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Leishmaniasis - Entering Germany
Abstract and Figures
This study has provided evidence for the natural occurrence of sand flies in Germany. Two species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus were detected. Ph. perniciosus, a proven vector of leishmaniasis, wasfound associated with an autochthonous case ofcanine leishma-niasis near Kaiserslautern. One hundred and twentyone specimens of Ph. mascittii were caught in twelve different locations in Baden-Württemberg. The most northerly town in which Ph. mascittii was detected was Baden-Baden. Ph. mascittii has not yet been confirmed as a vector of leishmaniasis but its competence is strongly suspected. In addition to the detection of the vec-tor, since 1991 there have been eleven cases of leishmaniasis in Germany, in which an autochthonous origin was confirmed or which was highly likely to have been of an indigenous origin. Current data from the German meteorological Service indicates that Germany currently has a Mediterranean climate with the yearly average temperature exceeding 10°C having been reached or exceeded in several regions. This type of climate is also appropriate for the living conditions of sand flies. Therefore it is assumed, that sand flies have a greater geographica} distributi-on in Germany than thefirst investigations indicated, which were restricted to the southern region of Baden-Württemberg. The risk of an autochthonous canine infection in Germany occurring is very low. With the rapidly increasing number of imported cases of leishma-niasis in dogs, veterinary advice to dog owners on Prophylaxis requires special attention. The results indicate that the use of repellents and preventive behavioural measures are vital.
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