Mechanical sensitization of cutaneous sensory fibers in the spared nerve injury mouse model

Molecular Pain (Impact Factor: 3.65). 11/2013; 9(1):61. DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-9-61
Source: PubMed


The spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain produces robust and reproducible behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity. Although this rodent model of neuropathic pain has been well established and widely used, peripheral mechanisms underlying this phenotype remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated the role of cutaneous sensory fibers in the maintenance of mechanical hyperalgesia in mice post-SNI.
SNI produced robust, long-lasting behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity compared to sham and naive controls beginning by post-operative day (POD) 1 and continuing through at least POD 180. We performed teased fiber recordings on single cutaneous fibers from the spared sural nerve using ex vivo skin-nerve preparations. Recordings were made between POD 16--42 after SNI or sham surgery. Adelta-mechanoreceptors (AM) and C fibers, many of which are nociceptors, from SNI mice fired significantly more action potentials in response to suprathreshold mechanical stimulation than did fibers from either sham or naive control mice. However, there was no increase in spontaneous activity.
To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the contribution of primary afferent fibers in the SNI model. These data suggest that enhanced suprathreshold firing in AM and C fibers may play a role in the marked, persistent mechanical hypersensitivity observed in this model. These results may provide insight into mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain in humans.

Download full-text


Available from: Cheryl Stucky, Dec 26, 2014
  • Source
    • "The sensory innervation of the rat hind paw involves fibers from the sciatic and saphenous nerves. The allodynia that develops from cutting some of the sciatic nerve branches is evoked by stimulation of the nerve terminals from the spared sciatic nerve branches as well as from the saphenous nerve that becomes hyperexcitable as a result of interactions with the injured fibers (Kingery and Vallin, 1989; Kingery et al., 1993; Ro and Jacobs, 1993; Attal et al., 1994; Tal and Bennett, 1994; Guilbaud et al., 1995; Sotgiu and Biella, 1997; Smith et al., 2013). In rat, the sensory neurons of the saphenous nerve are located in the L3-DRG and for the sciatic nerve mostly in the L4- and L5-DRG. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peripheral nerve injury alters the expression of hundreds of proteins in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Targeting some of these proteins has led to successful treatments for acute pain, but not for sustained postoperative neuropathic pain. The latter may require targeting multiple proteins. Since a single microRNA (miR) can affect the expression of multiple proteins, here, we describe an approach to identify chronic neuropathic pain-relevant miRs. We used two variants of the spared nerve injury (SNI): Sural-SNI and Tibial-SNI and found distinct pain phenotypes between the two. Both models induced strong mechanical allodynia, but only Sural-SNI rats maintained strong mechanical and cold allodynia, as previously reported. In contrast, we found that Tibial-SNI rats recovered from mechanical allodynia and never developed cold allodynia. Since both models involve nerve injury, we increased the probability of identifying differentially regulated miRs that correlated with the quality and magnitude of neuropathic pain and decreased the probability of detecting miRs that are solely involved in neuronal regeneration. We found seven such miRs in L3-L5 DRG. The expression of these miRs increased in Tibial-SNI. These miRs displayed a lower level of expression in Sural-SNI, with four having levels lower than those in sham animals. Bioinformatics analysis of how these miRs could affect the expression of some ion channels supports the view that, following a peripheral nerve injury, the increase of the 7 miRs may contribute to the recovery from neuropathic pain while the decrease of four of them may contribute to the development of chronic neuropathic pain. The approach used resulted in the identification of a small number of potentially neuropathic pain relevant miRs. Additional studies are required to investigate whether manipulating the expression of the identified miRs in primary sensory neurons can prevent or ameliorate chronic neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injuries
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Frontiers in Neuroscience
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The long-term potentiation (LTP) of spinal C-fiber-evoked field potentials is considered as a fundamental mechanism of central sensitization in the spinal cord. Accumulating evidence has showed the contribution of spinal microglia to spinal LTP and pathological pain. As a key signaling of neurons-microglia interactions, the involvement of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling in pathological pain has also been investigated extensively. The present study examined whether CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling plays a role in spinal LTP. The results showed that 10-trains tetanic stimulation (100 Hz, 2s) of the sciatic nerve (TSS) produced a significant LTP of C-fiber-evoked field potentials lasting for over 3 h in the rat spinal dorsal horn. Blockade of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling with an anti-CX3CR1 neutralizing antibody (CX3CR1 AB) markedly suppressed TSS-induced LTP. Exogenous CX3CL1 significantly potentiated 3-trains TSS-induced LTP in rats. Consistently, spinal LTP of C-fiber-evoked field potentials was also induced by TSS (100 Hz, 1s, 4 trains) in all C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice. However, in CX3CR1-/- mice, TSS failed to induce LTP and behavioral hypersensitivity, confirming an essential role of CX3CR1 in spinal LTP induction. Furthermore, blockade of IL-18 or IL-23, the potential downstream factors of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling, with IL-18 BP or anti-IL-23 neutralizing antibody (IL-23 AB), obviously suppressed spinal LTP in rats. These results suggest that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling is involved in LTP of C-fiber-evoked field potentials in the rodent spinal dorsal horn.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Meningeal and other trigeminal nociceptors are thought to play important roles in the initiation of migraine headache. Currently, the only approved peripherally administered chronic migraine prophylactic drug is onabotulinumtoxinA. The purpose of this study was to determine how botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) affects naïve and sensitized meningeal nociceptors. Using electrophysiological techniques, we identified 43 C- and 36 Aδ-meningeal nociceptors, and measured their spontaneous and evoked firing before and after BoNT-A administration to intracranial dura and extracranial suture-receptive fields. As a rule, BoNT-A inhibited C- but not Aδ-meningeal nociceptors. When applied to nonsensitized C-units, BoNT-A inhibited responses to mechanical stimulation of the dura with suprathreshold forces. When applied to sensitized units, BoNT-A reversed mechanical hypersensitivity. When applied before sensitization, BoNT-A prevented development of mechanical hypersensitivity. When applied extracranially to suture branches of intracranial meningeal nociceptors, BoNT-A inhibited the mechanical responsiveness of the suture branch but not dural axon. In contrast, BoNT-A did not inhibit C-unit responses to mechanical stimulation of the dura with threshold forces, or their spontaneous activity. The study provides evidence for the ability of BoNT-A to inhibit mechanical nociception in peripheral trigeminovascular neurons. These findings suggest that BoNT-A interferes with neuronal surface expression of high-threshold mechanosensitive ion channels linked preferentially to mechanical pain by preventing their fusion into the nerve terminal membrane.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Cephalalgia
Show more