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Customer's Brand Equity and Customer Loyalty: A Study on Hotel's Conference Market



Building and properly managing brand equity has become essential for any business organizations and hospitality organizations are no exception. As such, branding has become one of the most dominant indicators in the global hotel industry performance. Customer-based brand equity is a valuable tool in brand positioning and evaluating their marketing strategy. Necessary feedback can be obtained from consumers for this evaluation will aid in: identifying service or product related problems; identifying advertising/positioning problems; and also providing feedback to the employees on where improvements need to be made. Customer-based brand equity scale gives service industry managers a structured approach for formulating their branding strategies. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the multidimensionality of brand equity construct, satisfaction and loyalty in the conference market segment within the hotel industry. The model fits well with the data. In this case, the /df was 1.83 and CFI of .987 2 indicate a good fit between the hypothetical model and the sample data. The RMSEA for the measurement model was .045. Other fit indices also point to an acceptable model fit between the model and the data (GFI = .953, AGFI = .925, CFI =.987). INTRODUCTION including safety and risk issues [4, 5]. The concept and
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... Despite its remarkable contribution to economic development across the world, the full potential of its contribution to economic growth is yet to be realised (WTTC, 2013). Ahmad and Hashim (2011) identify branding and innovation as some of the internal management tools for maximising the potential and contribution of the hospitality industry to economic growth. ...
... In order to maximise financial performance, firms in the hospitality industry ought to make market decisions that would impress and persuade existing and potential customers (Ahmad and Hashim, 2011). Meanwhile, management's ability to take such strategic decisions depends on how innovation is used to improve and sustain appeal for products and services (Shaw et al. 2012) and how branding is used to communicate the appeal of these products and services (Brakus et al. 2009;Fran and Handelshögskolan, 2011). ...
... This situation impedes maximum financial performance of firms in the hospitality industry because company image is a reflection of a firm's branding approach and strategy (Shaw et al. 2012) and is necessary for sustainable customer patronage (O'Neill et al. 2006). Besides, innovation is a strategic process for countering the negative effects of competition in the hospitality industry (Ahmad and Hashim, 2011). Increasing competition has prevented some firms from achieving growth targets (Ahmad and Hashim, 2011). ...
This work seeks to augment policy directions on single-digit inflation rates convergence. The paper resorted to both univariate and multivariate forecasting procedures to predict the inflation rates of the member countries in the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) area, on the proposed date for the introduction of the Eco. Essentially, we did not find enough evidence that the introduction of the Eco will materialize on the set date. The paper cautions against a hasty introduction of the Eco. WAMI should therefore continue to create avenues for assisting member countries to improve their macroeconomic dynamics.
...  The sequence of relationships is as follows: brand quality → brand image → brand awareness → brand value → brand loyalty Hotels need to better understand the dynamics of the technology and consider actively using social networking and user-generated content to build customer loyalty, Hotels should be more proactive and establish a continuous dialogue with the customer to protect their brand equity. [110] In CBBE, staff service is the most prominent aspect in understanding customer purchase behavior. The relationship between staff service and satisfaction shows the strongest relationship between the CBBE constructs. ...
... We included 26 studies presenting the results of empirical research on loyalty to hotel brands belonging to different hotel types and located in different parts of the world. The subjects of the research were brands of five-star hotels [91,92,95,112]; four-and five-star hotels [93,96,100,102,106,110]; three-and four-star hotels [104]; hotels classified as luxury [89,107,108,114], upscale [90,103,106,108], or middleclass [97,108]; and hotels described as well-known [111] or located in the most popular tourist destinations [94,109]. They belonged to well-known hotel chains such as Marriott [97,105,108,109,111], Hilton [97,108,109,111], Crown Plaza [89], Westin [89], Sheraton [89,95,103,108], InterContinental [89,109], Mercure [108], Holiday Inn [93,108,113], Best Western [93,108,109,113], Radisson Blue [93], Accor [109], Carlson [109], Starwood [109], Sofitel [95,108], Conrad [95], and Hyatt [95,97,103,109]. ...
... The first level of research in studies included in our systematic review was focused on identifying the factors/variables involved in directly and indirectly determining the HBL. Among the factors directly influencing the HBL were: service quality [104,108], brand satisfaction [97,99,101,104,110], customer-brand engagement [90,93], consumer-brand identification [90,93,99,100], brand commitment [93,99], brand image [101,104], price fairness [101], brand trust [108], and perceived value [104,108]. Single studies have suggested that brand loyalty was influenced by brand experience [98], brand knowledge [98], brand love [100], and integrated marketing communications [107]. ...
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The aim of this study was to analyze hotel brand loyalty (HBL) based on a systematic literature review conducted according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statements. Following these statements, we searched two databases (Scopus and Web of Science) for studies containing the term ‘hotel brand loyalty’. Additionally, the backward and forward snowballing methods were applied. Only empirical studies concerning loyalty towards brand hotels were included, resulting in 26 studies in the final review. The quality of the various studies was evaluated according to the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist. The studies included in the systematic review were analyzed in three areas: general details and study design (authorship, year of publication, type of study, research country or location, characteristic of the sample population, the purpose of stay or travel, type of hotels, hotel brands), research specifications (factors/variables, hypotheses, measurement items, data analysis), and general findings (findings related to HBL and managerial recommendations). To summarize the results, word cloud visualization was applied. For studies included in the systematic review, HBL was analyzed on two levels: in the context of factors determining the guest/tourist loyalty to the hotel brands (such as frequently mentioned brand awareness, brand image, and perceived quality) as well as those pertaining to models of brand equity. This highlighted the need for managers to perform activities in terms of brand experience and shape long-term relationships in order to strengthen loyalty to hotel brands.
... Brand equity also affect the attitude and the confidence of consumers in making purchasing decisions, either because of past experiences in using the brand, as well as proximity to the brand and the various characteristics possessed by the brand. Brand equity is empirically also a determining factor of satisfaction, trust, commitment and customer loyalty [38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46]. ...
... Some empirical findings that show the relationship between brand equity with satisfaction, trust, commitment and loyalty among customers is the result of research conducted by Ahmad and Hashim [38], Hu [21], Nam et al. [87], Nemati & Anees [44], Yeboah et al. [46], Dlačić & Kezman [40], Saeednia & Masoumi [41], Nourali et al. [45] and Katigari & Monsef [42]. ...
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It is not only a definition but a conclusive component for all the big companies. The buying factor largely depends upon the "Brand Awareness". A customer's mind can never be detached from the quality of service and the brand image which can be sensed only after the reciprocity with the service provider. A brand strategy plays a pivotal role in the competitive market for the service companies. Hence, the brand strategy is gaining more and more recognition while some other current literatures are offering quantitative researches on analogous theories. While conducting the research, a quantitative method was used through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Sobel Test technique analysis. The end product shows us brand awareness is devised from the quality of service and the brand image construction. To debate over the bonding between awareness and the perceived quality, this research paper explores the linked dwindling effects of brand image and fairness on pricing. The final findings have the conclusions such as the brand awareness has a positive impact on the brand loyalty; perceived quality creates the bridge of bonding between the brand awareness and brand loyalty; the relation between brand awareness and perceived quality is governed by the brand image and the price fairness. This research paper also mentions about the constraints and also focuses on the type of researches that can be conducted in the future on the segments such as marketing mix, cognitive aspects of behavior and the attitude of the customers. Keywords: Brand awareness, brand image, service quality, hospitality industry, brand strategy, price fairness and perceived quality. Introduction Compact Backdrop India is a sub-region of Asia, located in the southern part of the continent Asia along with some other countries like Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan and Nepal. It is considered to be one of the favorite international destinations amongst the foreigners especially the Europeans. The diversity of the country and the history of its kings and kingdoms have made this country more and more ideal place of visit.
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This study sought to examine and evaluate the elements that affect customer loyalty in Islamic commercial Banks, using a quantitative associative method and intervened by customer satisfaction variable. The distribution of survey questions was utilized to collect data. SEM PLS ver.3 Software is used to process and analyze the data. According to the findings, customer loyalty was influenced by brand equity and customer satisfaction. However, customer loyalty was not influencing customers among ICBs. Theoretically, this study implies that banking awards and client pride make it easier for consumers and potential customers to learn about the quality of ICBs’ products and services and trust them. It indicates that the public believes the services offered by ICBs to be of average quality, falling short of excellence. Therefore, ICBs must increase banking awards and client pride to make it easier for clients and prospective consumers to recognize and trust the quality and services.
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The purpose of this research are to determine the influence of staff service, self-image congruence, and brand awareness on brand satisfaction and attitudinal loyalty, and the influence of brand satisfaction on attitudinal loyalty in three star hotels at Tegal. By using non-probability sampling, this research uses 120 respondents to be the sample. This study uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Sub-Group. The results of this study are staff service, self-image congruence, and brand awareness have significant influence on brand satisfaction and attitudinal loyalty, brand satisfaction has significant influence on attitudinal loyalty.
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This paper analyses the effect of brand image, perceived quality, perceived uniqueness on loyalty of customers in the mobile telecom industry. The data for this study were gathered through face-to-face questionnaires that were distributed to target participants, who reported their consumption experience with mobile telecom services. The survey was conducted in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city with the sampling of 453 respondents. We used the Structured Equation Model to evaluate the suitability of the framework and examine the hypotheses. The results reveal that brand equity impacts directly customer satisfaction and has indirect effect on loyalty via customer satisfaction.
Conference Paper
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The current research aims to knowing the relationship between brand mark value and the consumer’s loyalty among sample of consumers living in Saida. Therefore, the objective of practical side of the research is an attempt to know the impact of the analysis of brand mark value and consumer’s loyalty using the structural equations modeling (SEM).The study, after statistical treatment using MOS.V.20 program had shown a strong positif impact for brand mark value on consumer’s loyalty by the existence of satisfaction and trust as intermediates variables.
Conference Paper
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در دنیای رقابتی امروز، مشتریان در کانون اصلی توجه شرکت ها قرار دارند و وفاداری آنان، يكي از موضوع هايي است كه امروزه از ديدگاه بسياري از مديران به ويژه در بخش خدمات، عامل اصلی کسب مزیت رقابتی سازمان ها محسوب می شود. کسب و کاری که مشتریان راضی و وفادار داشته باشد، می تواند سودآوری خویش را حفظ کند و در همین راستا یکی از کارآمد ترین راهکارها به منظور به دست آوردن رضایت و وفاداری مشتریان، توجه به کیفیت خدمات می باشد. هدف اصلی این پژوهش بررسی تاثیر کیفیت خدمات بر رضایت و وفاداری مشتریان می باشد که محقق به بررسی مقالات و یافته های منتشر شده در تحقیقات قبلی پرداخته است. نتایج نشان می دهد که کیفیت خدمات از طریق رضایت مشتری بر وفاداری خدمت اثرگذار است و کیفیت خدمات یک ورودی مهم برای رضایت مشتری محسوب می-شود.
Conference Paper
In today's competitive world, customers are at the forefront of company's attention and their loyalty is one of the issues in obtaining the competitive advantage of organizations, especially in the service sector. A business with satisfied and loyal customers can maintain its profitability. In this regard, one of the most effective ways to achieve customer satisfaction and loyalty is to pay attention to service quality. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of service quality on customer satisfaction and loyalty. The results indicate that service quality affects service loyalty through customer satisfaction and service quality is an important input for customer satisfaction.
Attending meetings and conventions currently represents the largest market segment in business travel. More than 1 million association and corporate meetings are held annually in the United States alone, yielding an estimated 85 million attendees who spend more than US$75 billion annually. This paper provides an overview of the research extended in the areas of associations' location choice and participation decision-making variables of the attendees. Two models are proposed. One addresses the interactions and interrelationships among associations, host locations, and attendees. The second model addresses the convention participation decision-making process by potential attendees. The influencing variables are then categorized into personal/business, association/conference, location, and intervening opportunities.
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Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data Alan Agresti Statistical Science Now has its first coordinated manual of methods for analyzing ordered categorical data. This book discusses specialized models that, unlike standard methods underlying nominal categorical data, efficiently use the information on ordering. It begins with an introduction to basic descriptive and inferential methods for categorical data, and then gives thorough coverage of the most current developments, such as loglinear and logit models for ordinal data. Special emphasis is placed on interpretation and application of methods and contains an integrated comparison of the available strategies for analyzing ordinal data. This is a case study work with illuminating examples taken from across the wide spectrum of ordinal categorical applications. 1984 (0 471-89055-3) 287 pp. Regression Diagnostics Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity David A. Belsley, Edwin Kuh and Roy E. Welsch This book provides the practicing statistician and econometrician with new tools for assessing the quality and reliability of regression estimates. Diagnostic techniques are developed that aid in the systematic location of data points that are either unusual or inordinately influential; measure the presence and intensity of collinear relations among the regression data and help to identify the variables involved in each; and pinpoint the estimated coefficients that are potentially most adversely affected. The primary emphasis of these contributions is on diagnostics, but suggestions for remedial action are given and illustrated. 1980 (0 471-05856-4) 292 pp. Applied Regression Analysis Second Edition Norman Draper and Harry Smith Featuring a significant expansion of material reflecting recent advances, here is a complete and up-to-date introduction to the fundamentals of regression analysis, focusing on understanding the latest concepts and applications of these methods. The authors thoroughly explore the fitting and checking of both linear and nonlinear regression models, using small or large data sets and pocket or high-speed computing equipment. Features added to this Second Edition include the practical implications of linear regression; the Durbin-Watson test for serial correlation; families of transformations; inverse, ridge, latent root and robust regression; and nonlinear growth models. Includes many new exercises and worked examples.
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