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An annotated checklist comprised of 458 taxa of orchids known from Nepal is provided, including 104 genera, 437 species, 16 varieties, 3 subspecies and 2 forma and 18 endemic species. In Nepal, orchid species are distributed from 60–5200 m a.s.l. In the checklist, notes on altitudinal ranges, habit, habitat, global distribution, phenology, etc. are presented.
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An annotated checklist of the orchids of Nepal
Maan Bahadur Rokaya, Bhakta Bahadur Raskoti, Binu Timsina and Zuzana Münzbergová
M. B. Rokaya (rokayamaan@gmail.com) and Z. Münzbergová, Inst. of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zamek 1, CZ-252 43
Průhonice, Czech Republic. ZM also at: Dept of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles Univ., Benatska 2, CZ-128 01 Prague, Czech Republic.
– B. B. Raskoti, Pokharathok 9, Arghakhanchi, Nepal. – B. Timsina, Inst. for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Charles Univ.,
Benatska 2, CZ-128 01 Prague, Czech Republic. BT also at: Dept of Biodiversity Research, Global Change Research Centre AS CR, Na Sádkách 7,
CZ-37005 Ceské Bude
ˇjovice, Czech Republic.
An annotated checklist comprised of 458 taxa of orchids known from Nepal is provided, including 104 genera, 437 species,
16 varieties, 3 subspecies and 2 forma and 18 endemic species. In Nepal, orchid species are distributed from 60–5200 m
a.s.l. In the checklist, notes on altitudinal ranges, habit, habitat, global distribution, phenology, etc. are presented.
Nepal, a small Himalayan country, lies between 26°12 to
30°27N and 80°04E to 88°12E covering an area of 147
181 km2. e diverse physiography, climate, edaphic factors,
etc. within an altitude range of 60 – 8848 m a.s.l. has favored
vegetation within six bioclimatic zones from tropical luxuri-
ant forests in the south to the alpine scrub or barren high
mountain in the north (Chaudhary 1998).
e tropical zone is dominated by sal (Shorea robusta),
tropical deciduous riverine and tropical evergreen forests.
e sal forest is associated with Adina cardifolia, Albizia
procera, Butea monosperma, Acacia catechu, Bombax ceiba,
Dalbergia sisoo, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia bellirica,
T. chebula, Zizyphus mauritiana, etc. In the subtropical zone,
SchimaCastanopsis, pine and alder forest types are domi-
nant. e temperate zone is represented by lower temperate
mixed broad-leaved, temperate mixed evergreen and upper
temperate mixed broad-leaved forests. e subalpine zone
is characterized by silver fir (Abies spectabilis) and birch–
Rhododendron forest. is zone also includes a pure forest
belt of Betula utilis, in association with several species of
Rhododendron, Junipererus, etc. In this region, tree trunks
and branches are festooned with parasitic orchids, filaments
of mosses and various lichens. e alpine zone covers
areas above 4100 m a.s.l. and is associated with Juniperus,
Rhododendron, Caragana–Lonicera and alpine meadows. In
the nival zone, above 5000 m a.s.l., some mosses and lichens
are found up to 7400 m a.s.l. (Baniya et al. 2010) and they
are known as the ‘Arctic or cold deserts.’
Nepal occupies the central part of the whole Himalayan
range and it not only differs in vegetation in north–south
direction but also in east–west direction. Based on plant
type(s) and their distributional range(s), Nepal is divided into
three different phytogeographic regions (Stainton 1972, Hara
et al. 1978, 1982, Hara and Williams 1979, Press et al. 2000).
e different regions are the a) western region (from the
Kumaon frontier to 83°E in Nepal, corresponding to Karnali
section), b) central region (83°E to 86°30E, corresponding
to Gandaki section) and c) eastern region (86°30E to the
Sikkim frontier, corresponding to Koshi section) (Benerji
1963, Staintion 1972).
Botanical exploration in Nepal began in 1802–1803
when Francis Buchanan-Hamilton first collected plants
from Nepal. e mission was followed by Nathalien
Wallich (1820–1821) who collected plants from Kathmandu,
its surroundings and even from the alpine region of the
famous sacred Lake Gosainkunda. He received hundreds
of new and interesting specimens that were never recorded
before, and later information on Nepalese plants from these
collections as well as from earlier collections of Buchanan-
Hamilton were published by D. Don in ‘Prodromus
Florae Nepalensis’ (1825) and N. Wallich’s ‘Tentamen Florae
Nepalensis’ (1824–1826). After the down fall of the xeno-
phobic ruling family of Ranas in 1951, Nepal became a
centre of attraction for botanists, and many other research-
ers as well as mountain climbers often helped in plant
collections in the country. Based on the collections by
British, Swiss, Japanese and German expeditions (details in
Rajbhandari 2001), Press et al. (2000) enumerated 6076 taxa
of flowering plants belonging to 216 families, 1534 genera,
5345 species, 163 subspecies, 517 varieties and 51 forma.
Orchidaceae, the largest family of the angiosperms,
comprises various attractive flowers, not only important for
their beauty but also for their use in medicine and trade
(Acharya and Rokaya 2010). ere are 458 taxa of orchids
belonging to 104 genera, 437 species, 2 forma, 3 subspecies
and 16 varieties in Nepal (7.1% of total Nepali angiosperms).
ey are distributed between 60 and 5200 m a.s.l.
growing in various types of habitats. 251 species are
Nordic Journal of Botany 31: 511–550, 2013
doi: 10.1111/j.1756-1051.2013.01230.x,
© 2013 e Authors. Nordic Journal of Botany © 2013 Nordic Society Oikos
Subject Editor: Henrik Ærenlund Pedersen and Alexander Sennikov. Accepted 18 June 2012
511
epiphytic, 63 are lithophytic (51 as epiphytic or lithophytic),
211 are terrestrial (14 species as terrestrial and lithophytic)
and 21 are saprophytic (10 as terrestrial or saprophytic).
ere are 115 species endemic to the Himalayan region and
18 species endemic to Nepal (Table 1). e genus with the
highest number of species is Bulbophyllum (38 species) fol-
lowed by Dendrobium (31 species), Habenaria (20 species),
Oberonia and Peristylus (19 species each). It is likely that
many pristine areas are yet to be explored and the prospect of
finding new species is high. It is also important to visit dif-
ferent herbaria that house collections from Nepal and check
them thoroughly for completing an authentic orchid flora
of Nepal.
In Nepal, temperature rise with the end of winter in
February and most rainfall occur during the monsoon
between June and August. e phenology of Nepali orchids
is well synchronized with the seasons. e records of flower-
ing time of 400 species of orchids show that the peak flow-
ering season is between June and August with the highest
number of species flowering during July, a mid-summer
month (Table 2).
Most of the wild orchids in Nepal are under threat, and
some are at the verge of extinction (Shakya 1999, Bajracha-
rya 2004, Raskoti 2009). Multiple factors are responsible
for the threats to the orchids in Nepal. Overexploitation of
orchids for ornamental purpose, medicinal use, illegal trade,
deforestation, random construction of roads, overgrazing,
forest fire and climate changes are all major threats. Conser-
vation measures such as active enforcement of existing laws,
and creating awareness in local communities are issues to
address for the conservation of orchids. Apart from CITES
provisions, it is suggested that the nation should develop a
strong and effective conservation strategy and a ‘sui-generis
system to safeguard the orchid diversity of Nepal.
Table 1. Endemic orchids of Nepal.
Plant species Elevation (m)
Bhutanthera fimbriata Raskoti 3800
Eria annapurnensis L. R. Shakya & M. R. Shrestha 2000
Eria baniae Bajrach., L. R. Shakya and M. K. Chettri 1600
Eria nepalensis Bajrach. & K. K. Shrestha 200
Eria pokharensis Bajrach., Subedi & Shrestha 1000
Gastrochilus calceolaris (Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.)
var. biflora L. R. Shakya & M. R. Shrestha
2000
Herminium hongdeyuanii B. B. Raskoti 2200
Liparis olivacea Lindl. 1000
Malaxis dolpensis M. R. Shrestha, L. R. Shakya et
S. K. Ghimire
4200
Malaxis monophyllos var. obtusa H. Tsukaya &
H. Ohba
3350
Malaxis tamurensis Tuyama 1200
Neottia chandrae B. B. Raskoti, J. J. Wood &
Rita Ale
3800
Neottia nepalensis (N. P. Balakr.) Szlach. Listera
nepalensis N. P. Balakr.
2900–3800
Oberonia nepalensis L. R. Shakya &
R. P. Chaudhary
750–1600
Oreorchis porphyranthes Tuyama 3000–3700
Panisea panchaseensis Subedi
Pleione coronaria P. J. Cribb & C. Z. Tang 2500–3500
Stelis biflora Sm. 100–500
Sunipia nepalensis B. B. Raskoti & R. Ale 2400
Table 2. Flowering and fruiting time of orchid species of Nepal
based on available information. Single species can be flowering
or fruiting in several months and can thus be reported in multiple
categories.
Months No. of flowering plants No. of fruiting plants
January 25 3
February 28 2
March 60 7
April 115 10
May 142 15
June 156 10
July 167 10
August 158 14
September 107 17
October 84 21
November 59 11
December 35 8
Data collection
ere has always been discrepancy over the exact num-
ber of species and the nomenclature of Nepali orchids
(Supplementary material Appendix 1, Table A1). So, the
checklist presented below is expected to solve nomenclatural
problems and ambiguity existing for various species, and
update the list of orchids published till present. At several
instances, distributions are ambiguously written and they
were cross-checked with actual herbarium specimens and
field visits for proper authentication.
We collected information from various published books,
theses and web pages (Don 1825, Benerji and apa 1976,
Malla et al. 1976, Benerji 1978, Hara et al. 1978, Benerji
and Pradhan 1984, Polunin and Stainton 1984, Stainton
1988, Shakya 1999, Press et al. 2000, 2010, Rajbhandari
et al. 2000, White and Sharma 2000, Anonymous 2001,
Rajbhandari and Bhattarai 2001, Pearce and Cribb 2002,
Bajracharya 2004, de Millevile and Shrestha 2004,
Rajbhandari 2004, Rajbhandari and Dahal 2004, Ghimire
2009, Wu and Hong 2009, Maity et al. 2009, Raskoti 2009,
Rajbhandari and Baral 2010, Web 1 and 2) and research
papers that reported new species from Nepal (Panigrahi and
Wood 1974, Tuyama 1975, Bajracharya et al. 1993, Shakya
and Bania 1998, Shakya and Chaudary 1999, Shakya 2000,
Tsukaya and Ohba 2000, Bajracharya 2001, Bajracha-
rya et al. 2002, 2003, Shakya et al. 2002, Bajracharya and
Shrestha 2003, Rajbhandari 2003, Bajracharya and Shrestha
2004, 2006, Panthi and Chaudhary 2005, Rai et al. 2007,
Shakya and Shrestha 2007, Shrestha et al. 2007, Margonska
and Kowalkowska 2008, Raskoti et al. 2008, 2012, Raskoti
2009, 2013, Raskoti and Ale 2009a, 2009b, 2010, 2011,
2012, Raskoti and Shakya 2009, Acharya et al. 2010, Subedi
et al. 2011, Web 1 and 2). Moreover, different collection
trips were carried out in various parts of Nepal between 2001
and 2010. Many reported species were cross-checked with
herbarium specimens that were available in the National
Herbarium (KATH), and the Godawari and Tribhuvan
Univ. Central Herbarium (TUCH) in Nepal. Information
on herbarium specimens kept outside Nepal was obtained
from experts visiting different herbaria around the world
(Paul Ormerod, Australia, pers. comm.) or from online
512
Press et al. 2000 and updated online version www.efloras.
org, Anonymous 2001, Rajbhandari and Dahal 2004)
and also from floras of adjoining regions (Preace and
Cribbs 2002, Wu and Hong 2009). Global distribution
is also mentioned for each species based on information
obtained from the above-mentioned references. e dis-
tribution in neighbouring regions (India and China) are
given in detail.
Habit is followed by habitat in Nepal (if known). For 3.
epiphytic orchids data were taken from our field visits
and from Ghimire (2009) and Raskoti (2009).
Flowering months followed by fruiting months in 4.
Nepal (if known). e data were obtained from field
visits and from published sources (Rajbhandari and
Dahal 2004, Ghimire 2009, Raskoti 2009, Wu and
Hong 2009).
All the reported chromosome numbers were taken from 5.
Wu and Hong (2009) and sometimes from Vij and Shek-
har (1987).
Herbarium details of each species (location, collection-6.
date, number and herbaria code) housed in herbaria in
Nepal (KATH, TUCH-personal visit), and abroad (BM,
E, G, K, LINN, P information obtained from http://
plants.jstor.org and www.theplantlist.org, if available) are
given. Photographs included in Raskoti (2009) and his
own collections were also consulted and are marked as
‘Ph-R’ in the present checklist.
In cases where herbarium specimens are lacking, the most 7.
reliable references (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000,
Pearce and Cribb 2002, Rajbhandari and Dahal 2004)
that are based on previous collections in Nepal by
different people are given to authenticate species present
in Nepal.
Acampe praemorsa (Roxb.) Blatt. & McCann
Acampe papillosa (Lindl.) Lindl., Acampe carinata (Griff.)
Panigr.
CE Nepal (200–1200 m; Bangladesh, Bhutan, NE India
(Assam), Indo-China (Hainan, SW Yunnan, Taiwan), Laos,
Myanmar, ailand, Sri Lanka, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks often in Shorea robusta and
Terminalia chebula. Fl. Sep–Nov, Fr. Dec–Jan. 2n 36,
38, 72.
Torikhet, Dolakha, 1977.7.12. K R. Rajbhandari and
B. Roy 1233 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 787
(TUCH).
Acampe rigida (Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.) P. F. Hunt
Acampe multiflora (Lindl.) Lindl.
EC Nepal (200–1500 m), Africa, Bhutan, Cambodia, China
(S Guangdong, SW Guangxi, S Guizhou, Hainan, Taiwan,
E, SE, and SW Yunnan), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, NE
India (Assam, Sikkim), Sri Lanka, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks mainly Semicarpus anacardium,
Schima wallichii. Fl. Aug–Sep, Fr. Oct–Nov. 2n 38.
Raja Rani, Morang, 1979.9.6, R. B. apa, S. Magar and
S. Tamang 921 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya
865 (TUCH).
(A. rigida and A. multiflora are written as two separate species
in Hara et al. (1978) and Press et al. (2000)).
Table 3. Orchid species that are possibly present in Nepal.
Kew Checklist is compiled by R Govert (http://apps.kew.org/
wcsp/home.do).
Orchid species Reference
Bulbophyllum leopardinum var.
leopardinum
Kew Checklist
Bulbophyllum odoratissimum var.
odoratissimum
Kew Checklist
Bulbophyllum umbellatum var.
umbellatum
Kew Checklist
Calanthe plantaginea var. plantaginea Wu and Hong (2009)
Cheirostylis orbanchoides (F. Muell.)
D. L. Jones & M. A. Clem.
Press et al. (2000)
Chiloschista viridiflava Seidenf. Kew Checklist
Cleisostoma appendiculatum (Lindl.)
Benth. and Hook.f. ex B. D. Jacks.
Kew Checklist
Coelogyne barbata Lindl. ex Griff. Wu and Hong (2009),
Kew Checklist
Coelogyne hitendrae S. Das and
S. K. Jain
Kew Checklist
Coelogyne punctulata forma punctulata Kew Chicklist
Coelogyne raizadae S. K. Jain and S. Das Kew Checklist
Coelogyne schultesii S. K. Jain and S. Das Wu and Hong (2009)
Cremastra appendiculata var.
appendiculata
Wu and Hong (2009)
Cymbidium cyperifolium var.
cyperifolium
Wu and Hong (2009)
Cymbidium eburneum var. eburneum Wu and Hong (2009)
Cymbidium erythraeum var. erythraeum Wu and Hong (2009)
Dendrobium capillipes H. G. Reich. Wu and Hong (2009)
Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz subsp.
helleborine
Wu and Hong (2009)
Galeola falconeri Hook. f. Kew Checklist
Gastrodia elata Blume Wu and Hong (2009),
Kew Checklist
Oreorchis foliosa var. indica Pearce and Cribb
(2002),
Kew Checklist
Phalaenopsis deliciosa subsp. deliciosa Kew Checklist
Trichotosia pulvinata (Lindl.) Kraenzl. Wu and Hong (2009),
Kew Checklist
information on herbaria (http://plants.jstor.org and www.
theplantlist.org). 23 species mentioned in Kew checklist
(http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/home.do) or in ‘Flora of China
(Wu et al. 2009) are placed separately in Table 3 as there were
no herbarium details collected from Nepal, except mention
of their possible presence in Nepal.
Checklist
e present checklist comprises of following data:
Accepted taxon name in bold with author(s) followed 1.
by the most frequently and respective author(s) (where
applicable). We followed the nomenclature from e
Plant List webpage (www.theplantlist.org). Species with
their latest accepted names are sometimes followed by the
most frequently used heterotypic synonym(s) and respec-
tive authors.
Distribution in Nepal with altitudinal ranges in paren-2.
thesis. In the checklist, E stands for eastern Nepal, C for
central Nepal and W for west Nepal. is information
is prominently obtained from field visits and various
relevant documents related to Nepal (Hara et al. 1978,
513
CW Nepal (2700–4100 m), Bhutan, China (W Sichuan,
S and SE Xizang, NE and NW Yunnan), India (Arunchal
Pradesh, Sikkim).
Terrestrial on open grassland slopes. Fl. Jul–Aug. 2n 38.
Chheti-Mechchra, Darechula, 3400 m, 1984.7.22, PR Shakya,
MK Adhikari and MN Subedi 8014, Godepani-Pun Hill,
Kaski, 3100 m, 1983.7.13, KR Rajbhandari 7677; Kalinchok
Danda, Dolakha, 11800 ft, 1975.7.1, PR Shakya, KR
Rajbhandari and HK Saiju 2247; Dig Kharka, Solukhumbu,
4400 m, 1997.8.18, KR Rajbhandari 9740399 (KATH).
(species name josephi is sometimes spelled as Josephii).
Androcorys pugioniformis (Lindl. ex Hook. f.) K. Y. Lang.
Herminium pugioniforme Lindl. ex Hook. f..
ECW Nepal (2700–5200 m), Bhutan, China (E and S
Qinghai, NW Sichuan, Xizang, NW Yunnan), India
(Kumaon, Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttarakhanda).
Terrestrial on alpine thickets and meadows usually in the
Abies forest. Fl. Aug–Sep, Fr. Sep.
West Nepal, PSW 239; Central Nepal, SSW 6185; East
Nepal, McCosh 355 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Anoectochilus brevilabris Lindl.
C Nepal (900–1500 m), Assam India, eastern Himalaya.
Terrestrial on evergreen broad-leaved forests and damp
valleys. Fl. Aug–Sep.
Makwanpur Gadhi, Makwanpur (Ph-R).
Anoectochilus setaceus Blume
Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl.
C Nepal (300–1500 m), Bangladesh, Bhutan, China
(Yunnan), India (Assam), Myanamar, Sri Lanka, ailand,
Vietnam, Indonesia (Sumatra, Java).
Terrestrial on evergreen broad-leaved forests and damp
valleys. Fl. Dec.
Wallich s.n. (syntype) (BM) (Hara et al. 1978).
Anthogonium gracile Wall. ex Lindl.
EC Nepal (1500–2000 m), Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia,
China (W Guangxi, SW Guizhou, SE Xizang, W to SE
Yunnan), India (Assam, Bengal, Sikkim), Laos, Myanamar,
ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial on grassy slopes or thickets. Fl. Aug–Nov. 2n 38,
40, 42, 54.
Deorali Data, Kulekhani, Makwanpur, 5000 ft, 1975.10.8,
KR Rajbhandari, PM Amatya and NK Bhusal 75/926;
Shwapuri summit, Kathmandu, 1900 m, 1988.9.13,
M Suzuki, MN Subedi, M Minaki, S Noshiro and
H Ikeda 11569; Hanspokari, Ilam, 5200 ft, P Pradhan,
KR Rajbhandari and R Niroula 176 (KATH); Subedi,
Chaudhary and Shakya 1026 (TUCH).
Aphyllorchis alpina King and Prantl.
EC Nepal (2100–2600 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang),
India.
Terriestrial in forests and river banks. Fl. Jul, Fr. Sep.
Pantling 462, India (K). Pearce and Cribb (2002).
Apostasia wallichii R. Br.
C Nepal (600–800 m), Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia,
China (Hainan, SW Yunnan,Yingjiang), India E (Assam,
Sikkim), Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi,
Acanthephippium striatum Lindl.
E Nepal (400–1500 m), China (S Fujian, SW Guangxi,
Taiwan, S and SE Yunnan), Indonesia (Java), Malaysia, NE
India, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in shaded and humid dense forests, banks of
streams, along valleys. Fl. Apr–Jul.
Chulachuli, Ilam, 140 m (Ph-R).
Aerides multiflora Roxb.
Aerides affine Lindl.
CE Nepal (200–1100 m), Bangladesh, Cambodia, India
(Andaman Islands, Garhwal to Sikkim), Laos, Myanmar,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunk or major branches of plants (Schima
wallichii, Madhuca latifolia, Ficus religiosa or Eugenia
formosa, Albizzia sp., Cleistocalyx operculata or Lagerstroemis
sp., Ficus bengalensis, Mangifera indica, Alnus sp.). Fl.
May–Jun.
Wallich N., s.n. P00318089 (P); Sundi Khola, Bajhang,
960 m, 1984.8.5, PR Shakya, MK Adhikari, MN Subedi
8313; Babai, Bardiya, 350 m, 1979.6.27, KR Bhattarai and
B Roy 2623; Rangapani, Illam, 1978.6.11, P. Pradhan and
R. Niraula 516 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya
784 (TUCH).
Aerides odorata Lour.
EC Nepal (200–1200 m), Bhutan, China S. (Guangdong,
W Yunnan), India (Assam, Sikkim), Indonesia (Borneo,
Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philip-
pines, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks usually exposed light and air
current (Stanopsis indica, Shorea robusta, Mitragyna
parviflora or Schima wallichii, Sapium insigne, Albizzia sp.).
Fl. Apr–Jul. 2n 36, 38, 40.
Harre, Bardiaya, 199.6.28, KR Rajbhandari and B Roy
2640; Arughat, Gorkha, 500 m, 1979.6.29, MK. Adhikari
and MN Subedhi 7811; Raja Rani, Morang, 570, 1978.6.14,
P Pradhan and R Niraula 540 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary
and Shakya 783 (TUCH).
(A. odorata Lour. is also spelled as A. odoratum Lour.).
Agrostophyllum callosum Rchb.f.
EC Nepal (2100–2200 m), Bhutan, NE India (Assam),
Malaysia, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam. Fl. May–Aug, Fr.
Jul–Aug. 2n 38, 40.
Epiphytic on trees trunks often Quercus glauca, Lyonia
ovalifolia, Schima wallichii in dense forests.
Phulchoki, Lalitpur 8000 ft, 1977.7.29, P Pradhan and
Party 9583; Tamphodin, 7000 ft, 1969.6.25, TB Shrestha
and LHJ. Williams 15902 (KATH).
Agrostophyllum planicaule (Wall. ex Lindl.) Rchb.f.
E Nepal (500–800 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, India NE
(Assam, Sikkim, Andaman Islands), Laos, Myanamar,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks and their main branches or rarely
lithophytic on rocks (Terminalia sp.). Fl. Jul–Dec.
Rangapani, Illam, 2000 ft, 1977.10.10, P Pradhan,
KR Rajbhandari and R Niraula 359 (KATH).
Androcorys josephi (Rchb.f.) Agrawala & H.J. Chowdhery
Herminium josephi Rchb.f.
514
Brachycorythis obcordata (Lindl.) Summerh.
CW Nepal (1000–2600 m), Bangladesh, Bhutan, India
(Himanchal Pradesh), Myanmar.
Terrestrial in moist slopes, along foot hills. Fl. Jun–Aug.
Lipna, Dadeldhura, 900 m, 1980.8.11, KR Rajbhandari,
PM Regmi and KJ Mallaa 5184; Jimali, Salyan, 950 m,
1979.8.17, KR Rajbhandari and B Roy 4787; Nagi,
Shivapuri, Kathmandu, 6000 ft, 1966.8.2, SB Malla
4962; Nagdaha to otneri, Dolakha, 1300 m, 1977.8.3
KR Rajbhandari and B Roy 2034; Lekh Kharka, Solukhubu,
8000 ft, 2023.4.23, ML Benarji and PR Shakya (TUCH).
Bulbophyllum affine Lindl.
EC Nepal (600–1800 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, China
(S Guangdong, S Guangxi, Hainan, S Taiwan, S Yunnan),
India (Assam, Sikkim, WE Himalaya), Laos, Myanmar,
Ryukyu Archipelago, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree truks (Sapium insigne, Rhododendron
arboreum, Schima wallichii, Castanopsis indica) in the forest
or along valleys. Fl. May–Aug. 2n 36.
Chyanthapu, Kheband, 4500 ft, 1969.6.12, TB Shrestha
15606; Karkineta, Parbat, 1979.6.17, HK Saiju and SR
Tuladhar 1/79; Arun valley, Sankhuwasabha, 1200 m,
1998.12.7, DB Karkee 780 (KATH).
Bulbophyllum ambrosia (Hance) Schltr.
Nepal (600–1500 m), China S (Fujian, S Guangdong,
W Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Vietnam.
Epiphytic or lithophytic in evergreen and semi-deciduous
forests, thickets, on various bedrock types including lime-
stone and mossy rocks.
Langtang khola, near Sharpubes east of Trisuli river, towards
Tibetan frontier, ML Williams 39, Nepal, 1981.03 (K).
Bulbophyllum ambrosia (Hance) Schltr. subsp. nepalensis
J. J. Wood
C Nepal (1200–1500 m),? India (Assam-Khasia Hills).
Epiphytic in forests, associated with Coelogyne cristata. Fl.
Nov–Dec.
Langtang khola, near Sharpubes east of Trisuli river,
towards Tibetan frontier, ML Williams 39, Nepal, 1981.03
(holotype: K).
Bulbophyllum bisetum Lindl.
C Nepal (1500–2000 m), India (east Nepal), ailand.
Epiphytic on mediam sized tree or lithophytic on moist
rocks . Fl. Jul–Oct.
Bhadure-Deurali to Panchase, Kaski, 1900 m, Subedi,
Chaudhary and Shakya 804 (TUCH).
Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng.
EC Nepal (600–1200 m), Bhutan, India NE (Assam,
Sikkim), Laos, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks (Quercus glauca, Q. lanata, Schima
wallichii) in dense primary humid evergreen forest, also
lithophytic in small cliff near a stream. Fl. Sep–Dec.
Godavari, Lalitpur, 5500 ft, 1967.12.13, Manandhar
and Party 8319; Sanguri Bhanjyand, Sunsari, 1300 m,
1978.11.12, P Pradhan, NP Manandhar and N Amatya
662; Seti dobhan, Syanga, 700 m, 1979.9.5, R Niraula and
N Pradhan 1/1979 (KATH).
Moluccas), Japan S, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea,
Philippines, Sri Lanka, ailand, Vietnam.
Terriestrial in Shorea robusta forests, crevices and along
streams. Fl. Aug.
Central Nepal, 1950.5, N Wallich no. 4448 (G, P); Pame
Kaule Kaski, Gandaki, 1250 m, Subedi A (TUCH).
Arundina graminifolia (D. Don) Hochr.
EC Nepal (400–2300 m), Bhutan, China (N Fujian,
Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, S Hunan, Jiangxi,
S Sichuan, SE Xizang, Taiwan), India, Indonesia, Laos,
Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, ailand, Vietnam. It has
colonized new habitats in Guadeloupe, Hawaii, Jamaica and
Puerto Rico.
Terrestrial on grassy slopes, steams banks, thickets and
forests. Fl. and Fr. Jun–Nov, sometimes Jan–Apr. 2n 32,
38, 40, 42 (Wu and Hong 2009).
Nepal, 1802.07.15, F Buchanan-Hamilton, s.n. (BM);
Below Helambu, Sindhupalchok, 1300 m, 1966.09.28,
DH Nicolson 2674; Dolalghat, Kavrepalanchok, 870 m,
1985.9.13, H Obha, M Wakabayashi, M Suzuki, N Kurosaki,
KR Rajbhandari, SK Wu 62306; Yamdwar, Ilam, 200 m,
1974.7.12, P Pradhan, M Amatya and Rajani 320/74
(KATH); Kaskikot, Kaski, 1500 m, Subedi Chaudhary and
Shakya 1032 (TUCH).
Ascocentrum ampullaceum (Roxb.) Schltr.
C Nepal (150–1500 m), Bhutan, China (S and SE Yunnan),
India (Andaman Islands, NW and NE, Assam, Sikkim,
Bengal), Laos, Myanmar, ailand.
Epiphytic on tree trunks in broad-leaved evergreen forests
(e.g. Shorea robusta). Fl. Mar–May. 2n 38.
Jaspal, 290 m, 1969.4.20, H Kanai and MS Bista 12214;
Garuwa, Ilam, 200 m, 1979.4.18, P Pradhan, R. Niraula
and M Gorkhali 768 (KATH).
Bhutanthera albomarginata (King and Prantl.) Renz
Habenaria albomarginata King and Prantl.
EC Nepal (3400–4300 m), Bhutan, India (Sikkim).
Terrestrial in alpine open meadows. Fl. Jul–Sep.
Above Rupche Bhanjyang, Ganesh Himal, 3600 m,
1992.7.2, WJ Walker, TA Burkitt, JT Miller and R Shrestha
9 (KATH).
Bhutanthera alpina (Hand-Mazz.) Renz
Habenaria alpina Hand.-Mazz.; Peristylus alpinus (Hand.-
Mazz.) K. Y. Lang.
C Nepal (4200–4300 m), Bhuta, China (SE Xizang), India
(Sikkim).
Terrestrial in damp alpine meadows; Fl. Jul–Aug.
(is species was collected from Bagmati zone, Rasuwa
District, Tulo Bhera Khark to Jaisuli Kund, 4200 m, 30 Jul
1994, F. Miyamoto et al. 9410108 (A). e herbarium is
deposited at Harvard Univ. Herbaria and is confirmed by
Paul Ormerod, Australia, pers. comm.).
Bhutanthera fimbriata Raskoti
C Nepal (3800 m).
Terrestrial in alpine region.
Langtang National Park, 2008.7.14, Raskoti 234 (holotype
KATH).
515
Bulbophyllum helenae (Kuntze) J. J. Sm.
E Nepal (900–1200 m), China (S and SW Yunnan), India
(Khasia, Assam, Kumaon, Sikkim), Laos, N. Myanmar,
ailand.
Epiphytic in primary forests. Fl. May–Aug.
East, Nepal, 1969, fide Banerji and apa, l.c. 293 (BM)
(Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Bulbophyllum hirtum (Sm.) Lindl. ex Wall.
Stelis hirta Sm.
C Nepal (1000–1600 m), India NE (Assam, Sikkim), Laos,
Myanmar, ailand.
Epiphytic on mediam sized tree trunk (Schima wallichii,
Quercus lanuginose). Fl. Jan–Jul.
Nepal, F Buchanan-Hamilton, 1803.1.30 (holotype:
LINN); Nepal, 1821, N Wallich no. 1989 (G); ailand,
1910.12.11, AFG Kerr 67 (K); Central, Godavari, 6000 ft,
1978.2.16. R Bahadur 394 (KATH).
Bulbophyllum leopardinum (Wall.) Lindl. ex Wall.
EC Nepal (1500–3200 m), China (S Xizang, S Yunnan),
India (Assam, Sikkim, Uttarakhanda), Laos, ailand,
N Vietnam.
Epiphytic in tree trunk and lithophytic in exposed rocks. Fl.
Apr–Aug, Oct.
Nagarkot Dada, Bhaktapur, 2100 m, 1975.3.11, DP Joshi
and KR Rajbhandari 75/454 (KATH).
Bulbophyllum moniliforme E. C. Parish & Rchb. f.
C Nepal (1450 m), Burma, Cambodia, India NE, Laos,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic in deciduous forest. Fl. Oct.
Banpalie forest, Kaski, 1450 m, Subedi 1753 (TUCH).
Bulbophyllum muscicola Rchb. f.
Bulbophyllum hookeri (Duthie) J. J. Sm.
C Nepal (2100–2400 m), Bhutan, India (Assam, Garwal).
Epiphytic on Rhododendron forest. Fl. Feb–Sep.
Daman, Makwanpur, 1989.3.12. KJ White 3 (KATH).
Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (Sm.) Lindl. ex Hook. f.
C Nepal (1000–2000 m), Bhutan, China (Fujian, Guang-
dong, Guangxi, S Sichuan, SE Xizang, W to SE Yunnan),
India (Assam, eastern Himalaya, Sikkim), Laos, Myanmar,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks in mixed forests (Quercus
semicarpifolia, Schima wallichii), on rockes in damp plances.
Fl. Apr–Aug. 2n 38 (Wu and Hong 2009).
Nepal, 1821, N Wallich no. 1987 (G); N Wallich (LINN);
Naudada Kaski, 1300 m, 1975.6.14. DP Joshi and TK
Bajracharya 75/2666; Phulchoki, Lalitpur, 8000 ft,
1977.7.29, R Bahadur 9582 (KATH).
Bulbophyllum polyrrhizum Lindl.
C Nepal (900–2100 m), Burma, India (Sikkim), Laos,
ailand.
Epiphytic on tree trunks in humid evergreen forest. Fl. Apr.
Mahaveer, Makwanpur, 1800 m, 1992.2.22, KJ White 12
(KATH).
Bulbophyllum reptans (Lindl.) Lindl. ex Wall.
Sunipia racemosa (Sm.) Tang & F. T. Wang
Bulbophyllum cariniflorum Rchb.
C Nepal (1300–1800 m), Bhutan, China (S. Xizang), India
E., ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic or lithophytic in mixed forests. Fl. Jul–Aug.
2n 38 (Wu et al. 2009).
Nepal, Kathmandu, K Adrington (spirit); S Coll, s.n., Nepal
(spirit) (K).
Bulbophyllum cauliflorum Hook. f.
Bulbophyllum cauliflorum Hook. f. var. sikkimense N. Pearce &
P. J. Cribb
E Nepal (800–1800 m), China (Xizang), India NE (Assam,
Sikkim).
Epiphytic on tree trunks or lithophytic on open rocks in
broad-leaved forest. Fl. Jun–Jul. 2n 42.
Chongtang, JD Hooker 36B (holoype: K-LINDL, isotype:
K); Press et al. (2000).
Bulbophyllum cylindraceum Lindl.
E Nepal (1600–2400 m), Bhutan, China (W to SE Yunnan),
India (Asma, Sikkim, W Himalaya), Myanmar, ailand.
Epiphytic on tree trunks or lithophytic on moist rocks in
forests. Fl. Nov. 2n 38, 40, 42.
Chitray, 7400 ft, 1977.9.11, P Pradhan and N Shrestha 98
(KATH); S Coll, s.n. (spirit) (K).
Bulbophyllum elatum (Hook. f.) J. J. Sm.
C Nepal (900–1500 m), India (Assam, Sikkim).
Epiphytic on Schima wallichii. Fl. May–Jun.
Tinpanibhanjyang, Lalitpur, 7000 ft, 1977.5.11, R Bahadur
429 (KATH); S Coll, s.n. (spirit) (K).
Bulbophyllum emarginatum (Finet) J. J. Sm.
Nepal (800–2200 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang, SE to
NW Yunnan), India NE, Myanmar, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks in primary forests. Fl. Oct.
Spirit (10964.000) (K); Wu and Hong (2009).
Bulbophyllum eublepharum Rchb. f.
East Nepal (2000–2500 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang,
NW and SE Yunnan), India (estern Himalaya), Myanmar.
Epiphytic on tree trunks. Fl. Jul–Nov, Fr. Aug. 2n 38.
Spirit (55317.000) and India. Spirit (14946.000) (K);
Although it is mentioned in Rajbhandari and Dahal (2004),
herbarium specimen is not found.
Bulbophyllum gamblei (Hook. f. f.) Hook. f.
E Nepal (1800–2800 m), Bhutan, India (Assam, Sikkim).
Epiphytic or lithophytic in broad-leaved riverine forests. Fl.
Jun–Jul.
Although it is mentioned in Pearce and Cribb (2002) and
Rajbhandari and Dahal (2004), herbarium specimen is not
found.
Bulbophyllum guttulatum (Hook. f.) N. P. Balakr.
C Nepal (700–2300 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xiznag), India
(Kumaon, Assam, Sikkim), Myanmar, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks in broad-leaved forests usually in
the Schima wallichii. Fl. Jul–Sep.
Shivapuri, Chitray, Kathmandu, 7400 ft, 1974.9.8.4,
S Dahal and N Dawadi 125; Godak, Ilam, 3500 ft,
1977.10.3, P Pradhan, KR Rajbhandari and R Niraula 651
(KATH); spirit (K).
516
ECW Nepal (1000–2200 m), Bhutan, China (Guangxi, SW
Guizhou, Hainan, S and SE Xizang, W to SE Yunnan), India
NE (Assam, Bengal), Laos, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks (like Englehardtia spicata) or
lithophytic on rocks in evergreen broad-leaved forests. Fl.
Nov–Jan, Fr. Apr–Jun. 2n 38 0–2B, 42.
Doko Bhanjyang, Kathmandu Valley, 2400 m, 1975.3.16,
DP Joshi and KR Rajbhandari 75/644; Hanspokhari,
Illam, 1978.11.21 P Pradhan et al 43; above Num, Sankhu-
wasava, 1700 m, 2009.2.9, GD Bhatt and SP Bhattarai
4 (KATH).
Bulbophyllum retusiusculum Rchb. f.
C Nepal (2100–3000 m), Bhutan, China (S Gansu,
Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, S Hunan, Sichuan, Taiwan, S and
SE Xizang, W to SE Yunnan), India NE, Laos, Malaysia,
Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks or main branches (Rhododendron
arboreum, Quercus semicarpifolia, Lyonia ovalifolia). Fl.
Sep–Dec/Apr–Aug. 2n 38.
Chhintapu, Illam, 2600 m, 1971.9.29, JF Dobremez 1256;
Bagdwar, Kathmandu, 8200 ft, 1979.9.9, P Pradhan and
N Shrestha 20; Gufa, Taplejung, 2500 m, 1983.9.22,
HK Saiju, L Joshi, N Pradhan and MN Subedi 46;
Bhandar-Shivalaya, 2600 m, 1985.9.11, H Obha et al.
62283 (KATH).
Bulbophyllum rigidum King and Prantl.
C Nepal (1000–1500 m), India NE (Assam, Sikkim).
Epiphytic in evergreen temperate forests mainly on Quercus
semicarpifolia. Fl. Oct–Nov/Aug.
Daman-Hetauda, Makwanpur, 2000 m, 1966.11.16,
KR Rajbhandari and S Bhattrai 85A (KATH).
Bulbophyllum rolfei (Kuntze) Seidenf.
Bulbophyllum dyerianum (King and Prantl.) Seidenf.
EC Nepal (1800–2500 m), Bhutan, China (W Yunnan-
Fugong), India (Naga hills-Assam).
Epiphytic on tree trunks or main branches. Fl. Jun–Sep.
Near Sukepokhari, Panchthar, 2600 m, 1978.11.18, NP
Manandhar and N Amatya 807 (KATH).
Bulbophyllum roxburghii (Lindl.) Rchb. f.
E Nepal (300–500 m), India NE (Assam, Sikkim).
Epiphytic on medium to large sized tree trunks. Fl.
May–Jun.
India, Spirit (45742.000 and 55750.000) (K); Rajbhandari
and Dahal (2004).
Bulbophyllum sarcophyllum J. J. Sm.
E Nepal (1000–1200 m), Bhutan, India (Assam, Sikkim),
Myanamar.
Epiphytic on tree trunks. Fl. May–Jun.
Rajbhandari and Dahal (2004).
Bulbophyllum scabratum Rchb. f.
E Nepal (2000–2200 m), India NE (Assam-Khasia, Bengal.
Sikkim).
Epiphytic on tree trunks and main branches. Fl. Mar–May.
East, Nepal, 2000 m, Stainton 771 (Hara et al. 1978, Press
et al. 2000).
Bulbophyllum secundum Hook. f.
C Nepal (2000–2200 m), China (Yunnan) India (Assam,
Sikkim), Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic in montane temperate (e.g. Quercus glauca) or
tropical evergreen (shrub) forests, also reported from depleted
evergreen forests. Fl. Jan–Feb, May–Jul, 1200–2500 m.
Tinpanibhanjyang, 7000 ft, 1978.7.6, R Bahadur 569
(KATH).
Bulbophyllum sterile (Lam.) Suresh
Bulbophyllum caudatum Lindl.
EC Nepal (500–1000 m), China (SE Xizang), India (Assam,
Bengal, Sikkim), Myanmar.
Epiphytic on trees (Engelhardtia spicata, Schima wallichii,
Mangifera indica). Fl. Jun–Jul. 2n 38.
Sundarijal, Kathmandu, 5300 ft, P Pradhan and N Shrestha
827; Torikhet, Dolakha, 950 m, 1977.7.12, KR Rajbhan-
dari and B Roy 1234; Godak, Ilam, 3500 ft, 1977.10.3 P
Pradhan et al 1234 (KATH).
Bulbophyllum striatum (Griff.) Rchb. f.
C Nepal (500–1000 m), Bhutan, China (SE Yunnan), India
(Assam, Bangel), ailand, N Vietnam.
Epiphytic in forest or on rocks in thickets on limestone
slopes (lithophytic). Fl. Jan–Feb, Fl. Oct–Dec.
Deurali village to Panchase Danda, Kaski, 200 m, Subedi,
Chaudhary and Shakya 1035 (TUCH).
Bulbophyllum triste Rchb. f.
E Nepal (800–1400 m), China (S Yunnan), India (Uttranchal,
Assam), Myanmar, ailand.
Epiphytic on Engelhardtia spicata. Fl. Jan–Jul. 2n 38.
Nepal, C Bailes 935A (spirit) (K); Tinpanibhanjyang,
Lalitpur, 7000 ft, 1978.5.4, R Bahadur 806 (KATH).
Bulbophyllum umbellatum Lindl.
C Nepal (300–2200 m), Bhutan, China (SW Guizhou,
SW Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, S and W Yunnan),
NE India (Panjab, Assam), Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mainly on Quercus glauca, Castanopsis indica. Fl.
Mar–Jun. 2n 38.
Godavari, Lalitpur, 6000 ft, 1978.4.11, P Pradhan 401
(KATH).
Bulbophyllum umbellatum var. fuscescens (Hook. f.) P. K.
Sarkar
Cirrhopetalum maculosum var. frutescens Hook. f.
Nepal (1000–2000), India (Sikkim).
Epiphytic on large-sized tree trunks.
Nepal in spirit (12727.000) (K).
Bulbophyllum viridiflorum (Hook. f.) Schltr.
EC Nepal (1500–2200 m), India (Assam-Khasia,
W Himalaya, Sikkim).
Epiphytic on Castanopsis indica, Schima wallichii. Fl.
Jun–Aug.
Dhorpatan-Bustibang, Balung, 2600, 1979.6.26, HK Saiju
and SR Tuladhar 68/79; B. B. Raskoti 109, Panchase (KATH).
Bulbophyllum wallichii Rchb. f.
C Nepal (1000–2500 m), Bhutan, China (S and W Yunnan),
NE (Assam) and NW India, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
517
Terrestrial on humus rich slopes.
Shepawa to Hogganun, 8000 ft, 1965.5.16, ML Banerji,
AV Upadhyay and BB Bakola 3501; Mai Pkhari, Ilam,
2100 m, 1977.4.13, PR Shakya 4033 (KATH).
Calanthe davidii Franch.
Calanthe pachystalix Rchb. f. ex Hook. f.
C Nepal (500–3300 m), China (S Gansu, Guizhou, Hubei,
NW Hunan, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang,
SE and W Yunnan) N India, Japan, Vietnam.
Terrestrial or lithophytic on forest or shaded plances. Fl.
Jun–Jul, Fr. Sep–Oct. 2n 40, 44.
Central Nepal, C Bailes s.n. (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Calanthe densiflora Lindl.
Alismorkis densiflora (Lindl.) Kuntze; Calanthe kazuoi
Yamamoto.
C Nepal (1000–3000 m), Bhutan, China (Guangdong,
Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Taiwan, S and SE Xizang, NW
and SE Yunnan) NE India (Darjeeling, sikkim), Japan
(Iriomote Island), Myanmar, Vietnam.
Terrestrial. Fl. Aug–Sep, fr. Oct. 2n 40.
South of Bajrabarahi, Kathmandu, 1400 m, 1999.11.20,
KR Rajbhandari 99/51 (KATH).
Calanthe griffithii Lindl.
E Nepal (2000–2300 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang), NE
India, Myanmar.
Terrestrial in evergreen broad leaved forest. Fl. May.
Maipokhari, Ilam, 2200 m, 1996.3.31, KR Rajbhandari,
S Bhattrai and R Joshi 32 (KATH).
Calanthe mannii Hook. f.
EC Nepal (1500–2500 m), Bhutan, China (E Guangdong,
NE Guangxi, SW Guizhou, SW Hubei, N Jiangxi, Sichuan,
S and SE Xizang, NE Yunnan), India (Assam, Kumaon,
NE), Myanmar, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in forests usually in the north facing slopes. Fl.
May. 2n 40.
Siringdham, 7500 ft, 1969.6.15, TB Shrestha 15642;
Kiocma-Chumsur, Sankhuwasabha, 2020 m, 1999.10.10,
DB Karkee 937 (KATH).
Calanthe plantaginea Lindl.
C Nepal (1500–2200 m), Bhutan, China (S and SE Xizang,
SW and W Yunnan), India (Kashmir).
Terrestrial in evergreen broad-leaved forests. Fl. Mar–Apr.
2n 40.
Near Dyolekh, Bajhang, 1950 m, 1984.4.15, P Pradhan,
RK Uprety, N Pradhan and N Dabadi 1317; Sundarijal,
Kathmandu, 1700 m, 1975.3.18, DP Joshi and KR rajb-
handari 75/704; Jysyn Ban, Bhaktapur, 1900 m, 1975.3.12,
DP Joshi and KR rajbhandari 75/520 (KATH); Bhadure to
Panchase, 1900 m, Subedi 790 (TUCH).
Calanthe puberula Lindl.
C Nepal (1800–2500 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang, SE
and W Yunnan), India (Assam, Simla), Japan, N Vietnam.
Terrestrial in evergreen broad-leaved forests. Fl. Jun–Aug.
2n 40, 40 1B, 42.
Epiphytic on tree trunks of Schima wallichii. Fl. Mar–May.
2n 38.
Sanguribhanjyang, 4000 ft, 1970.4.8, TB Shrestha and
TK Bhattacharya 10410 (KATH).
Bulbophyllum xylophyllum Parish and Rchb. f.
E Nepal (410–910 m), Bhutan, China (Guizhou), NE India,
Laos, Mayanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks. Fl. Sep–Oct.
Although it is mentioned in Press et al. (2000) and
Rajbhandari and Dahal (2004), herbarium specimen is not
found.
Bulbophyllum yoksunense J. J. Sm.
C Nepal (2000–2600 m), NE India, Myanmar, ? Malaysia.
Epiphytic on Quercus species. Fl. Sep–Oct.
B. B. Raskoti 299 (KATH), Beer L. W. 25579 Ishwa Khola,
Arun region (BM).
Bulbophyllum yunnanense Rolfe
Bulbophyllum otoglossum Tuyama
E Nepal (1400–2800 m), Bhutan, China (NW and
SE Yunnan).
Epiphye on tree trunks or lithophytic on moist rocks. Fl.
Apr–Jun, Aug.
East Nepal, TI 6307376 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Calanthe alpina Hook. f. ex Lindl.
ECW Nepal (2800–3500 m), Bhutan, China (S Gansu,
Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, S and SE Xizang, W Yunnan),
India (Grawal, NE), Japan.
Terrestrial in forests margins, grassy slopes. Fl. Nov. 2n 40, 42.
Above ongnada, 2700 m, 1981.7.8, PR Shakya,
LR Sharma and KR Amatya 6344; Ghodepani, Parbat,
2750 m, 1975.6.23, DP Joshi and TK Bhattaraya 75/2928;
Ankhu Khola, Ganesh Himal, 2800 m, 1992.7.14,
WJ Baker, TA Burkitt, JT Milller and R Shrestha 12;
Ramite, 2700 m, 1972.7.3, PR Shakya 1948; Chichila,
Sankhuwasabha, 1900 m, 1998.12.13, DB Karkee 821
(KATH).
Calanthe biloba Lindl.
E Nepal (1000–2800 m), Bhutan, China (SW and
W Yunnan), NE India, Myanmar, ailand.
Terrestrial in thickets or near streamsides. Fl. Oct. 2n 38,
48, 80.
East Nepal, Hooker f. s.n. (K) (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Calanthe brevicornu Lindl.
EC Nepal (1500–3100 m), Bhutan, China (N Guangxi,
Hubei, Sichuan, SE Xizang, SE and W Yunnan), India
(Sikkim), Myanmar.
Terrestrial in dense forest. Fl. May–Jun. 2n 38, 40, 48.
Below Namche Kharka, Sankhuwasabha, 2180 m, 1994.6.11,
PR Shakya and KK Dangol 100060; Sanguri Bhanjyang,
Sunsari, 2500 m, PR Shakya and P Shrestha 9777 (KATH).
Calanthe chloroleuca Lindl.
E Nepal (1500–2400 m), Bhutan, India.
518
Tarebhir, Bhanjyang, Shivapuri, Kathmandu, 7000 ft,
1966.8.3, SB Malla 4968; Ramche-Dhunche, Rasuwa,
2000 m, 1971.7.18, PR Shakya and SR Adhikari 588;
Manebhanjyang-Chichila, Sankhuwasabha, 1930 m,
1990.7.28, M Minaki et al. 9010054 (KATH); Dhara
pani, Kaski, 2000 m, Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 980
(TUCH).
Calanthe sylvatica (ouars) Lindl.
Calanthe masuca (D. Don) Lindl.
EWC Nepal (1500–2800 m), Angola, Bhutan, Burundi,
Cameroon, Comoros Islands, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon,
Guinea, China (Guangdong, N and SE Guangxi, Hunan,
Taiwan, SE Xizang, S and SE Yunnan), India, Indonesia
(Java, Sumatra, Borneo), Japan, Kenya, Madagascar and
the Mascarenes, Malawi, Malaysia, Myanmar, Rwanda, Sao
Tome e Principe, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka,
Swaziland, Tanzania, ailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Terrestrial in forests, damp places on riversides, along valleys;
800–2000 m. Fl. Apr–Sep. 2n 20, 40, 42, 52.
Harain Letty?, Nepal, 1803.02.21, F Buchanan, no. s.n. (BM).
Calanthe tricarinata Lindl.
ECW Nepal (1500–3200 m), Bhutan, W China (S Gansu,
Guizhou, Hubei, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang,
Yunnan), India (Kashmir, NE), Japan.
Terrestrial on humus rich grassy slopes and forests. Fl.
May–Jul. 2n 40, 42, 60.
Rara lake, Mugu, 9700 ft, 1968.3.4, SB Malla 10784;
Bhorlang, Chipu Danda, 7600 ft, 1969.8.21, SB Malla
16028; Ulleri, Parbat, 2400 m, 1974.7.21, DP Joshi and TK
Bhattachaya 1800/74; Ghurchi Lekh, 2300 m, 1980.5.29,
PR Shakya and B Roya 5437 (KATH).
Calanthe trulliformis King & Pantl.
E Nepal (2300–2600 m), NE India (Sikkim), Myanmar.
Terrestrial in humus rich forest. Fl. Jul.
Ghasa, Mustang, 2500 m, 1976,7.25, DP Joshi and
SK Dhungana 76/3938; Shivalaya, Ramechap, 5900 ft,
1978.7.31, PR Shakya et al. 617 (KATH).
Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch.
CW Nepal (1200–3200 m).
Afghanistan, Bhutan, China (S Gansu, W Henan, W Hubei,
S Shaanxi, S Shanxi, W Sichuan, S and SE Xizang,
NW Yunnan, Europe, India (Kashmir), Europe, Myanmar,
N. Africa, Pakistan; SW Asia, W. Siberia.
Terrestrial in forest, thickets, along streams, open gassland.
Fl. May–Jun, Fr. Sep–Oct. 2n 16, 32, 34, 34 2B, 42
(Wu and Hong 2009).
Dunche Camp-Singuma, 2900 m, 1969.6.4, H Kani 673161;
Surmasarowar, Bajahang, 2800 m, 1973.5.5, JF Dobremez
2070; Dori Lekh, 3200 m, 1980.5.27, PR Shakya and B Roy
5360; Syo-Lee, Gorkha, 2850 m, 1983.6.4, PR Shakya, MK
Adhikari and MN Subedi 7754 (KATH).
Ceratostylis himalaica Hook. f.
East Nepal (600–1900 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang,
S Yunnan), India (Assam-Khasia), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
Nepal, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on trees (e.g. Quercus griffithii) or lithophytic on
rocks in forests. Fl. and Fr. Apr–Jun.
East Nepal, Hook. f. s.n. (K) (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Cheirostylis griffithii Lindl.
C Nepal (1500–2200 m), Bangladesh, Bhutan, China
(C Yunnan), India (Assam-Khasia), Myanmar, ailand.
Epiphytic or terrestrial in damp places in forests; Fl. Sep.
2n 26.
Flatt H.17 (BM).
Chiloschista lunifera (Rchb. f.) J. J. Sm.
E Nepal (150–600 m), India NE (Assam), Laos, Myanmar,
ailand.
Epiphytic in tree trunks at lowlands forest. Fr. Apr.
East Nepal, 1964, fide Banerji, l.c. 218 (Hara et al. 2000,
Press et al. 2000).
Chiloschista parishii Seidenf.
E Nepal (1000–1800 m), Bhutan, India NE, Myanmar,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks like Pyrus pashia. Fl. Mar–Jun.
Sundarijal, Kathamandu, 1961.3.23, SB Malla and
SB Rajbhandari 125; Garuwa, Ilam, 200 m, 1979.4.18,
P Pradhan, R Niraula and M Gorkhali 766 (KATH).
Chiloschista usneoides (D. Don) Lindl.
C Nepal (1500–1700 m), Bhutan, India (Sikkim).
Epiphytic on Quercus glauca. Fl. Feb–Jun.
Dumre, Tanahu, 900 m, Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya
885 (TUCH).
Chrysoglossum ornatum Blume
C Nepal (700–1700 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, China
(Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, S and SW Yunnan), Fiji, India,
Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, New Guinea), Laos,
Malaysia, New Caledonia Philippines, Samoa, Sri Lanka,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on shaded and humid places in the dense forests.
Fl. Apr–Jun. 2n 36.
Bajrabarahi, Lalitpur, 1250 m, 2001.7.14, M Ghimire 114
(KATH).
Cleisostoma aspersum (Rchb. f.) Garay
ECW Nepal (600–1900 m), Bhutan, India NE (Assam,
Sikkim), Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks in humid forest. Fl. Apr–Aug,
Fr. Aug.
Num-Arun river, Sankhuwasabha, 900 m, 1998.12.7, DB
Karkee 781 (KATH).
Cleisostoma flliforme (Lindl.) Garay
CE Nepal (150–1300 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, India NE
(Assam, Sikkim), Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Schima wallichii and Ficus sp. Fl. Aug–Sep.
Begnas Tal, Kaski District, 900 m, 1986.7.7, NP Manandhar
and L Kattel 11327; Busti, 3000 ft, 1978.8.5, PR Shakya
et al. 625 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 793
(TUCH).
519
Cleisostoma racemiferum (Lindl.) Garay
E Nepal (1400–2000 m), Bhutan, China (S and W Yunnan),
India NE (Assam), Laos, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks in sun exposed open forests. Fl.
Jul–Aug. 2n 38.
Saundu, Kaski, 1130 m, NP Manandhar and L Kattel
11168; Hanspokhari, Ilam, 5200 ft, 1979.9.28, RB apa
et al. 907 (KATH).
Cleisostoma simondii (Gagnep.) Seidenf.
C Nepal (500–600 m), China (Fujian, S Guangdong,
Hainan, S Yunnan), NE India, Laos, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on median sized tree trunks. Fl. Sep, Nov–Mar.
Chure near Hetauda, Makwanpur, 1996.11.18, KR
Rajbhandari and S Bhattarai 95; Bumlingtar, Sankhu-
washabha, 460 m, 1999.10.1, DB Karkee 878 (KATH)
Coelogyne corymbosa Lindl.
EC Nepal (2200–2900 m), Bhutan, China (S and SE Xizang,
S and W Yunnan), India NE (Assam-Khasaia), Myanmar.
Epiphytic on Quercus semicarpifolia, Lyonia ovalifolia,
Rhododendron species or lithophytic on humid rocks. Fl.
May–Jul, Fr. next Jul–Nov. 2n 38, 40.
Barati-Tale Bisauna, Kalinchok range, east of Barabise,
Dolakha, 2500 m, 1970.4.16, H Kanai 670575; Citre-
Chakela Kharka, 2500 m, 1994.6.10, PR Shakya and KK
Dangol 10042 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya
890 (TUCH).
Coelogyne cristata Lindl.
CW Nepal (1000–2400 m), Bhutan, China (S Xizang),
India NE (Assam-Khasia, Kumaon, Sikkim).
Epiphytic on Castanopsis indica, Schima wallichii, Quercus
glauca. occasional lithophytic on rocks in damp places. Fl.
Feb–May. 2n 40.
Chaubas to Risingo, 7000–6300 ft, 1958.3.30, RS Rao
13554; Aulabari, Ilam, 1750 m, 1767.4.12, DH Nicolson
3246; Sattewati-Chilune Kharka, 1700 m, 1973.11.31, DP
Joshi and MM Amatya 73/1098; Papahre Dada, Sundarijal,
Kathamndu, 1780, 1975.3.20, DP Joshi and KR Rajbhandari
75/739; Chir, Bajhang, 1650 m, 1984.6.10, P Pradhan
et al. 1301; Bhumeshow VDC-3, Kholsi, Baitadi, 1250 m,
2010.2.16, GD Bhatta and BD Bhatta 808 (KATH);
Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 892 (TUCH).
Coelogyne fimbriata Lindl.
C Nepal (500–2300 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, China
(N Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, S Jiangxi, SE
Xizang, Yunnan), India NE, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia NE,
Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks like Schima wallichii or lithophytic
on rocks along streamsides, in forests, or at forest margins.
Fl. Aug–Oct, fr. next Apr–Aug. 2n 40, 40 2f.
Phulchoki, Lalitpur, 7000 ft, 1977.9.21, R Bahadur 10505;
Sundarijal, Kathnadu, 5300 ft, 1977.9.13, P Pradhan and
N Shrestha 102 (KATH).
Coelogyne flaccida Lindl.
C Nepal (900–1100 m), Bhutan, China (NW Guangxi,
S Guizhou, S and W Yunnan), Bhutan, India NE (Sikkim),
Laos, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Shorea robusta and Schima wallichii. Fl.
Apr–Jun. 2n 40.
Central Nepal, N Wallich no. s.n. (K), N Wallich no. 1961
(BM).
Coelogyne fuscescens Lindl.
Coelogyne fuscescens var. fuscescens.
Coelogyne fuscescens var. integrilabia Pfitzer.
Coelogyne fuscescens var. viridiflorum Pradhan.
C Nepal (1200–1800 m), Bhutan, China (S Yunnan), NE
India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Castanopsis tribuloides, Schima wallichii,
Rhododendron sp. or on moist rocks. Fl. Oct–Dec. 2n 40.
Phapre Dada, Sundarijal, Kathmandu, 1780 m, 1975.3.20,
DP Joshi and KR Rajbhandari 75/749; above Num, Sankhu-
wasabha, 1890 m, 1990.12.12, PR Shakya 9454 (KATH);
Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 1045 (TUCH).
Coelogyne longipes Lindl.
E Nepal (1500–2300 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang,
W to SE Yunnan), India NE, Laos, Myanmar, ailand.
Epiphytic on Quercus sp. Fl. May–Jun, Fr. next Mar.
2n 40.
Deurali-Mude, Sankhuwasabha, 2000 m, 1998.12.6, DB
Karkee 766 (KATH).
Coelogyne nitida (Wall ex. D. Don) Lindl.
Coelogyne ochracea Lindl.
ECW Nepal (1300–2400 m), Bhutan, China (NW, S, and
W Yunnan), India NE (Assam), Laos, Myanmar, Nepal,
ailand, Vietnam.
India (NE), Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, ailand, China
(Yunnan), Vietnam. Laos.
Epiphytic on Schima wallichii, Lyonia ovalifolia,
Rhododendron sp. or lithophytic on mossy rocks. Fl. Apr–
Jun. 2n 40.
Above Govane, 2000 m, 1973.5.18, PR Shakya and TK Bhat-
tacharya 2130; Kakani, 2000 m, 1976.5.12, VL Gurung, R
Kayastha and PM Regmi 139; Hanspokari, Ilam, 5200 ft,
1978.6.6, P Pradhan and R Niraula 449 (KATH); Subedi,
Chaudhary and Shakya 883 (TUCH).
Coelogyne ovalis Lindl.
CW Nepal (1300–1700 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang,
W Yunnan), NE India, Myanmar, Nepal, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Schima wallichii, Sapium insigne, Quercus
sp, Rhododendron sp., Castanopsis indica, Ficus sp., Engelhar-
dtia spicata or lithophytic on rocks along rivers or valleys; Fl.
Aug–Nov, fr. next Sep. 2n 40, 80.
Central Nepal, N Wallich, Wall Cat no. 1957 (K); Subedi,
Chaudhary and Shakya 818 (TUCH).
Coelogyne prolifera Lindl.
Coelogyne flavida Hook. f. ex Lindl.
CE Nepal (1000–2300 m), Bhutan (S, SE, and W Yunnan),
India NE (Assam), Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Shorea robusta, Schima wallichii, Sapium
insigne, Quercus sp, Rhododendron sp., Castanopsis indica,
Ficus sp., Engelhardtia spicata. Fl. Apr–Jun.
Nepal, 1831, N Wallich, no. 1956 (P); Ramche-
Gram, Rasuwa, 1800–1900 m, 1969.6.6, H Kanai 11884;
520
Lamauwa-Besinda, Sankhuwasabha, 1300 m, 1994.6.8,
PR Shakya and KK Dangol 10019; Godak, Illam, 3600 ft,
1977.10.3, P Pradhan et al., 574; Bajra Barahi, Kathmandu,
1240 m, 2001.7.21, M Ghimire 117 (KATH); Subedi,
Chaudhary and Shakya 922 (TUCH).
Coelogyne punctulata Lindl.
E Nepal (1300–2900 m), Bhutan, China (S and SE Xizang,
W Yunnan) India NE, Myanmar.
Epiphytic on main branches of tree or lithophytic on mossy
rocks. Fl. Nov, Fr. Apr. 2n 38.
Nepal, 1966, fide PF Hunt, l.c. (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Coelogyne stricta (D. Don) Schltr.
CE Nepal (1400–2000 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang,
Yunnan, India NE, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Schima wallichii. Fl. Apr–Jun.
2n 40, 44.
Central Nepal, N Wallich, no. Wall. s.n. (K, P); Godavari,
Lalitpur, 6000 ft, 1978.4.19, P Pradhan 404 (KATH).
Conchidium extinctorium (Lindl.) Y. P. Ng & P. J. Cribb
Eria extinctoria (Lindl.) Oliv.
C Nepal (500–600 m), Myanmar.
Epiphytic on Dalbergia sissoo, Shorea robusta. Fl. Mar–Apr.
Churia Khola, 10 km south of Hetauda, Makwanpur, 500 m,
1983.3.12, KJ White 1 (KATH).
Conchidium muscicola (Lindl.) Rauschert
Eria muscicola (Lindl.) Lindl.; Dendrobium parviflorum
D. Don.
CE Nepal (330–3000 m), Bhutan, China (Yunnan), NE
India (Assam, Sikkim), Sri Lanka, Burma, ailand Laos,
Myanmar, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks or lithophytic in moist mossy rocks.
Fl. Jul–Aug.
Near Phidim, Panchtar, 1460 m, 1978.11.18, N Pradhan,
NP Manandhar and N Amatya 888 (KATH).
Corallorrhiza trifida Chatel.
CW Nepal (3800–3900 m), India (Kashmir), Europe,
Siberia, N. America, Greenland.
Saprophytic on humus rich slopes.
West Nepal, Stainton 4307; central Nepal, SSW 3143 (Hara
et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Cremastra appendiculata (D. Don) Makino
C Nepal (1800–2300 m), Bhutan, China (Anhui, Chongqing,
S Gansu, N Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei,
Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, S Shanxi, Sichuan,
Taiwan, Xizang, SE Yunnan, Zhejiang), India NE (Assam),
Japan, Korea, ailand, Vietnam).
Terrestrial in wet places in forests, along valleys; 400–2900 m.
Fl. May–Jun, Fr. Sep–Dec. 2n 24, 42, 48, 52.
Central Nepal, N Wallich, s.n., central Nepal, N Wallich
7349 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Crepidium acuminatum (D. Don) Szlach.
Malaxis acuminata D. Don, Malaxis acuminata forma biloba
(Lindl.) Tuyama, Microstylis wallichii Lindl.
CE Nepal (450–3050 m), Australia, Bhutan, China (Guang-
dong, SW Guizhou, ?Taiwan, SE Xizang, S Yunnan),
Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines,
ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial on sandy soil. Fl. and Fr. May–Jul. 2n 30,
36, 42.
Nepal, N Wallich, no. 1938A (E); Nepaul (Nepal), 1832,
N Wallich, no. s.n. (P); Gyangshar to Shhusa, Dolakha,
2900 m, 1977.7.20, KR Rajbhandari and B Roy 1642;
Telia Lekh, 1800 m, 1981.6.27, PR Shakya, LR Sharma and
KR Amatya 6196; Bhotebas-Chichila, Sankhuwasabha,
180–1800 m, 1988.7.8, M Suziki et al. 8820255; Ekle
Ghar-Sardu Khola, Gorkha, 2150 m, 1994.7.25, Suzuki
et al. 9470175; Pasela-Banjh, Bajhang, 2372 m, 2009.7.16.
CA Pendry et al. 20915147 (KATH); Subedi 765 Kaskikot
1600 m (TUCH).
Crepidium biauritum (Lindl.) Szlach.
Malaxis biaurita (Lindl.) Kuntze
Nepal (900 m), India, Laos, Myanmar, ailand.
Terrestrial in humus riched sandy shady places.
Lamidanda, Malwanpur district, 1400 m, BB Raskoti 204
(KATH).
Crepidium calophyllum (Rchb. f.) Szlach.
Malaxis calophylla (Rchb. f.) Kuntze.
E Nepal (500–600 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, China (Hainan,
S Yunnan), India (Sikkim), Indonesia, Laos Malaysia,
Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam).
Terrestrial or lithophytic.
Chunia village, 1200 m (Ph-R).
Crepidium josephianum (Rchb. f.) Marg.
Malaxis josephiana (Rchb. f.) Kuntze
E Nepal (500–830 m), NE India.
Terrestrial in moist and humus riched slopes. Fl. May.
Phulchoki, Lalitpur, 1700 m (Ph-R).
Crepidium khasianum (Hook. f.) Szlach.
Malaxis khasiana (Hook. f.) Kuntze.
E Nepal (1000–3000 m), China (S and W Yunnan), NE
India, ailand.
Terrestrial or lithophytic. Fl. Jul. 2n 42.
Pokharathok, Arghakhanchi, 1200 m (Ph-R) B. B. Raskoti
III (KATH).
Crepidium mackinnonii (Duthie) Szlach.
Malaxis mackinnonii (Duthie) Ames.
C Nepal (800–1500 m), India, ailand.
Terrestrial on road side slopes.
Rapti Dun forest, 400 m, Chunia village Makwanpur
District, 1000 m (Ph-R).
Cryptochilus luteus Lindl.
Cryptochilus lutea Lindl.
E Nepal (1200–2300 m), Bhutan, China (W to SE Yunnan),
India NE (Assam, Manipur, Naga hills, N Vietnam.
Epiphytic on median sized trees (e.g. Lyonia ovalifolia)
or lithophytic on rocks in humid forest. Fl. Jun–Jul, Fr.
Sep–Oct.
Bhorlong, 7800 ft, 1977.9.12, P Pradhan and N
Shrestha; Channa to Bhabasen, Dailekh, 2300 m,
1979.7.5, KR Rajbhandari and B Roy 2866; Chitre-Ramite,
521
Sankhuwashbha, 2160, 1994.6.19, PR Shakya and KK
Dangol (KATH).
Cryptochilus sanguineus Wall.
CE Nepal (1600–2400 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang, NW
Yunnan), India NE (Assam, Khasia, Naga Hills, Sikkim),
Myanmar.
Epiphytic on Rhododendron and Castanopsis sp. or other trees
in forests. Fl. Jun–Aug. 2n 38.
Godavari, Lalitpur, 5500 ft, 1967.7.15, R Bahadur 565
(KATH).
Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw.
Cymbidium pendulum (Roxb.) Sw.
CE Nepal (300–1600 m), Bangladesh, Cambodia, China
(Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, S and SE Yunnan), India
(Sikkim), Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on upper cannopy of the Artocarpus sp., Shorea
robusta, Mangifera indica, Engelhardtia spicata. Fl. Mar–Jun,
Fr. Aug. 2n 40.
Below Khandbari, Sankhuwasabha, 750 m, 1977.6.9,
PR Shakya 4596; Near Godak, Ilam, 2900 ft, 1978.6.9,
N Pradhan and R Niraula 489; Near Torikhet, Tamba
Kosi, Dolakhan, 950; 1977.7.13, KR Rajbhandari and B
Roy 1257; Ghatte Khola, Surkhet, 500 m, 1979.6.29, KR
Rajbhandari and B Roy 2667; Arughat, Gorkha, 560 m,
1983.6.11, PR Shakya et al. 7809 (KATH); Subedi Chaud-
hary and Shakya 695 (TUCH).
Cymbidium bicolor Lindl.
ECW Nepal (100–1600 m), Cambodia, India (Assam,
Bengal), Indonesia (Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi),
Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, ailand,
Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Terminalia sp. and Schima wallichii. Fl.
Apr–May.
Churia Mai VDC-4, Bhaise VDC 7, Harnamadi VDC,
Basmadi VDC 1, Makwanpur (akur et al. 2010).
Cymbidium cyperifolium Wall. ex Lindl.
CE Nepal (1500–2500 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, China
(Guangdong, S Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan,
Yunnan), India, Myanmar, Philippines, ailand, Vietnam.
Terresstrial in forests margins or lithophytic on rocks,
crevices in damp places.
Godavari, Lalitpur, 5500 ft, 1975.3, P Pradhan G/2 (KATH);
Nepal, C Bailes 998 in spirit (49432.000).
Cymbidium cyperifolium var. szechuanicum (Y. S. Wu
and S. C. Chen) S. C. Chen and Z. J. Liu
Cymbidium faberi var. szechuanicum (Y. S. Wu & S. C. Chen)
Y. S. Wu & S. C. Chen.
CE Nepal (1000–2900 m), Bhutan, China (Guizhou,
Sichuan, Yunnan), India (EHM, Uttaranchal).
Terrestrial on forest margins. Fl. Feb–Apr.
Nepal, N Trudel, no. 895 (spirit at K); Nepal, C Bailes, no.
1040 (spirit at K).
Cymbidium dayanum Rchb. f.
C Nepal, Nepal, Bhutan, China (S Fujian, Guangdong,
Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, S Yunnan), Cambodia, India,
Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines,
ailand, Vietnam.
Trees in open forests, cliffs along streamsides. Fl. Aug–Dec,
Fr. Feb–Apr. 2n 40.
Kalmouda, Nepal, N Wallich, no. s.n. (LINN).
Cymbidium devonianum Lindl. ex Paxton
E Nepal (1500–1800 m), Bhutan, China (SE Yunnan,
Pingbian), India, NE ailand, N Vietnam.
Epihytic mostly on Quercus sp. Fl. Mar–May. 2n 40.
Hanspokhari, Ilam, 5200 ft, 1978.6.6, P Pradhan and R
Niraula 450 (KATH).
Cymbidium eburneum Lindl.
E Nepal (300–1700 m), China (S and SW Guangxi, S and
W Hainan, W Yunnan), India (Assam, Sikkim), Myanmar,
Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Mangifera indica. Fl. Mar–May.
Nepal, (Icon. in K) (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000);
Arun Valley (Ph-R).
Cymbidium elegans Lindl.
Nepal (1700–2800 m), Bhutan, China (SW Sichuan, SE
Xizang, Yunnan), India (Assam), N Vietnam.
Epiphytic on trees in forests, cliffs or lithophytic.
Nepal, 1970, N Sanders in spirit (34602.000); Nepal,
1992.10.21, Kew Expd. Nep. 1179 in spirit (K).
Cymbidium elegans var. elegans
Cymbidium longifolium D. Don
CE Nepal (1700–2800 m), Bhutan, China (SW Sichuan, SE
Xizang, Yunnan), India, Myanmar.
Ephiphytic on Rhododendron sp., Daphniphyllum himalense
or grows on mossy rocks. Fl. Mar–Jul, Fr. Oct–Dec.
2n 40.
Gossain an, Nepal, N Wallich, no. s.n., (BM); Subedi
Chaudhary and Shakya 1030 (TUCH).
Cymbidium erythraeum Lindl.
CE Nepal (1500–2400 m), Bhutan, China (C and
SW Guizhou, SW Sichuan, SE Xizang, NW, SE, and W
Yunnan), India (Kumaon, Assam, Sikkim), Myanmar,
Nepal, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Quercus sp. Fl. Oct–Nov, Fr. May.
2n 40, 42.
Arun Valley, ridge between Botebas and Chichila,
Sankhuwasabha, 1940 m, 1991.9.20, DG Long et al 104
(KATH); Wallich (SIN, Singapore).
Cymbidium faberi Rolfe
E Nepal (700–3000 m), China (Anhui, N Fujian, S Gansu,
Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, S Henan, Hubei, Hunan,
Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, E Xizang, Yunnan,
Zhejiang), N India.
Epiphytic on tree trunks. Mar–May, Fr. Jul–Sep. 2n 40,
42, 43, 44.
Nepal, N Trudel, no. 895 (spirit at K); Nepal, C Bailes, no.
1040 (spirit at K).
Cymbidium hookerianum Rchb. f.
E Nepal (1600–2600 m), Bhutan, China (S Guangxi, SW
Guizhou, SW Sichuan, SE Xizang, Yunnan), NE India, N
Vietnam.
522
Epiphytic especially on Schima wallichii or lithophytic on
rocks in damp places. Fl. Jan–Apr, Fr. Jun–Aug. 2n 38,
40.
Népaul, Nepal, N Wallich, no. s.n. (P); Guranse to
Basantapur, Dhankura, 2200 m, 1982.1.30, KR Rajbhandari
et al. 6109 (KATH).
Cymbidium iridioides D. Don
CE Nepal (1500–2800 m), Bhutan, China (SW Guizhou,
SW Sichuan, SE Xizang, NW to SE Yunnan), India (Assam-
Khasia, Kumaon), Myanmar, N Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks or lithophytic in forests or thickets,
shaded cliffs.
Nepal, 1819, E Gardner, no. s.n. (BM); Above Nundhaki,
Sankhuwasabha, 2400 m, 1991.4.28, PR Shakya 9643
(KATH); Subedi Chaudhary and Shakya 1023 (TUCH).
Cymbidium lancifolium Hook.
C Nepal (200–2400 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, China (N
Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, S Hunan,
S Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan, S Zhejiang), India
NE (Assam-Khasia, Sikkim), Indonesia, Japan, Laos,
Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, ailand,
Vietnam.
Epiphytic in humid forests or lithophytic in humus-rich
rocks. Fl. May–Aug, fr. Oct–Dec. 2n 38, 39, 40, 42.
Nepal, Wallich s.n. (K); Phulchoki, Lalitpur, 7500 ft,
1979.7.7, P Pradhan and party 824 (KATH); Subedi Chaud-
hary and Shakya 940 (TUCH).
Cymbidium macrorhizon Lindl.
C Nepal (800–2500 m), China (Chongqing, SW Guizhou,
SW Sichuan, NE Yunnan), NE India (Assam-Khasia), Japan,
Laos, Myanmar, Pakistan, ailand.
Saprophytic in the humus rich forest. Jun–Aug. 2n 38.
Although it is mentioned in Pearce and Cribb (2002)
and Rajbhandari and Dahal (2002), herbarium specimen is
not found.
Cymbidium micranthum Z. J. Liu & S. C. Chen
Nepal, China (SE Yunnan-Maguan).
Terrestrial. Fl. Dec.
Nepal, N Wallich, no. s.n. (LINN).
Cymbidium mannii H. G. Reich.
Cymbidium bicolor subsp. obtusum DuPuy and P. J. Cribb
(1988).
ECW Nepal (900–1500 m), Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia,
China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, SE and
SW Yunnan), India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic in forest. Fl. Mar–Apr, Fr. Jul–Aug.
Makwanpur district Lamidanda, Makwanpur, 1400 m (Ph-R).
Cymbidium gammieanum King and Prantl.
CE Nepal (1800 m), India NE (Sikkim).
Epiphytic in medium sized tree trunks. Fl. Oct–Nov.
Ilam, 1800 m, 1995, SB Desar and SK Tamang 95/1
(KATH).
Cypripedium cordigerum D. Don
CW Nepal (2800–3800 m), Bhutan, China (S Xizang-
Yadong), India (Kashmir, Nepal, N Pakistan.
Terrestrial in Pinus forests or in grasslands. Fl. Jun–Aug.
2n 20.
Gopain an, Nepal, 1818, N Wallich, no. s.n. (BM);
Chuchamara Danda, Mugu, 3820 m, 1979.7.19,
KR Rajbhandari and B Roy 3600 m; Napakuna danda,
Sialgari-Churta, 3350 m, 1980.6.21, PR Shakya and
B Roy 5857; Dhorpatan, 3200 m, HK Saiju and SR Tulad-
har 43/79 (KATH).
Cypripedium elegans Rchb. f.
CE Nepal (3300–4200 m), Bhutan, China (S and SE Xizang,
NW Yunnan), N India.
Terrestrial in humus rich forests. Fl. May–Jul.
Central Nepal, SSW 1025; East Nepal, Dhwoj 0452 (Hara
et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Cypripedium himalaicum Rolfe ex Hemsl
Cypripedium macranthum Swartz var. himalaicum (Rolfe ex
Hemsl.) Kraenzl.
ECW Nepal (3000–4800 m), Bhutan, China (S and
SE Xizang), N India.
Terrestrial in humus rich forests. Fl. Jun–Jul. 2n 20.
Chaudhabise Khola, 3750 m, 1980.6.17, PR Shakya and
S Poudel 10447; Langtang-Kyanjing, Rasuwa, 3550 m,
1992.7.13, MN Subedi 9237070; Machhapuchhre base
camp, Kaski, 4330 m, 2001.6.28, PR Shakya and S Poudel
104777 (KATH).
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soó
ECW Nepal (2800–3960 m), Himalaya (Kashmir to
Bhutan), China (Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Mongol,
Ningxia, Qinghai, W Sichuan, Xinjiang, E Xizang), Mongolia,
W Pakistan.
Terrestrial in shrubby slopes or grasslands. Fl. Jun–Aug.
2n 40, 80.
Chankeli Lagna, Humla, 3500 m, 1979.7.25,
KR Rajbhandari and B Roy 3874; Chaudhabise Khola,
Jumla, 3100 m, 1980.6.18, PR Shakya and B Roy 5827
(KATH); moist place, Kunasa, Dolpa, 3900 m, PPI99-47
(TUCH).
Dactylorhiza viridis (L.) R. M. Bateman, Pridgeon &
M. W. Chase
Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartm.
ECW Nepal (3100–3900 m), Bhutan, China (Gansu, Hebei,
Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mon-
gol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan,
Xinjiang, NE Xizang, NW Yunnan), Japan, Kashmir,
Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, Turk-
menistan; SW Asia, Europe, North America.
Terrestrial in forest, thicket and in gassland. Fl. Jun–Aug.
2n 40, 41, 42.
West Nepal, PSW 4701. Central Nepal, SSW 3326a (Hara
et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Dendrobium amoenum Wall. ex Lindl.
CE Nepal (1100–2900 m), Bhutan, Indian Himalaya
(Garhwal, Assam-Khasia), Myanmar.
Epiphytic on exposed tree trunks. Fl. May
Above Kimtang, Nuwakot, 1700 m, 1983.6.15, PR Shakya
et al. 7815; Temple Hill, Kathmandu, 5500 ft, Schilling and
523
Sayers 325; Hedanga, 1270, 1977.6.6, PR Shakya 4569;
Hanspokhari, Ilam, 5200 ft, 1978.6.6, P Pradhan and R
Niroula 448 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 949
(TUCH).
Dendrobium anceps Sw.
EC Nepal (1200–1400 m), India (Assam, Sikkim), Myanmar,
ailand.
Epiphytic on large sized tree trunk usually in the upper
cannopy of trees. Fl. Apr–May.
Raja Rani, Morang, 1979.4.19, P Pradhan, R Niroula and
M Gorkhali 739 (KATH).
Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.) G. E. C. Fischer
CE Nepal (100–1500 m), Bhutan, Bangladesh, E and
W Himalayas, India (Assam), Indonesia (Borneo, Java,
Lesser Sunda Islands, Sumatra, Sulawesi), Laos, Maldives
Islands, Malaysia, Myanamar, Sri Lanka, ailand, Vietnam,
Queensland Australia.
Epiphytic on Castanopsis indica, Schima wallichii, Sapium
insigne, Alnus nepalensis, Acer sp., Dalbergia sp. Fl.
Apr–Jun.
Saraswati-Simat Khola, 280–600 m, 1969.4.19, H Kanai
and MS Bista 11497; Tinpanibhanjyang, Lalitpur, 7000 ft,
1978.5.3, Pradhan and Party 415; Above Siswatar, Sankhu-
wasabha, 750 m, 1994.6.8, PR Shakya and KK Dangol
10016; Godak, Ilam, 550 m, P Pradhan, R Niroula and
M Gorkhali 731 (KATH); Subedi 885 (TUCH).
Dendrobium bicameratum Lindl.
C Nepal (1400–2400 m), India (NW Himalaya, Sikkim),
Myanmar.
Epiphytic on Quercus glauca, Lyonia ovalifolia. Fl. Jul–Aug.
Godaveri, Lalitpur, 7000 ft, 1977.7.25, P Pradhan and party
9580; Dokha, 1700 m, 1985.7.10, N Bhattarai, M Shrestha,
N Pradhan and S Shakya 13; Bhaisakot, Dailekh, 1450 m,
1985.7.27, PR Shakya, MN Subedi and R Uprety 8385
(KATH).
Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl.
CE Nepal (1500–2500 m), Bhutan, Indian Himalaya
(Assam, Kumaon), N. Myanmar.
Epiphytic usually on Quercus glauca. Fl. Sep–Oct.
Lele Bhanjyag, Phulchoki, Lalitpur, 1969.4.25, H Kani
11892 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 1030
(TUCH).
Dendrobium chrysanthum Wall. ex Lindl.
C Nepal (1300–2000 m), Bhutan, China (Guangxi,
S Guizhou, SE Xizang, S Yunnan), NE India (Sikkim), Laos,
Myanmar, N ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on medium to large sized tree trunks or main
branches. Fl. Apr–Oct.
Hanspokhari, Ilam, 5200 ft, 1977.10.1, P Pradhan, KR
Rajbhandari and R Niroula 636 (KATH).
Dendrobium chryseum Rolfe
C Nepal (1000–2100 m), Bhutan, China (C Sichuan-Ebian,
Emei Shan, Taiwan, NW to SE Yunnan), NE India (Assam,
Sikkim), Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Castanopsis trees. Fl. May–Jun. 2n 38.
Phulchoki, Lalitpur, 7000 ft, 1979.6.1, R Bahadur 803
(KATH).
Dendrobium crepidatum Lindl. and Paxton
C Nepal (600–1400 m), Bhutan, China (SW Guizhou,
S Yunnan), India NE (Assam, Sikkim), Laos, Myanmar,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks or lithophytic on rocks. Fl.
Apr–May.
Nepal, 1992.03.26, K White (K); Central Nepal, Gardner
196 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Dendrobium cumulatum Lindl.
E Nepal (150–700 m), Bhutan NE (Assam, Sikkim),
Myanamar, ailand, Cambodia, Indonesia (Borneo), Laos,
Vietnam.
Epiphytic on mediam to large sized tree trunks or large
branches. Fl. Jun–Sep.
Chulachulia, Ilam, 1400 m (Ph-R).
Dendrobium darjeelingense Pradhan
C Nepal (2000 m), India (Darjeeling).
Epiphytic on tree trunks. Fl. Oct.
Lamidada, Makwanpur, 1992.3, KJ White 25 (KATH).
Dendrobium denneanum Kerr
C Nepal (1200 m), China (W Guangxi, S Guizhou,
Hainan-Bawangling, NW to SE Yunnan), India (Kumaun,
Assam-Khasia), Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic.
Central Nepal, SSW 609; Wallich, s.n (Hara et al. 1978,
Press et al. 2000).
Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl.
C Nepal (900–2900 m), Bhutan, China (N Guangdong,
Guangxi, Hainan, SE Xizang), NE India (Assam-Khasia),
Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, N ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Schima wallichii, Machilus gambeli. Fl.
Apr–Jun.
Chhetchht to Lambagar, Dolkha, 1800 m, 1977.4.16, KR
Rajbhandari and R Roy 1390; Newa Khola, 1977.5.23, PR
Shakya 4396 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 788
(TUCH).
Dendrobium denudans D. Don
ECW Nepal (1000–2200 m), India (Garwal to Sikkim).
Epiphytic on Schima wallichii, Shorea robusta. Fl. Apr–Aug.
Bajrabarahi, Lalitpur, 1400 m, 1996.10.10, S Desar
30; Below Churia, Lamidada, Makwanpur, ca 1000 m,
KJ White 25 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 781
(TUCH).
Dendrobium eriiflorum Griff.
CE Nepal (1500–2100 m), Bhutan, India (Assam-Khasia,
Sikkim), Myanmar, Malaysia, ailand.
Epiphytic on Quercus glauca, Berberis sp., Schima wallichii,
Alnus nepalensis trees. Fl. Sep–Oct.
Arun valley, Hatiar, North of Num, Sankhuwasabha,
7000 ft, 1956.8.26 JDA Stainton 1435; Wilinge-
Khaptad, Doti, 1490–1880 m, 1981.9.18, I Sharma
524
et al. 571; Liwang, Rolpa, 1280, 1982.9.3, NP Manand-
har and NK Bhattarai 8769; Dharapani, Manag, 1850 m,
1983.8.7, KR Rajbhandari 9054; Lambagar, Dolakha, 1950,
1977,7.19, KR Rajbhandari and B Roy 1557 (KATH).
Dendrobium farmeri Paxton
E Nepal (150–700 m), Bhutan, India NE (Assam), Laos,
Myanmar, Malaysia, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks. Fl. May–Apr.
Raja Rani, Morang (Ph-R).
Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook.
CE Nepal (200–2100 m), Bhutan, China (NW to S Guangxi,
S Guizhou, S Yunnan), India NE (Sikkim), Myanmar,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Schima wallichii, Shorea robusta. Fl. Mar–
May.
Rangapani, Ilam, 500 m, 1979.4.16, P Pradhan, R Niraula
and M Gorkhali 742; Raja Rani, Morang, 570 m, 1979.4.19,
P Pradhan, R Niraula and M Gorkhali 782 (KATH).
Dendrobium formosum Roxb.
CE Nepal (1500–1500 m), Bhutan, Bangladesh, India
(Sikkim), Myanmar, ailand, Philippines, Sri Lanka,
Vietnam.
Epiphytic on large sized tree trunk usually in the upper can-
nopy of the tree. Fl. Jun.
Godak, Ilam, 1900 ft, 1978.6.10, P Pradhan and R Niraula
503 (KATH).
Dendrobium gibsonii Lindl.
E Nepal (900–2000 m), Bhutan, China (Guangxi-Lingyun,
S Yunnan), NE India (Assam), Laos, Myanmar, N ailand,
Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Shorea robusta, Schima wallichii. Fl. Apr–May.
East Nepal, Stainton 1379 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Dendrobium heterocarpum Wall. ex Lindl.
C Nepal (1000–1600 m), Bhutan, China (S and W Yunnan),
NE India (Sikkim), Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo,
Sulawesi), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Schima wallichii, Quercus glauca, Rhododendron
sp. Fl. Apr–May.
Chitre, 2200 m, 1972.8.16, JF Dobremez 1490; Sudap,
Panchthar, 1800 m, 1977.5.1, PR Shakya 4185; Phulchoki,
Lalitpur, 7000 ft, 1979.3.28, P Pradhan and Party 690
(KATH).
Dendrobium hookerianum Lindl.
E Nepal (300–2000 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang,
W Yunnan), NE India, Myanmar.
Epiphytic mostly on Schima wallichii. Fl. Jun–Jul.
Pearce and Cribb (2002), Rajbhandari and Dahal (2004).
Dendrobium longicornu Lindl.
CE Nepal (1300–2900 m), Bhutan, China (S Guangxi
(Shangsi), SE Xizang, NW to SE Yunnan), NE India
(Assam), Myanmar, N Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Quercus glauca, Rhododendron arboreum.
Fl. Sep–Nov.
Nepal, 1859, N Wallich, no. s.n. (isotype: P); Arun
valley, Khadbari, W of Chainpur, Sankhuwasabha,
8000 ft, 1956.9.26; JDA Stantion 1768; Chitlang Danda,
Makwanpur, 2300 m, 1975.1.10, DP Joshi, KR Rajbhandari
and MK Ghimire 75/219; Snaomati Danda, Manichur,
Kathmandu, 2500 m, 1975.3.13, DP Joshi and
KR Rajbhandari 75/544 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and
Shakya 890 (TUCH).
Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw.
E Nepal (600–3000 m), Bhutan, China (SW Anhui, N and
SE Fujian, S Gansu, N and SW Guangdong, N Guangxi,
E Guizhou, Henan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, S Sichuan,
Taiwan, NW to SE Yunnan, N Zhejiang), NE India, Japan,
Korea, Myanmar, N Vietnam.
Epiphytic on lower cannopy of tree trunk and shrubs or
lithophytic on moist rocks.
Nepal, C Bailes, no. 967 (spirit K).
Dendrobium monticola P. F. Hunt and Summerh.
Dendrobium alpestre Royle.
C Nepal (1700–2700 m), China (SW Guangxi-Napo,
S Xizang-Gyirong, Nyalam), NW India (Garwal), Laos,
N ailand, N Vietnam.
Epiphytic on lower cannopy of tree and shrubs or lithophytic
on moist rocks. Fl. Jul–Aug.
are-Dhunche, Rasuwa, 6000 ft, 1977.8.27, HK Saiju and
PM Amatya 21/77; Tade to Dhunche, Rasuwa, 1800 m,
1977.10.2, TK Rajbhandari, VL Gurung and DP Joshi 2167
(KATH).
Dendrobium moschatum (Buch.-Ham.) Sw.
C Nepal (200–1200 m), Bhutan, China (S and W Yunnan,
NEW India (Kumaon), Laos, Myanmar, ailand,
Vietnam.
Epiphytic on top of the Shorea robusta, Schima wallichii or
growing on rocks. Fl. May–Jul.
Chitwan, 200 m, 1987.6.21, R Uprety sn.; Rangapani, Ilam,
1900 ft, 1977.10.10, P Pradhan, KR Rajbhandari and
R Niraula 650 (KATH).
Dendrobium nobile Lindl.
E Nepal (400–1500 m), Bhutan, China (NE to W Guangxi,
Guizhou, Hainan-Baisha, Hong Kong, W Hubei-Yichang,
S Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang-Mêdog, Yunnan), NE India
(Assam), Laos, Myanmar, N ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Schima wallichii, Ilex excelsa. Fl. Apr–May.
Godak, Ilam, 3600 ft, 1977.10.3, P Pradhan, KR Rajbhan-
dari and R Niraula 409 (KATH).
Dendrobium ochreatum Lindl.
E Nepal (1200–1600 m), India (Assam), Myanmar,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mediam sized on tree trunk. Fl. May–Jun.
Nepal, 1990.05, K White, s.n. (spirit K). Godak, Ilam
(Ph-R).
Dendrobium peguanum Lindl.
CW Nepal (300–1200 m), India NE (Assam, Sikkim),
Myanmar, ailand.
Epiphytic on trunks of the Shorea robusta. Fl. Nov–Jan.
525
Nepal, Wallich s.n. (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Rapti river, 300 m (Ph-R). Hetauda Shahid Smark (White
and Sharma 2000).
Dendrobium porphyrochilum Lindl.
CE Nepal (1800–2500 m), Bhutan, China (N Guangdong-
Liannan, W Yunnan-Tengchong), NE India (Assam-Khasia,
Sikkim), N Myanmar, N ailand, N Vietnam.
Epiphytic on trees or lithophytic on rocks mossy rocks. Fl.
May–Aug.
Chhintapu, Ilam, 8500 ft, 1969.6.8, TB Shrestha 15534
(KATH).
Dendrobium polyanthum Wall. ex Lindl.
Dendrobium primulinum Lindl.
C Nepal (400–1400 m), Andaman Islands, China (S Yunnan),
NE India, Laos, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks. Fl. Apr–May.
Nanipani, west Nepal, 1400 m, 1973.4, JF Dobremz 1878
(KATH); Doti, 1000–1200 m (Amatya 2005); Chitwan
(Ph-R).
Dendrobium pulchellum Roxb. ex Lindl.
E Nepal (900–1800 m), NE India, Laos, Myanmar,
Malaysia, Singapore, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunk and main branches usually upper
portion of the tree. Fl. Jul–Aug.
East Nepal, 1970, fide Banerji & apa, l.c. (Hara et al.
1978, Press et al. 2000).
Dendrobium transparens Wall. ex Lindl.
ECW Nepal (800–2000 m), Bhutan, NE and NE India
(Kumaon, Assam), Laos, Myanmar.
Epiphytic on median to large sized tree often on the Shorea
robusta. Fl. May–Jun.
Nepal, 1984, C Bailes, 928 (K); Subedi, Chaudhary and
Shakya 931 (TUCH).
Didymoplexis pallens Griff.
E Nepal (150 m), Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China (N
Fujian, C and S Taiwan), NE India, Indonesia, Japan
(Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines,
ailand, Vietnam, Australia, SW Pacific Islands.
Saprophytic under bamboo, on cultivated lands. Fl. and Fr.
Apr–May.
Baraul VDC-3, Sunsari, East Nepal, Koshi, April, SM-40
(KATH).
Dienia cylindrostachya Lindl.
Malaxis cylindrostachya (Lindl.) Kuntze.
CE Nepal (2600–4000 m), Bhutan, China (Xizang), India
(Simla to Sikkim).
Terrestrial in open grassy slopes. Fl. Jul–Aug.
Dienia ophrydis (J. König) Seidenf.
Malaxis latifolia Sm.
CE Nepal (1800–2100 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, China
(S Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, S and
SW Yunnan), India (Deccan to Himalaya), Indonesia,
Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal,
New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, ailand, Vietnam,
Greater and lesser Sunda Islands, Australia.
Mostly terrestrial, occasionally epiphytic in humid areas. Fl.
May–Aug, Fr. Aug–Dec. 2n 26, 42.
Near Dolakha, Dolakha, 1500 m, 1977.7.12, KR Rajbhandari
and B Roy 1206; Lelebhanjyang, Lalitpur, 7000 ft,
1977.8.11, R Bahadur 9592 (KATH); Kaskikot, 1600 m,
Subedi 766 (TUCH).
Diplomeris hirsuta (Lindl.) Lindl.
CE Nepal (300–1000 m), Bhutan, S China, NE India.
Terrestrial on moist sandy slopes. Fl. Jul–Aug.
Tin Labse, above Tikabhairab, Lalitpur, 6000 ft,
1977.8.9, P Pradhan and party 9586; Namdu to Busti,
Dolakha, 1300 m, 1977.8.20, KR Bhattarai and B Roy 2347
(KATH).
(It has been spelled as Diplomeris hirsute in Panthi and
Chaudhary 2005).
Diplomeris pulchella D. Don
Orchis uniflora Roxb.
EC Nepal (600–2600 m), China (SW Guizhou,
SW Sichuan, SE Xizang, NW Yunnan), NE India,
Myanmar, Vietnam.
Mostly terrestrial and lithophytic on sheded slopes. Fl.
Jul–Sep, Fr. Oct.
Gossain an, Nepal, Wallich, Nathaniel, no. s.n.; Nepal,
Wallich, Nathaniel, no. s.n.; Narainhetty Upper Nepal,
1802.8.15, F. Buchanan-Hamilton (LINN).
Epigeneium amplum (Lindl.) Summerh.
CE Nepal (1300–2000 m), Bhutan, China (Guangxi, SE
Xizang, SE to NW Yunnan), NE India (Assam, Sikkim),
Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Schima wallichii or lithophytic on
mossy rocks. Fl. Sep–Nov.
Hanspokhari, Ilam, 5200 ft, 1977.10.1, P Pradhan, KR
Rajbhandari and R Niroula 654 (KATH).
Epigeneium fuscescens (Griff.) Summerh.
E Nepal (600–1800 m), Bhutan, China (S Guangxi, SE
Xizang, S and W Yunnan), NE India.
Epiphytic on Quercus semicarpifolia or on lithophytic on
dampy rocks. Mar–Apr, Oct.
Maipokhari, Ilam, 1977.10.10, P Pradhan, KR Rajbhandari
N Niraula 72; Deurali, Sankkhuwasabha, 2020 m, 2009.2.9,
GD Bhatta and AP Bhattarai 1 (KATH).
Epigeneium rotundatum (Lindl.) Summerh.
E Nepal (1500–2000 m), Bhutan, China (Guangxi, SE
Xizang, NW and SE Yunnan), Bhutan, NE India (Asma),
Myanmar.
Epiphytic on tree trunk often Rhododendron arboreum. Fl.
Mar–May.
East Nepal, 1970, fide Banerji and apa, l.c. (Hara et al.
1978, Press et al. 2000).
Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz
CW Nepal (200–3600 m), Afghanistan, Bhutan, China
(Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Hubei, Liaoning, Qing-
hai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan),
India (Kashmir), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia,
Tajikistan, Uzbekistan; N Africa, SW Asia, Europe; North
America.
526
Terrestrial on litter covered moist slopes. Fl. Jun–Jul, Fr. Sep.
2n 38, 40.
Phucha, Humla, 2600 m, 1979.7.31, KR Rajbhandari
and B Roy 4222; Dori Lekh to Nyor Gad, Jumla, 2800 m,
1979.7.18, KR Rajbhandari and B Roy; Jharkot, Mustang,
3400 m, 1983.7.22, KR Rajbhandari 8118; Khangsar Khola,
Manag, 3700 m, 1983.7.30, KR Rajbhandari 8625;
aktor-Rigmo, Solukhumbu, 2600 m, 1997.7.31,
KR Rajbhandari 9740026 (KATH); moist, way to Khani,
Dolpa, 3200 m, Maan-261 (TUCH).
Epipactis mairei Schltr.
Nepal (200–3600 m), Bhutan, China (1200–3200 m. Gansu,
Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, W Sichuan, Xizang, NW
Yunnan), Myanmar.
Terrestrial in thickets, grasslands and riverbanks. Fl. Jun–Jul,
Fr. Sep. 2n 40.
Although it is mentioned in Pearce and Cribb (2002) and
Wu and Hong (2009), herbarium specimen is not found.
Epipactis royleana Lindl.
ECW Nepal (1400–3500 m), Bhutan, China (S and
SE Xizang), NW India (Kashmir), Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan,
Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.
Terrestrial in seepage snady grasslands. Fl. Jul–Aug. 2n 40,
60.
Barbung Khola, Dolpa, 10 000 ft, 1979.7.13, JDA Stainton
4419; Nepal, C Grey-Wilson, s.n. in spirit (K); Nyor Gad
to Sipty, Jumla, 2700 m, 1979.7.18, KR Rajbhandari and B
Roy 3463; Khangsar Khola, Manang, 3700 m, 1983.7.30,
KR Rajbhandari 8650 (KATH); moist, way to Khani, Dolpa,
3800 m, Maan-261b (TUCH).
Epipactis veratrifolia Boiss. and Hohen.
CW Nepal (600–1300 m), Afghanistan, China (W Sichuan,
Xizang, C and W Yunnan), India (Kashmir to Sikkim),
Myanmar, Pakistan, Africa (Ethiopia, Somalia), SW Asia,
Caucasus.
Terrestrial in forest floor. Fl. May. 2n 20, 40, 60.
North of Chainpur, Bajhang, 6000ft, 1965.5.19,
TB Shrestha 4120; Khapre Khola near Babai, 1976.3.23,
KJ Malla, RJ Shah and PR sharma 891 (KATH).
Epipogium aphyllum Sw.
CW Nepal (2500–3400 m), Bhutan, China (S Gansu,
Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shanxi,
NW Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, SE Xizang, NW Yunnan),
NW and NE India (Kashmir to Sikkim), Japan, Kashmir,
Korea, Russia, Europe.
Saprophytic in litter cover dense forest floors and damp
places. Fl. Aug–Sep. 2n 68.
West Nepal, PSW 4385; central Nepal, SSW 1216 (Hara
et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Epipogium roseum (D. Don) Lindl.
C Nepal (500–2000 m), China (Guangdong, Hainan,
C and S Taiwan, SE Xizang, S Yunnan), NE India (Sikkim),
Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, lesser Sunda Is.,
Moluccas, New Guinea), Japan, Kashmir, Laos, Malaysia,
Philippines, Sri Lanka, ailand, Vietnam, tropical Africa,
Pacific Islands.
Saprophytic in moist places. Fl. and Fr. Apr–Sep. 2n 68.
Central Nepal, 1818, N Wallich, s.n. (Hara et al. 1978, Press
et al. 2000). Shrinagar, Palpa (Ph-R).
Eria alba Lindl.
CE Nepal (1500–2500 m), Bhutan, NW India (Kumaon).
Epiphytic often on Quercus Griffii, Pinus roxburghii. Fl.
Apr–Jun.
Nepal, N Wallich (K) (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Ghanteshower, Doti (Ph-R).
Eria annapurnensis L. R. Shakya and M. R. Shrestha
C Nepal (2000 m).
Epiphytic in Schima wallichi tree, the forest margins.
Chhomrong, Kaski, Gandaki Zone, 2000 m, 2005.6.10,
L. Shakya, M. Shrestha and S. Shakya 74 (holotype: KATH,
isotype: TUCH).
Eria apertiflora Summerh.
C Nepal (1600 m), Cambodia, India, Myanmar, ailand,
Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunk and main branches mostly on
Quercus semicarpifolia, Q. glauca. Fl. Aug–Sep.
Tinbhanjyang, Lalitpur, 7500 ft, 1977.8.9, R Bahadur
9585; Chilaune, near Sundarijal, Kathmandu, 5000
ft, 1979.8.6, S Dahal and N Dawadi 878; Ranga gaon
to Jajarkot, Jajarkot, 1500 m, 1979.8.15, KR
Rajbhandari and B Roy 4670 (KATH); DM Bajracharya
CN 109 (TUCH).
Eria baniae Bajrach., L. R. Shakya and M. K. Chettri
C Nepal (1600 m).
Epiphytic in the forest margins.
It was published as ‘baniaii’ but IPNI has recorded as ‘baniae.’
Khani Gaon, Kathmandu, 1600 m, 1993.01.26, D Bajracharya
et al CBS 150 (isotype: KATH).
Eria bractescens Lindl.
CE Nepal (300–1100 m), E Himalaya (Nepal, Sikkim),
Laos, Myanmar, Malaya.
Epiphytic on open tree trunks. Fl. Apr–May.
Raja Rani, Morang, 570 m, 1979.4.19, P Pradhan,
R Niraula and M Gorkhali 785; Makwanpur Gadi,
Makwanpur, 1600 m, 1992.2.24, KJ White 13 (KATH).
Eria carinata Gibs. ex Lindl.
C Nepal (1300–1500 m), Bhutan, India, ailand.
Epiphytic on Eugenia sp. Fl. Oct–Dec.
Jagat-Dharapani, Lamjung, 1430–2000 m, 1973.7.9, DP
Joshi and MM Amatya 370 (KATH).
Eria clausa King & Pantl.
C Nepal (500–2000 m), Bhutan, India (E Himalayas,
Assam), China (W Guangxi, SE Xizang, S and SE Yunnan),
Myanmar, Vietnam.
Epiphytic in montane, humid, mossy, mixed and coniferous
forests and primary montane forests or lithophytic on rocks
in broad-leaved forests. Fl. Mar, Fr. Apr–May.
Bajrachayra (2004) BB Raskoti 444 (KATH).
Eria concolor Parish and Rchb. f.
Pinalia concolor (C. S. P. Parish and Rchb. f.) Kuntze
E Nepal (500 m), ailand, Myanmar.
Epiphytic on Quercus glauca, Schima wallichii trees. Fl. Jun.
527
Bhogatini, Raja Rani Village, Letang, Morang, 500 m,
2001.11.6 DM Bajracharya, LR Shakya and A Subedi 424
(TUCH).
Eria coronaria (Lindl.) Rchb. f.
CE Nepal (200–2300 m), Bhutan, China (Guangxi, Hainan,
SE Xizang, NW and S Yunnan), India NE (Assam), ailand,
Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Shorea robusta, Schima wallichii. Fl. May–Jun.
2n 34, 36, 38, 44, 52.
Nepal, 1973, C Grey-Wilson, B Phillips, 889 in spirit (K).
Devithan Danda, manichu, Kathmandu, 6500 ft, 1966.10.28,
BB Basukala 5901; Phulchoki, Lalitpur, 7000 ft, 1977.11.7,
R Bahadur 378; Near Terathum, 1650, 1978.11.16,
P Prahan, NP Manandhar and N Amatya 663; Near Rakse,
Ilam, 2050 m, 1978.11.19, P Pradhan, NP Manandhar and
N Amatya 668 (KATH).
Eria discolor Lindl.
C Nepal (150–1600 m), NE India, Laos, Indonesia,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Shorea robusta, Schima wallichii. Fl. Apr–Jun.
Rangapani, Ilam, 450 m, 1979.4.17, P Pradhan, R Niroula
and M Gorkhali 745 (KATH).
Eria lasiopetala (Willd.) Ormerod
Dendrolirium lasiopetalum (Willd.) S. C. Chen and
J. J.Wood, Eria pubescens (Hook.) Steud.
E Nepal (1300–1600 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, China (SE
Hainan, Hong Kong), India, Laos, Myanmar, ailand,
Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunk or lithophytic rocks. Fl. Jan–Apr, fr.
Aug. 2n 38, 40.
Nepaul (Nepal), 1832, N Wallich, no. s.n. (P); Kusma,
Parbat, 1978.3.16, PM Amatya and B Roy 403; Godak,
Ilam, 550 m, 1979.3.16, P Pradhan, R Niraula and
M Gorkhali 736; Rupal, Bajang, 1000 m, 1984.4.14,
P Pradhan, KK Uprety, N Pradhan and N Dabadi 1300;
Hurke, Surkhet, 780, 1991.2.22, NP Manandhar and
N Acharya 139-91 (KATH).
Eria nepalensis Bajrach. and K. K. Shrestha
C Nepal (200 m).
Epiphytic on tree trunks.
Chitwan, Sauraha, Royal Chitwan National Park, 200 m,
2000.2.26, D. M. Bajracharya CN 260 (holotype: KATH,
isotype: TUCH).
Eria obesa Lindl.
E Nepal (500 m), NE India (Assam), Myanmar, ailand.
Epiphytic on upper canopy of tree. Fl. Aug.
Bhogatini, Raja Rani Village, Letang, Morang, 500 m.
2001.01.14, DM Bajracharya, LR Shakya and A Subedi 394
(TUCH).
Eria paniculata Lindl.
Dendrobium floribundum D. Don, Mycaranthes floribunda
(D. Don) S. C. Chen and J. J. Wood
E. Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), Assam, Myanmar-Tibet
frontier.
Num, Sankhuwasabha, 1000 m, 1998.12.14, DB Karkee
827; Bajrabarahi, Lalitpur, 1350 m, 2001.7.28, M Ghimire
120 (KATH).
Eria pokharensis Bajrach., Subedi and K. K. Shrestha
C Nepal (900–1000 m).
Epiphytic. Open area on rock slope.
Lumle, Pokhara, Gadaki zone, 900–1000 m, 2000.04.10,
Bajracharya & Subedi, no. CN 220 (holotype: KATH,
isotype: TUCH).
Eria spicata (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz.
Pinalia spicata (D. Don) S. C. Chen and J. J. Wood
CE Nepal (300–2800 m), Bhutan, S China (S and
SE Xizang, S Yunnan), NE India, Myanmar, ailand,
N Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Schima wallichii, Quercus glauca,
Cinnamomum tamala. Sometimes lithophytic. Fl. Jul–Oct.
2n 20 2B, 38, 40.
Nepal, 1859, N Wallich, no. s.n. (P); near Chhetchhet,
Dolakha, 1400 m, 1977.7.15, KR Rajbhandari and
B Roy 1375; Bahunthan, Jajarkot, 1400 m, 1981.7.30,
NP Manandhar 6357; Sikha-Tatopani, Myagdi, 1700 m,
1983.7.15, KR Rajbhandari 7740 (KATH).
Esmeralda cathcartii (Lindl.) Rchb. f.
Arachnis cathcartii (Lindl.) J. J. Sm.
E Nepal (600–2000 m), Bhutan, NE India (Sikkim).
Pendulum epiphytic on Rhododendron sp, Lyonia ovalifolia.
It may be terrestrial in humus rich soil. Fl. Mar–Jul.
Eastern Nepal, fide Hook. f., l.c. 28 (1890) (Hara et al. 1978,
Press et al. 2000). Godak, Ilam (Ph-R).
Esmeralda clarkei Rchb. f.
E Nepal (500–2100 m), Bhutan, China (Hainan,
SW Yunnan), NE India, Myanmar, Nepal, ailand, NW
Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Rhododendron sp., Lyonia ovalifolia
but is sometimes lithophytic on rocks in damp areas. Fl.
Mar–Nov, Fl. Oct–Dec.
Hanspokari, Ilam, 5200 ft, 1977.10.1, P Pradhan,
KR Rajbhandari and R Niraula 191 (KATH).
Eulophia bicallosa (D. Don) P. F. Hunt and Summerh.
C Nepal (200–300 m), Bangladesh, China (Hainan,
Taiwan), NE India (Assam), W Himalayas, Indonesia,
Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, ailand,
Bismark Islands, Australia.
Terrestrial on damp places. Fl. Jun.
Nepal, F Buchanan, no. s.n. (BM).
Eulophia dabia (D. Don) Hochr.
CW Nepal (400–1300 m), Afghanistan, Bangladesh,
Bhutan, China (SW Guizhou, W Hubei, Jiangsu, Sichuan,
SW Yunnan), India (Kashmir), Pakistan, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.
Terrestrial in grassly slopes. Fl. Mar–May, Fr. May–Jun.
2n 54.
Nepal, Nepal, F Buchanan, no. s.n., (BM); Chitwan,
Makwanpur, 300 m, 1989.3.15, KJ White 4; Bholeni-Madi,
1000 ft, 1978.12.29, HK Saiju and B Roy 1002 (KATH).
Eulophia densiflora Lindl.
E Nepal (1000 m), NE India.
Terrestrial on alluvial soil.
Preace and Cribb (2002), Press et al. (2002).
528
Eulophia explanata Lindl.
C Nepal (1000 m), NW India (Khasia-Assam, Jharkhanda).
Terrestrial on moist slopes.
Himalay-Hinku Odar, Kaski, 2750 m, 2001.6.26, PR
Shakya and S Poudel 10414 (KATH)
Eulophia flava (Lindl.) Hook. f.
C Nepal (60–400 m), China (SW Guangxi, Hainan, Hong
Kong), India (Garwal), Laos, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in moist slopes. Fl. Apr–Jun.
Central Nepal, fide Hook. f., l.c. (1890) (Hara et al. 1978,
Press et al. 2000).
Eulophia graminea Lindl.
C Nepal (900–1100 m), China (Anhui, Guangdong,
Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan), NE India
(Sikkim), Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Laos,
Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Sri Lanka, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in the grasslands slopes. Fl. Apr–May, Fr.
May–Jun. 2n 42, 48, 56.
Central Nepal, SSW 2527 (Hara et al. 1978). Sagarnath
(Phuljore) east of Hetauda (White and Sharma 2000).
Eulophia herbacea Lindl.
C Nepal (1300–1400 m), Bangladesh, China (Guangxi,
S Yunnan), India, Laos, ailand.
Terrestrial on moist grassland slopes. Fl. Jun.
Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve, Kanchanpur, 1976.4.12,
C Rice 48 (KATH).
Eulophia mackinnonii Duthie
C Nepal (850–1500 m), India.
Terrestrial on moist slopes, damp places.
Brindavan, Hetauda, 1976.7.15, PR Shakya, R Rana and
TK Rajbhandari 3654 9 (KATH).
Eulophia obtusa (Lindl.) Hook. f.
C Nepal (800–1500 m), India.
Terrestrial on moist slopes.
Rajbhandari and Dahal (2004).
Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst.) Suresh
Eulophia nuda Lindl.
CE (400–1800 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, China (S Jiangxi,
SE and SW Yunnan), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia,
Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka,
ailand, Vietnam; SW Pacific Islands.
Terrestrial in grasslands or forest. Fl. Apr–Jun. 2n 54.
Morung Hills, Nepal, 1810.4.19, F Buchanan-Hamilton,
no. 1949, 1950 (E).
Flickingeria fimbriata (Blume) A. D. Hawkes
Ephemerantha macraei (Lindl.) P. F. Hunt and Summerh.
E Nepal (500–2400 m), China (SW Guangxi, Hainan,
SE Yunnan), India (Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands),
Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks or on lithophytic in open rocks. Fl.
Apr–Jun.
East Nepal, Stainton 6903; TI 6307318 (Hara et al. 1978).
Flickingeria fugax (Rchb. f.) Seidenf.
C Nepal (800–1600 m), Bhutan, India, Myanmar, ailand.
Epiphytic on upper part of the Shorea robusta, Duabanga
grandiflora, Schima wallichii, etc. Fl. May–Jul.
Rangapani, Ilam, 2000 ft, 1977.10.10, P Pradhan,
KR Rajbhandari and R Niraula 561; Makal Daman,
Makwanpur, 500 m, 1987.5.15, NP Manandhar and
LP Kattel 11827 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya
807 (TUCH).
Galearis paxiana (Schltr.) P. F. Hunt
Galearis roborowskyi (Maximowicz) S. C. Chen, P. J. Cribb;
Galearis stracheyi (Hook. f.) P. F. Hunt.
WC Nepal (3600–4800 m), Bhutan, China (Gansu, Hebei,
Henan, Qinghai, W Sichuan, Xinjiang, S Xizang), India.
Terriestrial, Fl. Jun–Jul, Fr. Jul–Sep.
West Nepal, PSW 2210, Central Nepal, SSW 3151 (Hara
et al. 1978).
Galearis spathulata (Lindl.) P. F. Hunt
Aorchis spathulata (Lindl.) Verm.
ECW Nepal (3300–5000 m), Bhutan, China (SE
Gansu, NE Qinghai, Shaanxi, W Sichuan, E and S
Xizang, NW Yunnan), India (Garhwal, E Himalaya),
Myanmar.
Terriestrial in open hill forests, on damp rocks, scrub, grazed
meadows under Rhododendron forest, alpine meadows. Fl.
Jul–Aug, Fr. Jul–Sep.
Nepal, 1818, N Wallich, no. s.n. (BM); Jangla Bhanjyang,
Dolpa, 3900 m, Einarsson, Skarby and Wetterhall 939; Tiwa
Gairi-Wane Danda, Sankhuwasabha, 3740, 1994.6.16. PR
Shakya and KK Dangol 10145; Manane Lekh, Bajhang,
4000 m, 2009.7.13, CA Pendry, AP Bhattarai, G Bhatt,
S Noshiro, M Amano, T Tanaka, YJ Wang, BI Dell,
N Yamamoto 20915105 (KATH).
Galeola lindleyana (Hook. f. and omson) Rchb. f.
E Nepal (1800–2800 m), Bhutan, China (Anhui,
W Guangdong, N Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hunan,
S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, W to SE Yunnan),
India (Assam, Garwal to Sikkim), Indonesia.
Saprophytic in forests, thickets, humus-rich and moist rocky
places. May–Aug, Fr. Sep–Oct.
Tashi Gaun-Bhinsi Kharka, Sankhuwasabha, 2170 m,
1990.8.3, M Minaki et al. 90110093; Chukebada-
Badarigaon, Kalikot, 2340–1330 m, 1991.8, M Suzuki et al.
9160267 (KATH).
Gastrochilus acutifolius (Lindl.) Kuntze
C Nepal (1200–2100 m), Bhutan, India (Khasia, Sikkim).
Epiphytic on mediam to large sized tree trunk or main
branches. Fl. Oct–Dec.
Chichila-Num, Sankhuwasabha, 1750, 1998.12.14, DB
Karkee 826 (KATH).
Gastrochilus affinis (King and Pantl.) Schltr.
E Nepal (2700–2900 m), E. Himalaya (Sikkim).
Epiphytic often on Tsuga dumosa. Fl. Jul.
Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 794 (TUCH).
Gastrochilus calceolaris (Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.) D. Don
ECW Nepal (900–2300 m), Bhutan, China (Hainan, S
Xizang, S and W Yunnan), NE India (Assam), Malaysia
(Peninsular), Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Quercus glauca and Ficus nenoralis. Fl.
Mar–Apr. 2n 38, 40, 76.
Harain Letty, Nepal, 1803.02.15, F Buchanan, no. s.n. (BM).
529
Gastrochilus calceolaris (Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.) var. biflora
L. R. Shakya and M. R. Shrestha
C Nepal (2000 m).
Fl. and Fr. May–Jun.
Gandaki Zone, Kaski District, Chhomrong, 2000 m,
2005.6.10, L. Shakya, M. Shrestha and S. Shakya 75
(holotype: KATH, isotype: TUCH).
Gastrochilus calceolaris (Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.) var.
calceolaris
CE Nepal (1200–2000 m), NE India (Assam), Indonesia,
Mayanmar, Malaysia, ailand.
Epiphytic on medium sized tree trunks.
Mamamkhe-Yamphodin, Taplejung, 1900 m, 1967.3.22,
DH Nicloson 3044; Tankot, SW of Kathmandu, 1800 m,
1975.1.12, DP Joshi, KR Rajbhandari and MK Ghimire
75/274; Ranidhunga, Sankhuwasabha, 1900 m, 2009.2.9,
GD Bhatt and AP Bhattarai 3 (KATH).
Gastrochilus dasypogon (Sm.) Kuntze
C Nepl (100–1000 m), NE India (Sikkim).
Epiphytic mostly on Dillenia indica. Fl. Nov–Dec.
Nepal, 1980.09.15, M Stych (K).
Arungkhola, Nwalparasi (Ph-R).
Gastrochilus distichus (Lindl.) Kuntze
CE Nepal (1700–2800 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang,
W Yunnan), NE India (Sikkim).
Epiphytic on often Quercus sp. Fl. Jan–May. 2n 38.
Manichur, Kathmandu, 2500 m, 1975.3.13, DP Joshi and
KR Rajbhandari 75/557; near Chichila, Sankhuwasabha,
2010 m, 1998.8.29, S Nishiro etal 9820120 (KATH);
Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 969 (TUCH).
Gastrochilus inconspicuus (Hook. f.) Kuntze
Gastrochilus inconspicuum (Hook. f.) Seidenf., Luisia
inconspicua (Hook. f.) King & Pantl.
C Nepal (500–1500 m), Bhutan, NE India (Sikkim).
Epiphytic in the forests. Fl. May–Jul.
Farille, M., Jordan, D. and Lachard, G. 847028 (K).
Gastrochilus obliquus (Lindl.) Kuntze.
C Nepal (600–800 m), Bhutan, China (SW Sichuan,
S Yunnan) India (Andaman Islands, Sikkim), Laos, Myanmar,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Shorea robusta. Fl. Oct–Dec.
Chitwan National Park (Ph-R).
Gastrochilus obliquus var. obliquus
Gastrochilus bigibbus (Rchb. f. ex Hook. f.) Kuntze.
CE Nepal, China (SW Sichuan, S Yunnan) and Indo-
China, India (Assam), Laos, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic.
Garuwa-Sanichare, Ilam, 900 ft, 1977.10.12, P Pradhan, KR
Rajbhandari and R Niraula 372 (KATH); Chitwan National
Park, 250–500 m (White and Sharma 2000).
Gastrochilus paseudodistichus (King and Pantl.) Schltr.
C Nepal (2100–2500 m), NE India, Malaysia, ailand.
Epiphytic on main branches of the large sized tree. Fl. Sep.
ulapakre-Nigale, 1975–2430 m, 1978.4.19, I Sharma,
HK Saiju and A Karki (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and
Shakya 995 (TUCH).
Gastrodia falconeri D. L. Jones and M. A. Clem.
C Nepal (2500–3000 m), India.
Saprophytic deep under shade under Acer and Quercus.
Chunning Khola, Ganesh Himal, 2300 m, 1992.8.9, WJ
Baker, TA Burkitt, JT Miller and R Shrestha 134 (KATH).
Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schltr.
C Nepal (150–1400 m), Cambodia, China (Guangdong,
Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, SW Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan),
India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Laos, Malaysia,
Myanmar, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, ailand, Vietnam;
Australia.
Terrestrial in moist places. Fl. Jun–Jul. 2n 36, 52, 54.
Nepal, 1818, N Wallich, no. s.n. (BM); Beni-Tiplyang,
Myangdi, 1400 m, 1979.7.1, SK Saiju and ST Tulad-
har 78/79 (KATH); Subedi Chaudhary and Shakya 947
(TUCH).
Geodorum pallidum D. Don
C Nepal (1000 m), India (Sikkim).
Terrestrail in moist slopes.
Chaudhary and Shakya 947 (TUCH).
Goodyera biflora (Lindl.) Hook. f.
CW Nepal (2000 m), China (Anhui, N Fujian, S Gansu,
Guangdong, Guizhou, S Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu,
S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang),
India, Japan, Korea, N Vietnam.
Terrestrial in litter covered moist places. Fl. Feb–Jul. 2n 28,
29, 30, 31, 32 0–4B, 33.
Nepal, N Wallich, no. s.n. (LINN); S Coll. 7379 (K);
West Nepal PSW 3894, Central Nepal Wall. 7379 (type)
(Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Goodyera foliosa (Lindl.) Benth. ex C. B. Clarke
Goodyera foliosa (Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f.; Goodyera
secundiflora Griff.
E Nepal (2100–2300 m), Bhutan, China (Fujian,
Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, SE and
W Yunnan), NE India, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in humus rich moist places. Fl. Jul–Sep. 2n 28,
56.
Shivapuri, Kathmandu, 7200 ft, 1977.9.9, P Pradhan
and N Shrestha 19; Trihedhunga-Gorepani, Parbat, 2370,
1995.9.16, M Mikage et al. 9552198 (KATH).
Goodyera foliosa var commelinoiedes (Fukuy.) F. Maek.
C Nepal (1500–1600 m), Japan.
Terrestrial on deep shade in litter covered humus near river
bank or damp, occurs in the subtropical evergreen forest. Fl.
Sep.
Sundarijal, Sivapuri National Park (Central Nepal), 200.7.9,
Raskoti 250 (TUCH).
Goodyera fusca (Lindl.) Hook. f.
ECW Nepal (1500–4700 m), Bhutan, China (S and
SE Xizang, NW Yunnan), NE India, N Myanmar.
Terrestrial in forests, thickets, alpine meadows. Fl. Aug–Sep.
2n 32, 32 2B.
Lauribinayk, Rasuwa, 12 500 ft, 1965.9.10, TB
Shrestha and PR Shakya 3794; Nangaon-Dudh Kunda,
Dolakha, 4450 m, 1983.9.5, KR Rajbhandari 9952;
530
Beni Kharka-Sarkari Pati, Solukhumbu, 3970–3350 m,
1985.9.2, H Obha et al. 85811283; Num-Chichila,
Sankhuwasabha, 1850, 1999.10.14, DB Karkee 945
(KATH).
Goodyera hemsleyana King and Pantl.
Epipactis hemsleyana (King and Pantl.) A. A. Eaton.
C Nepal (2000–2200 m), E Himalaya (India, Sikkim).
Terrestrial under Quercus lamellosa forest. Fl. Jul–Sep.
Central Nepal, N Walllich, s.n. (ann. 1819) (Hara et al.
1978, Press et al. 2000).
Goodyera hispida Lindl.
Epipactis hispida (Lindl.) A. A. Eaton.
CE Nepal (600–2000 m), Bhutan, NE India (Assam),
Malaysia ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in humus rich places. Fl. Aug.
Godak, Ilam (Ph-R).
Goodyera procera (Ker Gawl.) Hook. f.
CW Nepal (900–1500 m), Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia,
China (Anhui, N Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou,
Hainan, S and W Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan,
Zhejiang), India (Garhwal to Sikkim), Indonesia, Japan,
Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in forest floors. Fl. Apr–May. 2n 38, 42.
Nepal, C Bailes 890 A in spirit (K). Dordore, Palpa District,
700 m (Ph-R).
Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br.
WCE Nepal (1000–4200 m), Bhutan, China (Anhui,
N Fujian, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei,
Hunan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi,
Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan), India
(Kashmir, Sikkim), Japan, Kashmir, Korea, Myanmar, Nepal,
Russia; Europe, North America.
Terrestrial in moist places. Fl. Jul–Aug. 2n 30, 32, 40.
Lophagaon to Dhobigaon, Ramechap, 2300 m, 1977.8.11,
KR Rajbandari and B Roy 2236; Godilekh, Bajang, 3030 m,
1976.8.13, H Tobata et al 2409; Simiagon-Gyalche Kharka,
Dolakha, 2700 m, 1983.8.31, KR Rajbhandari 9624;
Logind-Pike Bhnajyang, Solukhumbu, 2600–3500 m,
1985.9.5, H Obha e al. 8572312; Chaukebada, Kalikot,
2020–2340 m, 1991.8.4, M Suzuki et al. 9169235 (KATH).
Goodyera schlechtendaliana Rchb. f.
E Nepal (1500–2200 m), Bhutan, China (Anhui, N Fujian,
S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, S Henan,
Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Shanxi,
Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang), India, Indone-
sia (Sumatra), Japan, Korea, Nepal, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial under forest floor. Fl. Aug–Oct. 2n 30 0–2B,
60.
Shivapuri, Kathmandu, 7200 ft, 1977.9.9, P Pradhan and
N Shrestha 18 (KATH).
Goodyera viridiflora (Blume) Blume
Goodyera cordata (Lindl.) Benth. & Hook. f., Goodyera
viridiflora (Bl.) Lindl. ex Dietrich.
CE Nepal (1500–1600 m), Bhutan, China (Fujian,
Guangdong, Hainan, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan), India,
Indonesia, S Japan, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines,
ailand, Vietnam; Australia.
Terrestrial in damp places. Fl. Aug–Sep. 2n 22.
East Nepal, TI6305495 (Hara et al. 1978). Nagarjun forest,
1700 m (Ph-R).
Goodyera vittata Benth. ex Hook. f.
E Nepal (2000–2600 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang), India
(Sikkim).
Terrestrial in moist areas. Fl. Jul–Sep.
BB Raskoti, 2008, Lampokhari, 2600 m, Taplejung district
(Ph-R).
Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br.
CW Nepal (200–4700 m), China (SE Gansu, Hebei,
Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi,
N and W Sichuan, SE Xizang, NW Yunnan), Japan, Korea,
Russia; Europe.
Terrestrial in forests, grasslands and waterlogged meadows.
Fl. Jul–Aug. 2n 30, 40, 42, 80, 100, 120.
It has been reported from central Nepal but is doubtful and
further confirmation is needed (Hara et al. 1978); moist
place, Siptyo, Dho Tarap, Dolpa, 4300 m, Maan-72, 293
(TUCH).
Gymnadenia orchidis Lindl.
ECW Nepal (3000–4700 m), Bhutan, China (SE Gansu,
W Hubei, S Qinghai, S Shaanxi, W Sichuan, E and
S Xizang, NW Yunnan), NE/NW India (Kashmir, Sikkim),
Pakistan.
Terrestrial in open grasslands and waterlogged meadows. Fl.
May–Aug.
Chhuminggaljo, Rolwaling, Dolakha, 3350 m, 1977.7.22,
KR Rajbhandari and B Roy 1728; Bhabasen-Mabu
Pass, Dailekh, 2700 m, 1979.7.6, KR Rajbhandari and
B Roy 2927; Dori Lekh, Jumla, 3500 m, 1979.7.17,
KR Rajbhandari and B Roy 3372; Banthanti-Godepani,
Kaski, 3100 m, 1983.7.12, KR Rajbhandari 7625; Yagri
Kharka-Ta Dasa, Sankhuwasabha, 3540–3900 m, 1988.7.20,
M Suzuki et al. 8820719 (KATH); moist place, Rupti, Dho
Tarap, 4400 m, Maan-164 (TUCH).
Habenaria aitchisonii Rchb. f.
Habenaria diceras Schltr.
CW Nepal (2400–3900 m), Afghanistan, Bhutan, China
(Guizhou, S Qinghai, W Sichuan, S and SE Xizang, C and
NW Yunnan), India (Kashmir).
Terrestrial in forests, thickets and grasslands. Fl. Jul–Sep.
2n 42.
Jumla-Dori Lekh, Jumla, 3200 m, 1979.7.17, KR Rajbhandari
and B Roy 3378; Muktinath-raugse Phedi, Mustang,
3900 m, 1983, KR Rajbhandari 8173; esiyo, west side
of esebu khola valley, Solukhumbu, 3570 m, 2005.9.25,
CA Pendry, KK Shreshta and RC Poudel DNEP 3 BX 107
(KATH).
Habenaria arietina Hook. f.
ECW Nepal (1400–3000 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang),
India (Simla to Assam).
Terrestrial in grassy places. Fl. Aug. 2n 21, 42, 46, 48, 56.
Ghasa, Mustang, 2000 m, 1976.7.24, DP Joshi and
SK Dhungana 76/3921; Lamobagar to Hum, Dolakha,
531
2000 m, 1977.7.16, KR Rajbhandari and B Roy 1449; Had
Sija to Jumla, Jumla, 2500 m, 1979.8.6, KR Rajbhandari
and B Roy 4356; Kasoti, Darchula, 2430 m, 1984.
7.20, PR Shakya, MK Adhikari and MN Subedi 7970;
Toktok-Bengkar, Solukhumbu, 2750 m, 2005.9.11; MF
Watson, N McCheyne and LN Mandar DNEP3 AY14
(KATH).
Habenaria commelinifolia (Roxb.) Wall. ex Lindl.
CW Nepal (300–1200 m), China (SW Yunnan), India,
Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in open slopes. Fl. Aug. 2n 42.
Central Chitwan area, 900 ft, 1967.8.27, PR Shakya 9134;
Jimali, Salyan, 950 m, 1979.8.17, KR Rajbhandari and
B Roy 4783; Khaptad, Doti, 2940 m, 1976.7.15, H Tabata
et al. 1285 (KATH).
Habenaria dentata (Sw.) Schltr.
Habenaria dentata f. ecalcarata (King & Pantl.) Tuyama.
CE Nepal (500–1500 m), Cambodia, China (Anhui,
N Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan,
Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang), India,
Japan, Laos, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial on open slopes near roadsides. Fl. Aug–Oct.
2n 64.
Mahabhir, makawanpur, 7500 ft, 1978.9.15, R Bahadur
643 (KATH).
Habenaria dentata forma dentata (Sw.) Schltr.
CE Nepal (1000–1500 m), NE India (Assam, Sikkim),
Myanmar, ailand, Indo-China, China, S. Japan.
Terrestrial on open slopes near roadsides.
Central Nepal, SSW 8708; Polunin 1932; East Nepal TI
6307280 (Hara et al. 1978).
Habenaria digitata Lindl.
C Nepal (500–1500 m), India (Kashmir), W Pakistan.
Terrestrial on open slopes near roadsides. Fl. Jul–Aug.
Gokarna, Kathmandu, 4400 ft, 2023.4.22 BS, P
Pradhan and R apa 6430; Kanepokhari, Morang, 260 m,
1974.6.3, P Pradhan, MM Amatya and R Shrestha 3174
(KATH).
Habenaria diphylla (Nimmo) Dalzell
CE Nepal (1000–1400 m), China (S Yunnan), N India,
ailand
Terrestrial in damp places. Fl. Jun. 2n 42, 42 2B, 108.
Near Bisankhu Nayan an, Lalitpur, 5500 ft, 1979.8.7,
P Pradhan 891; Nagarkot, Kabhre, 1900 m, 1985.7.28,
HVT and IS Cotter 115; Rangapani, Ilam, 1979.9.1,
R apa, S Magar and S Tamang 913 (KATH).
Habenaria furcifera Lindl.
C Nepal (150–800 m), Bhutan, China (S Yunnan), India,
Myanmar, ailand.
Terrestrial in damp places. Fl. Jul–Sep. 2n 42.
Ambas, Dang, 530 m, 1982.8.27, NP Manandhar 8442
(KATH).
Habenaria intermedia D. Don
CW Nepal (1800–3000 m), China (S Xizang), India (Kashmir).
Terrestrial in moist forest. Fl. Jul. 2n 42.
Dori Lekh-sipty, Jumla, 2700 m, 1979.7.18, KR Rajbhandari
and B Roy 3421; Ranimatta-Talpokhari, Dailekh, 2000 m,
1991.7.31, KR Rajbhandari 14365; Kanking-Lamalodge,
Rasuwa, 2400 m, 1984.7.13, HK Saiju and B Roy 16
(KATH).
Habenaria longifolia Buch.-Ham. ex Lindl.
C Nepal (100–2000 m), India (Mussourie, Kumaun).
Terrestrial on slopes.
Nathpur, ?, Nepal, existance is doubtful (Hara et al. 1978,
Press et al. 2000).
Habenaria malintana (Blanco) Merrill
Habenaria dentata forma ecalcarata (Sw.) Schltr.
E Nepal (500–1300 m), China (S Guangxi, Hainan, SW
Sichuan, W to SE Yunnan, N Zhejiang), India, Malaysia,
Myanmar, Philippines, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in forest and gassland. Fl. Oct–Nov. 2n 42, 84,
168.
East Nepal: TI 6307284 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2002).
Habenaria malleifera Hook. f.
Habenaria furfuracea Hook. f.
E Nepal (1500–1850 m), NE India (Assam), Vietnam.
Hanspokhari, Ilam, 5200 ft, 1979.8.28, RB apa, S Magar
and S Tamang 905 (KATH).
Habenaria marginata Colebr.
CW Nepal (500–1500 m), Bhutan, China (S Yunnan), India
(Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, ailand.
Terresterial in open grasslands. Fl. Oct–Nov. 2n 42.
Shukla Phanta, Kanchanpur, 190 m, 2038.5.26 BS,
I Sharma, R Joshi, R Uprety and I Pandey 262; Hetuada-
Amlekhgunj, Makawanpur, 1500 ft, 1967.8.21, PR Shakya
9344; Jimali, Salyan, 950 m, 1979.8.17, KR Rajbhandari
and B Roy 4786 (KATH).
Habenaria pantlingiana Kraenzl.
Habenaria stenopetala var. polytricha Hook. f.
E Nepal (2000–2100 m), China (SW Guangxi,
SE Hainan, N Taiwan), India (Sikkim), Japan (Ryukyu
Islands), Vietnam.
Terrestrial in forest floors. Fl. Aug–Oct. 2n 42, 42 2B.
East Nepal, Stainton 1416 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Habenaria pectinata D. Don
ECW Nepal (500–3500 m), China (S Yunnan), India
(Simla to Sikkim).
Terrestrial in open forest. Fl. Aug. 2n 42, 42 2B.
Near kadampur, Kalikot, 1800 m, 1985.7.32, PR shakya,
MN Subedi and R Uprety 8465; Bhabesen-Nauli, Dailekh,
2490 m, 1985.7.29, PR Shakya, MN Subedi ad R Uprety
8430; Choarmara-Kyama, Ramechhap, 2760–2600 m,
1985.8.3, H Obha et al. 8571246; ungkocpa, Sankhu-
wasabha, 2500 m, 1999.10.9, DB Karkee 932B;
Pakheribas, Dhankuta, 5500 ft, 1976.7.31, NP Manandhar
75 (TUCH).
Habenaria plantaginea Lindl.
ECW Nepal (450–2500 m), India (Bihar), Sri Lanka.
Terrestrial on moist places. Fl. Aug–Oct.
532
Mahendrenagar-Bhumkar, Kanchanpur, 200 m, 1981.9.12,
I Sharma, R Joshi, R Uprety and I Pandey 289; Sirkhauli,
Doti, 1000 m, 1982.9.6, LP Kattel 1111; Tumlingtar-Baireni
Bagar, Sankhuwasabha, 400 m, 1988.8.31, S Noshiro et al.
9820125; Raja Rani, Morang, 570 m, 1979.9.4, S Tamang,
S Magar and RB apa 918 (KATH).
Habenaria pubescens Lindl.
C Nepal (600–1200 m), Himalaya (Garhwal).
Terrestrial on moist humus-rich slopes.
Central Nepal, SSW 6457 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2002).
Habenaria reniformis (D. Don) Hook. f.
CE Nepal (400–1200 m), Cambodia, China (Guangdong,
S Hainan), India (Assam), ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in humid forest. Fl. Oct.
Central Nepal, Wall. s.n. (type). East Nepal, Williams and
Stainton 8298 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Habenaria stenopetala Lindl.
CE Nepal (1500–2500 m), China (Guizhou, Taiwan,
SE Xizang), India, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Kashmir,
Philippines, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial under the forest margins. Fl. Aug–Oct. 2n 40,
42.
Dhalaun, Bajhang, 7000 ft, 1976.7.23, H Tabata,
KR Rajbhandari and K Tsuchiya 1492; Dhole Ban,
Phulchoki, Lalitpur, 7000 ft, 1967.8.6, R Bahadur 7190
(TUCH).
Habenaria stenopetala var. stenopetala Lindl.
CE Nepal (1500–2500 m), Indian Himalaya (Kashmir
to Sikkim).
Terrestrial on primary forest.
Centran Nepal, TI 6305492; East Nepal, Stainton 1593
(Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Hemipilia cordifolia Lindl.
CW Nepal (1800–2300 m), Bhutan, China (W Sichuan,
Taiwan, S Xizang, NW Yunnan), India, Myanmar.
Terrestrial in moist places. Fl. Jun–Sep. 2n 42.
Daman-Rikheswor, Mkwanpur, 1976.7.16, R Ranan, PR
Shakya and TK Rajbhandari 3663; Dhunche, Rasuwa,
6000 ft, 1977.8.27, HK Saiju and PM Amatya 5-77Chhapre,
Kalikot, 8500 ft, 1978.8.10, MB Chhetry s.n.; Chhanna-
Bhanbasen, Dailekh, 2370 m, 1985.7.28, PR Shakya, MN
Subedi and R Uprety 8422 (KATH).
Herminium alaschanicum Maxim.
C Nepal (1800–4500 m), China (Gansu, Hebei, Nei Mongol,
Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, W Sichuan, Xizang,
NW Yunnan, ? Mongolia).
Terrestrial. Fl. Jun–Sep.
(is species was collected from Dhawalagiri Zone, Mus-
tang district, Nyi La to Ghami, 3410–3780 m, 5 Aug 2001,
S Noshiro et al. 2010.5.026. e herbarium is deposited
at Harvard University Herbaria and is confirmed by Paul
Oremond, pers. comm.).
Herminium hongdeyuanii B. B. Raskoti.
C Nepal (2200 m).
Terrestrial in subtropical region, Chandragiri, Bagmati zone,
2012.9. Raskoti 571 (holotype KATH!).
Herminium jaffreyanum King and Pantl.
E Nepal (2300–3300 m), India (Himalaya).
Terrestrial on moist slopes. Fl. Aug.
Although it is mentioned in Rajbhandari and Dahal (2004),
herbarium specimen is not found.
Herminium lanceum (unb.) Vuijk
ECW Nepal (1100–3500 m), China (Anhui, N Fujian, SE
Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, S Henan, Hubei,
Hunan, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan,
Zhejiang), India, Indonesia, Japan, Kashmir, Korea, Malaysia,
Mongolia, Myanmar, Philippines, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in grassland slopes, damp placces, seepage banks.
Fl. Jun–Aug. 2n 38, 40, 42, 76.
Ghantreswor, Dadelhura, 1900 m, 198.8.16, KR Rajbhandari,
PM Regmi and KJ Malla 5431; Talkot-Aagar, Bajhang,
1660–1840 m, 1991.8.18, M Suzuki et al. 9160748;
Dhanagyung-Dharapani, Manag, 2100 m, 1883.8.7, KR
Rajbhandari 9027; Simigaon-Gyalche Kharka, Dolakha,
2200 m, 1983.8.31, KR Rajbhandari 9569; Semma-Gola,
Sankhuwasabha, 1300 m, 1998.8.14, S Noshiro et al.
9820014 (KATH).
Herminium mackinnonii Duthie
CW Nepal (2100–2700 m), Indian Himalaya (Mussourie
to Sikkim).
Under Quercus and Mahonia sp.
Terrestrail or semi epiphytic on the oak forest. Fl. Aug.
Chandagiri, Kathmandu, 2150 m, 1977.8.17, PR Shakya
and P Pradhan 9600; Mahabhir, Makwanpur, 7500 ft,
1978.9.14, R Bahadur 649; Hille, Ilam, 8000 ft, 1977.10.6,
P Pradhan, KR Rajbhandari and R Niraula 164; Descent
from Bjue Dada to Tamur river 2700 m, C Grey-Wilson
et al. 135 (KATH).
Herminium macrophyllum (D. Don) Dandy
CE Nepal (3800–4600 m), Bhutan, Indian (Kashmir), SE
Tibet (S Xizang), Pakistan.
Terrestrial open slopes. Fl. Jun–Aug. 2n 40.
Nepal, N Wallich, no. 7068 (E); Chankheli Lekh, Mugu,
3250 m, 1985.8.13, PR Shakya, MN Subedi and R Uprety
8600 m; Jharkot-orung Phedi, Mustang, 4280 m,
1999.8.20, M Mikage et al. 9962979; Banthanti-Godepani,
Kaski, 3100 m, 1983.7.12, KR Rajbhandari 7667; Namce
Bazar, Solukhumbu, 3500 m, 2005.9.13, MF Watson,
N McCheyneand LN Mandar DNEP3AY 27 (KATH).
Herminium monophyllum (D. Don) P. F. Hunt and
Summerh.
CW Nepal (2300–4500 m), India (Garwal).
Terrestrial on grassy clearing in Picea/Abies, Betula
utilis, Juniperus forest, Berberis/Potentilla scrub, grassy slopes
among. Fl. Jun–Sep. Fr. Aug.
Nepal, 1819, N Wallich, no. s.n. (BM); Nepal, unkown
collector, 7413 (K); Ganna-Nala Bagar, Baitadi, 1000 m,
1984.7.15, PR Shakya, MK Adhikari and MN Subedi
7859; Doti-Baga Lekh, 1950 m, 1981.6.30, PR Shakya,
LR Sharma and KR Amatya 6223; Bhuminthan, Shivapuri,
533
Kathmandu 6200 ft, 1979.8.1, S Dahal and N Dawadi 834;
Near Bisankhu Narayanthan, Laltpur, 5500 ft, 1979.7.23,
P Pradhan and party 833 (KATH).
Herminium monorchis (L.) R. Br.
CW Nepal (3400–4600 m), China (Anhui, Gansu, Hebei,
Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia,
Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang,
N and NW Yunnan), India (Sikkim), Japan, Kashmir, Korea,
Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia; C and W Asia, Europe.
Terrestrial on moist slopes. Fl. Jul–Aug. 2n 38, 40, 42.
Chuchamara Dada, Mugu, 3750 m, 1979.7.19, KR Rajb-
handari and B Roy 3628; Muktinath-orungse Phedi,
Mustang, 3900 m, 1983.7.23, KR Rajbhandari 8172; Hude,
Manag, 3350 m, 1983.8.4, KR Rajbhandari 8826; Makalu
Base camp-Ta Dasa, Sankhuwasabha, 4000 m, 1988.7.27,
M Suzuki et al 8850668 (KATH).
Herminium quinquelobum King and Pantl.
E Nepal (100–2900 m), Bhutan, China (NW Yunnan),
India (Sikkim).
Terrestrial in temperate forest. Fl. Aug–Sep. 2n 38.
Near Hille, Ilam, 7900 ft, 1977.10.6, P Pradhan,
KR Rajbhandari and R Niraula 263 (KATH).
Herpysma longicaulis Lindl.
C Nepal (900–1700 m), Bhutan, China (W Yunnan), NE
India, Indonesia, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in litter covered dense forest. Fl. Aug–Sep.
BB Raskoti (KATH).
Liparis caespitosa (ou.) Lindl.
CE Nepal (1000–1400 m), China (Yunnan), NE India,
Laos, Madagascar, Malawi, Mascarenes, Mauritius,
Mozambique, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, Reunion,
Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Sri Lanka,
Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea,
Tanzania, ailand, throughout tropical continental Asia,
Uganda.
Epiphytic on tree trunks and lower branches of evergreen
lowland forests (e.g. Ehretia sp.). Fl. Jul–Aug.
Near Torikhet, Dolakha, 950 m, 1977.7.13, KR Rajbhandari
and B Roy 1256; Raja Rani, Morang, 570 m, 1979.9.5, RB
apa, S Magar and S Tamang 919 (KATH).
Liparis cathcartii Hook. f.
C Nepal (2100–2500 m), Bhutan, China (Sichuan, C and
NW Yunnan), NE India (Assam).
Terrestrial in moist slopes. Fl. Jun–Jul, Fr. Oct.
Rara, Mugu, 3100 m, 1979.7.22, KR Rajbhandari and
B. Roy 3781; armare-Neurigad, Jumla, 2740 m, 1985.8.6,
PR Shakya, MN Subedi and R Uprety 8527; Hetauda,
Makwanpur, 400 m, 2007.6.5, BB Raskoti (KATH).
Liparis cordifolia Hook. f.
E Nepal (1400–2000 m), Bhutan, China (Guangxi, Taiwan,
SE Xizang, SE Yunnan) NE India, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in moist and humus rich slopes. Fl. Oct–Dec.
2n 20.
East Nepal, TI 6305490 (fr.) (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Liparis campylostalix Rachb. f.
Liparis kumokiri F. Maek.
CE Nepal (1100–3700 m), China (Gansu, Guizhou,
Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, W Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning,
Nei Mongol, Shandong, S Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang,
Yunnan), Japan, Korea, Russia (Far East).
Terrestrial in forests, thickets, grasslands. Fl. Aug–Oct.
Jaljale, 3800 m (Ph-R).
Liparis deflexa Hook. f.
CE Nepal (1100–1400 m), NE India, Cambodia, Laos,
Myanmar, Vietnam.
Terrestrial on sandy slopes of humid areas. Fl. Jun–Jul.
Nepal, C Bailes 912 (K).
Lothar, Chitwan, 335 m, 1967.8.27, PR Shakya 9123;
Dolakha-Malepu, Dolakha, 1100 m, 1983.8.27, KR Rajb-
handari 9315; Baluwabenshi-Bumlingtar, Sankhuwasabha,
450 m, 1999.9.27, D Kareee 879; Godak, Ilam, 1000 m,
1979.8.31, RB apa, S Magar and S Tamang 912 (KATH).
Liparis ferruginea Lindl.
Central Nepal (400 m), Cambodia, China (SE Fujian, S and
W Hainan, Hong Kong), Indonesia, Malaysia, ailand,
Vietnam.
Terrestrial in alluvial soil, growing in full shade on moist
humus-rich slopes near river banks in Shorea robusta forest.
Fl. Jul. 2n 42.
Narayani Zone, Makawanpur District, Hetauda at 400 m,
2008.7.12, Raskoti Bhakta. B. 215 (KATH).
Liparis glossula Rchb. f.
C Nepal (1800–4300 m), China (S Xizang, SE Yunnan),
NE India.
Gregariously terrestrial in open grassland slopes. Fl. Fl. Jul.
2n 20.
Doti-Samlimgadi, 2850 m, 1972.8.2, MS Bista and DP Joshi
171; Kyangin area, Rasuwa, 12 000–14 000 ft, 1967.7.19,
SB Malla 9057 (KATH).
Liparis nervosa (unb.) Lindl.
C Nepal (900–2800 m), China (N Fujian, Guangdong,
Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, S Hunan, Jiangxi, S Sichuan,
Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan, S Zhejiang), India, Japan,
Laos, Myanmar, Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Moluccas, Pacific
Islands |Guam). New and Old World tropics and subtropics,
widespread.
Shade loving terrestrial under forest. Fl. Feb–Jul, Fr. Oct.
2n 36, 40, 42.
Jimali, Salyan, 950 m, 1979.8.17, KR Rajbhandari and B
Roy 4777; Godavari, Lalipur, 1600 m, 2005.7.5, S Dahal
2003; Baluwabensi, Bumlingtar, Sankhuwasabha, 450 m,
1999.9.27, DB Karee 862; Rangpani, Ilam, 550 m, 1979.9.1,
RB apa, S Magar and S Tamang 914 (KATH).
Liparis nervosa var. khasiana (Hook. f.) P. K. Sarkar
C Nepal (1800 m), NE India.
Terrestrial on moist road sides. Fl. Jul.
Raskoti (2009).
Nuwakot, 1600 m (Ph-R).
Liparis nervosa subsp. nervosa
Liparis bituberculata (Hook.) Lindl.
534
Himalaya (Kumaun to Sikkim), Assam.
Terrestrial.
Central Nepal, Wall. s.n. (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Liparis odorata Lindl.
Malaxis odorata Willd.
C Nepal (900–2000 m), China, India, Japan, Myanmar,
Laos, ailand, Vietnam, Guam.
Terrestrial.
Raskoti 2007, Mahabhir, 1600 m (Ph-R).
Liparis olivacea Lindl.
C Nepal (1000 m).
Terrestrial.
Nepal, Collett 354 (K).
Liparis perpusilla Hook. f.
E Nepal (2500–2900 m), Bhutan, China (SW Yunnan-
Weixi), India (Sikkim).
Erect epiphytic on small to large branches of tree. Fl.
Jul. 2n 30.
Bhorlang, 7800 ft, 1960.8.20, SB Malla 16023; Ankhu
Khola, Ganesh Himal 2800 m, 1992.7.18, WJ Baker et al.
79 (KATH).
Liparis petiolata (D. Don) P. F. Hunt and Summerh.
Liparis nepalensis Lindl.
C Nepal (1800–2800 m), Bhutan, China (N Guangxi,
Hunan, W Jiangxi, SE Xizang, S Yunnan), NE India (Assam),
ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial on litter covered moist and cloudy forest. Fl.
May–Jun, fr. Sep–Oct. 2n 30, 36.
Nepal, 1821.7.1, N Wallich, no. 1945 (E); Taman-
Derbang, Baglung, 1300 m, HK Saiju and SR Tuladhar
73/79 (KATH).
Liparis platyrachis Hook. f.
E Nepal (1400–1500 m), China (W Yunnan), India
(Sikkim).
Fl. Sep.
East Nepal, TI 6305489 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Liparis pygmaea King and Panlt.
W Nepal (3200–3500 m), W China, NE India (Sikkim).
Terrestrial or lithophytic grassland scrub. Fl. Jul.
West Nepal, PSW 2457; SSW 3430 (Hara et al. 1978,
Press et al. 2000).
Liparis resupinata Ridl.
E Nepal (1500–2600 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang,
W to SE Yunnan) NE India (Assam, Sikkim).
Epiphytic mostly on Eugelhardtia spicata, Quercus sp.,
Viburnum sp. Fl. and fr. Oct–Dec. 2n 28, 56.
Burancholi, above Tikabhairab, 6000 ft, 1977.11.18,
P Pradhan and party 386; Chichila-Hurhure, Sankhusabha,
1950 m, 1990.12.8, PR Shakya 9416 (KATH).
Liparis rostrata Rchb. f.
W Nepal (2000–3000 m), China (S Xizang, Yunnan), India
(Simla).
Terrestrial under temperate forest. Fl. Jul. 2n 28, 30.
West Nepal, PSW 4892 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Luisia brachystachys (Lindl.) Blume
C Nepal (1300–1900 m), Bhutan, China (S Yunnan), India,
Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on exposed tree trunks. Fl. Apr. 2n 40.
Rapti Dun, 400 m (Ph-R).
Luisia trichorrhiza (Hook.) Blume
CE Nepal (1000–1400 m), Indian Himalaya (Dehra Dun to
Sikkim), Myanmar, ailand.
Epiphytic exposed tree trunks. Fl. Mar–Jul. Fr. May.
Hetauda, 500 m (Ph-R).
(Hara et al. 1978 as L. trichorhiza).
Luisia tristis (G. Forst.) Hook. f.
Luisia teretifolia Gaud., Luisia zeylanica Lindl.
CE Nepal (300–3050 m), India (Garhwal), Bhutan,
Malyasia, New Cladonia, Sri Lanka, ailand, Vietnam,
Lesser Sundan, Mollucan Island.
Epiphytic mostly on Schima wallichii, Terminalia chebula.
Fl. Apr–May.
Pangsera-Badadi, Baitadi, 770 m, 1884.7.14, PR Shakya,
MK Adhikari and MN Subedi 7839; Barumthan, Jajarkot,
1400 m, 1981.7.30, NP Manandhar and DP Joshi 6368;
Barati, Sindhupalchok, 850–1280 m, 1970.4.15, H Kanai
670971; Lamidanda, Makwanpur, 1400 m, 1992.2,
KJ White 17, DB Karkee 719 (KATH).
Malaxis acuminata forma acuminata D. Don
CE Nepal (450–3050 m), Bhutan, Indian Himalay (Simla
to Sikkim), Myanmar, Sri Lanka.
Terrestrial on humus riched humid slopes.
Central Nepal, SSW 5918; TI 1064; east Nepal, Williams
253. 450–3050 m (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Malaxis dolpensis M. R. Shrestha, L. R. Shakya et
S. K. Ghimire
W Nepal (4200 m).
Terrestrial in open meadow.
Karnali Zone, Dolpa District, Khorakchhang, 4200 m,
Jul 2003, MR Shrestha, SK Ghimire and L Shahi 873
(holotype: KATH, isotype: TUCH).
Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Sw.
CE Nepal (2600–3600 m), China (W Yunnan and Xizang).
Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning,
Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan,
Taiwan, Xizang, W Yunnan), Japan, Korea, Russia; Europe,
North America.
Terrestrial on grassland slopes. Fl. and Fr. Jul–Aug. 2n 28,
30, 60.
Jharkot-orung Phedi (W side of orung La), Mustang,
4500 m, 1999.8.20, M Mikage et al 9962977 (KATH).
Malaxis monophyllos var. obtusa H. Tsukaya and H. Ohba
E Nepal (3350 m).
Terrestrial moist mossy slopes.
asing Dingma to Saure Kharka through Sanu Khola,
Solukhumbu, Sagarmatha, 3350 m, 1995.8.4, F. Miyamoto;
535
M. Amano; H. Ikeda; C. M. Joshi; K. Arai; T. Komatsu
9584106 (holotype: TI, isotype: KATH).
Malaxis muscifera (Lindl.) Kuntze
ECW Nepal (2000–4300 m), Bhutan, ? China (Yunnan,
Szechuan), India (Sikkim), Pakistan.
Terrestrial on humus containing slopes. Fl. Jun–Aug. Fr.
Sep–Oct.
Doti-Slimgado 2850 m, 1972.8.2, MS Bista and DP Joshi
172; armare, Jumla, 3200 m, 1985.8.6, PR Shakya,
MN Subedi and R Uprety 8500; orungse Phedi,
Mustang, 4100 m, 1983.8.2, KR Rajbhandari 8735;
Tengboche-Deboche, Solukhumbu, 3740 m, 2005.9.16,
KR Rajbhandari, S Rajbhandari, S Vaidya and UR Sharma
DNEP3 AX63; Khapare, Ilam, 9100 ft, 1977.10.7,
P Pradhan, KR Rajbhandari and R Niraula 293 (KATH).
Malaxis tamurensis Tuyama
E Nepal (1200 m).
Terrestrial herb.
East Nepal, TI 6305500 (type) (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Micropera obtusa (Lindl.) Tang and F. T. Wang
CE Nepal (150–500 m), Bhutan, NE India (Sikkim),
Myanamar, ailand.
Epiphytic on tree trunks.
Rajbhandari and Dahal (2004).
Below Raja Rani, Morang, 400 m (Ph-R).
Monomeria barbata Lindl.
C Nepal (1400–1400 m), NE India (Assam), Myanamar,
ailand, Malaysia, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Schima wallichii. Fl. Jan.
Nepal, 1984, C Bailes 951 Nepal (K); Battedanda,
Tinpanibhanjyang, Lalitpur, 6000 ft, 1977.11.18, R Bahadur
358 (KATH).
Myrmechis pumila (Hook. f.) Tang and Wang
C Nepal (3000–3200 m), Bhutan, NE India (Assam).
Terrestrial in damp places. Fl. Jul–Aug.
Central Nepal, SSW 5973 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Neogyna gardneriana (Lindl.) Rchb. f.
C Nepal (1500–3000 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang,
S Yunnan), NE India, Laos, Myanmar, ailand, N Vietnam.
Epiphytic or lithophytic humid areas. Fl. Nov–Jan.
Cent Nepal, E Gardner, s.n. in Herb. Wall. (ann. 1817)
(type) (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Neottia acuminata Schltr.
CW Nepal (3000–4000 m), China (Gansu, Hebei, Hubei,
S Jilin, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan,
Taiwan, Xizang, N Yunnan -Dayao), NE India (Sikkim),
Japan, Korea, Nepal, Russia (Far East).
Saprophytic in litter covered moist slopes. Fl. Jun–Aug.
2n 36.
Rajbhandari and Dahal (2004).
Neottia chandrae B. B. Raskoti, J. J. Wood & Rita Ale
C Nepal (3800 m).
Terrestrial plant growing in partial shade on moist humus
rich slopes in Abies forest. Fl. Jul.
Lauribinaya, Langtang National Park, Rasuwa, approx.
28°06N, 85°22E, 3800 m, 2008.07.20, BB Raskoti B. 280
(holotype: KATH, isotype: TUCH).
Neottia listeroides Lindl.
CW Nepal (2700–3200 m), Bhutan, China (C Gansu, N
Shanxi, W Sichuan, S and SE Xizang, NW Yunnan), India
(Kashmir), Pakistan.
Saprophytic in forests/grassy slopes. Fl. Jul–Sep. 2n 40,
46.
Marghor Lekh, Humla, 3100 m, 1979.7.31, KR Rajbhandari
and B Roy 4182; Pisang-Bhratang, Manang, 3100 m,
1983.3.4, KR Rajbhandari 8852 (KATH).
Neottia mucronata (Panigrahi and J. J. Wood) Szlach.
Listera mucronata Panigrahi and J. J. Wood.
E Nepal (2400 m), Bhutan, China (SW Sichuan, Yunnan),
India.
Saprophytic in shaded/damp places. Fl. Jul–Aug.
Near Banglep, 2500 m, 1973.5.24, PR Shakya and
TK Bhattacharya 2301 (KATH).
Neottia nepalensis (N. P. Balakr.) Szlach.
Listera nepalensis N. P. Balakr.
CW Nepal (2900–3800 m).
Saprophytic on moist slopes.
Near Phagune Dhuri, Nepal, 11 000 ft, 1954.7.8, JDA
Stainton, W Sykes and J Williams, no. 3431 (isotype: E);
Chame, Manang, 2689 m, 1983.8.15, NP Manandhar 9908
(KATH).
Neottia pinetorum (Lindl.) Szlach.
Listera pinetorum Lindl.
C Nepal (2200–3650 m), Bhutan, China (S and SE Xizang,
W Yunnan), NE India.
Saprophytic on under coniferus forest. Fl. Jun–Jul. 2n 40.
Bamboo-Dovan, 2240 m, 2001.6.26, PR Shakya and
S Poudel 10387 (KATH).
Neottia tenuis (Lindl.) Szlach.
Listera tenuis Lindl.
E Nepal (3000–4000 m), NE India (Sikkim), ?Tibet.
Saprophytic on moist slopes.
East Nepal, Williams 907 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Neottianthe cucullata (L.) Schltr.
ECW Nepal (400–4500 m), Bhutan, China (Anhui,
N Fujian, Gansu, NE Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan,
W Hubei, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai,
Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, NW Yunnan, Zhejiang),
N India, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia; E Europe.
Terrestrial in forests, thickets, grassy slopes, alpine
grasslands. Fl. Jul–Oct.
Central Nepal, Lowndes 1370 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Neottianthe cucullata var. calcicola (W. W. Sm.) Soó
Neottianthe calcicola (W. W. Sm.) Schltr.
536
SE Gansu, NE Guizhou, S Qinghai, S and W Sichuan,
E and S Xizang, NW Yunnan (Bhutan, India (Sikkim).
Terrestrial in forests, thickets and alpine grasslands.
Fl. Jul–Oct.
Above Suma Kharka, Humla, 3850 m, 1985.8.18, PR
shakya, MN Subedi and R Uprety 8735; orungse, Mus-
tang, 3800 m, 1979.8.4, PR Shakya, SR Adhikari and KR
Amatya 5247; Near Phedi, Manang, 4200 m, 1983.8.21,
NP Manandhar 10081 (KATH).
Neottianthe cucullata var. cucullata
EW Nepal (2100–5000 m), Bhutan, China (Anhui,
N Fujian, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, W Hubei,
Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi,
Shanxi, W Sichuan, Xizang, NW Yunnan, Zhejiang), NE
India, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia; E Europe.
Terrestrial on open grasslands. Fl. Aug–Sep.
Pisang-Bhratang, Manang, 3150 m, 1974.8.14, DP Joshi
and TK Bhattacharya 2462/74; Dolakha, 4050 m, 1983.9.4,
KR Rajbhandri 9865; Ne Kharka, 3600 m, 1988.7.28,
M Suzuki et al. 8880764 (KATH).
Neottianthe secundiflora (Hook. f.) Schltr.
CW Nepal (2500–3200 m), Bhutan, China (E and S Xizang,
NW Yunnan), India (Kumaun to Sikkim), Myanmar.
Terrestrial on humid grassland slopes. Fl. Aug–Oct.
Pina-Ghurchi, Mugu, 2800 m, 1985.8.23, PR Shakya, MN
Subedi and RK Uprety 8784; Shyapru-Sherpagaon, Rasuwa,
8000 ft, 1965.9.13, TB Shrestha and PR Shakya 3815;
Simigaon-Gyalche Kharka, Dolakha, 2200 m, 1983.8.31,
KR Rajbhandari 9537A; Ghunsa Khola, Amjilassa-Kyapa,
Taprejung, 2650 m, 1989.9.6, C Grey-Wilson et al. 275
(KATH).
Nervilia aragoana Gaudich.
Nervilia scottii (Rchb. f.) Schltr.
CE Nepal (500–1300 m), Bangladesh, Bhutan, China
(Hubei, Sichuan, C and S Taiwan, S and SE Xizang, S and
W Yunnan), India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Laos,
Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, ailand,
Vietnam; Australia, Pacific Islands.
Terrestrial in damp places. Fl. May–Jun. 2n 72.
Central Nepal, SSW 2746. East Nepal, Stainton 6755 (Hara
et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Nervilia crociformis (Zoll. and Mor.) Seidenf.
E Nepal (500–2100 m), S Taiwan, India, Indonesia,
Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, ailand, Vietnam;
Africa, Australia.
Terrestrial in litter covered moist forest. Fl. May–Jun.
South of Ilam, 1300 ft, 1969.6.3, TB Shrestha and
LHJ Williams 153990 (KATH).
Nervilia gammieana (Hook. f.) Pfitzer
CE Nepal (450–800 m), India (Jammu and Kashmir,
Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh Sikkim), Pakistan.
Terrestrial under forests with humus rich soil. Fl. Apr–Jun.
Central Nepal, SSW 2746a; Eastern Nepal, Stainton 6756
(Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Nervilia macroglossa (Hook. f.) Schltr.
E Nepal (600–1800 m), Indian (Assam), Myanamar,
Vietnam.
Terrestrial on litter covered moist slopes.
Pearce and Cribb (2002).
Phulchoki, Lalitpur, 1800 m (Ph-R).
Nervilia mackinnonii (Duthie) Schltr.
C Nepal (900–1700 m), China (S Guizhou, C and
NW Yunnan), NE India, Myanmar.
Terrestrial on litter-covered loose soil, in full shade. Fl. May.
Fr. Jun. 2n 36.
Central Nepal: Bagmati Zone, Kathmandu District,
Nagarjun forest, 1700 m, 15 May 2007, BB Raskoti 196
(TUCH).
Nervilia plicata (Andrews) Schltr.
EW Nepal (300–1000 m), Bangladesh, Bhutan, China
(Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, S Taiwan,
Yunnan) India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
New Guinea, Philippines, ailand, Vietnam; N Australia.
Terrestrial on humus-rich damp places, in full shade. Fl.
May–Jun. Fr. Jun. 2n 20, 72, 108.
Central Nepal (Lumbini Zone, Pokharathok-9,
Arghakhanchi, 600–1000 m); 2007.5.27; Raskoti 204
(TUCH).
Oberonia acaulis Griff.
CE Nepal (600–2000 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang, S and
SE Yunnan), India, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Schima wallichii, Engelhardtia spicata.
Fr. Sep–Dec. 2n 30.
Hyanja-Naudara, Kaski, 4400 ft, 1976.10.4, H Tabata et al.
6456; Mewa Khola, Taplejung, 1150 m, 1977.5.24, PR
Shakya 4384; Ranga pani, Ilam, 2000 ft, 1980.3.25, RB
Tamang 130 (KATH).
Oberonia brachystachys Lindl.
E Nepal (200–800 m), NE India, Malaysia, Myanmar,
ailand.
Epiphytic on main branches of the tree. Fl. Mar–Apr.
Golakharka forest, Ilam, 450 m, 1979.4.17, P Pradhan,
R Niroula and M Gorkhali 748 (KATH).
Oberonia caulescens Lindl.
CE Nepal (1600–2400 m), Bhutan, China (Guangdong,
W Hubei, S Hunan, W Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, W to
SE Yunnan), India, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Schima wallichii, Eurya acuminata. Fl.
and Fr. Jul–Oct. 2n 26, 30.
Wallich 1950 (K); Chandrakot, Kaski, 1300 m, 1979.9.12,
R Niraula and N pradhan 13/1979; Above Nundhaki,
Sankhuwashabha, 2260 m, 1991.3.28, PR Shakya 6640
(KATH).
Oberonia emarginata King and Pantl.
Oberonia micrantha King and Pantl.
E Nepal (1600–2000 m), Bhutan, India, ailand.
Epiphytic on tree trunks and large branches. Fl. Sep.
Shakya (1999), Pearce and Cribb (2002), Rajbhandari and
Dahal (2004).
Oberonia ensiformis (Sm.) Lindl.
Malaxis ensiformis Sm., Oberonia iridifolia Lindl.
CE Nepal (1400–1700 m), China (N Guangxi, S and
W Yunnan), India, Laos, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
537
Epiphytic on lowland trees especially on Schima wallichii,
Mallotus philippensis. Fl. Sep–Nov, Fr. next Mar. 2n 30.
Upper Nepal, N Wallich, no. s.n.; Narainhetty Upper
Nepal, Nepal, 1802.11.30, F Buchanan-Hamilton, no.
s.n., (LINN); Khorlak-Machha Khola, Gorkha, 840 m,
1983.6.10, PR Shakya, MK Adhikari and MN Subedi 7799;
Torikhet, Dolakha, 950 m, 1977.7.12, KR Rajbhari and B
Roy 1223; Godak, Ilam, 3500 ft, 1977.10.3, P Pradhan, KR
Rajbhandari and B Roy 1223 (KATH).
Oberonia falcata King and Pantl.
E Nepal (1300–2500 m), NE India, Laos, Malaysia, Sumatra,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on medium sized tree trunks.
Fl. Jun–Jul.
Pothana-Tolka, Kaski, 1900 m, 1983.7.8, KR Rajbhandari
7330; Chichila, Sankhuwasabha, 1900 m, 1988.12.5, DB
Karkee 744 (KATH); Subedhi, Chaudhary and Shakya 971
(TUCH).
Oberonia falconeri Hook. f.
C Nepal (550–1000 m), China (S and SW Yunnan), India,
Laos, Malaysia (Peninsular), ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Sapium insigne, Alnus nepalensis,
Eugenia sp. Fl. Apr–May, Fr. Aug–Oct. 2n 30.
Nepal, N Wallich 1948a (K); Chir, Bajhang, 1100 m,
1984.4.14, P Pradhan, RK Uprety, N Pradhan and N Dabadi
1303; near Chhinchu, Surkhet, 700 m, 1979.6.28, KR Rajb-
handri and B Roy 2655; Chitwan area, 1500 ft, 1967.8.27,
PR Shakya 9381; Singati, Dolakha, 990 m, 1979.5.16,
NP Manandhar and MK Adhikari 1404; Chiuribas,
Sunsari, 2700 ft, 1978.6.18, P Pradhan and R Niraula 548;
Garawa, Ilam, 280, 1974.6.8, P Pradhan, MM Amatya and
R Shrestha 179/74 (KATH); Subedi 946 (TUCH).
Oberonia jenkinsiana Griff. ex Lindl.
C Nepal (400–1200 m), China (W to SE Yunnan), NE
India, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks mostly on pine forest. Fl. and
Fr. Sep–Nov. 2n 30.
Chappak, Bagmati, 1400 m, 1995.5, LR Shakya and
DM Bajracharya 20 (KATH).
Oberonia longilabris King and Pantl.
C Nepal (1000 m), India.
Epiphytic on small sized trunks and branches. Fl. Jul–Sep.
Satyawati, Palpa, 600 m, BB Raskoti 147 (TUCH).
Oberonia mucronata (D. Don) Ormerod and Seidenf.
E Nepal (1400–1800 m), Bangladesh, Bhutan, China (S and
SW Yunnan), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
Philippines.
Epiphytic mostly on Shorea robusta, Schima wallichii. Fl.
and Fr. Aug–Dec. 2n 30, 40.
Raja Rani, Morang, 570 m, 1979.4.19, R Pradhan,
R Niraula and M Gorkhali 787; Rangapani, Ilam, 2000 ft,
1977.10.10, P Pradhan, KR Rajbhandari and and R Niroula
357 (KATH).
Oberonia myosurus (Forster f.) Lindl. ex Wall.
CW Nepal (1000–1500 m), China, ailand, Myanamar,
Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunk or main branchesof the tree. Fl.
Aug–Oct.
Central Nepal, N Wallich 1947 (K). Chahara, Palpa
(Ph-R).
Oberonia nepalensis L. R. Shakya and R. P. Chaudhary
C Nepal (750–1600 m).
Epiphytic on tree trunks.
Pokhara District (Around Annapurna Conservation Area),
Nepal, 1100 m, 1996/5, Shakya, L. R.; Singh, R. L. and
Chaudhary, R. P., no. 27 (holotype: KATH).
Oberonia obcordata Lindl.
C Nepal (1100–1800 m), China (SE Xizang), NE India,
ailand.
Epiphytic mostly on Castanopsis indica, Ficus sp. Fl.
Sep–Oct. 2n 30.
Tika Dhunga, 2000 m, 1978.3.26, PM Amatya and B
Roy 475/78; Hurure, Sankhuwasabha, 6200 ft, 1981.9.25,
PR Shakya 6675 (KATH).
Oberonia pachyphylla King and Pantl.
E Nepal (200–800 m), India, Laos, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on branches of the tree. Fl. Mar–Apr.
Godak, Ilam, 550 m, 1979.4.16, P Pradhan, R Aniroula, M
Gorkhali 738 (KATH).
Oberonia pachyrachis Rchb. f. ex Hook. f.
WCE Nepal (1000–1500 m), Bhutan, China (S Xizang, SW
Yunnan), N India, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks. Fl. Nov–Mar, Fr. May.
2n 30.
Nepal, Verschoyle 55 in spirit; Nepal, K White 400 in
spirit (K); near Putalibang, Pyuthan, 1250 m, 1988.9.12,
NK Bhattarai and SR Baral 88/356; Bhainse, Makwanpur,
2000 ft, 1978.9.13, R Bahadur 644; Phedi Kharka-Khani
gaon, Dolakha, 1800 m, 1983.9.14, KR Rajbhandari
10284; Pakribas, Dhankuta, 5400 ft, 1981.9.15,
PR Shakya 6512; Godak-Mailbelli, Ilam, 3500 ft, 1977.10.3,
P Pradhan, KR Rajbhandari and R Niraula 227 (KATH);
Subedi 867 (TUCH).
Oberonia prainiana King and Pantl.
Oberonia brunnescens Ridl.
E Nepal (500–1500 m), NE India (Sikkim).
Epiphytic mostly on Ficus sp. Fl. Jun–Jul.
Busti, 300 ft, 1978.8.5, PR Shakya et al. 626 (KATH).
Oberonia pyrulifera Lindl.
CE Nepal (300–800 m), Bhutan, China (W to SE Yunnan),
India, Laos, ailand.
Epiphytic on branches of tree. Fl. and Fr. Sep–Nov.
Jiri-Chordung, Dolakha, 2400 m, 1977.8.17, KR Rajbhandari
and B Roy 2296 (KATH).
Oberonia recurva Lindl.
Oberonia parvula King & Pantl.
C Nepal (200–1500 m), China (Guangxi), NE India (Assam,
Darjeeling, Sikkim), Sri Lanka.
Epiphytic on median sized tree. Fl. Oct–Feb.
BB Raskoti (KATH).
538
Oberonia rufilabris Lindl.
C Nepal (300–1500 m), Bangladesh, Cambodia, China
(S Hainan, SE Yunnan), NE India, Malaysia, Myanmar,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks. Fl. and Fr. Nov–Jan.
Central Nepal, Dobremez 5 (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Odontochilus crispus (Lindl.) Hook. f.
C Nepal (400–2400 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang,
NW Yunnan), NE India (Assam).
Epiphytic mostly on Quercus sp. Fl. Aug–Oct, Fr.
Sep–Oct.
Central Nepal, Wraber 150 (LJU) (Hara et al. 1978, Press
et al. 2000).
Odontochilus lanceolatus (Lindl.) Blume
Anoectochilus lanceolatus Lindl.
EC Nepal (800–2200 m), Bhutan, China (Guangdong,
Guangxi, C Taiwan, Yunnan), India NE (Assam), Myanmar,
Taiwan, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in evergreen broad-leaved forests and valleys. Fl.
Jun–Sep. 2n 60, 120 (Wu et al. 2010).
Central Nepal, Flatt 93; East Staiton 1362 (Hara et al. 1978,
Press et al. 2000).
Oreorchis foliosa (Lindl.) Lindl.
CE Nepal (2500–4500 m), Bhutan, India (Simla to Sikkim),
Myanmar, S. E. Tibet, W. China.
Terrestrial herb in open meadows. Fl. Jun–Aug. Fr. May.
Khaptad, Doti, 2959 m, 1981.7.2, PR Shakya, LR Sharma
and KR Amatya 6284 (KATH).
Oreorchis foliosa var. indica (Lindl.) N. Pearce and
P. Cribb
CE Nepal (2700–3800 m), Bhutan, China (W Sichuan,
Taiwan, S Xizang, NW Yunnan), N India, Japan.
Terrestrial in forests and alpine meadows. Fl. Sep. 2n
42, 84.
Press et al. (2000), Pearce and Cribb (2002), Rajbhandari
and Dahal (2004).
Oreorchis micrantha Lindl.
CE Nepal (2600–3000 m), Bhutan, China (E and S Taiwan,
S and SE Xizang), NE India, Myanmar.
Terrestrial in moist forest. Fl. Jun.
Dovan, Kaski, 2350 m, 2001.6.26. PR Shakya and
S Poudel 10396; Deorali-Serdomga, 2700–3400 m,
1985.7.6, H Oba et al. 60115 (KATH).
Oreorchis nepalensis N. Pearce & P. J. Cribb
C Nepal (2700–3100 m), China (S Xizang).
Terrestrial in moist and shade areas. Fl. May–Jun.
Press et al. (2000), Pearce and Cribb (2002), Rajbhandari
and Dahal (2004).
Oreorchis porphyranthes Tuyama
C Nepal (3000–3100 m).
Terrestrial on moist slopes.
South of Gurjakhani, central Nepal, 10 300 ft, 1954.6.7,
Stainton, J. D. Adam; Sykes, William and Williams, John,
no. 3048 (isotype: BM and E).
Ornithochilus difformis (Wall. ex Lindl.) Schltr.
CE Nepal (1400–1800 m), Bhutan, China (S Guangdong,
Guangxi, SW Sichuan, S and SW Yunnan), India (Assam,
Garwal, Sikkim), Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Schima wallichii, Mallotus philippensis.
Fl. May–Jul. 2n 38.
Chhetchhet to Lambagar, Dolakha, 1700 m, 1977.7.15, KR
Rajbhandari and B Roy 1392 (KATH).
Otochilus albus Lindl.
Coelogyne alba (Lindl.) Reich. f.
CE Nepal (1500–2400 m), China (SE Xizang), NE India,
Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Mostly epiphytic on Rhododendron arboreum. Fl. Jun–Jul.
Bhorlong, 1979.6.16, R Bahadur 811; Ramche-ale,
Rasuwa, 2000 m, 1969.6.2, H Kani 11885 (KATH);
Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 970 (TUCH).
Otochilus fuscus Lindl.
Coelogyne fusca (Lindl.) Rchb. f.
C Nepal (750–2500 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, China
(Yunnan), NE India, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Mostly epiphytic on Myrsine sp., Lyonia ovalifolia, Eurya
acuminata, Castanopsis sp. Fl. Nov–Jun, Fr. Oct–Dec.
2n 40.
Makwanpur Gadhi, 1600 m, 1992.2.24, KJ White 15;
Tiplund, Sindhuli, 3500 ft, 1975.12.27, PR Shakya and
KR Rajbandari 3492; above Num, Sankhuwasabha,
1660 m, 1990.12.22, PR Shakya 9545; Hanspokhari,
Ilam, 1550 m, 1979.4.13, P Pradhan, R Niraula and
M Gorkhali 692 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya
863 (TUCH).
Otochilus lancilabius Seidenf.
ECW Nepal (1400–2500 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang,
SW Yunnan), NE India, Laos, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mostly on Quercus sp. Fl. Oct–Nov.
Panchase Lekh, Kaski, 2350 m, 1973.12.13, DP Joshi and
MM Amatya 73/1171; Hathi Tauke, Phulchoki, Lalitpur,
8000 ft, 1967.10.26, NP Manandhar and party 6894;
Mangsing Danda, 6000 ft, 1881.10.4, PR Shakya 6894
(KATH); Subedi 790 (TUCH).
Otochilus porrectus Lindl.
Coelogyne porrecta (Lindl.) Rchb. f.
ECW Nepal (1000–2300 m), China (NW to SE Yunnan),
NE India, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on Lyonia ovalifolia or lithophytic on moist forest.
Fl. and Fr. Oct–Dec. 2n 40.
Chichila, Sankhuwasabha, 1900 m, 1998.12.6, DB Karkee
755 (KATH).
Pachystoma pubescens Blume
Pachystoma senile (Lindl.) Rchb. f.
C Nepal (500–1800 m), Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia,
China (Guangdong, S Guangxi, SW Guizhou, Hainan,
Taiwan, S Yunnan), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myan-
mar, ? Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Vietnam; Australia.
Terrestrial in grassland/forests. Fl. Mar–Sep.
Pearce and Cribb (2002), Rajbhandari and Dahal (2004).
539
Panisea demissa (D. Don) Pfitzer
Panisea parviflora (Lindl.) Lindl.
C Nepal (1500–2400 m), SC China (without precise
locality), NE India, Laos, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mainly on Quercus glauca, Lyonia ovalifolia, Pyrus
pashia, Eurya acuminata, Daphniphyllum himalense. Fl. Apr.
Doko Bhanjyang, Kathmandu, 2400 m, 1975.3.16,
DP Joshi and KR Rajbhandari 75/645; Nigale-Surkey,
Dolakha, 2300 m, 1977.7.9, KR Rajbhandari and B
Roy 1106; Mansing Dada, 6800 ft, 1981.10.3, PR Shakya
6862 (KATH); Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 1012
(TUCH).
Panisea panchaseensis Subedi
C Nepal, (2200–2450 m). Epiphytic on tree trunks. Nepal.
Fl. Nov–Dec.
Subedi, A. 1780, 12 Nov 2007, Kaski district, Panchase
forest, (holotype: KATH, isotype: TUCH).
Panisea tricallosa Rolfe
E Nepal (100–2100 m), Bhutan, China (Hainan, S and
SW Yunnan), NE India, Laos, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic on tree trunks. Fl. Dec, Fr. May–Jun. 2n 40.
Pearce and Cribb (2002).
Panisea uniflora (Lindl.) Lindl.
C Nepal (1000–2300 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, China
(S Yunnan), NE India, Laos, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Epiphytic mainly on Shorea robusta, Zizyphus incurva, Schima
wallichii, Eugenia formosa. Fl. Oct–Mar. 2n 40.
Dhaibunket, Nuwakot, 1550 m, 1967.5.6, DH Nicolson
3272; North side of Phulchoki, Lalitpur, 7500 ft, 1978.4.19,
R Bahadur 405; Chisapani, Illam, 1600 ft, 1981.6.3,
S Dahal, U Tiwari and M Basukala 200 (KATH).
Paphiopedilum venustum (Wallich ex Sims) Pfitzer
Cypripedium venustum Wall.
E Nepal (1100–1600 m), Bhutan, China (S and SE Xizang
-Dinggyê, Mêdog), NE India.
Terrestrial in humus rich soils near seepage banks. Fl.
Jan–Mar. 2n 38, 40, 40 2B, 41, 42.
BB Raskoti 2011, no. 350 (KATH).
Papilionanthe teres (Roxb.) Schltr.
Vanda teres (Roxb.) Lindl.
CE Nepal (200–2100 m), Bangladesh, Bhutan, China
(S Yunnan), NE India (Sikkim), Laos, Myanmar, ailand,
Vietnam.
Epiphytic mainly on Mitragyne parviflora, Eugenia formosa,
Shorea robusta. Fl. May–Jun. 2n 38, 40.
Garuwa, Jhunga, Sindhuli, 360 m, 1987.5, NP Manandhar
and LP Kattel 11942; Majhi gaon-Pilwa Khola, 460 m, 1977,
6, 10, PR Shakya 4612; Soktim, Ilam, 1600 ft, 1978.6.12,
P Pradhan and R Niraula 527 (TUCH); Subedi, Chaudhary
and Shakya (TUCH).
Papilionanthe uniflora (Lindl.) Garay
Aerides uniflora (Lindl.) Summerh.
C Nepal (1500–2100 m), Bhutan, NE India.
Pendulus epiphytic on tree trunks and main branches. Fl.
Jul–Aug.
Mahaveer, Makwanpur, 1800 m, 1992.3, KJ White 18;
Nagibhir, 7000 ft, 1962.10.27, TB Shrestha and AV
Upadhyay 622; Hanspokhari, Ilam, 5200 ft, 1977.10.1,
P Pradhan, KR Rajbhandari and R Niraula 190 (KATH);
Subedi, Chaudhary and Shakya 1003 (TUCH).
Papilionanthe vandarum (Rchb. f.) Garay
Aerides vandarum Rchb. f.
E Nepal (1600–1700 m), Bhutan, S China, NE India,
Myanmar.
Epiphytic on tree trunks. Fl. May.
East Nepal, 1964, fide Nakao, l.c. t. 94 (Hara et al. 1978,
Press et al. 2000).
Pecteilis susannae (L.) Raf.
CE Nepal (150–1800 m), Cambodia, China (Fujian,
Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Jiangxi,
SW Sichuan, Yunnan), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia,
Myanmar, ailand, S Vietnam.
Terrestrial in open moist grasslands. Fl. Jul–Sep. 2n 36,
42, 44.
Bedkot-Naula, Kanchanpur, 500–960 m, 1981.9.12,
I Sharma, R Joshi, R Uprety and I Pandey 300; Syulibhang,
Pyuthan, 1400 m, 1988.9.15, NK Bhattrai and SR Baral
88/370; near Syabrubensi, Bagmati, east of Trisuli, Rasuwa,
1500 m, 1966.9.17, DH Nicolson 2531; Gandhe Pani-
Tumlingtar, Sankhuwasabha, 429 m, 1986.8.27, TB Shrestha
and PR Shakya 8894 (KATH).
Pecteilis triflora (D. Don) Tang & Wang
CW Nepal (400–1200 m), India (Kumaon).
Terrestrial on moist open areas.
Bajura-Rigla, Bajura, 1200 m, 1972.8.11, MS Bista
and DP Joshi 319; Jimali, Salyan, 1000 m, 1979.8.17,
KR Rajbhandari and B Roy 4794; Near Darbhand, Myagdi,
1805 m, 2009.8.15, K Maden s.n., Tilkeni, Ilam, 3200 ft,
1977.10.4, P Pradhan, KR Rajbhandari and R Niraula 241
(KATH).
Pelatantheria insectifera (Rchb. f.) Ridl.
Sarcanthus insectifer Rchb. f.
C Nepal (200–1000 m), Bangladesh, NW and NE
India (Assam, Andaman Islands), Myanmar, ailand,
Vietnam.
Epiphytic on large tree trunks. Fl. Dec–Oct.
Chitwan National Park (Ph-R).
Peristylus affinis (D. Don) Seidenf.
Nepal (450–900 m), China (Guangdong, Guangxi,
Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan), NE
India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, ailand.
Terrestrial on open grasslands. Fl. Jun–Sep. 2n 28, 42, 44,
46 0–3B.
Ghanteshower, Doti, 1500 m (Ph-R).
Peristylus aristatus Lindl.
Habenaria aristata (Lindl.) Hook. f.; Peristylus exilis
Wight.
C Nepal (2000–2200 m), NE India (Sikkim), Sri Lanka.
Terrestrial on moist and humid slopes.
Kanyam, Ilam, 1979.8.29, RB apa, S Tamang S Magar
911; Nagarkot, Bhaktapur, 1800 m, 2007.8.28, BB Raskoti
220 (KATH).
540
Peristylus constrictus (Lindl.) Lindl.
C Nepal (300–2300 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, China
(SW and W Yunnan), NE India (Sikkim), Myanmar,
ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial on open slopes. Fl. Jun–Aug. 2n 38, 42.
Dhik Gad-Gokule, Baitadi, 600 m, 1984.7.12, PR Shakya,
MK Adhikari and MN Subedi 7833; ade Damar-Neopana,
Bardia, 660 m, 1985.7.19, PR Shakya, MN Subedi and
R Uprety 8349; Raja Rani, Morang, 570 m, 1977.6.14,
P Pradhan and R Niraula 535; Pokharathok, Arghakhachi,
800 m, 2007.6.25, BB Raskoti 197 (KATH).
Peristylus densus (Lindl.) Santapau & Kalipada
Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (N Fujian, Guangdong,
Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang), India, Japan,
Korea, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial in grasslands. Fl. May–Oct. 2n 25 2,
42 0–2B, 44, 46, 48, 50.
Chandragiri, Kathmandu, 7000 ft, 1977.8.17, PR Shakya
and P Pradhan 9598 (KATH).
Peristylus duthiei (Hook. f.) Deva & H. B. Naithani
Herminium duthiei Hook. f.
ECW Nepal (1000–2000 m), India (Garwal, Uttarakhanda).
Terrestrial open grasslands.
Chankheli, Humla, 3500 m, 1979.7.25, KR Rajbhandari
and B Roy 3849; Dori Lekh, Jumal, 3400 m, 1979.7.17,
KR Rajbhandari and B Roy 3404; Sherpagaon-langtang,
Rasuwa, 9000 ft, 1967.7.13, SB Malla 9096; odung,
Ramechap, 3000 m, 1977.8.10, KR Rajbhandari and B Roy
2184 (KATH).
Peristylus elisabethae (Duthie) R. K. Gupta
Habenaria elisabethae Duthie; Herminium elisabethae
(Duthie) Tang & Wang.
EW Nepal (2900–3200 m), Bhutan, China (C and S
Xizang).
Terrestrial under coniferous forest or grasslands. Fl. Jul–Sep.
2n 42.
Ripulchyakti, Darchula, 2850 m, 1980.9.10, KR Rajbhan-
dari and KJ Malla 5858; Hund, Manag, 3350 m, 1983.8.4,
KR Rajbhandari 8824; Gyalche Kharka-ang Dingma,
Dolkha, 2800 m, 1983.9.1, KR Rajbhandari 9662; Phuni
Tenga to Tenboche, Solukhumbu, 3520 m, 2005.9.15,
KR Rajbhandari, S Rajbhandari, S Vaidya and UR Sharma
DNEP3 AX 50; SW of Ghupha Phokari, 2900 m, 1989.8.30,
C Grey-Wilson et al. 99 (KATH).
Peristylus fallax Lindl.
ECW Nepal (2700–3700 m), Bhutan, China (S Xizang,
NW Yunnan), India.
Terrestrial in forests and alpine meadows. Fl. Jul–Sep.
2n 30, 34, 42.
Petagaon-Badigaon, Bajura and Bajhang, 2190–2230 m,
1991.8.16, M Suzuki et al. 9190679; Chhana-Bhabasen,
Dailekh, 2500 m, 1979.7.5, KR Rajbhandari and B Roy
2867; Ghandruk, Deorali-Banthati, Kaski, 2550 m,
1983.7.11, KR Rajbhandari 7545; Chhumigalo, Dolakha,
3500 m, 1983.9.2, KR Rajbhandari 9749; Khapare, Ilam,
9100 ft, 1977.10.7, P Pradhan, KR Rajbhandari and
R Niraula 287; esio, Solukhumbu, 3570 m, 2005.15,
CA Pendry, KKShrestha and RC Poudel DNEP3 BX 105b
(KATH).
Peristylus goodyeroides (D. Don) Lindl.
CE Nepal (500–1500 m), Bhutan, Cambodia, China
(Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan,
Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), N India, Indonesia, Laos,
Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, ailand,
Vietnam.
Terrestrial on humus riched forest. Fl. Jun–Aug. 2n 23 2f,
42, 46, 47.
Lipna, Kanchanpur, 1000 m, 1980.8.12, KR Rajbhandari,
PM Regmi and KJ Malla 5241; Kalagad, Kalikot, 1830 m,
1985.7.31, PH Shakya, MN Subedi and R Uprety 8471;
Birethati, 4000 ft, 1964.7.15, TB Shrestha and MS Bista
1981; Nagdaha-otneri, Dolalkha, 1300 m, 1977.8.3,
KR Rajbhandari and B Roy 2033; Belu Bhaddure, 2500 ft,
1966.8.16, ML Banerji and PR Shakya 5738; Chisapani,
Ilam, 2400 ft, 1978.6.12, P Pradhan and R Niraula 519
(KATH).
Peristylus halmiltonianus (Lindl.) Lindl.
Habenaria hamiltoniana (Lindl.) Hook. f.
E Nepal (1500–2100 m), NE India (Assam-Khasia,
Sikkim).
Terrestrial on moist places. Fl. Aug.
Morung, Nepal, 1890, F Buchanan.-Hamilton fide Hook.
f., l.c. (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al. 2000).
Peristylus intrudens (Ames) Ormerod
Habenaria intrudens Ames; Peristylus taipoensis (S. Y. Hu &
Barretto) T. C. Hsu & S. W. Chung
Central Nepal (850 m), China, Philippines, Taiwan.
Terrestrial on humid slopes, grown on partial shade occurs
in the tropical forest.
Rajapani, 850 m, BB Raskoti 268 (KATH).
Peristylus lacertiferus (Lindl.) J. J. Sm.
Coeglossum acuminatum Lindl.
C Nepal (300 m), India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar.
Terrestrial on moist slopes. Fl. Aug.
Maipokhari, Ilam (Ph-R).
Peristylus lawii Wight
Habenaria lawii (Wight) Hook. f.
C Nepal (400–1000 m), India (Uttarakhanda).
Terrestrial on moist sandy soil slopes. Fl. Aug.
Betkot-Pipna, Kanchanpur, 900 m, 1980.8.12,
KR Rajbhandari, PM Regmi and KJ Malla 5212; Churiya
hill, 2200 ft, 1967.8.23, PR Shakya 9358 (KATH).
Peristylus mannii (Rchb.) Mukerjee
Platanthera mannii (Reich. f.) Schltr.
C Nepal (1700–2900 m), China (S Sichuan, C and
W Yunnan), India.
Terrestrial in forests, thickets, grassy slopes. Fl. Sep–Oct.
Lampokhari, Taplejung at 2900 m, BB Raskoti 250
(TUCH).
Peristylus nematocaulon (Hook. f.) Banerji & P. Pradhan
CE Nepal (2700–3600 m), Bhutan, China (SE Xizang),
NE India.
541
Terrestrial on mossy slopes. Fl. Jul–Aug.
Tashigaon-Ghongmai, Sankhuwasabha, 3330 m, 1986.9.6,
PR Shakya 8968 (KATH).
Peristylus parishii Rchb. f.
Habenaria parishii (Reich. f.) Hook. f.
E Nepal (600–800 m), China (N Guangxi, S and
SE Yunnan), India, Myanmar, ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial on litter covered moist areas. Fl. Jun–Aug.
Kahsigaon-Keronja, near Abuthum Lekh, Ganesh Himak,
Dhading, 1900 m, 1992.8.2, WJ Baker et al. 122 (KATH).
Peristylus prainii (Hook. f.) Kranzlin
Habenaria prainii Hook. f.
CW Nepal (700–1800 m), NE India (Assam), Myanamar,
ailand, Vietnam.
Terrestrial on humid areas.
Doti-Bajlekh, Doti, 2100 m, 1972.8.1, MS Bista and
DP Joshi 142; Gothe Danda, Phulchoki, Lalitpur, 6500 ft,
1978.7.11, R Bahadur 579 (KATH).
Peristylus richardianus Wight
Habenaria bicornuta Hook. f.
E Nepal (2000–2500 m), S India.
Terrestrial on damp places.
East Nepal, TI 6305493 (fr.) (Hara et al. 1978, Press et al.
2000).
Peristylus superanthus J. J. Wood
E Nepal (3000–3600 m), NE India.
Terrestrial in alpine meadows </