Conference PaperPDF Available

Modeling for Analyzing Impacts of Rapidly Growing Groundwater Exploitation in CanTho city, Vietnam

Authors:
StraSS
Special coordinated training program for
Sustainability Leaders and Sustainability 'Meisters'
Center of Sustainability Science
Sponsored by:
Funds for integrated promotion of social system reform
and research and development
First
Sustainability
Environmental
Leader Summit
Sharing experience and knowledge in
Pursuit of a sustainable future.
Thursday 21
st
, November 2013
Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
<PROCEEDINGS>
0
Background+and+Concept
In these modern times, the world we are living in is plagued with diverse
problems many of which either directly or indirectly have an impact on the
surrounding environment. Issues such as climate change and global warming have
far reaching effects, and can only be solved through a systematic approach that
would involve several generations. Therefore, in the interest of continuity,
particular focus needs to be placed on the young people, on their engagement and
more importantly on their leadership. Sustainability Leaders should have the
ability to define problems threatening human survival and environmental
durability while employing a comprehensive point of view. Cooperation with varied
stakeholders is another essential part, but nonetheless, the ability to propose
expedient solutions and execute them in order to solve problems from a holistic
approach is the precondition to becoming a Leader.
The Japanese government, in its wisdom, initiated the idea of forming
Environmental Leaders under its university level system. Under the auspices of
the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), a
special fund was setup to stimulate selected universities to pioneer this endeavor.
Over the years, this program has seen hundreds of enthusiastic students
graduating from these universities with the capacity to change the conventional
“business as usual” thinking.
In 2012, a select group of Environmental Leaders Alumni met at the 49th
Environmental Engineering Forum at Kyoto University and several dynamic
discussions were held. It was concluded, that it is necessary to encourage and
facilitate forums where exchanges can be made among Environmental Leaders
Alumni to examine emerging issues and to enable networking.
As a result, the alumni of the Environmental Leader Program of Hokkaido
University decided to initiate such an encounter under the theme “Sharing
experience and knowledge in pursuit of a sustainable future” with the main
objectives being to share experiences and benefits obtained from Environmental
Leader Programs, interact with fellow colleagues (past and present) and establish
better networking among alumni in the future. It is believed that this initiative
will have a valuable contribution and serve as an extension of the original vision of
the Japanese government.
We are thrilled to present to you this unique opportunity to be founders of the
Sustainability Leaders Alumni Association that will serve as the vehicle for
networking and determining the way forward. The founding members will have
the prestigious opportunity to give shape to the organization and decide on its
format and activities.
The+Organizing+Commi6ee
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CONCLUSIONS
The
Satoyama
Agriculture Development Tool:
can recognize the aspects of
Satoyama
that communities may already be practicing and classify them based on their conformity to the five principles of
Satoyama
.
.
is capable of adjusting and modifying communities to confirm more closely to the principles of
Satoyama
.
is capable of embarking on new projects that consider
Satoyama
as its foundation principle.
REFERENCES
¾ Duraiappah, A.; K. Nakamura; K. Takeuchi; M. Watanabe and M. Nishi (2012),
Satoyama - Satoumi Ecosystems and Human Well-Being
, United Nations University Press, Japan
¾ The International Partnership for the Satoyama Initiative (2010),
Satoyama Initiative
,Tokyo, Japan
From Peasants to Royalty: The Internationalization of Satoyama-Satoumi
Sustainable Agricultural Development
Devon Dublin, D2, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University , Japan Tutor: Noriyuki Tanaka
INTRODUCTION
The Satoyama Initiative has been successfully launched under the auspices of the Japanese government to revitalize it locally and promote it internationally. This
study aims to provide a developmental model for promoting the introduction of effective and sustainable agricultural practices that are tailored to suit the local
culture and existing traditional knowledge based on the five principles of the Satoyama concept. Research was conducted in the Hill tribe communities in Chiang
Mai, Thailand which yielded results that show that in spite of the difference in landscapes, the five principles of Satoyama can be achieved. We posit that these
results provide a viable entry point for the promotion of Satoyama if it is to be used as a developmental model for the introduction of new, effective and sustainable
agricultural practices that are tailored to suit the local culture and existing traditional knowledge, with a view of building sustainable indigenous communities
globally.
Research Question:
Can the Satoyama - Satoumi concept be applied globally as a tool to obtain sustainable indigenous communities?
The O rigin and Evolution of
Satoyama
(Suzu, Noto, Ishikawa, Japan)
Figures 1-4 from top left showing charcoal production, top right salt production, Figure 5 above Interviews and figure 6 below questionnaire survey (D. Dublin)
bottom left sustainable use of forestry and bottom right pottery making (D. Dublin) .
T he
Satoyama
Agric ultural Development Tool
.
Figures 8 Development of
Satoyama
tool Figure 14 Figure 9 Classification of Communities based on their conformity to
Satoyama
principles
Results indicate that
S
at oya
m
a
developed based on three main
factors, namely:
1. Remoteness
2. Natural disasters
3. Poverty
Interviews resulted in the conclusion that:
It was a natural evolution to survive in a sustainable way.
Would have materialized in any given location and
landscape.
Is non-existent without agriculture.
Diagnostic
Questionnaire
Collect data that is
pertinent to the analysis of
the five principles of
S
atoya
m
a
.
Identification
Key and/Index
Characterization and
profiling of the various
categories of communities.
Development
Model
Modus operandi
for
extension workers and
professionals.
Partial
Strong in 1
principle
In Transition
Strong in 2-3
principles
Complete
Strong in 4-5
principles
Communities
living in
harmony
with nature
Resource use
based on
carrying
capacity and
resilience of
environment
Cyclic use of
natural
resources
Contributions
to local socio-
economies
Collaborative
management of
natural
resources
Recognition of
the importance
and value of
local cultures
and traditions
Figure 7 Satoyama Structure (The Satoyama Initiative)
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Calculations:
Net primary production (NPP) =
above ground + below ground plant
biomass
Organic matter decomposition
(OMD)=COЇĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶĨƌŽŵƌŽŽƚ
BRA@GFBF<:9B6:SBC:<Q<
CHЉĂŶĚEЇKŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚďLJĐůŽƐĞĚ
AH6S7B9<SB:H8F
Net biome production (NBP) = C
input (NPP + manure) ± C loss (OMD
+ Harvest)
GWP (kgCO
2
eq./ha) = CH
4
emission
(kgCH
4
/ha) 25 + N
2
O emission
(kgN
2
O/ha) 298± NBP (kgCO
2
/ha)
(IPCC, 2007)
Fig. 1. Study are a
Fig. 3 closed chambe r for G H G
measurement
Fig. 2 C arbon balanc e
Shizunai livestock farm, southern
+RNNDLGR-DSDQÛ¶1Û¶(
Mean annual precipitation 1331 mm
and temperature 8.3 ºC (-14.9-28.9)
Soil: Vitric Andosols
Corn (
Zea
m
ays
L.) field
<
<
K)9?530&+:#
Increased livestock production has led to excess amounts of
manure leading to environmental problems like odor,
nitrate leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Maeda
et al., 2012)
Cost of chemical fertilizer increasing
Manure can be cheap source of nutrients for crops
Proper management of manure and fertilizer can mitigate
GHG emissions and global warming potential (GWP)
Challenge: increasing food production without harming the
environment
IPCC, 2007. Land use, Land-use Change and Forestry. A Special Report of the IPCC.
Maeda K., Hanajima D., Morioka R., Toyoda S., and Osada T. 2013: Mitigation of greenhouse gas
emission from the cattle manure composting process by use of a bulking agent. Japan Soil Sci.
Plant Nutr., 59,96-106
I thank Professor Hatano and Dr. Shimizu for their guidance and support.
Application of manure reduced global warming potential and
increased carbon sequestration
Combining manure and fertilizer can increase net primary
production, carbon sequestration and mitigate global warming
potential from agriculture.
Figure 4: G lobal war ming potential and ha rvest
08<4)+&3$#
L',.#4)+&3$#
Manure and fertilizer application did not show effect on methane
(CHЉͿĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ͘<
28:H<S6CG9B<6CF<=B9:?@?TB9<6PP@?A6:?8C<?CA9B6NBF<C?:98GN<8R?FB<
;EЇKͿĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ͘There were significant differences in annual NЇO
emissions among plots (p<0.001). NЇO emission was significantly
highest in MF10 followed by MF05, F, M and CT plot.
Fertilizer increased NPP but did not increase OMD
Manure increased OMD but not NPP
Manure significantly increased NBP (p<0.001) and reduced GWP
(p<0.01).
Chemical fertilizer did not increase C sequestration, despite
increasing NPP and also did not reduce GWP.
Net GHG emissions were highest in 2010 followed by 2011 and
2012. This was due higher rainfall in growing season and
temperature in similar order.
Combination of manure and fertilizer increased NPP and NBP and
reduced GWP.
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Fertilizer N
Mg C/ha Kg N/ha
Mg C/ha
Kg N/ha
CT 0 0 0 0 0
F 0 0 0 0 104
M 7.3 335 6.8 440 0
7.3 335 6.8 440 104
0 0 6.8 440 104
Table 1: H istor y of nutr ie nt manageme nt of plots
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Liliana GONZALEZ*
*Department of Urban Engineering, The University of Tokyo
1. I N T R O D U C T IO N
GPR D* ± A PI E L** Unit 2013 was the forth Unit of this type and aimed to conduct
a series of surveys and field work in which participants identify a specific situation
related to sustainable urban development towards green city in GPRD area,
especially in Guangzhou city in China.
*Greater Pearl River Delta, **Asian Program for Incubation of Environmental Leaders
GPRD Unit 2013
Participants
Target A re a
Hypothesis
Social Survey
Guangzhou city seems to be loosing its role a central city in the region due to the
rapid growth of cities in GPRD area (Xu, 2003). Besides, having suffered an
accelerated urbanization and industrialization, a series of social and environmental
challenges became a concern, and phenomena such as urban formation, industry
relocation, economic development, social equity and environmental protection
became part of government main concerns. Measures to make Guangzhou city not
only competitive but sustainable have been taken: Developing an competitive
University complex to attract younger generations is one of those.
!
2. UNI T D E V E L OP M E N T
The University of Tokyo
UT
Japan
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
HKUST
Hong Kong
Soeul National University
SNU
Korea
Sun Yat-sen University
SYSU
China
A group of
31 people
, includying students
(environmental leader candidates) from different
backgrounds, experts and staffs joined the Unit
The future gene ration will probably leave the city if the
environme ntal quality remains bad
Location of the University will affect the students perception on
environmental condition
Background of the students will also affect their perception on
environmental condition
Willingness-To Stay of the young generation in Guangzhou
depends on the environmental quality
Guangzhou city has invested (capital and land) in providing a complete
infrastructure to promote high level education throughout the construction of the
³+LJKHU
Education Mega
&HQWHU´
aiming to have high educated people working for
the city. However, Low environmental quality affects the decision of people to stay or
to leave one city (Deyan, 2012) (Koubi V et al, 2011)
Bac kground
3. E N V IR O N M E N TA L L E A D ERSH IP
Face-to-F ac e
Questionnaire
Background (Major, University, Home Town)
Reason to study in Guangzhou
Overall Satisfaction about Guangzhou
Main factors to choose a city as working and living place.
Loc ation
Part I: Sun Yat-sen University (City Center) ± 63 Respondents
Part II: Higher Education Mega Center ± 123 Respondents
Part II I: Jinan University (City Center) ± 60 Respondents
Target
Population
University Students (Any Level/Major)
Findings
0%
50%
100%
Transportation
Industry
Household
Facilities
Construction
Energy
Generation
Others
Air Pollution
Water Pollution
Noise
Solid Waste
Salary
Environment
Family
Facilities
Female
Male
Industry was relocated and
therefore, it is not the cause of
pollution.
There is a misunderstanding regarding the sources
of pollution among students which also suggests a
lack of knowledge in the matter.
Willingness
to Stay
Perception
Air/Water
Pollution
Survey
Location
Length of
Stay
Hometown
Major
Gender
!
Young generations are becoming more aware of
environmental issues and consider themselves
affected by pollution physical and emotionally.
Women seem to be more attracted by a healthy
environment and family that by a higher salary.
Among the factors which could affect the willingness to
stay, the perception of air or/and water pollution have
statistical correlation as well as the location. As people
were in the city center more exposed to such
environmental conditions, the willingness to stay
decreases. Same if people felt water or air pollution
were affecting their lives either physical or emotionally.
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0;>F;+G<F=CE+>?+=;@+AC?=+>AHCE=<B=+=C+I>M@+<+F>=NL+
Te am Wor k : Consensus and shared vision were reached despite the different
nationalities, majors, backgrounds and interests. Everybody has a role depending on
his/her strengths.
H umanity: Language barriers were not an obstacle but a challenge to over come
making the experience even more gratifying.
Conviction powe r: Building confidence to persuade through presentation and
supported discussions.
Recursive : Use the available tools to reach a goal and propose alternative solutions.
1. Identifying the issue Æ Examined *35'¶V urban development and related
environmental loadings and quality of life.
2. F inding the c auses Æ Started with a set of hypothesis and established an
appropriate methodology to conduct social survey and gather the required data.
3. A nalyzing and proposing Æ Identified significant data and analyzed results in
the context. How can this results could be used to support the hypothesis?
All of this was possible by using diffe rent resources:
Le ctures, G IS, surveys, inte rviews.
Towards a shared vision
Developed Skills
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Bioene rgy Recove ry from Sewage Sludge
by Two Stage Anae robic Digestion Process
+(,-#-'./$(0'/12."345('45 (67*-/8%9-(
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Sludge recycling
Biomass supplement
Sewage
Sludge
High removal
rate of organic
compounds
High biogas
recovery
Merit of recirculation of digested sludge of second reactor
Dilution of high concentrated substrate
Stable operation by providing N and alkalinity and adjusting pH
Continuous providing microorganisms which participate in digestion
Acceleration of hydrolysis by thermophilic reactor
Schematic of Experiment setup
Characteristics of sewage sludge in this study
Operation condition
Compared with single stage digestion, removal efficiency of organic compounds increased by 20%, biogas production
efficiencies increased 1.33 times and 1.31 times by feeding with waste activated sludge and primary sludge, in two-stage
circulating anaerobic digestion process.
Two-stage anaerobic digestion process was shown to be useful in bioenergy recovery from sewage sludge.
Different operation performance were achieved when primary sludge and excess sludge were fed for two-stage process.
Solid reduction, Bioenergy production
Comparison of two-stage circulation process
with singe stage anaerobic digestion
Mesophilic
Reactor
Thermophilic
Reactor
Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion
1 Operation performance (feeding with WAS)
2 Comparison of biogas production
3 Removal efficiency of organics
PS
82.8%ĺ11.8%
WAS
88.6%ĺ35.6%
WAS
Rates removed in each stage to the
whole amount of solid removal
Organics degradation
efficiency increased by 20%.
1st stage : a large role in
hydrolysis of solids
4 Evaluation of COD mass balance
Stable operations
were achieved
in all reactors.
VFA was
accumulated in
the reactors
feeding with PS.
Evaluation of biogas production and solid reduction by two-stage
digestion of primary sludge(PS) and waste activated sludge(WAS)
Objective
Biogas production increased
drastically by 30%.
Gas production performance
were different depending
on different sludge.
Sustainable Energy Use
Waste Management
1st stage 2nd stage
Reactor Type
Temperature
!$-.&"=$ %:%/
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<-#"=$ %:%/
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<-#"=$ %:%/
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A(5'B# AC(5'B#
circulation ratio
@
Two-stage and circulation process
Single stage
;D!,
),!
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whole process : 30 days
E4%8 FD
GHD
=) >+CI?C+@A >+JJ?C+CJ
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;'.7"$B5.'8- 2QR @N+A?A+S M+L?C+L
R%=%5 2QR >+J?C+J N+A?C+A
Hydrolysis was accelerated
by two-stage anaerobic digestion
High methane gas conversion
VW
9':/-&
Difficult to
retain youth in
small cities
Depopulation
& aging society
Underutilization
of available
resources
Stagnation of
local economy
Reduction in
tax income
Deterioration of
public
infrastructure
Rethinking Sustainability of Northern Hokkaido, Japan:
Experiences from ECOSUS Summer 2013
Ines Septi Arsiningtyas, Christopher Mulanda Aura, Niti Pitakteeratham, Amarasiri Mohan,
Mukumbuta Ikabongo, Yoko Miyabe, Jin Shengze.
StraSS Program of Sustainability Center Hokkaido University, Corresponding mail: inessepti@gmail.com
18
23
22
21
20
19
Leaving Sapporo
- Historical village of Hokkaido
- Hybrid subsurface constructed wetland
system
Horonobe town
- Horonobe underground research center
- Meeting the Mayor of Nakagawa
- Nakagawa eco-museum center
- Teshio Nakagawa experimental forest
Sarobetsu and Wakkanai
- Sarobetsu wetland center
- Meeting Mayor of Wakkanai city
South Wakkanai
- Snow cooling storage
- Mega solar plant
- Wind farm, bioenergy center
Wassamu
- Agricultural revitalization center
- Reservoir for irrigation
- Meeting with a revitalization group
member.
Meeting respective
mayors and other
important officials.
Obtaining knowledge
through lectures
and discussions.
Site visits to major
natural resource
environments.
Takikawa city – back to Sapporo
- City tour
- Visited ‘Recyclean’
- Meeting with Vice Mayor
“Meeting the needs of the present generation without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
needs” – Brundtland Commission (1987)
Nakagawa
Takikawa
Wassamu
Wakkanai
!Strengths of Northern Hokkaido
Rich natural resources: Forests, Wind,
Snow, Rivers, Ocean, Wetlands
Renewable energy resources: Wind
mills, Biomass, Mega solar power
Farm products: Potatoes, Pumpkin,
Rice, Cabbage, Tomatoes
Population: 5.69million
Ageing population: 1.41million
Land area: 83.451km
2
Average tepmperature: 9.8
Population density: 66people/km
2
Concept of Sustainability
Northern Hokkaido
!"#$%&"'(")*+,
-&.$()/,!.&"&'/,
Sustainable
Development
Problems identification
Resistance
to change
Solutions
Incentives
Increment in
birth rate
New
investors/
businesses
Collaborations
Major cities
Management and
markets
Universities &
Research
institute
Public-private
partnerships
Education
Ethics (Flexibility
to change)
New
technology
Advertisement
Information of city and
facilities
Regulation
New regulations
supporting sustainable
business
Land
ownership
Improvement
Current
products
(value
addition)
Forest
revitalization
Problems identification and suggested solutions
Suggestions
Think
More!!
ECOSUS Summer course provided an insight towards the wholesomeness definition of sustainability based on an integrated field experiences and interactions with
various grass-root officials.
The critical thinking skills acquired enabled us to suggest possible solutions to turn Northern Hokkaido into a sustainable society.
Rethinking of sustainable use of resources, adapting to current global changes and accepting new things/ideas will make Northern Hokkaido sustainable.
Conclusion - impression
Acknowledgement: Mayors and officials from cities visited, organizations and companies whose sites we visited and CENSUS staffs.
A field training program: *Education Course of Sustainability (ECOSUS)
Summer, August 17-27, 2013, part of StraSS program.
Focus of the course: “resilience building on a local scale “ in the Northern
area of Hokkaido.
ECOSUS process: field trip & group discussions-proposal.
Experiences from *ECOSUS Summer 2013
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9':/-&
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ECOSUS
CHINA
(Hangzhou)
Sept. 15-25
2013
SUSTAINABILITY
Chinese
Agriculture
Chinese Silk
Industries
Chinese
Bamboo
Industries
Precision
Farming
Leisure
Agriculture
Rural
Sustainability
Fishery
Resources
Fujian
Bamboo
Forests- Case
Study
China National Silk
Museum
Zhongnanbaicaoyuan Eco Park/
Bamboo Museum
West Lake, Hangzhou
China National Tea
Museum
Nanxun Ancient Town,
Huzhou
*Ankit Ravankar, Pratiwi Putri, Rachael Acuram Uson, Sabry, Riko Sato & Traore Arafan
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=-:'B(G')
We the participants of the First Environmental Leader Summit held at
Hokkaido University Campus, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, on the
Twenty-first day of November, Two Thousand and Thirteen, after
having discussions and deliberations, hereby adopt the following
resolutions:
1. To continue seeking avenues for the sharing of experiences and
benefits obtained from our respective Environmental Leader
Programs.
2. To continue to facilitate the interaction between past, present and
future alumni of our respective Environmental Leader Programs.
3. To continue networking among the Environmental Leader Programs
within Japan and even further afield.
Further, the alumni of the Center of Sustainability Studies (CENSUS)
agree to take the leading role in facilitating networking via social
media and the internet and to share the proceedings of this summit
with all Environmental Leader Programs in Japan.
Further, the participants and representatives of the various
Environmental Leader Programs in Japan agree to take the initiative
in inviting and facilitating the integration of alumni of their respective
programs to join in the network provided for by the alumni of
CENSUS.
Further, we agree that this summit should be a regular event and
should be replicated in the future.
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62
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63
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