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Psychometric properties of the Medical Student Wellbeing Index at different interval of measurements in a cohort of medical students

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Psychometric properties of the Medical Student Wellbeing Index at different interval of measurements in a cohort of medical students

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Background: One of important educational climate roles is to provide an environment that promotes positive development of medical students' psychological wellbeing during training. Unfortunately, many studies have reported that educational climate in medical education are not favourable to them. Therefore, it is a real need for a simple, valid, reliable and stable tool that will help medical schools to screen psychological wellbeing of their students so that early intervention could be done. Objective: This study aimed to explore the psychometric properties of the Medical Student Wellbeing Index (MSWBI) to measure psychological wellbeing at different interval of measurements in a cohort of medical students. Method: A prospective study was done on a cohort of medical students. MSWBI was administered to the medical students at five different intervals. The confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation analysis were applied to measure construct validity, internal consistency and agreement level at different interval of measurements. Result: A total of 153 (89.5%) medical students responded completely to the MSWBI. The MSWBI showed that the one-factor model had acceptable values for most of the goodness of fit indices signified its construct was stable across multiple measurements. The overall Cronbach's alpha values for the MSWBI at the five measurements ranged between 0.69 and 0.78. The ICC coefficient values for the MSWBI total score was 0.58 to 0.59. Conclusion: This study found that the MSWBI had stable psychometric properties as a screening tool for measuring psychological wellbeing among medical students at different time and occasions. Continued research is required to refine and verify its psychometric credentials at different educational settings.
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Objective Identify current pharmacy residents’ level of distress, likelihood of burnout, likelihood of severe fatigue, suicidal ideation, meaning in work, satisfaction with work-life balance and overall quality of life. Study Design A cross-sectional survey, conducted between February 1, 2020 – March 31, 2020. Methods The Pharmacist WBI was utilized to collect data from first- and second-year pharmacy resident participants. A survey was sent to each Residency Program Director (RPD) listed in the American Society of Health System Pharmacist directory. RPDs were asked to forward the email with information on the survey for the residents to complete. The email contained a description of the research project and a link to the research survey. Respondents were asked to complete questions regarding their demographics in the research survey, including age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, commute time, type of residency, year of residency, etc. They were then asked to complete the WBI via the provided link and asked to enter their results from the WBI into the survey. Results Pharmacy residents are at high risk for developing burnout;53% of participants were considered to be “high risk”. Approximately 43% of pharmacy residents were considered to have a moderate to high risk for developing severe fatigue and 57% had poor work-life integration scores. Participants were found to have a high quality of life and high meaning in their work, 46% and 62% respectively. Conclusions The study identified that pharmacy residents’ experience great levels of distress, are more likely to experience symptoms of burnout, and more likely to experience fatigue. Pharmacy residents also experience a high quality of life and high meaning in their work.
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This study evaluated the convergent, discriminant, construct, concurrent and discriminative validity of the Medical Student Wellbeing Index (MSWBI) as well as to evaluate its internal consistency and optimal cut-off total scores to detect at least moderate levels of general psychological distress, stress, anxiety and depression symptoms. A cross sectional study was done on 171 medical students. The MSWBI and DASS-21 were administered and returned immediately upon completion. Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis, ROC analysis and Pearson correlation test were applied to assess psychometric properties of the MSWBI. A total of 168 (98.2%) medical students responded. The goodness of fit indices showed the MSWBI had a good construct (χ(2)=6.14, p=0.803, RMSEA<0.001, RMR=0.004, GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.97, CFI=1.00, IFI=1.02, TLI=1.04). The Cronbach's alpha value was 0.69 indicating an acceptable level of internal consistency. Pearson correlation coefficients and ROC analysis suggested each MSWBI's item showed adequate convergent and discriminant validity. Its optimal cut-off scores to detect at least moderate levels of general psychological distress, stress, anxiety, and depression were 1.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 2.5 respectively with sensitivity and specificity ranged from 62 to 80% and the areas under ROC curve ranged from 0.71 to 0.83. This study showed that the MSWBI had good level of psychometric properties. The MSWBI score more than 2 can be considered as having significant psychological distress. The MSWBI is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess psychological distress of medical students.
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Many studies have shown that the prevalence of psychological distress among medical students during medical training is higher than that in general population. A few studies have shown that the prevalence of psychological distress among medical students before the onset of medical training was similar to general population. This study aimed to investigate psychological health of medical students before and during medical training. A one-year prospective study was done on successful applicants who undergo the first year of medical training for 2010/2011 academic session. The stress, anxiety and depression were measured by the DASS-21 at five intervals; during interview (Time 0), two months (Time 1), four months (Time 2), six months (Time 3) and final examination (Time 4) of the first year medical training. The prevalence of unfavourable stress, anxiety and depression before the onset of medical training was 4.1%, 55.6% and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of unfavourable stress during medical training ranged between 11.8% and 19.9%. The prevalence of anxiety during medical training ranged between 41.1% and 56.7%. The prevalence of depression during medical training ranged between 12% and 30%. Mean scores of stress and depression before (Time 0) and during medical training (Time 1–4) were significantly different (p < 0.001). The prevalence and level of unfavourable stress and depression during medical training were significantly higher than before the onset medical training. This study supports views that medical training is not an optimal environment to psychological health of medical students.
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