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Wound healing potential of some medicinal plants

Authors:
  • Shiv Bali Singh Group of Educational and Training Institute College of Pharmacy, Fatehpur, UP India
  • ABESIT College of Pharmacy, Ghaziabad

Abstract

Wounds are inescapable events in life. Wounds may arise due to physical, chemical or microbial agents. Healing is survival mechanism and represents an attempt to maintain normal anatomical structure and function. Wound healing is a process by which tissue regeneration occurs. Plants and their extracts have immense potential for the management and treatment of wounds. The phyto-medicines for wound healing are not only cheap and affordable but are also purportedly safe as hyper sensitive reactions are rarely encountered with the use of these agents. These natural agents induce healing and regeneration of the lost tissue by multiple mechanisms. In this review we have made an attempt to give an insight into the different plants having potential wound healing properties which could be beneficial in therapeutic practice.
Volume 9, Issue 1, July – August 2011; Article-026 ISSN 0976 – 044X
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research
Page
136
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Gulzar Alam*, Manjul Pratap Singh, Anita Singh
Kailash Institute of Pharmacy and Management, GIDA, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: gulzar_alam@rediffmail.com
Accepted on: 08-04-2011; Finalized on: 11-07-2011.
ABSTRACT
Wounds are inescapable events in life. Wounds may arise due to physical, chemical or microbial agents. Healing is survival
mechanism and represents an attempt to maintain normal anatomical structure and function. Wound healing is a process by which
tissue regeneration occurs. Plants and their extracts have immense potential for the management and treatment of wounds. The
phyto-medicines for wound healing are not only cheap and affordable but are also purportedly safe as hyper sensitive reactions are
rarely encountered with the use of these agents. These natural agents induce healing and regeneration of the lost tissue by multiple
mechanisms. In this review we have made an attempt to give an insight into the different plants having potential wound healing
properties which could be beneficial in therapeutic practice.
Keywords: Wounds, Wound healing, Herbs, Phyto-medicines.
INTRODUCTION
India has a rich flora that is widely distributed throughout
the country. Herbal medicines have been the basis of
treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological
conditions in traditional methods practiced such as
Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Medicinal components from
plants play an important role in conventional as well as
western medicine. Plant derived drugs have been a part
of the evolution of human, healthcare for thousands of
years. Plant based drugs were commonly used in India
and China. Today a substantial number of drugs are
developed from plants which are active against a number
of diseases. The majority of these involve the isolation of
the active ingredient (chemical compound) found in a
particular medicinal plant and its subsequent
modification. One of the survey conducted by the WHO
reports that more than 80% of the world’s population still
depends upon the traditional medicines for various
diseases. In the developed countries 25 percent of the
medical drugs are based on plants and their derivatives
and the use of medicinal plants is well known among the
indigenous people in rural areas of many developing
countries1-5.
A wound may be defined as a break in the epithelial
integrity of the skin or may also be defined as a loss or
breaking of cellular and anatomic or functional continuity
of living tissue. According to the Wound Healing Society,
wounds are physical injuries that result in an opening or
break of the skin that cause disturbance in the normal
skin anatomy and function. They result in the loss of
continuity of epithelium with or without the loss of
underlying connective tissue6,7.
Current estimates indicate the worldwide nearly 6 million
people suffer from chronic wounds. Unhealed wounds
constantly produce inflammatory mediators that produce
pain and swelling at the wound site. Wounds are a
substrate for infection and prolong the recovery of
injured patients. Chronic wounds may even lead to
multiple organ failure of death of the patients. Wounds
are the physical injuries that result in an opening or
breaking of the skin and appropriate method for healing
of wounds is essential for the restoration of disrupted
anatomical continuity and disturbed functional status of
the skin8-10.
CLASSIFICATION OF WOUNDS
Wounds are classified as open and closed wound on the
underlying cause of wound creation and acute and
chronic wounds on the basis of physiology of wound
healing.
Open wounds
In this case blood escapes the body and bleeding is clearly
visible. It is further classified as: Incised wound,
Laceration or tear wound, Abrasions or superficial
wounds, Puncture wounds, Penetration wounds and
gunshot wounds11.
Closed wounds
In closed wounds blood escapes the circulatory system
but remains in the body. It includes Contusion or bruises,
heamatomas or blood tumor, Crush injury etc.
Acute wounds
Acute wound is a tissue injury that normally precedes
through an orderly and timely reparative process that
result in sustained restoration of anatomic and functional
integrity. Acute wounds are usually caused by cuts or
surgical incisions and complete the wound healing
process within the expected time frame12.
Chronic wounds
Chronic wounds are wounds that have failed to progress
through the normal stages of healing and therefore enter
a state of pathologic inflammation chronic wounds either
WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF SOME MEDICINAL
PLANTS
Review
Article
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require a prolonged time to heal or recur frequently.
Local infection, hypoxia, trauma, foreign bodies and
systemic problems such as diabetes mellitus,
malnutrition, immunodeficiency or medications are the
most frequent causes of chronic wounds13,14.
MECHANISM OF WOUND HEALING
The response to injury, either surgically or traumatically
induced, is immediate and the damaged tissue or wound
then passes through three phases in order to affect a final
repair:
The inflammatory phase
The fibroplastic phase
The remodelling phase
The inflammatory phase prepares the area for healing
and immobilizes the wound by causing it to swell and
become painful, so that movement becomes restricted.
The fibroplastic phase rebuilds the structure, and then
the remodelling phase provides the final form
The Inflammatory phase
The inflammatory phase starts immediately after the
injury that usually last between 24 and 48 hrs and may
persist for up to 2 weeks in some cases The inflammatory
phase launches the haemostatic mechanisms to
immediately stop blood loss from the wound site.
Clinically recognizable cardinal sign of inflammation,
rubor, calor, tumor, dolor and function-laesa appear as
the consequence. This phase is characterized by
vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation to induce blood
clotting and subsequently vasodilatation and
phagocytosis to produce inflammation at the wound
site15.
The fibroplastic phase
The second phase of wound healing is the fibroplastic
phase that lasts upto 2 days to 3 weeks after the
inflammatory phase. This phase comprises of three steps
viz., granulation, contraction and epithelialisation. In the
granulation step fibroblasts form a bed of collagen and
new capillaries are produced. Fibroblast produces a
variety of substances essential for wound repair including
glycosaminoglycans and collagen. Under the step of
contraction wound edges pull together to reduces the
defects in the third step epithelial tissues are formed over
the wound site16.
The Remodeling phase
This phase last for 3 weeks to 2 years. New collagen is
formed in this phase. Tissue tensile strength is increased
due to intermolecular cross-linking of collagen via
vitamin-C dependent hydroxylation. The scar flattens and
scar tissues become 80% as strong as the original17,18.
The wound healing activities of plants have since been
explored in folklore. Many Ayurvedic herbal plants have a
very important role in the process of wound healing.
Plants are more potent healers because they promote the
repair mechanisms in the natural way. Extensive research
has been carried out in the area of wound healing
management through medicinal plants. Herbal medicines
in wound management involve disinfection, debridement
and providing a moist environment to encourage the
establishment of the suitable environment for natural
healing process19.
MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH SIGNIFICANT WOUND
HEALING ACTIVITY
Recent studies with significant findings for wound healing
characteristic of some medicinal plants are emphasized
here.
Rubia cordifolia Linn.
Rubia cordifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) also known as,
Manjistha, Indian madder, distributed throughout India.
The roots of this plant are of high medicinal value and are
recognized as official. Rubia cordifolia has a variety of
uses such as blood purifier, immunomodulator, anti-
inflammatory and antioxidant. It is helpful in treating skin
diseases, in blood purification, increasing appetite and in
stimulation and contraction of uterus. Ethanol extract
showed the presence of anthraquinone glycosides,
saponins, tannins and phytosterols. Tannins and
anthraquinones are the major phyto-constituent present
in this plant which may be responsible for wound healing
action20,21.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum
Ocimum kilimandscharicum, belonging to family
Laminaceae. It is an aromatic undershrub with pubscent
quadrangular branchlets. It is an indigenous medicine for
a variety of ailments like cough, bronchitis, viral
infections, anorexia, and also wounds. It contains tannins,
flavonoids, proteins and other important constituents.
Flavonoids possess antioxidant and free radical
scavenging effect, wound healing, antibacterial
property22.
Tephrosia purpurea Linn.
Tephrosia purpurea Linn. belonging to family
Leguminosae. It also called as “Sarwa Wranvishapaka”. It
contains glycosides, rotenoids, isoflavones, flavnones,
chalcones, flavonoids and sterols. According to Ayurvedic
system of medicine various parts of this plant are used as
remedy for impotency, asthma, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea,
rheumatism, ulcer and urinary disorders. An also it cures
diseases of kidney, liver, spleen, heart and blood. The
dried herb is tonic, laxative, diuretic and also used in the
treatment of bronchitis, boils, bleeding piles, pimples,
roots and seeds are used as insecticidal, vermifuge,
leprous wound. And the juice is used for the eruption on
skin. Decoction is used in vomiting. An extract of pods is
effective for pain, inflammation23.
Aloe vera Linn.
Aloe vera Linn. (Liliaceae) is one of the oldest healing
plants known to mankind. It is used topically for cuts,
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burns, insects stings, bruises, acne and blemishes,
poisoning, welts, skin lesions, eczema, sunburns. A 62.5%
reduction in wound diameter was noted in mice receiving
100 mg/kg/day oral Aloe vera and a 50.80% reduction
was recorded in animals receiving topical 25% Aloe vera.
These data suggest that Aloe vera is effective in wound
healing. Aloe vera leaf contains Vitamin C, Vitamin E and
amino acids which are essential for wound healing24.
Kigelia pinnata Sausage
Kigelia pinnata Sausage belonging to Bignoniaceae is a
small tree found in south, central and west Africa and also
in India. The main constituents found in the bark of
Kigelia pinnata are naphthoquinones lapachol, phenyl
propanoid, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and small amounts
of free ferlic acid, p-coumeric acid and 6-
methoxymelenin. The bark have also been
pharmacologically documented to possess antiamoebic,
antifungal, antiulcer, antibacterial, antioxidant activities
and also shows significant wound healing activity25.
Musa sapientum var. paradisiacal
Musa sapientum var. paradisiacal belonging to family
Musaceae. It contains flavonoids (leucocyanidin)
sterylacyl glycosides and sitoindisides I-IV. Sitoindoside IV
was reported to mobilize and activate peritoneal
macrophages with increase in DNA and [3H] thymidine
uptake. Flavonoids are known to reduce lipid
peroxidation flavonoids are also known to promote the
wound healing process mainly due to their astringent and
antimicrobial property, which results to be responsible for
wound contraction and increased rate of epithelialisation.
Extensive investigations regarding anti-ulcerogenic and
ulcer healing activities of plantain banana have been
carried out for the past 30 years. Both methanolic and
aqueous extracts (100 mg/kg) when studied for incision
and dead space wounds parameters, increased wound
breaking strength and levels of hydroxyproline, hexuronic
acid, hexosamine, superoxide dismutase, reduced
glutathione in the granulation tissue and decreased
percentage of wound area, scar area and lipid
peroxidation when compared with the control group26,27.
Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.
Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. belongs to family Asteraceae.
The plant is mainly used for the epileptic conditions
(Convulsions), mental illness and hermicranias. The
external application of this paste is used for the
treatment of prurtius and edema, arthritis, filariasis, gout
and cervical adenopathy. It mainly contains essential oil,
ocimene, α-tempinene, methyl-chavical, α-citrol, α-ionon,
β-ionone, d-cadinene, ρ-methoxycin, unamaldehyde and
alkaloid Sphaeranthine28,29.
Ageratum conyzoides Linn.
Ageratum conyzoides Linn. belonging to Asteraceae is a
common weed found everywhere in India and commonly
known as goat weed, white weed, in various parts of
India. The leaves are applied to the wounds act as septic
and healed quickly30.
Hyptis suaveolens Linn.
The plant, Hyptis suaveolens Linn. belongs to family
Lamiaceae. The extract of Hyptis suaveolens contains
steroids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, flavonoids,
tannins, glycosides, leaves of this plant used as stimulant,
carminative, sudorific, galactogogue, parasitic cutaneous
disease, leaf extracts used as a relief to colic and
stomachaches leaves and twigs are acts as anti-rheumatic
and anti-suporific bats, anti-inflammatory anti-fertility.
The plant continues to use in the treatment of wound31.
Tectona grandis Linn.
Tectona grandis Linn. is commonly known as Indian teak,
and belongs to family Verabinaceae. It contains mainly
carbohydrates, tannins and anthraquinone glycosides.
Tectona grandis is used as anti-inflammatory agents and
also used topically for the treatment of burns. It is mainly
used for the injuries like burn, inflicted wound and skin
ulcers. The extract applied topically or given orally
promoted the breaking strength, wound contraction and
collegenation32.
Tephrosia purpurea Linn.
Tephrosia purpurea Linn. belongs to family Leguninosae.
It also called as “Sarwa Wranvishapaka”. It contains
glycosides, rotenoids, isoflavones, flavnones, chalcones,
flavonoids and sterols. According to Ayurvedic system of
medicine various parts of this plant are used as remedy
for impotency, asthma, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea,
rheumatism, ulcer and urinary disorders. It is also used in
the treatment of bronchitis, boils, bleeding piles, pimples,
roots and seeds are used as insecticidal, vermifuge,
leprous wound and the juice is used for the eruption on
skin33.
Carica papaya Linn.
Carica papaya Linn. belongs to family Caricaceae. Papaya
fruits contains a mixture of cysteine endopeptidases such
as papain. Chympopapain A and B, papaya endopeptidase
II, papaya endopeptidase IV, omega endopeptidase,
chinitase, protease-inhibitors, and proteins. Papaya fruits
posses wound healing properties, papaya latex was
applied to the burn wound using hydrogel as a vehicle
system34.
Allium cepa Linn.
Allium cepa Linn. is a member of the Liliaceae, which
consists of over 250 genera and 3700 species. Allium cepa
Linn. is proved to shown the anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant,
anti-hypertensive, anti-thrombotic, hypoglycemic, anti-
hyperlipidemic. The bulb of Allium cepa contains
Kampferol, β-sitosterol, ferulic acid, myritic acid,
prostaglandins. Bulb extract shown to have ecobolic
effect in rats. Traditionally plant containing these
constituents used as abortifaciant, the bulb extract of
Allium cepa had showed ecobolic effect in mice and rats.
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Allium cepa treated group showed extensive growth of
granulation started along its surface. The treated group of
wound showed complete healing of wounds with almost
normal architecture of the collagen and reticulin. Increase
in tensile strength of treated group wound may be due to
increase in collagen concentration, alcoholic extract of
Allium cepa increase the collagen synthesis35.
Tribulus terrestris Linn.
Tribulus terrestris Linn. is a flowering plant in the family
Zygophyllaceae, native to warm temperate and tropical
regions of the southern asia, through out Africa. Tribulus
terrestris has long been a constituent in tonics in Indian
ayurveda practice. Animals studies in rats, rabbits and
primates have demonstrated that administration of
Tribulus terrestris extract produce aphrodisiac activity by
increasing the levels of testosterone. The active chemical
in Tribulus terrestris is likely to be protodioscin. Apart
from these it has diuretic, anthelmintic, cytotoxic, Anti-
microbial and Anti-fungal activity. Decoction of entire
plant is efficacious for anuria, burning micturation, UTI,
Obstruction due to growth. The gel containing crude
extracts of leaves of Tribulus terrestris promoted the
breaking strength, wound contraction and period of
period of epithalialization. The wound healing activity of
Tribulus terrestris aqueous leaves extract may at least be
in part due to its potent antioxidant activity36.
Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.
Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. is a member of Asclepiadaceae.
The leaf has been widely used in Ayurvedic traditional
medicine leaves of the plant as anti-diabetes, astringent,
bitter, acrid, thermogenic, anti-inflammatory, anodyne,
digestive and liver tonic. Tannins and saponin are the
chief chemical constituents present in Gymnema sylvestre
and are known to possess wound healing property. In
excision wound models, the percentage of wound area
was found to be significantly increased in the animal
grouped treated with the extract (16.73%)37.
Morinda citrifolia Linn.
Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae), also known as noni or
Indian mulberry, is a small evergreen tree. Morinda
citrifolia has been heavily promoted for a wide range of
uses; including arthritis, atherosclerosis, bladder
infections, boils, burns, cancer, chronic fatigue syndrome,
circulatory weakness, colds, cold sores, congestion,
constipation, diabetes, drug addiction, eye inflammations,
fever, fractures, gastric ulcers, gingivitis, headaches, heart
disease, hypertension, immune weakness, indigestion,
intestinal parasites, kidney disease, malaria, menstrual
cramps and irregularities, mouth sores, respiratory
disorders, ringworm, sinusitis, sprains, stroke, skin
inflammation and wounds. A significant increase in the
wound-healing activity was observed in the animals
treated with the Morinda citrifolia extract compared with
those who received the placebo control treatments. The
extract treated animals showed a more rapid decrease in
wound size and a decreased time to epithelialisation
compared with the control rats which received plain
water38.
Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb.
Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb. (Rubiaceae) is widely
distributed throughout the greater part of India and is
used as a folk medicine in the treatment of fever,
anaemia, uterine complaints, blood diseases, skin
diseases, leprosy, dysentery, and for improvement of
semen quality. The leaves are recommended as a gargle
in cases of stomatitis. The major constituents of bark are
triterpenes, saponins, indole alkaloids cadambine, 3a-
dihydrocadambine, cadamine, isocadamine and
isodihydrocadambine. The wound healing activity results
showed that upon application of hydro-alcoholic
ointment there was a decrease in the epithelization
period, along with a visibly decreased scar area. There
was also a significant increase in the tensile strength and
hydroxyproline content. The crude hydro-alcoholic
extract showed significantly stimulated wound
contraction. Thus, the plant extract might be useful as a
wound healing agent39.
Arnebia densiflora Ledeb.
The genus Arnebia are represented by 4 species in the
flora of Turkey, one of which, Arnebia densiflora Ledeb.
belongs to family Boraginaceae, is widespread in Sivas
district and known as egnik by local people and used as
red colouring for dying the carpets and the rugs. Arnebia
densiflora roots soaked in butter are used in local wound
healing care. The roots of this plant have been reported
to contain alkannin derivatives, namely β,β dimethyl-
acrylalkannin, teracrylalkannin, isovalerylalkannin, α-
methyl-n-butylalkannin. Rats treated with Arnebia
densiflora showed rapid healing than the control group.
Wound closure and collagen production were faster and
healing occurred on the 14th day after wounding40.
Trigonella foenum-graceum Linn.
Trigonella foenum graceum Linn. is a member of the
Liliaceae. The medicinal attributes of Trigonella foenum
graceum, commonly referred to as fenugreek, have been
known for a long time. The seed is astringent and is useful
for treatment of dysentery and diarrhea. It is a purgative
tonic and carminative, and enriches the blood.
Furthermore, it is effective in the treatment for
ophthalmia, spleen disease, piles, and paralysis. The
seeds of the plant are also used as an emollient and anti-
diabetic. It is reported to promote milk secretion in
nursing mothers, probably through increased prolactin
secretion. The seeds also contain a large quantity of folic
acid, and they are used as wound healing agent in
households. The seed suspension of Trigonella foenum
graceum promoted epithelization and an early decrease
in the wound surface area. The kinetics of wound
contraction and epithelization were improved to a
significant level upon oral as well as topical
administration of the seed suspension41.
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Napoleona imperialis
Napoleona imperialis is of the family of plants called
Lecythidaceae. It is a woody plant, several meters high,
found mainly in tropical rain forest. The leaf is used locally
as analgesic, tonic, anti-tussive, anti-asthmatic, and
wound dressing. The various ointments prepared with
Napoleona imperialis exhibited a good wound healing
effect, a standard antibiotic used in wound healing42.
Adhatoda vasica Linn.
Adhatoda vasica Linn. (Acanthaceae) known as chue Mue,
grows as weed in almost all parts of the India. Leaves and
stems of the plant have been reported to contain an
alkaloid mimosine, leaves also contain mucilage and root
contains tannins. Adhatoda vasica is used for its anti-
hyperglycemic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-convulsant and
cytotoxic properties. The plant also contains turgorins,
leaves and roots are used in treatment of piles and fistula.
Paste of leaves is applied to hydrocele. The methanolic,
chloroform and Diethyl ether extract ointment (10%w/w)
of Adhatoda vasica has significant wound healing activity.
In both extract ointment, the methanolic extract
ointment (10%w/w) showed significant effect when
compare to standard drug and other two extract in
excision wound model43.
Catharanthus roseus Linn.
Catharanthus roseus Linn is a member of the
Apocyanaceae also known as Vinca Rosea, is native to the
Caribbean Basin and has historically been used to treat a
wide assortment of diseases. Catharanthus roseus has
more than 400 known alkaloids, some of which are
approved as anti-neoplastic agents to treat leukemia,
Hodgkin's disease, malignant lymphomas, neuroblastoma,
rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms' tumor, and other cancers. Its
vasodilating and memory-enhancing properties have
been shown to alleviate vascular dementia and
Alzheimer's disease. Extracts from the dried or wet
flowers and leaves of plants are applied as a paste on
wounds in some rural communities. An ethanol extract of
Catharanthus roseus flower has properties that render it
capable of promoting accelerated wound healing activity
compared with placebo controls44.
Carica papaya Linn.
Carica papaya Linn. belonging to the family Caricaceae.
The use of Carica papaya Linn. in traditional medicine
relies on papain, the active principle which exerts an ulcer
protective effect. The Carica papaya possesses
antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
activities. It is reported to heal chronic ulcers as well. The
aqueous extract of Carica papaya fruit was evaluated for
its wound healing activity in streptozotocin-induced
diabetic rats using excision and dead space wound
models. Extract-treated animals exhibited 77% reduction
in the wound area when compared to controls. The
extract treated wounds were found to epithelize faster as
compared to controls. The wet and dry granulation tissue
weight and hydroxyproline content increased significantly
when compared to controls45.
Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntz
Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntz belonging to the family
Amaranthaceae, is a herbaceous plant commonly known
in Brazil as Penicillin or Brazilian Joy Weed, is used against
inflammation, cough and diarrhoea in Brazilian popular
medicine. The extract of Alternanthera brasiliana
exhibited anti-nociceptive effect in mice, anti-microbial
effect and anti-herpes simplex virus activity. Wound
healing activity of methanolic extract of leaves of
Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntz was studied by excision
and incision wound model (in vivo) in Sprague Dawley
rats. In excision wound model, compared to the control
group, per cent contraction of wound was significantly
higher in Alternanthera brasiliana (5% w/w ointment)
treated group. In incision wound model, tensile strength
of the healing tissue after treatment with Alternanthera
brasiliana was found to be significantly higher compared
to the control group indicating better wound healing
activity of the test plant46.
Cordia dichotoma Forst.
Cordia dichotoma Forst. belonging to family Boraginaceae
is a medium sized tree with a short, grows in India, Sri
Lanka and other warmer countries. The medicinal
attributes of Cordia dichotoma have been known since
long time. Its fruits are used as cooling, astringent,
emollient, expectorant, anthelmintic and purgative.
Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective
activities have also been reported from the plant. Cordia
dichotoma treated group showed extensive growth of
granulation started along its surface. The treated group of
wound showed complete healing of wounds with almost
normal architecture of the collagen, reticulin. Increase in
tensile strength of treated group wound may be due to
increase in collagen concentration, alcoholic extract of
Cordia dichotoma increase the collagen synthesis47.
Lawsonia inermis Linn.
The leaves of Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Lythraceae),
commonly called as henna are used in the form of a
decoction or ointment in the treatment of burns, skin
inflammations, wounds and ulcers. The leaves also
possess antifungal and antibacterial activities. Henna is
reported to contain a naphthaquinone, lawsone, which is
a natural dye. It was observed that the oral
administration as well as topical application of ethanol
extract of henna leaves and lawsone exhibited significant
healing response in both the wound models. Further, it
was found that the topical application of ethanol extract
as well as isolated lawsone was more effective than the
same given by the oral route. Thus, topical application of
ethanol extract can be successfully formulated for the
wound healing activity48.
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Terminalia bellirica Roxb.
Terminalia bellirica Roxb. belonging to the family
Combretaceae, commonly known as belliric myrobalan.
Fruit is astringent, antiseptic, rejuvenative, brain tonic,
expectorant and laxative. It is used in coughs, sore throat,
dysentery, diarrhoea and liver disorders. It is also useful
in leprosy, fever and hair care. In folk medicine it has
been used for the treatment of skin diseases as antiseptic
and on all types of fresh wound. An ethanol extract of
Terminalia bellirica Fruit has properties that render it
capable of promoting accelerated wound healing activity
compared with placebo controls49.
Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham.
The plant Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. is a moderate
sized tree belonging to the family Asteraceae. The plant
has many medicinal properties, viz. barks juice is used to
treat worms, infusion of roots or decoction of bark is
given in fever. The healing of the wound was assessed by
the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialisation,
skin breaking strength, granulation strength, dry
granulation tissue weight, hydroxyproline estimation and
histopathology of the granulation tissue. Aqueous and
methanol barks extracts promoted the wound healing
activity significantly in all the wound models studied50.
Curcuma longa Linn.
Curcuma longa Linn. belonging to family Zingiberaceae,
commonly known as turmeric and haldi in Hindi. Curcuma
longa has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-
fungal and anti-inflammatory activities. The part used are
rhizomes and it contains curumin (diferuloyl methane),
turmeric oil or turmerol and 1,7-bis, 6- hepta-diene-3, 5-
dione. Curcumin has potent anti-inflammatory and
analgesic activities. Volatile oil isolated from Curcuma
longa also exhibits antibacterial and potent anti-
inflammatory activity. Curcuma longa also contains
protein, fats, vitamins (A, B, C etc) all of which have an
important role in would healing and regeneration.
Turmeric has been used for treating the wounds in the
rats51.
Ocimum sanctum Linn.
Ocimum sanctum Linn. belonging to the family Labiatae,
is a herbaceous plant commonly known as tulsi is found
throughout the semitropical and tropical parts of India.
Different parts of the plant are traditionally used in
Ayurveda and Siddha systems for the treatment of
diverse ailments like infections, skin diseases, hepatic
disorders and as an antidote for snake bite and scorpion
sting. The ether extract and essential oil of the leaves
exhibited antibacterial activity against a number of
bacterial species. A methanol extract and an aqueous
suspension of Ocimum sanctum leaves were found to
have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and immuno-
stimulatory properties. The extract of Ocimum sanctum
significantly increased the wound breaking strength in
incision wound model. The extract treated wounds were
found to epithelialize faster and the rate of wound
contraction was significantly increased as compared to
control wounds. Significant increase in wet and dry
granulation tissue weight, granulation tissue breaking
strength and hydroxyproline content in dead space
wound model was observed52.
Moringa oleifera Linn.
Moringa oleifera Linn. (Moringaceae) has been an
ingredient of Indian diet since centuries. The leaves of the
plant have also been reported for its anti-tumor,
hypotensive, antioxidant, radio-protective, anti-
inflammatory and diuretic properties. The aqueous
extract was studied and it was found that there was
significant increase in wound closure rate, skin-breaking
strength, granuloma breaking strength, hydroxyproline
content, granuloma dry weight and decrease in scar area
was observed53.
Sesamum indicum Linn.
Sesamum indicum Linn. (Pedaliaceae) is one of the oldest
cultivated plants in the world that is mainly grown for its
oil rich edible seeds. The seeds possess potent
antioxidant effect due to the presence of sesamol.
Traditionally, sesame seeds are used in the treatment of
wounds, especially burn wounds. Seeds and oil treatment
in dead space wound model, produced a significant
increase in the breaking strength, dry weight and
hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue. The
results suggest that Sesamum indicum seeds and oil
applied topically or administered orally possesses wound
healing activity54.
Solanum xanthocarpum Linn.
Solanum xanthocarpum Linn. (Solanaceae) is a very
prickly perennial herb and found in Southeast Asia,
Malaya and tropical Australia. Stem, flowers and fruits are
bitter and carminative, employed as anthelmintic, in
indigestion, cough, asthma and pains in chest, being used
in the form of a decoction and also prescribed for relief in
burning sensation in the feet accompanied by vesicular
watery eruptions. It has high concentration of solasodine,
a starting material for the manufacture of cortisone and
sex hormones and scientifically reported as antifungal,
anti-spermatogenic, anti-androgenic, anti-nociceptive and
hypoglycemic. The methanolic fruit extract was showed
significantly wound healing property. The tensile strength
of the healing tissue after treatment was also found to be
significantly higher (37.5%) as compared to the control55.
Lantana camara Linn.
Lantana camara Linn. (Verbanaceae), a shrub native of
tropical America has completely been naturalized in many
parts of India as an ornamental plant. The plant has
abortificient, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory and wound
healing properties. The hydro-alcoholic extract and fresh
juice of leaves have favoured wound contraction56.
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Helianthus annus Linn.
Helianthus annus Linn. is belonging the family Asteraceae,
An ornamental annual herb, with erect, rough and hairy
stem is common in Indian Gardens in swampy areas. In
traditional medicine the plant is used by tribals for
inflammation of eyes, sores, dysuria, colic, tiger bites and
bone fractures. In a study the alcoholic extract of whole
plant of Helianthus annus applied in the form of an
ointment on the excised wound of rat led to a significant
reduction in total healing period. This has been confirmed
by histology where earlier appearances of fibroblasts
were seen. Early appearance and higher accumulation of
mucopolysaccharides has been stated as indicators of
hastened repair57.
Tridax procumbens Linn.
Tridax procumbens Linn. (Asteraceae) is a native of
tropical America and naturalized in tropical Africa,
Australia and Asia including India. Leaf of Tridax
procumbens mainly contains crude protein, crude fiber
(17%), soluble carbohydrate (39%) and calcium oxide
(5%). The juice of the leaves of this plant is used by
villagers to arrest bleeding from cuts and bruises in
animals. This juice accelerates two phases of healing
namely epithelization and collagenization however it
retards scar formation and granulation58.
Hydnocarpus wightiana
The oil of Hydnocarpus spp. (Achariaceae) has been used
for several years as anti-leprosy drug and as an anti-
parasitic drug in the treatment of guinea worm
infestation. The oil of Hydnocarpus spp. when given orally
or administered topically helped to heal the wounds and
gangrene faster in leprosy and diabetic patients. The
wound healing effect of oil of Hydnocarpus spp. was
studied with reference to collagenization and the strength
of scar tissue. The drug treated group showed a
significant increase in strength of scar tissues in the
incision wound model and also increased the strength of
collagen tissue and hydroxyl-proline content in the dead
space wound model. Hydnocarpus oil administered orally
promoted epithelization, but not wound contraction59,60.
Lepidium sativum Linn.
Lepidium sativum Linn. (Cruciferae) was well recognized
in European communities as Herba Lepidii Sativi, and its
consumption had increased in the former Soviet Union
and Western European countries as a source of vitamins,
diuresis effect, a stimulant of bile function, and a cough
reliever. In addition, this plant was used in the community
of Saudi Arabia as an important element in Saudi folk
medicine for multiple applications, but mainly in fracture
healing. The roots of the plant, leaves, and their seeds
were used traditionally, but the effect of the seeds on
fracture healing was noticed publicly in folk medicine and
has been reported in rats. The Lepidium sativum plant
and seeds are well known in the community of Saudi
Arabia and some other Arabic countries as a good
mediator for fracture healing in the human skeleton61.
Table 1: Plants (alphabetical order) having wound healing activity
Botanical Name
Family
Part/ingredients used
Ref.
Acacia catechu Willd.
Mimosaceae
Crushed
bark used topical on the wound.
62
Acalypha indica L.
Euphorbiaceae
Leaf of plant is taken orally to treat wounds.
63
Achyranthes aspera L.
Amaranthaceae
Latex of the plant applied on the wound.
62
Adhatoda zeylanica M.
Acanthaceae
The leaf is applied
to wound and cuts.
64
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.
Rosaceae
Pounded whole plant is applied locally.
65
Alstonia scholaris R.Br.
Apocynaceae
The latex is applied to wounds and boils
64
Anacardium occidentale L.
Anacardiaceae
Fruit is taken orally to heal
wounds.
63
Areca catechu L.
Arecaceae
Powder of Fruit was applied on the wound.
62
Argemone mexicana L.
Papaveraceae
Leaves and Latex used as topically on wound.
62
Aristida setacea Retz.
Poaceae
Paste of plant parts is applied to heal wounds.
63
Barleria prionitis L.
Acanthaceae
Crushed leaves applied on the wound.
62
Begonia fallox DC.
Begoniaceae
Paste of leaf & stem are applied to heal wounds.
63
Betula alnoides B.H.
Betulaceae
Bark paste is applied locally.
65
Blepharis maderaspatensis
Acanthaceae
Juice of leaf is applied topically to heal wounds.
63
Boschniakia himalaica
Orobanchaceae
Whole plant poultice applied.
65
Brassica juncea L.
Brassicaceae
Paste of crushed fruit was applied on the wound.
62
Bryophyllum calycinum
Crassulaceae
Juice of the leaf applied on the wound.
62
Buxus wallichiana
Buxaceae
Bark paste is applied locally.
65
Calendula officinalis L.
Asteraceae
Crushed flowers applied on the wound.
62
Callicarpa arborea Roxb.
Verbenaceae
Paste of the bark and juice is
applied to cuts.
64
Calotropis gigantea L.
Asclepiadaceae
Drops of the stem latex are used to treat wounds
63
Calotropis procera Br
Asclepidaceae
Latex and leaves was applied on the wound.
62
Caryopteris odorata
Verbenaceae
Wood paste applied as
plaster.
65
Cassia alata L.
Caesalpinae
Leaves of the plant applied on the wound.
62
Cassia auriculata L.
Caesalpinae
Leaves and Bark usually applied on the wound.
62
Chasalia curviflora Wall.
Rubiaceae
Paste of root is applied topically to heal wounds.
63
Chenopodium album Linn.
Chenopodiaceae
Crushed leaves are applied locally.
65
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Botanical Name
Family
Part/ingredients used
Ref.
Cirsium sinense CBC.
Asteraceae
The root is crushed and tied on the wounds.
64
Cirsium verutum Spreng.
Asteraceae
Root paste is applied on wounds.
65
Cissampelos pareira
L.
Menispermaceae
Juice of leaf is applied topically to heal wounds.
63
Cleome viscosa L.
Cleomaceae
Paste of leaf is applied topically to heal wounds.
63
Combretum flagrocarpum
Combretaceae
The leaf juice is applied to wounds and cuts.
64
Commelina benghalensis
Commelinaceae
Juice of the stem is applied to heal wounds.
63
Commiphora mukul Engl.
Burseraceae
Bark exudates was applied on the wound.
62
Curcuma domestica V.
Zingiberaceae
The tuber is mashed and is applied on wounds.
64
Curcuma longa L.
Zingiberaceae
Paste of the rhizomes applied on the wound.
62
Cyanotis villosa Spreng.
Commelinaceae
Paste of stem is applied to heal wounds.
63
Datura stramonium L.
Solanaceae
Latex of the leaves was applied on the wound.
62
Daucas
carota L.
Apiaceae
Juice of the root applied on the wound.
62
Dendrophthoe falcata L.f.
Loranthaceae
Paste of leaf and stem is applied to heal wounds.
63
Diotacanthus albiflorus
Acanthaceae
Paste of leaf is applied topically to heal wounds.
63
Dodonaea viscosa Linn.
Sapindaceae
Leaf paste with albumin applied as plaster.
66
Dumasia villosa DC.
Fabaceae
Whole plant parts are used to wash wounds.
63
Eupatorium odoratum L.
Asteraceae
The leaf is applied to wound and cuts.
63
Euphorbia
antiquorum L.,
Euphorbiaceae
Latex from the stem is applied on burn injury.
63
Euphorbia hirta L.
Euphorbiaceae
Fresh latex is applied topically to heal wounds.
63
Euphorbia pilosa
Euphorbiaceae
Latex of plant applied locally.
65
Ficus bengalensis L.,
Moraceae
Leaf powder is applied topically to treat wounds.
63
Ficus religiosa L.
Moraceae
Aqueous extract of bark applied on the wound.
62
Gelsemium elegans
Loganiaceae
The leaf juice is applied to wounds and cuts.
64
Ixora coccinia L.
Rubiaceae
Flower’s Decoction is applied to heal wounds.
63
Jatropha gossypifolia L.
Euphorbiaceae
Resin of the plant is used to heal wounds.
63
Jatropha curcas L.
Euphorbiaceae
Bark exudates was applied on the wound.
67
Melastoma malabathricum
Malastomataceae
Paste of bark and juice is applied to cure wounds.
64
Mentha viridis L.
Lamiaceae
Leaves paste was applied on the wound.
62
Mikania micrantha HBK
Asteraceae
The leaf juice is applied to wounds and cuts.
64
Morinda pubescens
Rubiaceae
Leaf paste is
applied topically to heal wounds.
63
Moringa oleifera L.
Moringaceae
Leaves paste was applied on the wound.
62
Murraya paniculata Linn.
Rutaceae
Leaf paste with albumin applied as plaster.
66
Nerium indicum Mill
Apocyanaceae
Juice of the leaves was
applied on the wound.
62
Ophiorrhiza mungos L.,
Rubiaceae
Paste of whole plant is applied to heal wounds.
63
Pedilanthus tithymaloides
Euphorbiaceae
Latex of the plant applied on the wound.
62
Pinus roxburghii
Pinaceae
Bark paste is applied locally.
65
Ploygonatum officinale A.
Liliaceae
Root extract given orally.
65
Pongamia pinnata L.
Fabaceae
Seeds oil is applied topically on wounds.
63
Pongamia pinnata Vent.
Fabaceae
Juice of leaves of applied on the wound.
62
Pothos scandens L.
Araceae
Paste of
leaf is applied topically on wounds.
63
Psychotria flavida
Rubiaceae
Root powder is applied topically to treat wounds.
63
Rubia cordifolia L.
Rubiaceae
Bark and Root mostly applied on the wound.
62
Rungia repens L.
Acanthaceae
Paste of whole plant is
applied on wounds.
63
Scoparia dulcis L.,
Scrophulariaceae
Paste of leaf applied to heal wounds.
63
Sida acuta Burm.F.
Malvaceae
Leaf paste with albumin applied as plaster.
66
Smilax zeylanica L.,
Smilacaceae
Rhizome is taken orally to heal wounds.
63
Taxus wallichiana Zucc.
Taxaceae
Bark paste is applied locally.
65
Terminalia chebula
Combretaceae
Triturated leaves is applied on wound.
62
Thespesia populnea Soland
Malvaceae
Fruit of plant in crush used as wound healing.
62
Trichosanthes tricuspidata
Cucurbitaceae
Juice of the fruit used as wound healing.
62
Tridax procumbens L.
Asteraceae
Mostly leaves of this plant applied on the wound.
62
Ulmus wallichiana Planch.
Ulmaceae
Bark paste is applied locally.
65
CONCLUSION
Wound healing is a biological process that starts with
trauma and ends with scar formation. The present review
clearly revealed that nature provides huge number of
plants that show significant wound healing activities.
These natural agencies are rich target for the
development of alternatives to synthetic drugs. The
combination of traditional and modern knowledge can
produce better drugs for wound healing with fewer side
effects. However, there is a need for scientific validation,
standardization and safety evaluation of plants of the
traditional medicine before these could be recommended
for healing of the wounds.
Volume 9, Issue 1, July – August 2011; Article-026 ISSN 0976 – 044X
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research
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144
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About Corresponding Author:
Mr. Gulzar
Alam
The author had completed his Bachelor of Pharmacy from IFTM Moradabad, (UPTU, Lucknow),
secured 6th position in UPTU final year top ten Pharmacy Merit List, and completed Master of
Pharmacy from ITS Pharmacy College, Ghaziabad, (UPTU, Lucknow), with 1st Div. (Hons.). His PG
dissertation work i.e. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial screening of Acacia catechu Wild leaves
had already been published. Presently he is working as an assistant professor and involved in
several research works.
... In most cases, infected wounds are caused by bacteria that arise from the skin and other areas of the body and the surrounding environment. According to Alam et al. (2011), the most prevalent forms of bacteria that cause wound infection are Staphylococcus aureus and other staphylococci bacteria. Similarly, unsanitary facilities and inadequate wound dressing practices may raise the risk of infection. ...
... This results in further tissue damage and may prolong wound healing by promoting more inflammation, which prolongs the process of wound healing. The most common bacteria causing wound infection is Staphylococcus aureus and other groups of staphylococci (Alam et al., 2011). Contamination from other parts of the body may also cause wound infection. ...
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Bacteria usually colonize wounds, and their low level is beneficial to the wound healing process. Thus, antibacterial agents are usually applied to wounds. In the Philippines, many herbal plants are used to speed up the wound healing process. With their number, literature revealed no scientific study yet on which among these plants could well inhibit wound bacteria. Hence, this study focused on the phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of six herbal plants, namely: Caesalpinia sappan Linn. (Sibukao), Jatropha curcas Linn. (Tuba-tuba), Lantana camara Linn. (Kantutay), Mimosa pudica Linn. (Makahiya), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Malunggay), and Psidium guajava Linn. (Guava). Betadine was used as the positive control. Qualitative phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial assay on wound bacteria using the agar well diffusion method were employed from the six extracts. Results revealed that phytochemicals, namely alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, and tannins, were present in the plant extracts except for anthraquinones. Furthermore, the plant extracts showed antibacterial activity on wound bacteria, and P. guajava leaf extract exhibited the most significant antibacterial effect among the treatments and is greater than the positive control (Betadine solution). On the other hand, all the plant extracts have a lower antibiotic activity index when compared with Amikacin 30mcg and Erythromycin 15 mcg. However, except for Lantana camara extract, the five plant extracts have a remarkably higher antibiotic activity index when compared with Penicillin 10 U. It is concluded that the plants studied have varying levels of antibacterial activities that could promote wound healing.
... Though, the mechanism and phyto-constitute involved in healing are not studied well. In addition to this the individual and additive impact of these phytochemicals is still not documented enough [30,[51][52][53]. Though one study revealed that the results of TLC showed the presence of flavonoids may be the responsible factor for this. ...
... More so, A. catechu willd has also been reported for the synthesis and secretion of various active secondary metabolites which are already known for significant medicinal values, these are phenolic compound those serve as essential oils and also have significant insecticidal and antimicrobial activities. Because of such potential the same are routinely used in some pharmaceuticals, alternative medicines and natural therapies [28,36,[52][53][54][55][56][87][88][89][90]. ...
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Plants are not only the source of food, oxygen, and shelter, but the same are also a potential foundation of medicines. Many natural and plant-derived antimicrobial and wound healing compounds have been recognized. In the present review, we have studied the main bioactive components of Acacia catechu with their medicinal roles. Most of these bioactive components are secondary metabolites which are produced by plants as side products of certain physiological reactions and are of no use for the plant itself. These components have been reported for their medicinal properties. In this review, we have mentioned some antibacterial, antifungal, and wound healing properties of A. catechu with its known bioactive components. The aim of this review article is, to enlist the possible potent bioactive components of the plant, against pathogenic microbes that can replace the use of chemicals and synthetic antibiotics for the treatment of skin infections and other diseases.
... A wound is the result of loss or damage of cellular, anatomical, or functional continuity of living tissues [24], whereas wound healing is the process of repairing injured tissues. Wound healing is considered effective if the wound is healed in a relatively short time with minimal pain, discomfort, and scarring [25,26]. The wound-healing process occurs in three phases: Inflammatory phase (hemostasis and inflammation), proliferative phase (granulation, contraction, and epithelialization), and remodeling phase, which organizes the newly-formed structures forming progressively increased tensile strength [25]. ...
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Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the phytochemical constituents and to assess the antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound-healing properties of the methanol extracts of Aloe irafensis. Methods: Methanol extracts of A. irafensis's latex, gel, and green skin were screened for their phytochemical constituents. All three extracts were investigated regarding their antibacterial potential using disc diffusion and microdilution assays, and their antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay. Histological analyses of wound healing areas were performed following the administration of the latex extract in male albino rats. Results: The methanol extracts of A. irafensis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, phenols, tannins, and anthrones. The latex extract showed greater inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24 and 17 mm, respectively) with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 1.25 and 2.50 mg/ml, respectively. The latex extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC 50 of 65.54 µg/ml), followed by green skin extract (IC 50 of 89.48 µg/ml). The latex extract significantly accelerated the rate of wound healing in rats (p<0.01), compared to the reference control fucidin ointment. Histological findings showed remarkably less scar width at wound closure site in the latex extract-treated wounds. Granulation tissue contained fewer inflammatory cells and more fibroblasts in wounds treated with the latex extract compared to those treated with the vehicle. Conclusion: A. irafensis latex extract is a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be exploited for antioxidant, antibacterial, and wound healing purposes.
... A wound is the result of loss or damage of cellular, anatomical, or functional continuity of living tissues [24], whereas wound healing is the process of repairing injured tissues. Wound healing is considered effective if the wound is healed in a relatively short time with minimal pain, discomfort, and scarring [25,26]. The wound-healing process occurs in three phases: Inflammatory phase (hemostasis and inflammation), proliferative phase (granulation, contraction, and epithelialization), and remodeling phase, which organizes the newly-formed structures forming progressively increased tensile strength [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the phytochemical constituents and to assess the antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound-healing properties of the methanol extracts of Aloe irafensis. Methods: Methanol extracts of A. irafensis's latex, gel, and green skin were screened for their phytochemical constituents. All three extracts were investigated regarding their antibacterial potential using disc diffusion and microdilution assays, and their antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay. Histological analyses of wound healing areas were performed following the administration of the latex extract in male albino rats. Results: The methanol extracts of A. irafensis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, phenols, tannins, and anthrones. The latex extract showed greater inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24 and 17 mm, respectively) with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 1.25 and 2.50 mg/ml, respectively. The latex extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC 50 of 65.54 µg/ml), followed by green skin extract (IC 50 of 89.48 µg/ml). The latex extract significantly accelerated the rate of wound healing in rats (p<0.01), compared to the reference control fucidin ointment. Histological findings showed remarkably less scar width at wound closure site in the latex extract-treated wounds. Granulation tissue contained fewer inflammatory cells and more fibroblasts in wounds treated with the latex extract compared to those treated with the vehicle. Conclusion: A. irafensis latex extract is a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be exploited for antioxidant, antibacterial, and wound healing purposes.
... A wound is the result of loss or damage of cellular, anatomical, or functional continuity of living tissues [24], whereas wound healing is the process of repairing injured tissues. Wound healing is considered effective if the wound is healed in a relatively short time with minimal pain, discomfort, and scarring [25,26]. The wound-healing process occurs in three phases: Inflammatory phase (hemostasis and inflammation), proliferative phase (granulation, contraction, and epithelialization), and remodeling phase, which organizes the newly-formed structures forming progressively increased tensile strength [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the phytochemical constituents and to assess the antibacterial, antioxidant, and woundhealing properties of the methanol extracts of Aloe irafensis. Methods: Methanol extracts of A. irafensis’s latex, gel, and green skin were screened for their phytochemical constituents. All three extracts were investigated regarding their antibacterial potential using disc diffusion and microdilution assays, and their antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay. Histological analyses of wound healing areas were performed following the administration of the latex extract in male albino rats. Results: The methanol extracts of A. irafensis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, phenols, tannins, and anthrones. The latex extract showed greater inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24 and 17 mm, respectively) with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 1.25 and 2.50 mg/ml, respectively. The latex extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 of 65.54 μg/ml), followed by green skin extract (IC50 of 89.48 μg/ml). The latex extract significantly accelerated the rate of wound healing in rats (p<0.01), compared to the reference control fucidin ointment. Histological findings showed remarkably less scar width at wound closure site in the latex extract-treated wounds. Granulation tissue contained fewer inflammatory cells and more fibroblasts in wounds treated with the latex extract compared to those treated with the vehicle. Conclusion: A. irafensis latex extract is a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be exploited for antioxidant, antibacterial, and wound healing purposes.
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The uneasy task of treating various wounds infested with multi-resistant bacteria is an increasing problem, prompting the need for alternatives therapies to conventional drugs. This study aimed at determining the in vitro antibacterial and wound healing activities of ethanol fruit extract of Kigelia africana on albino rats using the excision wound healing model. The crude extract of K. africana fruit was obtained using 95% ethanol in a Soxhlet extraction system. Using standard procedures, phytochemical analysis, in vitro antibacterial activity (against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi.), and the subsequent minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract were determined. Simple ointments of varying concentrations (3, 5, and 10% w/w) of the extracts were formulated and used to screen for wound healing activity on experimental rats in groups of five (n=4). The antibacterial activities showed that the extract was effective against all the bacteria. The MIC values ranged from 0.98 to 125 mg/mL, with best value of 0.98 mg/mL against P. aeruginosa, followed by 15.63 mg/mL against E. coli and S. aureus, and then 62.5 mg/mL against S. typhi and K. pneumoniae. K. africana ointments significantly accelerated wound healing (P=0.000) with 5 and 10% w/w ointments having the highest percentage of wound contraction on the 18th and 20th days compared to the group treated with paraffin. The present study demonstrates that the ethanol extract of K. africana fruits contained bioactive compounds which promote an accelerated wound healing process and might harbour a novel therapeutic agent. Keywords: Kigelia africana, Ethanol extract, Antibacterial, Wound healing.
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Medicinal plants have been used for many years as an ancient curative method for treating and healing wounds in different cultures. Therefore, and accordingly this work has been conducted to study wound healing activity of Moringa oleifera leaves extract cultivated in the Kurdistan region in the northern Iraq (KRG). In the current investigation, experimentally-induced wounds in rats have been infected with strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinically isolated from the wound site in hospitalized patients. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is used to determine some bioactive compounds within the extract. Plant leaf was extracted by using the maceration method and 70% ethanol as solvent. The HPLC results were dependent on comparison between the extract with standards. Two lacerated wounds were made on each animal at either side of the thoracolumbar spine and inoculated by a 0.4 ml bacterial suspension. The treatment regimen was for 14 days with different formulation of ethanolic leaves extract, and gentamicin ointment as a control positive. At the end point of the experimental trial, animals were euthanized humanly at day 15. Samples from healed-wounded skin was prepared for histological evaluation. Generally speaking, our findings indicated that alcoholic leaf extract showed potential wound healing property in different concentration as a dose-dependent manner of the extracted ointment 3.5%, 5%,10% particularly 10% of the extract formulation which showed better results in comparison to gentamicin ointment. The presented essential constituents for Moringa leaf derivatives were gallic acid (3461 ppm), catechin (1201 ppm), rutin (286 ppm) and quercetin (88 ppm). Last but not least, the extract was able to provide promising evidence to possess a drug formulation material.
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Introduction and objectives In varicose veins, blood pressure increases in the veins of the lower extremities due to mechanical stimulation and function remodeling. The aim of this study is assessment of Signaling pathways associated with structural changes in varicose veins. Materials and methods This pilot study was performed on patients with varicose veins, which had undergone surgery. The healthy tissues from trauma patients or vascular bypass without underlying diseases were used for control samples. Hematoxylin-eosin, trichrome, and elastin staining were used for histopathological examination. The levels of MDA (malondialdehyde), total thiol, SOD (Superoxide dismutase) and NO (nitric oxide) level were measured using Elisa kits to evaluate the oxidative stress level. Gene expression levels of MMP2, MMP9, FOXO3a, APOE and p53 genes were determined using Real-time PCR. Results This study showed, the vascular Vein wall changes are visible in vascular collagen staining. Although these changes are observed in the structure of vascular wall collagen fibers, the accumulation of collagen and elastin was increased in the walls of varicose veins compared to the control group. The amount of nitric oxide and thiol were increased in the varicose group (P < 0.0001). The expression of metalloproteinase2 gene associated with extracellular matrix change was increased in varicose veins. However, the amount of metalloproteinase 9 was decreased in this group compared to control group. FOXO3a, APOE Genes were down-regulated in the varicose veins compared to control group, while p53 gene expression was significantly increased in the varicose group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion This study demonstrated changes in oxidative stress, morphological structure, and aging pathways in varicose when compared to non-varicose veins. The changes in oxidative stress may be associated with the variations in morphological structure and aging pathways which contribute to the pathogenesis of varicose veins.
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