Wireless Body Area Networks: A Survey

IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials (Impact Factor: 6.81). 01/2014; DOI: 10.1109/SURV.2013.121313.00064


Recent developments and technological advancements in wireless communication, MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) technology and integrated circuits has enabled lowpower,
intelligent, miniaturized, invasive/non-invasive micro and nano-technology sensor nodes strategically placed in or around the human body to be used in various applications such as personal health monitoring. This exciting new area of research is called Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) and leverages the emerging IEEE 802.15.6 and IEEE 802.15.4j standards, specifically standardized for medical WBANs. The aim of WBANs is to simplify and improve speed, accuracy, and reliability of communications. The vast scope of challenges associated with WBANs has led to numerous publications. In this paper, we
survey the current state-of-art of WBANs based on the latest standards and publications. Open issues and challenges within each area are also explored as a source of inspiration towards future developments in WBANs.

    • "Personal health monitoring is very important application field and draws serious attention. Early detection, prevention of diseases and monitoring treatment process (Movassaghi et al. 2014) constitute the main aims of health care systems. A very recent study is finalized with an implantable biosensor that sends up-to-date information about the current state of a tumor and how it is responding to treatment (Vassiliou et al. 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a fully integrated low power class-E power amplifier and its integration to remotely powered sensor system. The on-chip 1.2 GHz power amplifier is implemented in 0.18 µm CMOS process with 0.2 V supply. The implantable system is powered by using an inductively coupled remote powering link at 13.56 MHz. A passive full-wave rectifier converts the induced AC voltage on the implant coil into a DC voltage. A clean and stable 1.8 V supply voltage for the sensor and communication blocks is generated by a voltage regulator. On–off keying modulated low-power transmitter at 1.2 GHz is used for the transmission of the data collected from the sensors. The transmitter is composed of a LC tank oscillator and a fully on-chip class-E power amplifier. Compared to the conventional class-E power amplifiers, an additional network which reduces the on-chip area is used at the output of the power amplifier. The measurement results verify the functionality of the remotely powered implantable sensor system and the power amplifier. The integrated power amplifier provides −10 dBm output power for 50 Ω load with a drain efficiency of 31.5 %. The uplink data communication with a data rate of 600 kbps is established by using a commercial 50 Ω chip antenna at 1 m communication distance.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Microsystem Technologies
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    • "La Tabla II, resume las restricciones SAR básicas para todo el cuerpo y localizada entre 10 [MHz] y 10 [GHz]. Todos los TABLA II: RESUMEN DE RESTRICCIONES SAR [1] valores SAR se promedian sobre un período de 6 [min] con el fin de alcanzar un estado de equilibrio de temperatura [1]. En los tejidos, la SAR es proporcional al cuadrado de la intensidad del campo eléctrico en el interior. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper gives an alternative method to determine the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), amount of electromagnetic energy absorbed by the human body, using the numerical finite difference method with MATLAB software, from the electric fields generated by a type patch antenna applied to a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBAN). These networks consist of bodily wireless sensors distributed inside or outside the human body for measuring physiological parameters. The research begins by defining electrical characteristics within the human body, to finally present and calculate the specific absorption rate SAR.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Oct 2015
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    • "Sensor and wireless communication technologies are rapidly evolving and spreading to many fields, such as medical services. Body sensor networks (BSNs) [1] [2] are becoming more popular and powerful every day and ongoing efforts, such as the IEEE 802.15.6 standard optimized for low-power BSN devices [3], clearly reflect the increasing importance and potential of these types of networks. A typical BSN is composed of a number of sensors that are placed at various locations on the body or in body, also known as implantable medical devices (IMDs). "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the main threats to body sensor networks (BSNs) is Denial of Service attacks that disrupt communications used to transmit patients’ health data. The application of cognitive radio (CR) technology into BSNs can mitigate such a threat and improve network availability, by allowing network nodes to cooperatively agree on a new radio channel whenever the quality of the channel being in use decreases. However, the cooperative spectrum sensing mechanisms used by CRs should also be protected to prevent an attacker from predicting the new channel of operation. In this work, we present a lightweight and robust mechanism that appropriately secures the channel selection process while minimizing resources consumption, thus being suited for resource constrained devices such as body sensor nodes. The proposed method has been analyzed in terms of energy consumption and transmission overhead and it has been shown that it outperforms existing cryptographic approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks
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