Distinct Effects of Duration of Untreated Psychosis on Brain Cortical Activities in Different Treatment Phases of Schizophrenia: A Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.
Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been shown to be associated with both poor short-term and long-term outcomes in schizophrenia. Even so, few studies have used functional neuroimaging to investigate DUP in schizophrenia. In the present study, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate the influence of DUP on brain functions during a verbal fluency test (VFT) in patients with schizophrenia.
A total of 62 patients with schizophrenia were included. They were categorized into either short treatment (<6months, n=33) or long treatment (>6months, n=29) groups based on their duration of treatment. Hemodynamic changes over the frontotemporal regions during a VFT were measured using multi-channel NIRS. We examined the associations between DUP and hemodynamic changes in each group to explore if there were different effects of DUP on brain cortical activity at different treatment durations.
In the long treatment group, we found significant associations between a longer DUP and decreased cortical activity approximately at the left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right precentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral middle temporal gyrus, whereas no associations between DUP and brain cortical activity were observed in the short treatment group.
Our results indicated that longer DUP may be associated with decreased level of cortical activities over the frontotemporal regions in the long-term. Early detection and intervention of psychosis that shortens DUP might help to improve the long-term outcomes in patients with schizophrenia.
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- "equivalent dose but also the duration of treatment (Chou et al., 2014). Our investigation showed that there were no significant correlations between chlorpromazine equivalent dose and brain activation. "
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ABSTRACT: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been applied to examine the possible functional alternations during the performance of cognitive tasks in schizophrenia. With this technique, previous studies have observed that patients with schizophrenia are often associated with reduced brain activations in the prefrontal cortex during the verbal fluency task (VFT) of English version or Japanese version. However, it remains unclear whether there are the brain functional impairment for Chinese-speaking patients with schizophrenia. In this study, we designed a Chinese version VFT and performed a multichannel NIRS study in a large group of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We investigated the brain activations during the task period of the Chinese version VFT within schizophrenia group and healthy group, respectively, and compared their relative changes between two groups. Our results confirmed that Chinese-speaking patients with schizophrenia had the significant lower brain activations in the prefrontal cortex and superior temporal cortex when compared with healthy controls. Such findings based on NIRS data provided us the reliable evidences about the brain functional deficits in Chinese-speaking patients with schizophrenia.
Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Available from: Po-Han Chou
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Although recent studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls did not differ in the speed of age-related decline in cortical thickness and performances on cognitive tests, hemodynamic changes assessed by functional neuroimaging remain unclear. This study investigated age effects on regional brain cortical activity to determine whether there is similar age-related
decline in cortical activity as those observed in cortical thickness and cognitive test performance.
A total of 109 patients with schizophrenia (age range: 16–59 y) and 106 healthy controls (age range: 16–59 y) underwent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while performing a verbal fluency test (VFT). Group comparison of cortical activity was examined using 2-tailed t tests, adopting the false discovery rate method. The relationship between age and cortical activity was investigated using correlational and multiple
regression analyses, adjusting for potential confounding variables. A 2-way ANOVA was conducted to investigate differences in the age effects between diagnostic groups.
The patient group exhibited significantly decreased cortical activity in several regions of the frontotemporal cortices. However, slopes of age-dependent decreases in cortical activity were similar between patients and healthy individuals at the bilateral frontotemporal regions.
Our study showed no significant between-group differences in the age-related decline in cortical activity, as measured by NIRS, over the frontotemporal regions during a VFT. The results of our study may indicate a decrease in cortical activity in a relatively limited period around illness onset rather than continuously progressing over the course of the illness.
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ABSTRACT: Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems have grown in popularity in the last years, and has shown itself as a useful tool in developing portable and convenient BCI systems. The purpose of this review paper is to highlight the recent developments, applications, and challenges that research groups have achieved in the field of fNIRS-BCI. We will show how fNIRS can be paired with another modality (i.e. EEG, fTCD, etc.) to drastically improve classification accuracy. From there, we will discuss the recent achievements in classification techniques researchers have had with fNIRS or a combined fNIRS modality. Finally, we will look at how fNIRS-BCI systems are used to enhance human-robot interactions and assistive technologies. Throughout our review paper, we will note challenges groups have had with their studies, as to provide a framework for future research topics for the fNIRS-BCI community. © 2014, Korean Society of Medical and Biological Engineering and Springer.
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