Marine Envenomations

Department of Emergency Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 1830 East Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address: .
Emergency medicine clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 0.78). 02/2014; 32(1):223-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.emc.2013.09.009
Source: PubMed


This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures.

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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of digital ischaemia in a 31-year-old man who presented with sudden hand numbness, swelling, and cyanosis 4 days after a jellyfish sting. This is a rare complication of jellyfish sting, characterised by a delayed but rapid downhill course. Despite serial monitoring with prompt fasciotomy and repeated debridement, he developed progressive ischaemia in multiple digits with gangrenous change. He subsequently underwent major reconstructive surgery and aggressive rehabilitation. Although jellyfish stings are not uncommon, no severe jellyfish envenomation has been reported in the past in Hong Kong and there has not been any consensus on the management of such injuries. This is the first local case report of jellyfish sting leading to serious hand complications. This case revealed that patients who sustain a jellyfish sting deserve particular attention to facilitate early detection of complications and implementation of therapy.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris, a synonym of Nemopilema nomurai, which has often bloomed in the China Sea in recent years, is becoming an increasing threat to human health and life as a result of its strong toxicity. Each year, hundreds of thousands of people were stung, especially in the high season, and the victims suffered itch, edema, myalgia, dyspnea, hypotension, shock and even death. Here, we present the in-depth analysis of the in vivo toxicity of the venom from the jellyfish S. meleagris by using both an acute toxicological approach and pathological analyses. The venom showed an LD50 of approximately 2.92 μg/g body weight in mice following an intravenous injection and caused renal glomerular swelling, renal vesicle stricture, renal tubules dilatation, hepatic blood sinusoid dilatation, pulmonary edema and malignant pleural effusion. The pathological sections analysis showed that the kidney and liver were significantly damaged, but the heart, spleen and stomach had no observed changes. Additionally, the hemanalysis showed an increase of white blood cells (WBC), middle cells (Mid), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urine nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid (UA) in the blood. Moreover, the mice also displayed convulsions, mouth bleeding, piloerection, dyspnea and death after the injection of the venom. In conclusion, this venom has a strong toxicity to the kidney of the mice and the acute renal failure might be one of the most important factors for the death after a severe sting. Hopefully, the present study will provide a significant reference for the treatment of stings by the jellyfish S. meleagris in the future.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Toxicon
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    ABSTRACT: Marine animals represent a good model for toxicological investigations, being a source of novel bioactive substances considered as a suitable research tool. Among stinging animals, Cnidarians possess specialized cells, termed nematocytes, containing an inverted tubule and toxins, synergistically responsible for mechanisms of defence and predation. Such compounds include proteins and secondary metabolites with toxic action. To elucidate the effects of Cnidarian venom upon cell targets, this short review reports on the biological activity of venom extracted from nematocysts of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, whose "blooming" is well known in the Mediterranean Sea. The effects on erythrocytes and on cultured cells, from both mammals and invertebrates, along with in vivo studies, are here being considered. What is known about the biological activity of Pelagia noctiluca crude venom accounts for a notable effect at different levels, suggesting that cell damage may be due to a pore formation mechanism on cell membrane target leading to osmotic lysis, and /or to oxidative stress events. In this light, the study of venom activity may contribute to i) validate suitable biological assays for venom testing; ii) elucidate cell function features; iii) understand the pathophysiology of envenoming.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry(Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Central Nervous System Agents)
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