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Managing an Endangered Asian bovid in an Australian National Park: The role and limitations of ecological-economic models in decision-making

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Cited By (since 1996):8, Export Date: 26 November 2013, Source: Scopus

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... Из-за большого количества бантенгов в Австралии на них разрешено охотится коренному населению и выдаются лицензии на регулирующий отстрел в виде сафари (Brook et al., 2006). У бантенгов австралийской популяции так же, как и у их диких предков, заметен половой диморфизм. ...
... Вероятно, распространению бантенга препятствует ограждение, установленное для ограничения движения крупных видов животных (Bowman et al., 1990). Предполагается, что бантенг, как и буйвол, может влиять на пастбища Австралии -уплотняя почву и изменяя ее состав, а косвенно -и на динамику пожаров, но на фоне интенсивного воздействия буйвола влияние бантенга оценить сложно (Brook et al., 2006). Возможна пищевая конкуренция бантенга с местными видами растительноядных, которую также сложно оценить из-за сильно влияния одичавших свиней и буйволов (Albrecht et al., 2009). ...
... По мнению ряда ученых (Brook et al., 2006;Bradshaw, Brook, 2007;Albrecht et al., 2009), австралийскую популяцию бантенга, следует изучать как модель возможного сохранения редких видов диких копытных, подвергающихся угрозе вымирания на родине. Предлагается дальнейшее поддержание популяции этого инвазивного для Австралии вида и, возможно, создание контролируемых популяций других, находящихся под угрозой исчезновения, видов Bradshaw, Brook, 2007). ...
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The book contains data research of authors and review other about behavior and ethology of cattle. The book consists of three parts: 1) behavior and behavioral ecology of cattle; 2) social behavior; 3) feral cattle population.
... These utility values can be in conflict with preservation-based initiatives that restrict access and extraction rights to land and resources (IFIPCC, 2007;Blom et al., 2010). This conflict can be particularly difficult to resolve where an introduced invasive species causes unwanted changes in native ecosystems (and so is regarded as a pest) yet also can be harvested to provide economic or subsistence value (and thus represents a resource: Zivin et al., 2000;Brook et al., 2006). Managing such conflicts requires trade-offs between conservation and economic values that can be difficult to achieve when the ultimate aspirations of the two stakeholder groups are fundamentally incompatible (Nugent and Fraser, 1993). ...
... In contrast to the more familiar scenario where managers seek to sustain a population in the face of harvest, in this case study we have the unusual inversion of perspectives where wildlife managers want to see the harvested species maintained at very low densities and harvesters are motivated by the need for a sustainable income and by their own personal and culturally-driven values. A parallel situation exists in Australia's Northern Territory wetland habitats where introduced Asian bovids (swamp buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, and banteng, Bos javanicus) are perceived as risks to conservation values and as vectors of stock diseases by managers and as a valued resource by the Aboriginal groups in the area (Brook et al., 2006;Bradshaw and Gorman, 2007). Our suggestion that agencies consider subsidizing community-managed pest control also has parallels elsewhere; for example, South Africa's Working for Water program provides direct economic benefits to high unemployment areas in return for controlling invasive weeds (van Wilgen et al., 2012). ...
... Modeling approaches, such as ours, can only guide management, but solutions require collaborative approaches to be developed between stakeholders with differing perspectives and needs from resource management (Brook et al., 2006). For the community in our case study, a collective approach to allow harvesters regular and exclusive access to blocks, combined with the strategic guidelines from our modeling, could provide the basis for a sustainable income. ...
... Predicted H E was sensitive to variation in H 0 by approximately an equivalent amount, although overall predicted N e was relatively insensitive to H 0 ; (ii) There is anecdotal evidence of periodic die-offs and large culls during the latter portion of the banteng's history at Cobourg Peninsula (Bradshaw & Brook 2007). These events would have increased the fluctuations in N e expected under normal environmental and demographic stochasticity, with the added possibility of reducing N e even more via male-biased hunting for safari (Brook et al. 2006; Bradshaw & Brook 2007). Our successful prediction highlights the utility of combining basic age-structured population models with theoretical expectations of genetic diversity to investigate the potential impacts of genetic bottlenecks. ...
Article
Undomesticated (wild) banteng are endangered in their native habitats in Southeast Asia. A potential conservation resource for the species is a large, wild population in Garig Gunak Barlu National Park in northern Australia, descended from 20 individuals that were released from a failed British outpost in 1849. Because of the founding bottleneck, we determined the level of genetic diversity in four subpopulations in the national park using 12 microsatellite loci, and compared this to the genetic diversity of domesticated Asian Bali cattle, wild banteng and other cattle species. We also compared the loss of genetic diversity using plausible genetic data coupled to a stochastic Leslie matrix model constructed from existing demographic data. The 53 Australian banteng sampled had average microsatellite heterozygosity (HE) of 28% compared to 67% for outbred Bos taurus and domesticated Bos javanicus populations. The Australian banteng inbreeding coefficient (F) of 0.58 is high compared to other endangered artiodactyl populations. The 95% confidence bounds for measured heterozygosity overlapped with those predicted from our stochastic Leslie matrix population model. Collectively, these results show that Australian banteng have suffered a loss of genetic diversity and are highly inbred because of the initial population bottleneck and subsequent small population sizes. We conclude that the Australian population is an important hedge against the complete loss of wild banteng, and it can augment threatened populations of banteng in their native range. This study indicates the genetic value of small populations of endangered artiodactyls established ex situ.
... Some of these species have thrived in northern environments , achieving densities never observed in their native habitats (Freeland 1990). Buffalo have numbered in the hundreds of thousands (Bayliss and Yeomans 1989), and banteng, whose wild ancestors are now regarded as endangered in their Asian native habitats (Bradshaw et al. 2006 ), are sufficiently numerous to support a valuable safari hunting industry at Cobourg Peninsula (Brook et al. 2006 ). Feral pigs may be the most successful large non-indigenous vertebrate species at present, and they are perhaps one of the most difficult feral animal problems to resolve in Australia (Hampton et al. 2004). ...
Article
Non-indigenous animal species threaten biodiversity and ecosystem stability by damaging or transforming habitats, killing or out-competing native species and spreading disease. We use World Heritage Area Kakadu National Park, northern Australia, as a focal region to illustrate the current and potential threats posed by non-indigenous animal species to internationally and nationally recognised natural and cultural values. Available evidence suggests that large feral herbivores such as Asian swamp buffalo, pigs and horses are the most ecologically threatening species in this region. This may reflect the inherent research bias, because these species are highly visible and impact primary production; consequently, their control has attracted the strongest research and management efforts. Burgeoning threats, such as the already established cane toad and crazy ant, and potentially non-indigenous freshwater fish, marine invertebrates and pathogens, may cause severe problems for native biodiversity. To counter these threats, management agencies must apply an ongoing, planned and practical approach using scientifically based and well funded control measures; however, many stakeholders require direct evidence of the damage caused by non-indigenous species before agreeing to implement control. To demonstrate the increasing priority of non-indigenous species research in Australia and to quantify taxonomic and habitat biases in research focus, we compiled an extensive biography of peer-reviewed articles published between 1950 and 2005. Approximately 1000 scientific papers have been published on the impact and control of exotic animals in Australia, with a strong bias towards terrestrial systems and mammals. Despite the sheer quantity of research on non-indigenous species and their effects, management responses remain largely ad hoc and poorly evaluated, especially in northern Australia and in high-value areas such as Kakadu National Park. We argue that improved management in relatively isolated and susceptible tropical regions requires (1) robust quantification of density - damage relationships, and (2) the delivery of research findings that stimulate land managers to develop cost-effective control and monitoring programs.
... If the Australian animals are indeed an isolated population of a threatened species, then preservation rather than continued culling may be in order. Conversely, if it is found that Australian feral swamp buffalo are ''hybrids,'' with no particular genetic distinctiveness from the rest of the domesticated population in South East Asia, the ethical imperative to conserve evaporates (Bradshaw et al. 2006; Brook et al. 2006). From a more general ethical perspective, it could be argued that the buffalo has characteristics that require ethical attention over and above their dubious genetic classification. ...
Article
This paper examines the identity of Asian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from different value orientations. Buffalo were introduced into Northern (Top End) Australia in the early nineteenth century. A team of transdisciplinary researchers, including an ethicist, has been engaged in field research on feral buffalo in Arnhem Land over the past three years. Using historical documents, literature review, field observations, interviews with key informants, and interaction with the Indigenous land owners, an understanding of the diverse views on the scientific, cultural, and economic significance of buffalo was obtained. While the diverse stakeholders in buffalo exploitation and management have historically delivered divergent value orientations on the nature of the human–buffalo relationship, we argue that over time there is the possibility of values and ethical convergence. Such convergence is possible via transdisciplinary and transcultural agreement on the value stances that constitute the construction of the being or identity of buffalo in the face of the overwhelming need to manage population density and gross numbers.
... Accordingly, what needs to be investigated are the ways in which indigenous people can use their current skills and the natural capital assets on their lands for economic benefit and financial independence. Wildlife-based enterprises offer potential for social, economic and environmentally sustainable development for indigenous people living in remote northern Australia (Brook et al. 2006). The use of naturally occurring wild flora and fauna for commercial purposes represents an alternative land use (to that of contemporary agricultural practices such as broad-scale cropping, irrigated agriculture and intensive livestock grazing) that does not require substantial initial landscape transformation. ...
Article
Introduced species are a major driver of negative ecological change, but some introduced species can potentially offer positive benefits to society. Asian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were introduced to the northern Australian mainland in 1827 and have since become a serious pest. However, buffalo have also supported various profitable industries, including harvesting for hides, meat, and live export. We investigate an indigenous wildlife-based enterprise that harvests wild buffalo from indigenous-held lands in remote northern Australia. We used ecological modelling and social research techniques to quantify the buffalo dynamics and to examine their contributions to sustainable livelihoods in a remote Aboriginal community. Results suggest that the current harvest rate will not drive the species to extinction and it is thus unlikely that the population size of buffalo will be reduced enough to alleviate ecological damage. This enterprise is profitable and provides regular royalty payments to traditional land owners and wage income for employees, along with several additional non-financial capital assets. We demonstrate that the commercial exploitation of introduced species can provide additional or alternative sources of protein and income to promote economic development for indigenous people. This type of enterprise could be expanded to more communities using harvest rates above maximum sustainable yield to provide greater positive social and ecological outcomes for indigenous communities. KeywordsFeral introduced species–Asian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)–Sustainable wildlife harvest–Economic development–Australia
... Accordingly, what needs to be investigated are the ways in which indigenous people can use their current skills and the natural capital assets on their lands for economic benefit and financial independence. Wildlife-based enterprises offer potential for social, economic and environmentally sustainable development for indigenous people living in remote northern Australia (Brook et al. 2006). The use of naturally occurring wild flora and fauna for commercial purposes represents an alternative land use (to that of contemporary agricultural practices such as broad-scale cropping, irrigated agriculture and intensive livestock grazing) that does not require substantial initial landscape transformation. ...
Article
Abstract Introduced species are a major driver of negative ecological change, but some introduced species can potentially offer positive benefits to society. Asian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were introduced to the northern Australian mainland in 1827 and have since become a serious pest. However, buffalo have also supported various profitable industries, including harvesting for hides, meat, and live export. We investigate an indigenous wildlifebased enterprise that harvests wild buffalo from indigenousheld lands in remote northern Australia. We used ecological modelling and social research techniques to quantify the buffalo dynamics and to examine their contributions to sustainable livelihoods in a remote Aboriginal community. Results suggest that the current harvest rate will not drive the species to extinction and it is thus unlikely that the population size of buffalo will be reduced enough to alleviate ecological damage. This enterprise is profitable and provides regular royalty payments to traditional land owners and wage income for employees, along with several additional non-financial capital assets. We demonstrate that the commercial exploitation of introduced species can provide additional or alternative sources of protein and income to promote economic development for indigenous people. This type of enterprise could be expanded to more communities using harvest rates above maximum sustainable yield to provide greater positive social and ecological outcomes for indigenous communities.
... Genetic analyses have recently confirmed that the Australian herd is comprised of individuals genetically identical to Asian Bos javanicus . Brook et al. (2006) note that banteng in northern Australia can be considered from the following, often conflicting perspectives: ...
Article
The north is Australia's last frontier. Here, dreams of development, conservation and indigenous rights collide. Out of this collision may emerge a social, cultural and environmental order which is interesting, novel, sustainable and different to what has happened on colonial frontiers elsewhere. It is unlikely that everyone will like what happens: indeed for some their worse nightmares may be realised. A frustrating feature of the debates about northern development is the lack of clarity about what people want to achieve and what they want to avoid. I probe this philosophical murk with three dystopian visions: the north as a water supply for southern Australia, a game park for globally endangered large animals, and a repository for the world's nuclear waste. By using these extreme examples I show that, despite the collective failure to articulate our visions and anxieties for northern development, most people know what they don't want.
... However, from the national security perspective, it is important to continue maintaining community prosperity and strengthening the border; as such, appropriate policy support should be provided from the national level. In addition to policies at the central level, counterpart assistance from other provinces and corresponding economies should also be an external driving force to promote the sustainable development of Qinghai-Tibet communities(Brook et al., 2006;Mylonopoulos et al., 2011). ...
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The development of Qinghai-Tibet national park cluster is part of China's efforts to establish a major ecological civilization project in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, in line with global sustainable development goals. Based on preliminary scientific investigation and research in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the construction of the park cluster will include 21 national parks. To mitigate the conflict between conservation of the national park cluster and the development of local communities, this study proposes an analysis framework to identify the spatial coupling features between the national park cluster and sustainable development of communities. Four elements were selected to construct the analysis framework, including natural conditions, geographic location, cultural background, and national policies. This framework was applied to the 457 township communities within the 21 national parks. Results show the weak influence of the construction of the national park cluster for approximately 304 township communities, without significant spatial coupling traits, while the remaining 153 communities demonstrated significant spatial coupling features. These latter townships had developed four types of spatial coupling with national parks, including eco-migrants, transportation hubs, characteristic cultures, and border development, which account for 17.4%, 35.3%, 19.8%, and 27.5% of the 153 townships respectively. A composite type with more than one spatial coupling feature was also found for 14 communities within the 153 townships. This provides a reference for policy making towards four major types of interactive modes between townships and the national park construction for the sustainable development of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
... Predicted H E was sensitive to variation in H 0 by approximately an equivalent amount, although overall predicted N e was relatively insensitive to H 0 ; (ii) There is anecdotal evidence of periodic die-offs and large culls during the latter portion of the banteng's history at Cobourg Peninsula (Bradshaw & Brook 2007). These events would have increased the fluctuations in N e expected under normal environmental and demographic stochasticity, with the added possibility of reducing N e even more via male-biased hunting for safari (Brook et al. 2006; Bradshaw & Brook 2007). Our successful prediction highlights the utility of combining basic age-structured population models with theoretical expectations of genetic diversity to investigate the potential impacts of genetic bottlenecks. ...
... The banteng (Bos javanicus) was introduced in northern Australia in 1849, and since then the herd in the Garig Gunak Barlu National Park in the Northern Territory is the world's largest wild population of this endangered species . The conservation paradox presented by this species is detailed by Brook et al. (2006), and ranges on a spectrum from whether this species should be considered a feral pest that has no place in a national park, to its presence in the park considered a conservation refuge for a species endangered in its indigenous range. While the situation with the banteng differs from the case studies examined here because it was introduced to Australia over a century ago, it does highlight how difficult it may be to effectively manage an introduced large-bodied species within a national park over the longer term. ...
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Alarm over the prospects for survival of species in a rapidly changing world has encouraged discussion of translocation conservation strategies that move beyond the focus of ‘at-risk’ species. These approaches consider larger spatial and temporal scales than customary, with the aim of recreating functioning ecosystems through a combination of large-scale ecological restoration and species introductions. The term ‘rewilding’ has come to apply to this large-scale ecosystem restoration program. While reintroductions of species within their historical ranges have become standard conservation tools, introductions within known paleontological ranges—but outside historical ranges—are more controversial, as is the use of taxon substitutions for extinct species. Here, we consider possible conservation translocations for nine large-bodied taxa in tropical Asia-Pacific. We consider the entire spectrum of conservation translocation strategies as defined by the IUCN in addition to rewilding. The taxa considered are spread across diverse taxonomic and ecological spectra and all are listed as ‘endangered’ or ‘critically endangered’ by the IUCN in our region of study. They all have a written and fossil record that is sufficient to assess past changes in range, as well as ecological and environmental preferences, and the reasons for their decline, and they have all suffered massive range restrictions since the late Pleistocene. General principles, problems, and benefits of translocation strategies are reviewed as case studies. These allowed us to develop a conservation translocation matrix, with taxa scored for risk, benefit, and feasibility. Comparisons between taxa across this matrix indicated that orangutans, tapirs, Tasmanian devils, and perhaps tortoises are the most viable taxa for translocations. However, overall the case studies revealed a need for more data and research for all taxa, and their ecological and environmental needs. Rewilding the Asian-Pacific tropics remains a controversial conservation strategy, and would be difficult in what is largely a highly fragmented area geographically.
... Serengeti grazers ( Fryxell et al. 2005) Helianthemum squamatum ( Quintana-Ascencio et al. 2009) Aster kantoensis ( Shimada and Ishihama 2000) Asian water buualo ( Brook et al. 2006) Demographically (age-or stage-) structured metapopulation models Declining populations Locally abundant organisms Vertebrates and plants Large or dynamic landscapes Survival or fecundity depends on age or size Suucient demographic data ...
Chapter
Stochastic models to estimate extinction risks and recovery probabilities offer an effective alternative to the mostly qualitative or deterministic methods used in wildlife population modeling and viability analysis. The risk analysis approach is demonstrated by three models developed for single and multiple populations (metapopulations). These models simulate population dynamics with age, stage, and spatial structure. They are used to study the dynamics of rare or endangered species, to design nature reserves, to evaluate wildlife management practices, and to assess human impact on natural populations. The age- and stage-structured models can take into account species-specific demographic information, environmental and demographic stochasticity, and density dependence. The metapopulation model uses these types of data for each population in a metapopulation, and connects the populations by incorporating information on the number, size and geographic configuration of habitat patches, and dispersal phenomena. The models use Monte Carlo methods to simulate future population trajectories and compute risks of population extinction and chances of recovery from a disturbance. The models, implemented as interactive microcomputer programs, move population modeling and viability analysis from an academic domain to an operational one for conservation biologists and wildlife managers.
Chapter
Conservation Planning: Shaping the Future is a collection of contributed chapters that show how working scientists develop conservation plans using the best available scientific methods, data, and technology. Bringing a conservation focus to land management and planning, the authors show how planners creating human developments can still preserve healthy ecosystems for native wildlife by protecting habitat for key species. The book includes discussions on umbrella species, terrestrial and aquatic habitat suitability, conservation linkages, population viability, site selection, land-use trends, climate-change trends, and decision making for long-term conservation planning. Conservation Planning: Shaping the Future is valuable for those interested in creating balanced and functional landscapes while preserving the natural environment.
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Summary 1. Until recently, the northern snake-necked turtle ( Chelodina rugosa Ogilby, 1890) provided a seasonal source of protein for indigenous communities in tropical northern Australia. Today, feral pigs ( Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) exert a heavy predation pressure on C. rugosa , compromising subsistence harvest rates and threatening local persistence. 2. We investigated the influence of pig predation and harvest (subsistence and commercial) on C. rugosa persistence at discrete water holes using a stage-based matrix population model. Vital rates varied with wet season rainfall, pig predation and harvest. In addition, hatchling survival was density-dependent. 3. We show that field-based estimates of pig-related turtle mortality exceed levels that can be offset by increased hatchling survival, leading to predictions of rapid population decline and certain elim- ination of affected populations within 50 years. 4. Conversely, in the absence of pigs, compensatory increases in hatchling survival were sufficient to allow an annual harvest of up to 20% of subadult and adult C. rugosa without causing extirpation or substantial population suppression. 5. Synthesis and applications . This demographic modelling shows that periodic local culling of pigs, fencing of wetlands to exclude predators, and hatchling supplementation to offset losses from predation are all viable management strategies for ensuring ongoing turtle harvests. Such demonstrations of the potential resilience of long-lived vertebrates under a properly managed harvest regime is important to convince natural resource agencies that conservation management for long-term viability need not exclude some degree of consumptive use. These findings are broadly relevant to applied ecology, providing important implications for the management of wildlife species subject to competing eco- logical pressures, such as subsistence and commercial harvesting and predation by invasive species.
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Here we present the methodology used for terrestrial biodiversity analysis and site selection in Phase B of the UNDP/GEF COAST project. The analysis was focused on the problem of biodiversity evaluation in four Croatian counties stretching from sea level to the highest mountain in Croatia. Data on habitats, vascular flora, and fauna (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, ground beetles, and underground invertebrates) were collected and analyzed for each of the four counties. Emphasis was given to the richness of endangered species and the rarity of endemic species. Based on the spatial analyses of habitat, fauna, and flora data, four to six areas were selected from each county and ranked according to their biodiversity importance. Overlap between areas important for richness and those important for rarity was highest for data on flora (65.5%) and lowest for data on fauna (16.7%). When different data sets were compared, the lowest overlap was between flora and fauna (17.1%) and largest between fauna and habitats (23.9%). Simultaneous overlap among all three data sets was found in just 6.5% of the overall selected areas. These results suggest that less specific data, with respect to taxa threat status, could better serve as surrogate data in estimating overall biodiversity. In summary, this analysis has demonstrated that Dalmatia is a region with a high overall biodiversity that is important in a broader European context. KeywordsRed lists-Endemic species-GIS-Spatial analyses-Habitats-Vascular flora
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Sustainable commercial use of native wildlife is an alternative economic means of land use by Indigenous people in remote rural areas. This situation applies within large tracts of land owned by Indigenous people across northern Australia. The commercial use of saltwater crocodiles Crocodylus porosus is a growing industry in Australia's Northern Territory. Although Indigenous people sell crocodile eggs and hatchlings, the majority of harvesting and incubation is done by non-indigenous people from less remote areas. One Indigenous community has been heavily involved in this industry and now manages its own harvest and incubation programme. We present a case study of this programme, which has transitioned from outside agencies managing the harvest, to complete local ownership and management. Egg harvests and incubation success rates declined by 40% following the switch to local management. Income increased, as did production costs; in particular, royalty payments made to Indigenous landowners. The declines reflect the community's motives for engaging in the industry, which have been socially rather than commercially driven, and damage to nesting habitat by feral animals. The increase in royalties reflects the need to compete with non-indigenous harvesters from outside the township, who are strictly commercially driven. Harvesting, incubation and trade in crocodile eggs and hatchlings can form a viable and sustainable enterprise for remote Indigenous communities. However, efficiency needs to be improved to fulfil the need for a reliable and dependable supply chain, and regulatory institutions should give Indigenous harvesters sufficient freedom to pursue innovative and viable livelihood options.
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Scientific support invited by Indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLC) to assist with customary environmental management can improve conservation and community livelihoods. For example, demographic models can help to understand how alternative wildlife management strategies affect population dynamics and harvest sustainability. We developed a demographic model to assist Ngāi Tahu, the southern-most Māori tribe in Aotearoa/New Zealand, in customary management of a culturally important population of Black Swans (kakī anau, Cygnus atratus). We used recent demographic data, including results of an experimental egg harvest study, to inform tangata tiaki (Ngāi Tahu environmental guardians) about how customary egg harvest and background pressure from sport hunting of swans aged ≥ 1 year differentially affect population growth. We also assessed how sport hunting of swans affects the sustainability of customary egg harvest. Estimated population growth (1.018 or presently growing 1.8% annually; 95% CI: 0.808-1.241) was most sensitive to changes in adult and subadult survival, followed by juvenile (first-year) survival, breeding propensity, and nest hatching success. Uncertainty in population growth was almost entirely attributable to uncertainty in swan survival rates after hatching. Sustainable population-level rates of egg harvest varied from none to more than half of all eggs, depending on small changes in adult and subadult survival. Population sensitivity to adult and subadult survival suggests that limiting and monitoring their mortality are crucial to population and egg harvest sustainability, whereas contemporary government-mandated species management, through Fish and Game New Zealand, allows adult and subadult mortality from sport hunting, with little record of offtake. Recognizing the rights and interests of Ngāi Tahu, and monitoring swan mortality more closely, could improve Ngāi Tahu abilities to practice customary harvest, enhance population and environmental monitoring, and, when appropriate, control swan numbers in a culturally appropriate and less wasteful way. The model we present could aid decision making and communication between Ngāi Tahu and New Zealand's Crown government within a potential future co-management arrangement. Demographic models can be useful tools for supporting customary environmental management, but developing, maintaining, and implementing these tools requires support for adaptive policies and management arrangements that recognize IPLC rights to the environment and decision making.
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This monograph has been written with two main objectives in mind. The first is to present empirical data about the economic impact of tourism on Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory. There is some concern in the wider community that Aboriginal ownership of important tourist destination constrains tourism growth, but this has never been rigorously examined. The evidence presented here suggests this concern may be misplaced. Secondly, I have canvassed a range of tourism policy issues that need to be addressed, especially by Aboriginal people contemplating involvement in this industry. This policy discussion has been animated by my longer term research focus on the impact of land rights on the economic status of Aboriginal people. Will ownership of important tourism destinations, like Kakadu and Uluru National Parks, provide Aboriginal people with economic and political leverage? If not, is the granting of land rights truly ‘a first step on a long road towards self-sufficiency and eventual social and economic equality for Aborgines’? (Woodward 1974: 138)
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On the eve of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, it is timely to assess progress over the 10 years since its predecessor in Rio de Janeiro. Loss and degradation of remaining natural habitats has continued largely unabated. However, evidence has been accumulating that such systems generate marked economic benefits, which the available data suggest exceed those obtained from continued habitat conversion. We estimate that the overall benefit:cost ratio of an effective global program for the conservation of remaining wild nature is at least 100:1.
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Tropical biodiversity continues to erode unabated, which calls for ecologists to address the problem directly, placing less reliance on indirect interventions, such as community-based development schemes. Ecologists must become more assertive in providing scientifically formulated and adaptively managed interventions, involving biodiversity payments, to serve local, regional and global interests in tropical nature. Priorities for tropical ecologists thus include the identification of key thresholds to ecological resilience, and the formulation of clear monitoring protocols and management strategies for implementation by local resource managers. A particular challenge is to demonstrate how nature reserves contribute to the adaptive capacity of regional land-use matrices and, hence, to the provision of sustainable benefits at multiple spatial and temporal scales.
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amount of fishing effort. The consequence has been the elimination of some substocks, such as herring, cod, ocean perch, salmon, and lake trout. He concluded that an MSY based upon the analysis of the historic statistics of a fishery is not attainable on a sustained basis. Support for Larkin's view is provided by a number of reviews of the history of fisheries (2). Few fisheries exhibit steady abundance (3). It is more appropriate to think of re- sources as managing humans than the con- verse: the larger and the more immediate are prospects for gain, the greater the polit- ical power that is used to facilitate unlim- ited exploitation. The classic illustrations are gold rushes. Where large and immediate gains are in prospect, politicians and gov- ernments tend to ally themselves with spe- cial interest groups in order to facilitate the exploitation. Forests throughout the world have been destroyed by wasteful and short- sighted forestry practices. In many cases, governments eventually subsidize the ex- port of forest products in order to delay the unemployment that results when local tim- ber supplies run out or become uneconomic to harvest and process (4). These practices lead to rapid mining of old-growth forests; they imply that timber supplies must inev- itably decrease in the future. Harvesting of irregular or fluctuating re- sources is subject to a ratchet effect (3):
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Attempted to reduce the population of feral Bubalus bubalis occupying 389 km² subcoastal lowlands in N Australia between 1982-1984. First, buffalo were rounded by up helicopter and removed. Then buffalo were shot for pet food. Finally, noncommercial shooting of the remaining population from the air and ground further reduced numbers. In total, 7347 buffalo were removed. The estimated population was reduced to <1.0% of its former size. Each year the control program was halted when the removal time per buffalo was >15 minutes. -from Authors
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Cited By (since 1996):14, Export Date: 26 November 2013, Source: Scopus
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Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary effort to link the natural and social sciences broadly, and especially ecology and economics. The goal is to develop a deeper understanding of the complex linkages between ecological and economic systems, and to use that understanding to develop effective policies that will lead to a world that is ecologically sustainable, has a fair distribution of resources (both among groups and generations of humans and between humans and other species), and efficiently allocates scarce resources including "natural capital." This will require new approaches that are comprehensive, adaptive, integrative, multi-scale, and pluralistic, and that acknowledge the huge uncertainties involved. Examples of integrated assessment and modeling studies at local, regional, and global scales are discussed as cases that both require and force the integration of ecology and economics and help to build common understanding of linked ecological-economic systems.
Article
We propose a framework for understanding the role that the social sciences should play in ecosystem management. Most of the ecosystem management literature assumes that scientific understanding of ecosystems is solely the purview of natural scientists. While the evolving principles of ecosystem management recognize that people play an important role, social considerations are usually limited to political and decision-making processes and to development of environmental education. This view is incomplete. The social science aspect of ecosystem management has two distinct components: one that concerns greater public involvement in the ecosystem management decision-making process, and one that concerns integrating social considerations into the science of understanding ecosystems. Ecosystem management decisions based primarily on biophysical factors can polarize people, making policy processes more divisive than usual. Ecological data must be supplemented with scientific analysis of the key social factors relevant to a particular ecosystem. Objective social science analysis should be included on an equal basis with ecological science inquiry and with data from public involvement. A conceptual framework is presented to communicate to ecological scientists the potential array of social science contributions to ecosystem management.
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A framework for risk assessment. A probabilistic framework. Causes of Extinction. Summary. White rhinoceros on Ndumu. Formulating a birth-and death model. Parameters and initial condition. The deterministic prediction. Adding demographic stochasticity. Introducing a population ceiling. Removing constant numbers. Environmental variation. Risk Assessment. Summary. Useful methods when data are scarce. The Exonential model for population growth. Density dependence, the logistic equation and magpie geese. Other forms of density dependence. A model for suburban shrews. More about unstructured models. Summary. Structured populations. Age structure. The Leslie matrix. Stage structure. Simulating variability. Correlation and authocorrelation. Migration and dispersal. Density and dependence. Conclusion. Summary. Spatial structure and metapopulation dynamics. Conservation of spatial structure. Occupancy models. Population dynamic model. Summary. Conservation genetics. Consequences of loss of genetic diversity. Drift, risk and genetic diversity. The effects of inbreeding on population dynamics. Stochastic model for Banksia Cunteata. The genetics of metapopulations. Summary. Extensions of risk assessment. Appendices. Reference. Index. Conclusions. Random numbers. Random events and correlated random numbers. More about sensitivity analysis. References. Index.
Article
Nganabbarru, or water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), is frequently hunted by Aboriginal men, and buffalo meat is an important food source for many Arnhem Land Aboriginal communities. The experience of buffalo hunting trips with Aboriginal men who reside at Korlohbidahdah outstation in central Arnhem Land is used as a point of departure to consider the relationships between Aboriginal people and megaherbivores in the past and the present, and to explore the complexity of feral animal management in cross-cultural settings. This enquiry raised the question of the cultural conception of feral animals and demonstrates that there is no simple answer to the question: what is a buffalo? Buffaloes have been the focus of a colonial economic industry and are iconic of the Territorian way of life. However, they spread economically significant livestock diseases and cause widespread environmental damage. In the 1980s feral buffalo populations were the target of the Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign (BTEC) control program. The failure to continue control programs following the cessation of BTEC program and inadequate consultation with Aboriginal landowners has meant that today's land managers are once again faced with conflicting views about controlling feral buffalo populations on Aboriginal land and within National Parks like Kakadu. It is concluded that there are genuine, previously overlooked opportunities for cross-cultural collaboration in managing feral buffaloes. Cross-disciplinary research involving ecologists, anthropologists, linguists, economists and environmental historians is required to help develop sustainable and culturally appropriate feral animal control programs.
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This article presents findings on Aboriginal perspectives of the feral banteng (Bos javanicus) herd located in the Aboriginal-owned and jointly managed Garig Gunak Barlu National Park. The park, situated on the Cobourg Peninsula in Australia’s Northern Territory, is home to what may be the world’s largest remaining wild herd of banteng, and the animals have both local and international significance. The article presents extensive ethnographic details of this situation, and compares the perspectives and aspirations of the traditional owners of the park to the park’s management plans. Drawing on emerging theoretical understandings of landscape in anthropology, the article concludes with an evaluation of some of the sources of discord in the joint management of banteng and the implications of this case for joint management in general.
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The habitat preference and impact of banteng (Bos javanicus) and pigs (Sus scrofa) in Gurig National Park, on Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory, was investigated by systematically sampling twelve habitats. Animal signs (banteng and pig scats) and impacts (area of rooted, trampled or pugged ground and number of rubbed tree trunks) were recorded in 696 quadrats, each 5 × 20 m. Significant differences among habitats in sign and impact were detected. Pig rooting was concentrated on wetland communities, particularly sedgelands. Banteng sign focused on monsoon forest and coastal plains, where they caused less obvious damage than pigs. There was little evidence of either ungulate in the eucalypt communities, which are the most widespread of all habitats on the peninsula.In monsoon forests, banteng densities were approximately 70 per km-2, Banteng, unlike pigs and buffalo, have remained near their point of introduction over the last 140 years, possibly because of the unique habitat mosaic consisting of grasslands abutting monsoon forest.
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Proponents of community conservation present it as a means of reconciling conservation and development objectives by ensuring that the interests of local people are taken into account in making trade-offs. Conservation critics see it as a challenge to the state-led, scientific management that is necessary to guarantee the preservation of biodiversity. In this paper, we argue that community conservation is not one thing but many. It is evolving both as a concept and as a practice that must be built on. It is not a project or policy ‘choice’ that can be simply accepted or rejected. The key questions about community conservation are who should set the objectives for conservation policy on the ground and how should trade-offs between the diverse objectives of different interests be negotiated.
Article
How can one manage wildlife under a suite of competing values? In isolation, the ecological economics of native wildlife harvest, threatened species conservation and control of exotic species are all well established sub-disciplines of wildlife management. However, the wild banteng (Bos javanicus) population of northern Australia represents an interesting combination of these aspirations. A native bovid of Southeast Asia now ‘endangered’ in its native range, banteng were introduced into northern Australia in 1849. Today, a population of 8,000–10,000 resides on one small, isolated peninsula in western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory and is harvested by both recreational (trophy) and aboriginal subsistence hunters. Indigenous, industry and conservationist stakeholders differ in their requirements for population management. Here we analyze the ecological and economic costs/benefits of a series of potential harvest management options for Australia's banteng population, with the aim being either to: (1) maximize sustainable yield (MSY); (2) maximize harvest of trophy males; (3) maximize indigenous off-take; (4) suppress density or completely eradicate the population; (5) minimize risk of extinction whilst limiting range expansion; (6) scenarios incorporating two or more of options 1–5. The modeling framework employed stochastic, density-regulated matrix population models with life-history parameters derived from (i) allometric relationships (for estimating rmax, generation length, fecundity and densities for a banteng-sized mammal) and (ii) measured vital rates for wild and captive banteng and other Bos spp. For each management option, we present a simple economic analysis that incorporates estimated costs of management implementation and associated profits projected. Results demonstrate that revenue of >Ä$200,000 is possible from meat production and safari hunting without compromising long-term population stability or the conservation status of this endangered bovid.
Article
Government agencies responsible for pest animal management often assume that their views and assumptions about the benefits of control are widely shared, especially if these pests are exotics. This was certainly the case when tens of thousands of feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were to be culled in Australia's Kakadu National Park as part of a national Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign (BTEC). Implementation of the campaign sparked considerable dispute between officials and aboriginal and non-aboriginal interests about the risks posed by buffalo relative to their value as a potential resource. Drawing upon a variety of written and oral sources relating to the era of buffalo control in Kakadu, this paper critically analyzes the way in which detriment caused by buffalo was appraised and managed under the BTEC program. In particular, the paper focuses the ways in which the BTEC program affected aboriginal people in Kakadu, who view buffalo as a source of customary and economic benefit as well as a source of change on their lands. The paper then considers what lessons can be learned from the BTEC for the development of sensible feral management objectives and strategies. It is argued that effective management of feral animals such as buffalo will require environmental managers to engage with local people and involve them in the definition and management of pest animal damage and methods of control.
Article
Many wildlife populations cause damage in agricultural systems but are also valued resources, either for their recreational value or for their existence and contribution to biological diversity. As a result, the nature of a given species—whether it is considered a “pest” or a “resource”—is often determined by the economic and regulatory environment in which the species exists. In this paper we develop a bioeconomic model of one such environment. We apply the model to the case of feral pigs in California rangeland and consider the potential for recreational hunting as a policy for population control.
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Whitehead, P. 2000. The clever country. Where cows manage wildlife. Pages 155–168 in R. Dixon. (ed.) Business as usual? Local conflicts and global challenges in northern Australia. North Australia Research Unit, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies. Australian National University, Canber- ra.
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Gurig National Park: the first ten years of joint management. Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
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Foster, D. 1997. Gurig National Park: the first ten years of joint management. Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra.
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Kakadu: Natural and Cultural Heritage and Management. Australian Nature Conservation Agency and North Australian Research Unit
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Press, A., and D. Lawrence. 1995. Kakadu National Park: reconciling competing interests. Pages 1-14 in A. Press, D. Lea, A. Webb and A. Graham. (eds.) Kakadu: Natural and Cultural Heritage and Management. Australian Nature Conservation Agency and North Australian Research Unit, Australian National University, Darwin.
Business as usual? Local conflicts and global challenges in northern Australia
  • P Whitehead
Whitehead, P. 2000. The clever country. Where cows manage wildlife. Pages 155-168 in R. Dixon. (ed.) Business as usual? Local conflicts and global challenges in northern Australia. North Australia Research Unit, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies. Australian National University, Canberra.
Northern Territory. Pages 119-176 in
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Whitehead, P. J., and R. Chatto. 1996. Northern Territory. Pages 119-176 in A. N. C. Agency. (ed.) A directory of important wetlands in Australia. 2nd ed. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.