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This study has provided evidence for the natural occurrence of sand flies in Germany. Two species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus were detected. Ph. perniciosus, a proven vector of leishmaniasis, wasfound associated with an autochthonous case ofcanine leishma-niasis near Kaiserslautern. One hundred and twentyone specimens of Ph. mascittii were caught in twelve different locations in Baden-Württemberg. The most northerly town in which Ph. mascittii was detected was Baden-Baden. Ph. mascittii has not yet been confirmed as a vector of leishmaniasis but its competence is strongly suspected. In addition to the detection of the vec-tor, since 1991 there have been eleven cases of leishmaniasis in Germany, in which an autochthonous origin was confirmed or which was highly likely to have been of an indigenous origin. Current data from the German meteorological Service indicates that Germany currently has a Mediterranean climate with the yearly average temperature exceeding 10°C having been reached or exceeded in several regions. This type of climate is also appropriate for the living conditions of sand flies. Therefore it is assumed, that sand flies have a greater geographica} distributi-on in Germany than thefirst investigations indicated, which were restricted to the southern region of Baden-Württemberg. The risk of an autochthonous canine infection in Germany occurring is very low. With the rapidly increasing number of imported cases of leishma-niasis in dogs, veterinary advice to dog owners on Prophylaxis requires special attention. The results indicate that the use of repellents and preventive behavioural measures are vital.
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... In Southwest Asia the distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi is highly dependent on temperature and relative humidity (Cross and Hyams 1996). According to Naucke (2007) and Lozán et al. (2008) the annual mean temperature of at least 10°C is considered to be suitable for the vector. P. papatasi prefer the areas where the mean minimum temperature is at least 16°C and mean maximum temperature doesn't exceed 44°C from May to October . ...
... 3″ N ( Bremgarten , Naucke and Pesson 2000 ) to 48°44′42 . 2″ N ( Baden - Baden , Naucke 2007 ) and recently to 50°19′41 . 2″ N ( Cochem ) . ...
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This study has provided evidence for the natural occurrence of sandflies in Germany. Two species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus were detected. Phlebotomus (Larroussius) perniciosus, a proven vector of leishmaniasis, was found in association with an autochthonous case of canine leishmaniasis near Kaiserslautern. Two hundred thirty-seven specimens of Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii were caught in 17 different locations in Baden-Wuerttemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate. The northernmost finding in Germany (and Europe) was near Cochem (Moselle). P. mascittii has not yet been confirmed as a vector of leishmaniasis, but its competence is strongly suspected. In addition to the detection of the vector, since 1991, there have been 11 cases of leishmaniasis in Germany in which an autochthonous origin was confirmed or which were highly likely to have been of indigenous origin. Data from the German meteorological service indicate that Germany currently has a Mediterranean climate, with an annual average temperature of 10 degrees C being reached or exceeded in several regions. This type of climate is also appropriate for the living conditions of sandflies. Therefore, it is assumed that sandflies have a greater geographical distribution in Germany than the first studies suggested, being mainly restricted to the southern region of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The risk of an autochthonous canine infection occurring in Germany is very low. The rapidly increasing number of imported cases of leishmaniasis in dogs means that special attention must be focused on veterinary advice to dog owners about prophylaxis. The results indicate that the use of repellents and preventive behavioural measures is vital.
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