supplementary foods were prepared from
roasted ours of wheat, soybean and chick pea our using dierent
combinations given in table 1, 2 and 3. Aer mixing properly, 35%
sugar and 10% skimmed milk powder is added to each treatment and
then they were subjected to sensory as well as nutritional evaluations.
Nutritional analysis
e nutritional evaluation of supplementary foods i.e. moisture
content, fat content, protein content, ash content , crude ber, fatty
acid was carried out by
A.O.A.C [
7
].
Minerals analysis
Calcium,
phosphorus and iron
content were
analyzed
by using
an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Model Varian Spectra AA
220FS, Varian State, North Ryde, Australia).
Sensory evaluation of products
Prepared Panjiri were subjected to sensory analysis based on
9-point hedonic scale for color, taste, texture, avour and overall
acceptability using a panel of 10 members who are familiar with the
product since childhood. Panel members were advised to use verbal
descriptions and convert them into scores. e scores were based on
the following criteria: Like extremely: 9; Like moderately: 7-8; like
slightly: 5-6; dislike slightly: 3-4; and dislike extremely: 0-2. e scores
were averaged and rounded to the nearest whole number.
Storage studies
e shelf-life studies of supplementary foods were carried
out in polyethylene and laminated pouches for a period of 3
months at an ambient temperature. Each sample were packed in
100g and kept at room temperature for 90 days. All samples were
drawn periodically aer 0, 30, 60, 90, days and fatty acid acidity
contents were analyzed as an indicator of staleness.
Results and Discussion
Nutritional composition of supplementary foods
It is evident from Table 4 that moisture content varied from
1.5 to 2.3 % with the lowest T0 (1.55%) and highest in TS3 (2.33%).
Fortication of 10% skimmed milk powder did not aect the moisture
content of supplementary food. e protein content in various
products ranged from 12.20 to 17.1%. e highest amount of protein
was recorded in TS3 (17.1%) and lowest in the control T0
(12.20%). On
supplementation of 10% skimmed milk powder, the protein content
increased from 16.2 to 21.2%. e highest amount was recorded in TS3
(21.2%). e product with and without fortication of 10% skimmed
milk powder did not change the fat content of supplementary foods.
It varied from 1.9 to 4.5% with the lowest in T0
(1.9%) and highest in
TS3 (4.5%). e highest amount of crude ber was present in TS3 (1.78)
and lowest in T0 (1.30%). ere were no aect on crude ber content
on fortication of milk powder. Keshirsasgar et al. formulate a weaning
food using ragi (variety HR-373), green gram (BM-4), groundnut
(ICGS-4) and skim milk powder in the ratio of 35:35:10:20. Gahlawat
andSehgal [8] formulated weaning foods from locally available foods
such as wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), green
gram (Vigna radiata) and jaggery using household technologies like
roasting and malting.
e ash content varied from 0.7 to 1.40 %. e lowest value was
observed in T0 (1.02%) and highest in TS3 (1.40%). Supplementation
Sr. No. Treatments Symbol
1100%WF+ 0% SF Control
290% WF + 10% SF TS1
385% WF + 15% SF TS2
480% WF + 20% SF TS3
575% WF + 25% SF TS4
WF= Wheat our, SF= Soybean our
Table 1: Different combination of wheat our and soybean our.
Sr. No. Treatments Symbol
1100%WF+ 0% CF Control
290% WF + 10% CF TC1
385% WF + 15% CF TC2
480% WF+ 20% CF TC3
575% WF+ 25% CF TC4
WF= Wheat our, CF= Chick pea our
Table 2: Different combination of wheat our and chick pea our.
Sr. No. Treatments Symbol
1100%WF+ 0% SF+ 0% CF Control
190% WF + 5% SF + 5% CF TSC1
280% WF + 10% SF + 10% CF TSC2
370% WF + 15% SF + 15% CF TSC3
460% WF + 20% SF + 20% CF TSC4
WF= Wheat our, SF= Soybean our, CF= Chick pea our
Table 3: Different combination of wheat our, soya our and chick pea our
Citation: Salve RV, Mehrajfatema ZM, Kadam ML, More SG (2011) Formulation, Nutritional Evaluation and Storage Study of Supplementary Food
(Panjiri). J Food Process Technol 2:131. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000131
Page 3 of 5
Volume 2 • Issue 6 • 1000131
J Food Process Technol
ISSN:2157-7110 JFPT, an open access journal
of 10% skimmed milk powder increased the ash content of the
supplementary food [9]. e carbohydrate content in the supplementary
food of all the products was less (61.6 to 71.2) as compared to products
fortied with 10% skimmed milk powder (67.6 to 77.2). It is observed
that addition of 10 % skimmed milk powder increased the carbohydrate
content of the products. e maximum amount of carbohydrates were
recorded in T0 (77.2%) and lowest in TS3 (67.6%). Finally it is observed
that addition of 10 % skimmed milk powder increased the total energy
of the products. e calculated total energy ranged from 390.8 to
395.8 Kcal/100 g in all milk fortied products as compared to 350.7 to
358.8 Kcal/100 g in normal products.
Ashturkar et al. [
10
] prepared
weaning foods which supplied 349-362 Kcal and 12.6-17.2 g of
protein per 100g.
Mineral content in supplementary food
e values presented in Table 5 showed that calcium content
ranged from 50 to 202 mg/100g in the dierent kinds of products.
e highest calcium content was recorded in TSC2 (202 mg/100g) and
Constituents (%)
Products
Average
mean
T0TS3TC3TSC2
A B A B A B A B
Moisture 1.52 1.50 2.22 2.31 1.84 1.95 1.85 1.84 2.16
Protein 12.2 16.2 17.1 21.1 13.20 17.20 15.2 19.60 18.60
Fat 1.91 2.01 4.41 4.51 2.52 2.60 3.81 3.92 3.74
Fibre 1.31 1.32 1.73 1.71 1.22 1.20 1.51 1.51 1.74
Ash 0.72 1.30 0.81 1.42 0.42 1.00 0.71 1.21 1.02
Carbohydrates 71.20 77.2 61.60 67.60 69.50 75.50 65.70 71.70 77.70
Total energy
K cal. 350.70 390.80 354.40 394.50 354.10 394.50 358.50 395.80 374.40
A: Without skimmed milk powder.
B: With 10 % skimmed milk powder.
*Analysis of products without sugar
Table 4: Nutritional composition of supplementary foods (Panjiri*) with and without 10% skimmed milk powder.
Constituents
(mg/100g)
Treatments
Average
mean
T0TS3TC3TSC2
A B A B A B A B
Calcium 50 180 68 198 55 175 70 202 115
Phosphorus 111 221 210 320 277 388 285 354 235
Iron 2.6 2.6 5.6 5.6 4.5 4.5 6.5 6.5 4.0
A: Without skimmed milk powder.
B: With 10 % skimmed milk powder.
*Analysis of products without sugar
Table 5: Mineral composition of supplementary foods (Panjiri*) made from roasted wheat our, soy our and chick pea ours fortied with and without 10% skimmed
milk powder.
Treatments
Period of storage (Days)
Average Mean
0 30 60 90
A B A B A B A B
T00.110 0.112 0.108 0.115 0.115 0.118 0.118 0.120 0.115
TS30.178 0.188 0.188 0.190 0.189 0.196 0.235 0.240 0.201
TC30.160 0.161 0.162 0.165 0.158 0.161 0.160 0.162 0.161
TSC20.150 0.152 0.166 0.164 0.180 0.182 0.218 0.220 0.179
A: Without skimmed milk powder.
B: With 10 % skimmed milk powder.
Table 6: Changes in fatty acid acidity (mg of KOH/100 g of our) of different kind of products in polyethylene bags during storage.
Citation: Salve RV, Mehrajfatema ZM, Kadam ML, More SG (2011) Formulation, Nutritional Evaluation and Storage Study of Supplementary Food
(Panjiri). J Food Process Technol 2:131. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000131
Page 4 of 5
Volume 2 • Issue 6 • 1000131
J Food Process Technol
ISSN:2157-7110 JFPT, an open access journal
lowest in T0 (50 mg/100g). e addition of 10% skimmed milk powder
showed a remarkable increase in calcium content. e phosphorus
content varied from 111 to 388 mg/100g in dierent kinds of products.
e highest phosphorus content was recorded in TSC2 (354mg/100g)
and lowest in T0 (111mg/100g). e addition of 10% skimmed milk
powder showed a remarkable increase in phosphorus content. e
iron content varied from 2.6 to 6.5 mg/100g. e highest amount was
recorded in TSC2 (6.5 mg/100g) and lowest in T0 (2.6mg/100g). e
addition of 10% skimmed milk powder did not change the iron content
of food products [8].
Sensory quality characteristics of supplementary food
(panjiri)
Dierent kinds of roasted our were used to develop the
supplementary food (Panjiri) from wheat, chickpea and soy ours with
and without mixing of 10% skimmed milk powder and appropriate
sugar (35%). e sensory quality characteristics of the products revealed
that the mean score values for various sensory attributes viz; colour,
avour, taste, texture and overall acceptability varied from 6.0 to 8.8
(Figure 1). It is observed that supplementary food fortied with 10%
skimmed milk powder did not aect the sensory quality characteristics
of the products. e values remained more or less the same (Figure 2).
e supplementation of soy our in wheat our at dierent levels
(10 to 25%) revealed that the values of various sensory attributes
ranged in between 6.0 to 8.6 (Figure 1 and Figure 2). ey were highest
in TS3 ranging in between 7.5 to 8.8. However, lower values were
observed in TS4 (6.0 to 7.6). is indicates that higher amount of soy
our decreased the sensory quality characteristics of the product. On
the basis of these observations, the supplementation of soy our at the
level of 20 per cent could be considered the best from sensory points
of view. us, TS3 blend consisting of 80:20 (wheat our: soy our)
Treatments
Period of storage (Days)
Average Mean
0 30 60 90
A B A B A B A B
T00.110 0.112 0.112 0.115 0.114 0.118 0.118 0.120 0.115
TS30.182 0.187 0.185 0.189 0.198 0.197 0.240 0.244 0.203
TC30.166 0.162 0.162 0.168 0.160 0.164 0.160 0.165 0.163
TSC20.150 0.152 0.162 0.166 0.180 0.184 0.215 0.218 0.178
A: Without skimmed milk powder.
B: With 10 % skimmed milk powder.
Table 7: Changes in fatty acid acidity (mg of KOH/100 g of our) of different kinds of products in laminated pouches during storage.
could be used to develop the product with high nutritional quality.
Ashturkar et al. [
10
] prepared four types of weaning foods viz,
RGB - rajkeera: green gram: bengal gram dhal, BRB-bajra: rice
akes: bengal gram dhal, JSB – jowar: soybean: bengal gram dhal,
JPB-jowar: pued bengal gram: green gram mixes and evaluated
for sensory characteristics. Among the four weaning foods RGB
had the highest calcium and iron contents and the maximum
percent digest abilities of protein and carbohydrate.
Similarly,
the supplementation of chickpea our in wheat our was used to
develop supplementary food. e results revealed that the score values
for various sensory attributes ranged in between 6.2 to 8.8 (Figure 1
and Figure 2). e values were highest in TC1, TC2 and TC3 ranging in
between 7.2 to 8.8. us, the supplementation of chickpea our at the
level of 20 per cent could be considered the best from sensory points of
view. However, at the level of 25 %, there were a decrease in the values
of sensory quality parameters and overall acceptability of the product
(TC4). is indicates that higher amount of chickpea our beyond 20%
aected the sensory quality characteristics of the products. us, TC3
blend consisting of 80:20 (wheat: chickpea ours) could be used to
develop the product with high nutritional quality.
e supplementation of both chickpea and soy our (5 to 20 per
cent each) revealed that the scores of various sensory attributes ranged
in between 6.2 to 7.8 (Figure 1 and Figure 2). ey were highest in
TSC2. us, supplementation chickpea and soy our both at the level
of 10% each could also be considered the best from sensory points of
view [11].
e supplementation of 10 % skimmed milk powder in each
products showed that the values of dierent sensory attributes were
Figure 1: Sensory evaluation of supplementary foods (Panjiri) made from
roasted wheat, soybean and chickpea ours in different combinations.
Figure 2: Sensory evaluation of supplementary foods (Panjiri) made from
roasted wheat, soybean and chickpea ours in combinations with 10%
skimmed milk powder.
Citation: Salve RV, Mehrajfatema ZM, Kadam ML, More SG (2011) Formulation, Nutritional Evaluation and Storage Study of Supplementary Food
(Panjiri). J Food Process Technol 2:131. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000131
Page 5 of 5
Volume 2 • Issue 6 • 1000131
J Food Process Technol
ISSN:2157-7110 JFPT, an open access journal
more or less same with or without fortication of 10% skimmed milk
powder (Figure 2). is indicates that 10 % skimmed milk powder did
not aect the sensory quality characteristics of the products.
Changes in fatty acid acidity during storage
e storage of dierent kinds of blended products with and without
10% skimmed milk powder stored in polyethylene bags and laminated
pouches for the period of 90 days at ambient temperature revealed
that the average value of fatty acid acidity was minimum (0.115) in the
control having wheat our only. However, the soybean and chickpea
blended ours contained higher values for fatty acid acidity (0.161 to
0.201). During storage there was a gradual increase in the fatty acid
acidity in all the blends. e values were more or less the same in both
the packaging materials (laminated pouches and polyethylene bags).
is indicates that both the packaging materials could be considered
the safest for storage of products. Fortication of 10% skimmed milk
powder did not aect the free fatty acid acidity of the products (Table 4,
5 and Table 6). El-Adawy et al. [13] stored the Legume-whey weaning
foods formulas for 6 months in aluminum foil coated by polyester at
room temperature (22-25ОC) and refrigerator (4ОC) and stated that free
fatty acids values of weaning food formulas reached to its maximum
aer 3 months and aer that continuously decreased during storage.
Conclusion
e present investigation was carried out to formulate a product
for poor people to fulll their nutritional requirements at lower cost.
On the basis of above observation it was concluded that soy blended
products could be considered the best from both nutritional and sensory
points of view. e product made in the ratio of 80:20 (wheat: soy
ours) was good in terms of proteins and minerals. Supplementation
of 10% skimmed milk powder further increased the amount of calcium,
phosphorus and high quality proteins.
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Pregelatinized maize-sweet potato mix, fortified with soybeans and groundnut flours, was evaluated for its acceptability as a weaning food and for nutrient composition. An acceptable product had 14.3, 6.4, 2.4 and 67.4%, respectively, for its protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents. Values for calcium, phosphorus and and iron contents were 59.6, 187.5 and 2.4 mg/100 g, respectively, while the most predominant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids. The product, which had a chemical score of 85.34 for its protein value, was limiting in threonine.
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Five weaning formulations (F1-F5) based on sorghum, groundnuts, sesame seeds, chickpeas, and skim milk powder were processed by a twin-roller drum dryer and evaluated for composition, functional properties (bulk density, water absorption capacity, and apparent viscosity), in vitro indices (protein digestibility and available lysine), protein quality (PER, NPR, and NPU) and effects of feeding on rat livers. Composition and properties of the five formulations were compared to those of Cerelac. The results indicated that F3 (60% sorghum, 20% chickpeas, 5% sesame, 8.5% skim milk powder, 5% sugar, and 1.5% vitamins and minerals) and F2 (55% sorghum, 15% chickpeas, 5% groundnuts, 10% sesame, 8.5% skim milk powder, 5% sugar, and 1.5% vitamins and minerals) formulations had compositions and properties comparable to those of Cerelac and hence have a good potential for use as weaning foods.
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Four weaning foods were formulated using locally available cereals and pulses such as wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and green gram (Vigna radiata). Cereals and pulses were used in the ratio 7:3. The effects of domestic processing such as roasting and malting on antinutrients such as phytic acid, saponin and polyphenols of weaning foods were studied. Roasting of raw ingredients resulted in 38·9 to 40·8%, 44·8 to 48·6% and 48·4 to 51·0% decrease in phytic acid, saponin and polyphenols, respectively, whereas malting brought about 56·6 to 57·6%, 53·9 to 57·7% and 61·2 to 62·7% decrease in phytic acid, saponin and polyphenols, respectively. Thus the study indicated that malting has a pronounced effect in lowering the antinutrients, while roasting was relatively less effective.
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In Tanzania, germinated cereal flour is added to weaning foods consisting of ungerminated cereal or root crop flour and sometimes legumes to reduce bulk and viscosity, and increase nutrient density. However, there is no standard procedure for germinated cereal flour preparation and addition to gruels. This study was conducted to improve the chemical, physical and microbiological quality of millet and corn gruels based on protein and energy requirements for infants. Germinated millet flour (GMF) was more efficient than germinated corn flour in reducing gruel viscosity to < 3 Pascal s in 5 min. Washing before germination did not significantly reduce the microbial levels in GMF. Formulations consisting of millet, corn or combinations with soybean or peanut at a cereal: legume ratio of 7:3, and GMF were prepared by traditional and improved methods. In the lat-
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The efficacy of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) versus corn-soy blend (CSB) in promoting the growth of moderately malnourished children is currently being tested, but information about maternal attitudes towards the two supplements is lacking. This research studied 504 Malawian mothers' attitudes about LNS and CSB through exit interviews completed at the end of three 12-week clinical trials and compared differences between the groups. Exploratory analyses of factors associated with withholding of supplements during fever, diarrhea, and cough were performed using logistic regression. Mothers generally had similar, positive attitudes towards LNS and CSB. Both supplements were said to be highly acceptable, children learned to eat them within two weeks, and mothers were willing to use them again. Mothers in the LNS group were reportedly more likely to withhold supplements from their children during cough, due to its sweetness, and were willing to pay more for a one-week supply of supplement than mothers in the CSB group. Maternal literacy was negatively and child's weight-for-height z-score was positively associated with withholding of supplements during illness. Our results indicate that the sweetness in LNS should be reduced, and programs using supplements in Malawi could include advice on appropriate feeding of supplements during illness.
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Eight types of supplementary foods based on popped cereals (wheat, ragi, bajra and sorghum) blended with legumes (soy and bengal gram) and fortified with essential vitamins and minerals were developed on a pilot plant scale. Four of the supplements were prepared with cereals, soy flour (SF) and bengal gram (BG) dhal and the other four were prepared with combinations of cereals and SF. These blends were mixed with jaggery (obtained by boiling juice out of sugarcane) syrup and pressed into compact form. One hundred gram portions of these foods provided 370+/-20 kilocalories and 11+/-1 g protein. Moisture, crude protein, total carbohydrates, total lipids, ash, dietary fiber and energy contents, of all the developed supplements were within the ranges prescribed by the Indian Standards Institute for processed weaning foods and could satisfactorily meet one-third of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of these nutrients per day for preschool children. Organoleptic evaluation and feeding trials revealed that the foods were well accepted by rural mothers and children.
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Legume-whey weaning foods formulas were stored for 6 months in aluminum foil coated by polyester at room temperature (22-25 degrees C) and refrigerator (4 degrees C). Peroxide values and free fatty acids values of weaning food formulas reached to its maximum after 3 and 2 months, respectively, and after that continuously decreased during storage. Thio-barbituric acid values of all samples increased gradually throughout the storage period at different condition of storage (room temperature and refrigerator). The protein in-vitro digestibility of all samples was not affected during storage. Protein solubility index in distilled water, 5% NaCl and 5% sucrose decreased with different obvious rates, but bulk density of weaning food formula decreased within a very narrow ranges during storage period. Total bacterial counts as well as yeast and molds decreased gradually throughout the storage period at different conditions of storage, and cold stored samples became free from molds and yeast after 6 months of storage.
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Nutritional rehabilitation in Africa relies mainly on imported skim milk enriched with a sugar and salt mixture. We evaluated whether milk plus porridge made from local ingredients improves the outcome of childhood nutritional rehabilitation versus milk alone. This study was conducted in a nutritional unit in Lacor (Northern Uganda). The porridge, made from cheap locally available ingredients (maize flour, dried fish or meat, peanut butter and oil) supplemented with proteins and fats, provides 1.1 energy units, 4.4 kJ/g. We randomly sampled the files of 100 cases discharged in October, November and December 2001 (preintervention), in 2002 (soon after intervention onset) and in 2003 (more than 1 year after intervention onset). We recorded the average hospital days and average oedema-free weight gain at discharge in the 3 groups. Average oedema-free weight gain increased from 21 g/d (95% confidence interval [CI], 12-29) in 2001 to 35 g/d (95% CI, 25-45) in 2002 and reached 59 g/d (95% CI, 51-65) in 2003. Mortality decreased from 22% to 7.8%, and nutritional failures (insufficient weight gain) decreased by greater than 50%. The low-cost porridge supplement (2640 euros/yr per 100 children) was effective in treating malnutrition. Widespread use of the porridge, which resulted in better outcomes than milk alone, could produce a savings in the medium- to long-term, thereby releasing resources for other uses. A high-energy porridge that is made from locally available ingredients and does not require imported foods seems to be appropriate for supplementary feeding after mother's milk in this setting.
Effect of incorporation of defatted soybean in some common food products
  • J Neena
  • M P Vaidehi
Neena J, Vaidehi MP (1998) Effect of incorporation of defatted soybean in some common food products. Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 36: 12.