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Sahyadria, a new genus of barbs (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Western Ghats of India

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Abstract

Redline Torpedo Barbs (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), comprising of two species, Puntius denisonii and P. chalakkudiensis, and six evolutionarily distinct lineages are endemic to the streams of the Western Ghats freshwater ecoregion in peninsular India. Based on molecular and osteological evidence, we demonstrate that these barbs comprise a distinct genus, for which we propose the name Sahyadria.
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Rajeev Raghavan 1, Siby Philip 2, Anvar Ali 3 & Neelesh Dahanukar 4
1,2,3 ŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ'ƌŽƵƉ;Z'Ϳ͕^ƚ͘ůďĞƌƚ͛ƐŽůůĞŐĞ͕ĂŶĞƌũŝZŽĂĚ͕<ŽĐŚŝ͕<ĞƌĂůĂϲϴϮϬϭϴ͕/ŶĚŝĂ
2 ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚŽĨŽŽůŽŐLJ͕EŝƌŵĂůĂŐŝƌŝŽůůĞŐĞ͕EŝƌŵĂůĂŐŝƌŝ;W͘KͿ͕<ĂŶŶƵƌ͕<ĞƌĂůĂϲϳϬϳϬϭ͕/ŶĚŝĂ
4 /ŶĚŝĂŶ/ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞŽĨ^ĐŝĞŶĐĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͕ƌ͘,ŽŵŝŚĂďŚĂZŽĂĚ͕WĂƐŚĂŶ͕WƵŶĞ͕DĂŚĂƌĂƐŚƚƌĂϰϭϭϬϬϴ͕/ŶĚŝĂ
1,4 ŽŽKƵƚƌĞĂĐŚKƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ϵϲ<ƵŵƵĚŚĂŵEĂŐĂƌ͕sŝůĂŶŬƵƌŝĐŚŝZŽĂĚ͕ŽŝŵďĂƚŽƌĞ͕dĂŵŝůEĂĚƵϲϰϭϬϯϱ͕/ŶĚŝĂ
ϭƌĂũĞĞǀƌĂƋΛŚŽƚŵĂŝů͘ĐŽŵ;ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚŝŶŐĂƵƚŚŽƌͿ͕ϮƐŝďLJΛĐŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚŐƌŽƵƉ͘ŽƌŐ͕ϯĂŶǀĂƌĂůŝŝĨΛŐŵĂŝů͘ĐŽŵ͕
ϰŶ͘ĚĂŚĂŶƵŬĂƌΛŝŝƐĞƌƉƵŶĞ͘ĂĐ͘ŝŶ
4932
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KŶůŝŶĞϬϵϳϰʹϳϵϬϳ
WƌŝŶƚϬϵϳϰʹϳϴϵϯ
KWE^^
ÊÃÃçÄ®ã®ÊÄ
:ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨdŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚdĂdžĂͮǁǁǁ͘ƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚƚĂdžĂ͘ŽƌŐͮϮϲEŽǀĞŵďĞƌϮϬϭϯͮϱ;ϭϱͿ͗ϰϵϯϮʹϰϵϯϴ
K/͗ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĚdž͘ĚŽŝ͘ŽƌŐͬϭϬ͘ϭϭϲϬϵͬ:Ždd͘Žϯϲϳϯ͘ϰϵϯϮͲϴͮŽŽĂŶŬ͗ƵƌŶ͗ůƐŝĚ͗njŽŽďĂŶŬ͘ŽƌŐ͗ƉƵď͗ϬϰϲϳͲϲϳͲϰϭϱϭͲϰϯͲϲϲϬϭϳϳϭϭϱϵ
ĚŝƚŽƌ͗ŶũĂŶĂ^ŝůǀĂ͕ZĂũĂƌĂƚĂhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨ^ƌŝ>ĂŶŬĂ͕^ĂůŝLJĂƉƵƌĂ͕^ƌŝ>ĂŶŬĂ͘ ĂƚĞŽĨƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ͗ϮϲEŽǀĞŵďĞƌϮϬϭϯ;ŽŶůŝŶĞΘƉƌŝŶƚͿ
DĂŶƵƐĐƌŝƉƚĚĞƚĂŝůƐ͗DƐηŽϯϲϳϯͮZĞĐĞŝǀĞĚϮϮ:ƵŶĞϮϬϭϯͮ&ŝŶĂůƌĞĐĞŝǀĞĚϬϮEŽǀĞŵďĞƌϮϬϭϯͮ&ŝŶĂůůLJĂĐĐĞƉƚĞĚϭϯEŽǀĞŵďĞƌϮϬϭϯ
ŝƚĂƟŽŶ͗ZĂŐŚĂǀĂŶ͕Z͕͘^͘ WŚŝůŝƉ͕͘ůŝ ΘE͘ĂŚĂŶƵŬĂƌ ;ϮϬϭϯͿ͘Sahyadria͕Ă ŶĞǁŐĞŶƵƐŽĨ ďĂƌďƐ;dĞůĞŽƐƚĞŝ͗LJƉƌŝŶŝĚĂĞͿĨƌŽŵtĞƐƚĞƌŶ'ŚĂƚƐŽĨ /ŶĚŝĂ͘Journal of
Threatened Taxaϱ;ϭϱͿ͗ϰϵϯϮʹϰϵϯϴ͖ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĚdž͘ĚŽŝ͘ŽƌŐͬϭϬ͘ϭϭϲϬϵͬ:Ždd͘Žϯϲϳϯ͘ϰϵϯϮͲϴ
ŽƉLJƌŝŐŚƚ͗ΞZĂŐŚĂǀĂŶĞƚĂů͘ϮϬϭϯ͘ƌĞĂƟǀĞŽŵŵŽŶƐƩƌŝďƵƟŽŶϯ͘ϬhŶƉŽƌƚĞĚ>ŝĐĞŶƐĞ͘:ŽddĂůůŽǁƐƵŶƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƚĞĚƵƐĞŽĨƚŚŝƐĂƌƟĐůĞŝŶĂŶLJŵĞĚŝƵŵ͕ƌĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ
ĂŶĚĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶďLJƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐĂĚĞƋƵĂƚĞĐƌĞĚŝƚƚŽƚŚĞĂƵƚŚŽƌƐĂŶĚƚŚĞƐŽƵƌĐĞŽĨƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ͘
&ƵŶĚŝŶŐ͗ZĂũĞĞǀZĂŐŚĂǀĂŶŝƐƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĞĚďLJƚŚĞƌŝƟĐĂůĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵWĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ&ƵŶĚ;W&ͿͲtĞƐƚĞƌŶ'ŚĂƚƐWƌŽŐƌĂŵ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞEŽƌƚŚŽĨŶŐůĂŶĚŽŽůŽŐŝĐĂů^ŽĐŝĞƚLJ
;E^Ϳ͕ŚĞƐƚĞƌŽŽ͕h<͘EĞĞůĞƐŚĂŚĂŶƵŬĂƌ ŝƐƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĞĚďLJ ƚŚĞ^d/ŶƐƉŝƌĞ&ĂĐƵůƚLJ&ĞůůŽǁƐŚŝƉŽĨ ƚŚĞĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚŽĨ ^ĐŝĞŶĐĞĂŶĚ dĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͕'ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚŽĨ
/ŶĚŝĂ͘
ŽŵƉĞƟŶŐ/ŶƚĞƌĞƐƚ͗dŚĞĂƵƚŚŽƌƐĚĞĐůĂƌĞŶŽĐŽŵƉĞƟŶŐŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚƐ͘&ƵŶĚĞƌƐŚĂĚŶŽƌŽůĞŝŶƐƚƵĚLJĚĞƐŝŐŶ͕ĚĂƚĂĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶ͕ƌĞƐƵůƚƐŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĂƟŽŶĂŶĚŵĂŶƵƐĐƌŝƉƚǁƌŝƟŶŐ͘
ƵƚŚŽƌĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶƐ͗ůůĂƵƚŚŽƌƐĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚĞƋƵĂůůLJƚŽƚŚĞŵĂŶƵƐĐƌŝƉƚ͘
ƵƚŚŽƌĞƚĂŝůƐ͗Z¹òZ¦«òÄŝƐŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚĞĚŝŶŝŶƚĞƌĚŝƐĐŝƉůŝŶĂƌLJƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĨŽĐƵƐĞĚŽŶŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŶŐŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐŵĞƚŚŽĚƐƚŽƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĐŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ
ĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶͲŵĂŬŝŶŐ͕ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ŝŶĨƌĞƐŚǁĂƚĞƌ ĞĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͘^®ùW«®½®Ö ŝƐŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚĞĚŝŶ ŵŽůĞĐƵůĂƌƉŚLJůŽŐĞŶĞƟĐƐ͕ ĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶĂŶĚ ďŝŽŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚLJŽĨĨƌĞƐŚǁĂƚĞƌ ĮƐŚĞƐŽĨ
ƚŚĞ^ŽƵƚŚƐŝĂƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ÄòÙ½®ŝƐŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚĞĚŝŶƚĂdžŽŶŽŵLJĂŶĚƐLJƐƚĞŵĂƟĐƐŽĨĨƌĞƐŚǁĂƚĞƌĮƐŚĞƐŽĨƚŚĞtĞƐƚĞƌŶ'ŚĂƚƐ͘E½Ý««Äç»ÙǁŽƌŬƐŝŶĞĐŽůŽŐLJĂŶĚ
ĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶĂƌLJďŝŽůŽŐLJǁŝƚŚĂŶĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐŽŶŵĂƚŚĞŵĂƟĐĂůĂŶĚƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂůĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͘,ĞŝƐĂůƐŽŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚĞĚŝŶƚĂdžŽŶŽŵLJ͕ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶƉĂƩĞƌŶƐĂŶĚŵŽůĞĐƵůĂƌƉŚLJůŽŐĞŶLJ
ŽĨĨƌĞƐŚǁĂƚĞƌĮƐŚĞƐĂŶĚĂŵƉŚŝďŝĂŶƐ͘
ĐŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ͗dŚĞ ĂƵƚŚŽƌƐ ƚŚĂŶŬ^ĂŶũĂLJ DŽůƵƌ ĨŽƌŚŝƐ ĐŽŶƟŶƵŽƵƐ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ĂŶĚĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͖ DĂŶĚĂƌWĂŝŶŐĂŶŬĂƌĨŽƌŚĞůƉ ǁŝƚŚ ŽƐƚĞŽůŽŐŝĐĂůƐƚƵĚŝĞƐ͕
ĂŶĚhŶŵĞƐŚ<ĂƚǁĂƚĞĨŽƌƉŚŽƚŽŐƌĂƉŚƐ͘ZĂũĞĞǀ ZĂŐŚĂǀĂŶƚŚĂŶŬƐZĂůĨƌŝƚnjĂŶĚ :ƂƌŐ&ƌĞLJŚŽĨĨŽƌƉŚŽƚŽŐƌĂƉŚƐĂŶĚƵƐĞĨƵů ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕KůŝǀĞƌƌŝŵŵĞŶĨŽƌ ŚŝƐŚĞůƉ
ĚƵƌŝŶŐǀŝƐŝƚƐƚŽƚŚĞEĂƚƵƌĂů,ŝƐƚŽƌLJDƵƐĞƵŵ;E,DͿ͕>ŽŶĚŽŶ͕,ĞůŵƵƚtĞůůĞŶĚŽƌĨ;EĂƚƵƌĂů,ŝƐƚŽƌLJDƵƐĞƵŵ͕sŝĞŶŶĂͿĨŽƌƉŚŽƚŽŐƌĂƉŚƐ͕ĂŶĚŵďŝůLJEĂŝƌĨŽƌŚĞƌŚĞůƉ
ĂŶĚƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ͘^ŝďLJWŚŝůŝƉƚŚĂŶŬƐDĂƌŬDĐ'ƌŽƵƚŚĞƌĂŶĚZŽŚĂŶWĞƚŚŝLJĂŐŽĚĂ;ƵƐƚƌĂůŝĂŶDƵƐĞƵŵ͕^LJĚŶĞLJͿĨŽƌƉŚŽƚŽŐƌĂƉŚĂŶĚŵĞĂƐƵƌĞŵĞŶƚƐŽĨ ƚŚĞƐLJŶƚLJƉĞ͘dŚĞ
ĂƵƚŚŽƌƐĂůƐŽƚŚĂŶŬ>ƵŬĂƐZƺďĞƌ͕ƚŚƌĞĞĂŶŽŶLJŵŽƵƐƌĞǀŝĞǁĞƌƐ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞƐƵďũĞĐƚĞĚŝƚŽƌĨŽƌƚŚĞŝƌĐƌŝƟĐĂůĐŽŵŵĞŶƚƐĂŶĚƐƵŐŐĞƐƟŽŶƐŽŶƚŚĞŵĂŶƵƐĐƌŝƉƚ͘
ďƐƚƌĂĐƚ͗ ZĞĚůŝŶĞdŽƌƉĞĚŽ ĂƌďƐ ;dĞůĞŽƐƚĞŝ͗ LJƉƌŝŶŝĚĂĞͿ͕ ĐŽŵƉƌŝƐŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƚǁŽ ƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ͕ WƵŶƟƵƐĚĞŶŝƐŽŶŝŝ ĂŶĚ W͘ ĐŚĂůĂŬŬƵĚŝĞŶƐŝƐ͕ĂŶĚ Ɛŝdž
ĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶĂƌŝůLJĚŝƐƟŶĐƚůŝŶĞĂŐĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĞŶĚĞŵŝĐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞƐƚƌĞĂŵƐŽĨ ƚŚĞ tĞƐƚĞƌŶ'ŚĂƚƐ ĨƌĞƐŚǁĂƚĞƌ ĞĐŽƌĞŐŝŽŶŝŶ ƉĞŶŝŶƐƵůĂƌ /ŶĚŝĂ͘ ĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ
ŵŽůĞĐƵůĂƌ ĂŶĚ ŽƐƚĞŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ĞǀŝĚĞŶĐĞ͕ ǁĞ ĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞƐĞ ďĂƌďƐ ĐŽŵƉƌŝƐĞ Ă ĚŝƐƟŶĐƚ ŐĞŶƵƐ͕ ĨŽƌ ǁŚŝĐŚ ǁĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƐĞ ƚŚĞ ŶĂŵĞ
Sahyadria͘
<ĞLJǁŽƌĚƐ͗LJƉƌŝŶŝĨŽƌŵĞƐ͕ĨƌĞƐŚǁĂƚĞƌĮƐŚ͕WƵŶƟƵƐĚĞŶŝƐŽŶŝŝ͕WƵŶƟƵƐĐŚĂůĂŬŬƵĚŝĞŶƐŝƐ͕ƚĂdžŽŶŽŵLJ͘
Western Ghats
Special Series
dŚŝƐĂƌƟĐůĞĨŽƌŵƐƉĂƌƚŽĨĂƐƉĞĐŝĂů ƐĞƌŝĞƐŽŶƚŚĞtĞƐƚĞƌŶ'ŚĂƚƐŽĨ/ŶĚŝĂ͕ĚŝƐƐĞŵŝŶĂƟŶŐƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚƐŽĨǁŽƌŬƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĞĚďLJƚŚĞƌŝƟĐĂůĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵWĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ&ƵŶĚ
;W&Ϳ͕ĂũŽŝŶƚŝŶŝƟĂƟǀĞŽĨů͛ŐĞŶĐĞ&ƌĂŶĕĂŝƐĞĚĞĠǀĞůŽƉƉĞŵĞŶƚ͕ŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ/ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů͕ƚŚĞƵƌŽƉĞĂŶŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ͕ƚŚĞ'ůŽďĂůŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ&ĂĐŝůŝƚLJ͕ƚŚĞ'ŽǀͲ
ĞƌŶŵĞŶƚŽĨ:ĂƉĂŶ͕ƚŚĞDĂĐƌƚŚƵƌ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶĂŶĚ ƚŚĞtŽƌůĚĂŶŬ͘ĨƵŶĚĂŵĞŶƚĂůŐŽĂůŽĨW& ŝƐƚŽĞŶƐƵƌĞĐŝǀŝůƐŽĐŝĞƚLJŝƐĞŶŐĂŐĞĚŝŶ ďŝŽĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJĐŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ͘
/ŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞW&ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŝŶƚŚĞtĞƐƚĞƌŶ'ŚĂƚƐŝƐůĞĚĂŶĚĐŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƚĞĚďLJƚŚĞƐŚŽŬĂdƌƵƐƚĨŽƌZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚŝŶĐŽůŽŐLJĂŶĚƚŚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ
;dZͿ͘
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 November 2013 | 5(15): 4932–4938
Sahyadria - a new genus from Western Ghats Raghavan et al.
4933
INTRODUCTION
The Redline Torpedo Barbs, presently placed under
the polyphylec genus Punus Hamilton, 1822 (Teleostei:
Cyprinidae), are represented by two species, Punus
denisonii (Day, 1865), its look alike P. chalakkudiensis
Menon, Rema Devi & Thobias, 1999, (Images 1,2,3),
and, six evoluonarily disnct lineages (John et al. 2013).
Endemic to the rivers of the Western Ghats freshwater
ecoregion in peninsular India, these barbs are extremely
popular in the aquarium trade with more than 300,000
individuals collected from the wild and exported via
airports in the last six years (Raghavan et al. 2013).
Both P. denisonii and P. chalakkudiensis are also listed as
‘Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
due to their restricted range, ongoing populaon decline,
and deterioraon of the quality of their habitats (Ali et al.
2011; Raghavan & Ali 2011).
In spite of this popularity and conservaon signicance,
the taxonomy and systemacs of these barbs, especially
their generic allocaon, has been rather uncertain.
Since its descripon, P. denisonii has been placed under
several genera including Labeo (Day, 1865 p.299),
Punus (Day, 1865 p.212; Jayaram, 1981, p.100), Barbus
(Günther, 1868, p.146; Day, 1878, p.573; 1889, p.320)
and Hypselobarbus (Rema Devi et al., 2005, p.1810).
Very recently, Pethiyagoda et al. (2012) suggested that P.
denisonii and P. chalakkudiensis warrant placement in a
separate genus due to the strikingly dierent coloraon
and mouth shape compared to all other congeners.
Here, based on osteological and molecular evidence,
we demonstrate that the Redline Torpedo Barbs comprise
a disnct genus, for which we propose the name
Sahyadria.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Osteological descripons are based on a cleared and
stained specimen (CRG-SAC.2009.21.7) following the
methods described in Poho (1984). Conway (2011)
was followed for osteological nomenclature, and the
results compared with published data of related genera
(Dawkinsia, Haludaria, Pethia, Punus and Systomus; see
Pethiyagoda et al. 2012; Pethiyagoda 2013).
The DNA sequences (mitochondrial 16S rRNA and
Cytochrome b gene/cytb) were downloaded from NCBI
GenBank and used in conjuncon with a dataset from
an earlier study (Pethiyagoda et al. 2012). These were
subsequently used to build the phylogenec trees,
check for monophyly and determine the generic status
of these barbs. Sequences were aligned using MUSCLE
(Edgar 2004). Protein coding gene (cytb) sequences
were translated, aligned, and back-translated prior to
the downstream analyses. Tree searches were carried
out using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian
methodologies. Prior to the ML and Bayesian tree
searches, the best-t nucleode substuon model
was selected for the concatenated dataset using MrAIC
(Nylander 2004). Maximum likelihood searches were
carried out using Garli v2.0 (Zwickl 2006), ten runs of two
replicates (10 × 2) each were run, and the best tree (with
the best likelihood value), was selected. One hundred
bootstrap replicates were carried out in Garli v2.0, and
the bootstrap values were placed on the nodes of the best
ML tree (determined earlier) using the sumtrees program
from the Dendropy library (Sukumaran & Holder 2010).
A Bayesian tree was built in MrBayes v 3.2.1 (Ronquist
& Huelsenbeck 2003), and the analysis was performed
for 4×105 generaons sampling every 100th tree. Split
frequencies between two independent runs of the four
chains were used to decide when to stop the analysis. The
Bayesian posterior probabilies (pp) were summarized
by building a majority rule consensus tree. The ML
bootstrap values and the Bayesian pp’s were mapped on
the best ML tree recovered earlier. In a second approach,
we used sequences from three previously published
Cypriniformes phylogeny datasets (Ruber et al. 2007;
Pethiyagoda et al. 2012; Dahanukar et al. 2013), and the
sequences for the Redline Torpedo Barbs (menoned
above) to build an extended phylogeny to exactly discern
the phylogenec posion of the genus within the family
Cyprinidae. Maximum likelihood searches were carried
out using PHYML (Guindon et al. 2010) and aLRT branch
support (Anisimova & Gascuel 2006) values were mapped
on the nodes of the phylogeny. The ML phylogeny was
used to test for monophyly of the lineage of interest,
using Rosenberg’s P (Rosenberg 2007). The average pair
wise tree distance among members of the focal species,
and the average pairwise tree distance between the
members of the focal species versus the members of the
next closest clade were also calculated.
Voucher specimens referred to in this study are
deposited in the museum of the Conservaon Research
Group at St. Albert’s College (CRG-SAC), Kochi, India.
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 November 2013 | 5(15): 4932–4938
Sahyadria - a new genus from Western Ghats Raghavan et al.
4934
RESULTS
Sahyadria gen. nov.
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C96F727E-5224-400F-978D-A49208CAAE58
Type species: Labeo denisonii (Day, 1865).
Diagnosis: A genus of cyprinid shes (Teleostei:
Cyprinidae) diering from all South and Southeast Asian
genera of Barbinae by the combinaon of characters
and character states including: adult size ranging from
85–190 mm SL; one pair of maxillary barbels; dorsal n
with iii-iv unbranched and eight branched rays, where
the last branched ray can be bifurcated right at the base
giving appearance of the 9th branched ray; anal n with
ii-iii unbranched and ve branched rays; last unbranched
dorsal-n ray weak, apically segmented, not serrated (Fig.
1c); lateral line complete, with 26–28 pored scales on the
body; free uroneural absent (Fig. 1d); gill rakers simple,
acuminate (not branched or laminate), in two rows with
Image 1. Syntypes of Sahyadria denisonii (a) BMNH 1864.7.9.6 (b)
AMS B 7913 and (c) NMW 54059. (Photo credit: a - Natural History
Museum, London/Rajeev Raghavan; b - Australian Museum/
Rohan Pethiyagoda; c - Natural History Museum, Vienna/Helmut
Wellendorf)
a
b
c
20mm
Image 2. Topotypic material of Sahyadria chalakkudiensis (formalin
preserved; CRG-SAC, Uncatalogued).
© Neelesh Dahanukar
20mm
Image 3. Sahyadria and some related barbs. (a) Sahyadria denisonii (b) Sahyadria denisonii (c) Dawkinsia cf. lamentosa male, (d) Dawkinsia
cf. lamentosa female, (e) Punus cf. bimaculatus and (f) Haludaria cf. fasciata.
a
c
e
© Jorg Freyhof
© Unmesh Katwate
© Neelesh Dahanukar f
d
b © Ralf Britz
© Unmesh Katwate
© Neelesh Dahanukar
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Sahyadria - a new genus from Western Ghats Raghavan et al.
4935
12 and 18 rakers respecvely; antrorse predorsal spinous
ray absent; a post-epiphysial fontanelle absent (Fig. 1b);
supraneurals ve; infraorbital IO3 slender not overlapping
preoperculum (Fig. 1a); pharyngeal teeth 5+3+2; 16
abdominal and 11 caudal vertebrae; and a disnct color
paern (Image 3a,b) with a wide blackish lateral stripe
from snout to the base of caudal n, black line along the
lateral line, and scarlet stripe starng from snout unl the
mid body (varying by the species) above the black stripe.
A yellow stripe present between the black and the scarlet
stripes; starng from behind the operculum and ending
at the hypural region. Caudal n lobes with oblique black
bands covering the posterior quarter towards the p,
and subterminal oblique yellow bands. Dorsal n with or
without a black blotch. In juveniles, a scarlet coloraon
covers half the height of anterior rays of the dorsal n.
Phylogenecally, Sahyadria gen. nov. forms a
monophylec clade supported by high bootstrap value
and Bayesian posterior probability (Fig. 2). The closest
genus to Sahyadria is Dawkinsia, their separaon also
supported by high bootstrap value and Bayesian posterior
probability. Further, in an extended analysis (Fig. 3)
using three previously published datasets (Ruber et al.
2007; Pethiyagoda et al. 2012; Dahanukar et al. 2013),
the phylogenec posion of the new genus Sahyadria is
similar to the small dataset (Fig. 2), closest group being
Dawkinsia. The test for monophyly, Rosenberg’s P, the
chance of obtaining monophyly stochascally, was not
signicant (Rosenberg’s P = 4.2x10-4). The intra-clade
distance was 0.182 (Sahyadria) and inter-clade distance
was 0.317 (Sahyadria vs. Dawkinsia).
Distribuon: Genus Sahyadria is endemic to the
Western Ghats of India, where they occur in 12 west
owing rivers between 90–120N latudes.
Figure 1. Sahyadria denisonii, (CRG-SAC 2009.21.7), 51.0mm SL. (a) Circumorbital series (IO1-5, infraorbitals; So, supraorbital; Pop,
preopercle); (b) dorsal view of orbital region of cranium (F, frontal; Pa, parietal); (c) last unbranched dorsal-n ray; and (d) caudal skeleton
(CC, compound centrum; Ep, epural; H1-6, hypurals 1-6; 1-5; ; Ph, parhypural; Pls, pleurostyle; PU2, PU3, preural centra 2, 3). Note that the
supraorbital sensory canal is not shown.
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 November 2013 | 5(15): 4932–4938
Sahyadria - a new genus from Western Ghats Raghavan et al.
4936
Etymology
The new genus is named aer ‘Sahyadri’, noun, the
vernacular name for the Western Ghats mountain ranges;
gender feminine.
DISCUSSION
The genus Sahyadria, currently comprises of two
species S. denisonii and S. chalakkudiensis, and six
evoluonarily disnct lineages (John et al. 2013) all
of which are endemic to the Western Ghats region. In
their revision of South Asian shes referred to as Punus,
Pethiyagoda et al. (2012) tentavely placed the Redline
Torpedo Barbs under the genus Punus. However, they
menoned that the two species have a “strikingly dierent
coloraon and mouth shape to all other congeners and
are likely to warrant placement in a separate genus in the
future”.
Sahyadria can be dierenated from its closest sister
taxa, Dawkinsia by slender frontal (vs. broader frontal),
infraorbital IO3 larger than IO4 (vs. almost equal sized
IO3 and IO4), IO4 short (vs. elongated), free uroneural
absent (vs. present), presence of 16 abdominal and 11
caudal vertebrae (vs. 15 abdominal and 14–17 caudal
vertebrae) and 26–28 lateral line scales (vs. 18–22). These
two genera are also morphologically dierent (Image
3a,b,c,d) where Sahyadria has a pointed snout projecng
beyond mouth, while Dawkinsia has a blunt snout and
terminal mouth. The color paern of the two genera is
also disnctly dierent.
Sahyadria diers from the generic characters
diagnosing Punus in having broad and stout IO5 and
IO4 (vs. large and slender), absence of post-epiphysial
fontanelle (vs. present), absence of free uroneural (vs.
present) and having 16 abdominal and 11 caudal vertebrae
(vs. 12–14 abdominal and 14–16 caudal vertebrae).
Addionally, from Punus bimaculatus, which also lacks
Figure 2. Phylogenec tree based on concatenated mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and 16s RNA gene sequences (accession numbers: see
Pethiyagoda et al. 2012, John et al. 2013 and GQ247528 - GQ247532). Bayesian posteriorprobabilies/ML bootstrap values shown at nodes.
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 November 2013 | 5(15): 4932–4938
Sahyadria - a new genus from Western Ghats Raghavan et al.
4937
Figure 3. Exact phylogenec posion of Sahyadria. Genera currently considered in subfamily Barbinae are highlighted in grey and the clades
of interest Sahyadria and Dawkinsia are highlighted in red and blue respecvely.
the presence of post-epiphysial fontanelle, Sahyadria
diers in pre-opercle non overlapping (vs. overlapping),
frontal long and slender (vs. short and stout), presence of
eight branched rays in the dorsal n (vs. 7).
Sahyadria diers from Haludaria in pre-opercle non
overlapping (vs. overlapping), elongated frontal (vs. short
and stout), absence of rostral barbels (vs. presence).
Sahyadria also substanally diers from Haludaria in
the long and pointed head structure (Image 3a,b,e).
Morphologically, Sahyadria has a long and slender caudal
peduncle (vs. deep and short) and having a pointed
snout projecng beyond mouth (vs. terminal mouth)
(Image 3a,b,f). The color paern in the two genera is also
dierent.
Sahyadria can be dierenated from Pethia and
Systomus based on the most prominent character of the
last unbranched dorsal n ray being non osseous and non
serrated (vs. osseous and serrated). Sahyadria diers from
Pethia in having 16 abdominal and 11 caudal vertebrae
(vs. 11–13 abdominal and 13–16 caudal vertebrae) and
26-28 lateral line scales (vs. 19–24). Sahyadria also
diers from Systomus in the absence of free uroneural
(vs. presence), absence of rostral barbels (vs. presence)
and 16 abdominal and 11 caudal vertebrae (vs. 14–15
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 November 2013 | 5(15): 4932–4938
Sahyadria - a new genus from Western Ghats Raghavan et al.
4938
abdominal and 17–19 caudal vertebrae).
The phylogenec tree (Fig. 2) retrieves a monophylec
group comprising all the Redline Torpedo Barbs collected
throughout its range. Except for the posion of Punus
bimaculatus, our phylogeny resembles that of Pethiyagoda
et al. (2012). An addional extended phylogeny with
three previously published datasets (Ruber et al. 2007;
Pethiyagoda et al. 2012; Dahanukar et al. 2013) in
conjuncon with the Sahyadria sequences revealed that
its phylogenec posion was within Barbinae and that the
closest genus was Dawkinsia. The Rosenberg’s P value
to test for monophyly (P-value <0.05) clearly showed
that the clade (Sahyadria) was indeed disnct with clear
separaon from its sister group, the genus Dawkinsia. The
tests for intra and inter-clade dierenaon also pointed
towards ample separaon between the two groups and
supported the reciprocal monophyly of both clades. Larger
intra-clade distance values point towards higher diversity
in the clade, and a higher inter-clade diversity shows that
the two clades in comparison are increasingly disnct.
The intra/inter rao (0.57 in the case of Sahyadria vs.
Dawkinsia) is another pointer towards the disnctness of
the clades, where smaller values points towards smaller
dierenaon between the individuals of the focal clade
than the dierenaon between the two tested clades.
Our study thus clearly demonstrates the separaon
of Redline Torpedo Barbs from its congeners and its
monophyly, thus warranng its placement into a new
genus Sahyadria.
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... Many of the endemic species of WGs are popular in the global aquarium trade. It mainly includes melon barb, several species of Dawkinsia barbs, zebra loach, Horabagrus catfish, dwarf pufferfish, and dwarf Malabar pufferfish, and most importantly P. denisonii presently known as Sahyadria denisonii (Raghavan et al., 2013a). There is a higher fish richness in the southern part of the WGs than in the northern and the highest in the Chalakudy River alone with 98 species . ...
... It belongs to the order Cyprinidae and the family Barbinae. RLTBs are represented by two distinct species, denisonii and chalakkudiensis (Pethiyagoda et al., 2012), which are quite different from other similar barbs, and are now placed under a different genus Sahyadria based on osteology and molecular characteristics (Raghavan et al., 2013a). However, in the present communication, it has been referred to as P. denisonii only because of its popularity. ...
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Puntius denisonii is popularly known as Miss Kerala in India or Denison barb or Red line torpedo barb in the global ornamental fish trade. The species is endemic to fast-flowing rivers and streams of the Western Ghats of India. The species was not very popular earlier in aquatic trade but has been in great demand in global aquarium trade since it was exhibited at AQARAMA 1997 in Singapore and ranked third under the new species category. The export of the species from India started in 1996–1997, which increased progressively and constituted about 60%–65% of a total of 1.44 million US$ worth of ornamental fish exported from India in 2007–2008. Thereafter, it started declining and presently became negligible. It was attributed to depleting stocks of P. denisonii in rivers and streams of Western Ghats. The species was recommended to be listed as endangered on the IUCN red list in a CAMP workshop held at NBFGR, Lucknow, India in September 1997, owing to habitat degradation and the declining number of mature individuals in the wild. It was categorized as Vulnerable in 2009 and Endangered in 2015 under the IUCN red list. The Department of Fisheries, Government of Kerala has restricted the collection of smaller size fish from natural water bodies since 2008 to revive wild stocks. The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India has now proposed to include P. denisonii along with two other freshwater fish species, Semiplotus semiplotus (Assamese kingfish) and Osteobrama belangeri (Manipur osteobrama), as Schedule-I species under the Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2021 of India. The species listed under this Schedule are prohibited to be hunted throughout the country. The captive breeding technology of P. denisonii has already been developed in the country more than a decade back, and fish is being produced commercially at several farms presently including hatcheries of the Kerala Government. The species is also being cultured and produced on a commercial scale by many ornamental fish farmers of Indonesia and supplied to the global ornamental fish trade at cheaper rates, and more color strains. The major factors that are responsible for the depletion of the stocks of P. denisonii and the overall fish biodiversity of Western Ghat regions are discussed in detail. The conflicts and repercussions that will arise because of the inclusion of Denison Barb or any other freshwater fish as Schedule-I species under the Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2021 of India are also discussed.
... We found that forked caudal fin with tapering sharp point in cyprinid fishes and round caudal fin in outgroup B. lohachata which similar to the findings of Talwar & Jhingran (1991). Our findings of straight epurals in most of the cyprinid fishes were congruent with the results described by Irfan & Gunawickrama (2011) and Raghavan et al (2013). The slightly curved epural found in L. laubuca was similar to the results described by . ...
... The slightly curved epural found in L. laubuca was similar to the results described by . Separate parhypural and hypural found in L. laubuca, P. sarana, C. latius, A. nobilis, B. bendelisis was similar to the results described by and Raghavan et al (2013). Dorsal fin gradation without any spine was observed in all fishes of the Cyprinidae family except D. maculatus and outgroup taxa of the Botidae family the B. lohachata were congruent with Talwar & Jhingran (1991). ...
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The evolutionary relationships of 28 cyprinid fishes were inferred using the morphological traits and nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial genes Cytochrome b (Cytb) for the first time in Bangladesh. The morphological traits were observed, recorded, and analyzed using Mesquite (v.2.6) software. The nucleotide sequences of the Cytb gene were retrieved from the NCBI genebank database and analyzed with the Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis (MEGA ver. 6.01) software. The GC content (42.92%) was lower than the AT content (58.08%) in the nucleotide composition of Cytb genes. The transition/transversion rate was k1 = 2.894 for purines and k2 = 4.126 for pyrimidines, whereas the transition/transversion bias was R =1.842. The transitional substitutions (64.24) were much higher than the transversional substitution (35.76). The highest evolutionary divergence was found between Rasbora daniconius and Securicula gora (0.359), but the lowest was found between Catla catla and Labeo rohita (0.065). In phylogenetic trees, Leuciscinae subfamily showed monophyletic lineage-where Garrinae, Schizothoracinae, Rasborinae, Cultrinae, Cyprininae subfamilies were polyphyletic. This study revealed a complex evolutionary relationship of cyprinid fishes in Bangladesh which would be useful in crossbreeding and hybridization programs. Future studies through sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear genes of the cyprinids in Bangladesh will provide better insights on their phylogeny.
... We found that forked caudal fin with tapering sharp point in cyprinid fishes and round caudal fin in outgroup B. lohachata which similar to the findings of Talwar & Jhingran (1991). Our findings of straight epurals in most of the cyprinid fishes were congruent with the results described by Irfan & Gunawickrama (2011) and Raghavan et al (2013). The slightly curved epural found in L. laubuca was similar to the results described by . ...
... The slightly curved epural found in L. laubuca was similar to the results described by . Separate parhypural and hypural found in L. laubuca, P. sarana, C. latius, A. nobilis, B. bendelisis was similar to the results described by and Raghavan et al (2013). Dorsal fin gradation without any spine was observed in all fishes of the Cyprinidae family except D. maculatus and outgroup taxa of the Botidae family the B. lohachata were congruent with Talwar & Jhingran (1991). ...
Article
Full-text available
The evolutionary relationships of 28 cyprinid fishes were inferred using the morphological traits and nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial genes Cytochrome b (Cytb) for the first time in Bangladesh. The morphological traits were observed, recorded, and analyzed using Mesquite (v.2.6) software. The nucleotide sequences of the Cytb gene were retrieved from the NCBI genebank database and analyzed with the Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis (MEGA ver. 6.01) software. The GC content (42.92%) was lower than the AT content (58.08%) in the nucleotide composition of Cytb genes. The transition/transversion rate was k1 = 2.894 for purines and k2 = 4.126 for pyrimidines, whereas the transition/transversion bias was R =1.842. The transitional substitutions (64.24) were much higher than the transversional substitution (35.76). The highest evolutionary divergence was found between Rasbora daniconius and Securicula gora (0.359), but the lowest was found between Catla catla and Labeo rohita (0.065). In phylogenetic trees, Leuciscinae subfamily showed monophyletic lineage-where Garrinae, Schizothoracinae, Rasborinae, Cultrinae, Cyprininae subfamilies were polyphyletic. This study revealed a complex evolutionary relationship of cyprinid fishes in Bangladesh which would be useful in crossbreeding and hybridization programs. Future studies through sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear genes of the cyprinids in Bangladesh will provide better insights on their phylogeny.
... Due to the numerous and extensive ichthyological studies and taxonomic revisions conducted recently, many major changes have been made at generic level in fresh water fishes during the last two decades. For instance, the long known genus Puntius has been divided into to four genera (Dawkinsia, Haludaria, Systomus and Pethia), that further led to creation of one more genus Sahyadria (Pethiyagoda et al., 2012, Pethiyagoda, 2013Raghavan et al., 2013). Molecular markers too have been used for studying the genetic divergence in generic level (Lal et al., 2006). ...
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The fish species are identified primarily based on their morphological and meristic characters and of late, the molecular markers too have been used for differentiating between different genera and species. Scale morphology and structure has been established as a tool in fish taxonomy. The present investigation shows the utility of scale in distinguishing two featherback species occurring in India, Notopterus notopterus (Pallas) and Chitala chitala (Hamilton). Morphology and ultra structure (using SEM) of the scales of both the species were studied. The scales of N. notopterus are granulated with bead like structures in the focus, extending into the anterior part whereas the focus is smooth in C. chitala. Based on the length/ width ratio, the scales are relatively longer in N. notopterus than C. chitala. The lateral line is relatively short in C. chitala with rounded anterior end and trifurcated posterior end whereas it is longer in N. notopterus with elongated anterior opening and rounded posterior opening. Other distinguishing features which separate these two species include intercirculus distance and width of the radial canal. Therefore, the scale of the featherback species in India may be successfully employed in distinguishing them.
... These same analyses, however, provided no support for the monophyly of the genera Striuntius and Barbodes, and ambiguous support for Dawkinsia versus Sahyadria. The genus Sahyadria, including the two species S. denisonii and S. chalakkudiensis, was recognized by Raghavan, Philip, Ali, & Dahanukar (2013) using limited taxa sampling and one gene marker (Cyt b). In the present study, the monophyly of Dawkinsia and the validity of Sahyadria varied depending upon genes examined. ...
Article
Puntius sensu lato (s.l.) was one of the most speciose genera in the family Cyprinidae. There are around 120 valid species widely distributed in South‐East and South Asia, and South China. Puntius has long been known as an artificial assemblage and ‘catch‐all’ genus in which a large number of small, unrelated cyprinids have been placed. With new species and genera being described each year, obtaining detailed knowledge of the phylogenetic relationships of this complex is critically important in the assessment of a natural classification. In the present study, two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes were used to examine the inter‐specific and inter‐generic relationships of the Puntius complex and to test the monophyly of the current genera. Divergence time analysis was performed to explore the origin, evolution, and divergence of major clades in Puntius s.l. Results revealed that the genera Puntius seusu stricto (s.s.), Systomus, Pethia, Haludaria, Desmopuntius and Puntigrus were monophyletic with high support. However, monophyly of Barbodes, Striuntius and Sahyadria was not supported. Dawkinsia and Sahyadria formed a highly supported clade. Puntius semifasciolatus and P. snyderi from South China and Taiwan represent a new lineage. Inferences from divergence time analysis indicated that Puntius s.l. likely dated to early Miocene. Major clades in Puntius s.l. diverged during Miocene as well.
... Wenn ich über sogenannte "kleine Barben" spreche, benutze ich diesen Begriff verallgemeinernd für alle "Ticto"-Barben, Schwarzfleck-, Melonen-, Torpedo-und Maharadscha-Barben, also Fische der Gattungen Pethia, Dawkinsia, Haludaria, Sahyadria und Puntius. Die Taxonomie dieser kleinen Barben befand sich bis zu den folgenreichen Nomenklaturänderungen von Pethiyagoda et al. (2013) und Raghavan et al. (2013), die zur Beschreibung und Validierung mehrerer neuer Gattungen geführt haben, in Anarchie. ...
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Kleine Barben der Gattung Pethia, im Deutschen auch als "Ticto-Barben" bekannt, sehen auf den ersten Blick oft alle gleich aus, bis man sie in ihren wahren, schönen Farben zu Gesicht bekommt. Es gibt verschiedene Gründe, warum sie früher alle als eine einzige Art namens Pethia ticto betrachtet wurden, von der man annahm, dass sie weit über den indischen Subkontinent verbreitet sei. In diesem Beitrag nimmt der Autor Sie mit auf seine abenteuerliche Reise, um kleine "Ticto-Barben" zu identifizieren.
... In recent times, there have been many surveys of snakes in Agasthyamalai [65][66][67][68][69][70] with new records (Calliophis bibroni and C. beddomei respectively) from this landscape [69][70]. Recent discoveries of a few new genera of arthropods [71][72][73][74][75][76], fishes [77][78], frogs [79], lizards [80][81] and birds [10] provide further evidence of the importance of the Western Ghats as a biodiversity hotspot. Our new finding once again underscores our limited knowledge about snake diversity and distribution patterns in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot. ...
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The Western Ghats are well known as a biodiversity hotspot, but the full extent of its snake diversity is yet to be uncovered. Here, we describe a new genus and species of vine snake Proahaetulla antiqua gen. et sp. nov., from the Agasthyamalai hills in the southern Western Ghats. It was found to be a member of the Ahaetuliinae clade, which currently comprises the arboreal snake genera Ahaetulla, Dryophiops, Dendrelaphis and Chrysopelea, distributed in South and Southeast Asia. Proahaetulla shows a sister relationship with all currently known taxa belonging to the genus Ahaetulla, and shares ancestry with Dryophiops. In addition to its phylogenetic position and significant genetic divergence, this new taxon is also different in morphology from members of Ahaetuliinae in a combination of characters, having 12–13 partially serrated keels on the dorsal scale rows, 20 maxillary teeth and 3 postocular scales. Divergence dating reveals that the new genus is ancient, dating back to the Mid-Oligocene, and is one of the oldest persisting monotypic lineages of snakes in the Western Ghats. This discovery adds to the growing list of ancient lineages endemic to the Agasthyamalai hills and underscores the biogeographic significance of this isolated massif in the southern Western Ghats.
... Many other species (P. barbodes, P. desmopuntius, P. haludaria, P. oliotius, P. puntigrus and P. sahyadria) which were primarily placed within the Puntius genus have also been shifted to other genera [29][30][31]. ...
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Morphometric differences were investigated among five fish species of subfamily Barbinae from the Ganga river system through traditional morphometrics and the truss network system. Species taken into account were Puntius chola (Hamilton 1822), Puntius sophore (Hamilton 1822), Pethia ticto (Hamilton 1822), Pethia conchonius (Hamilton 1822) and Systomus sarana (Hamilton 1822). Although, taxonomists carefully examine external body features to discriminate these species, there is still a risk of misidentification during a visual assessment. In the present study, the traditional morphological analysis included 22 morphometric measurements and 10 meristic counts. Truss network system of 14 landmarks was interconnected to yield 91 distance variables. The principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA) and cluster analysis (CA) were employed in order to determine morphometric variations. In traditional analysis, 29 characters out of 32 were found significant (p
... In the last 20 years, about 7000 fish species, including Indian fishes have been added to the world's total species of fishes, with the annual increase in the number of new species at an average of 200-500 species (Eshmeyer and Fong, 2017). In the Indian context, intensive systematic studies on fishes, often supplemented by molecular-based phylogenetic works, have prompted the revision of several taxa, especially families and genera of Cypriniformes and Siluriformes, resulting in the resurrection/ erection of new families, e.g., Nemacheilidae (Cypriniformes) and Kryptoglanidae, Horabagridae, Ailiidae (Siluriformes) (Kottelat, 2012;Britz et al., 2014;Jayaram, 2006;Wang et al., 2016), and the genera like Dawkinsia, Haludaria, Pethia, Sahyadria and Ghatsa of family Cyprinidae (Cypriniformes); and Pachypterus of Horabagridae and Kryptoglanis of Kryptoglanidae (Siluriformes), and the consequential nomenclatural changes among the respective taxa of freshwater fishes (pethiyagoda et al., 2012;Raghavan et al., 2013;Randall and page, 2015;Kottelat, 2013;Vincent and Thomas, 2011). The freshwater fish families recognized from India with numbers of genera, and species in the 12 orders according to their systematic classification are given inTable-1. ...
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abtract Indian freshwater fish diversity is very rich with as many as 1027 species, comprising of primary, secondary and alien freshwater fishes. Among them, primary freshwater fishes include 858 species belonging to 167 genera under 40 families and 12 orders. Further, 137 species of secondary freshwater fishes that frequently enter and thrive in freshwater reaches of rivers are also known from India. Allien fishes that have become naturalized in Indian freshwater bodies account for 32 species, of which 16 are considered to be potentially invasive. More than 60.3% of the primary freshwater fishes of India are endemic to the country, with the highest endemicity found in Western Ghats biogeographic zone. As per the IUCN Red Data List, 17.25% among primary freshwater fishes are in threatened category, and less than 35% fishes are Least Concerned, while status of nearly 44% is not known. The present work, besides providing the checklist of freshwater fishes of India, discusses the the chalanges and threats to the freshwater fish diversity of India.
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PhyML is a phylogeny software based on the maximum-likelihood principle. Early PhyML versions used a fast algorithm performing nearest neighbor interchanges to improve a reasonable starting tree topology. Since the original publication (Guindon S., Gascuel O. 2003. A simple, fast and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst. Biol. 52:696-704), PhyML has been widely used (>2500 citations in ISI Web of Science) because of its simplicity and a fair compromise between accuracy and speed. In the meantime, research around PhyML has continued, and this article describes the new algorithms and methods implemented in the program. First, we introduce a new algorithm to search the tree space with user-defined intensity using subtree pruning and regrafting topological moves. The parsimony criterion is used here to filter out the least promising topology modifications with respect to the likelihood function. The analysis of a large collection of real nucleotide and amino acid data sets of various sizes demonstrates the good performance of this method. Second, we describe a new test to assess the support of the data for internal branches of a phylogeny. This approach extends the recently proposed approximate likelihood-ratio test and relies on a nonparametric, Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like procedure. A detailed analysis of real alignments sheds light on the links between this new approach and the more classical nonparametric bootstrap method. Overall, our tests show that the last version (3.0) of PhyML is fast, accurate, stable, and ready to use. A Web server and binary files are available from http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/.
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MrBayes 3 performs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis combining information from different data partitions or subsets evolving under different stochastic evolutionary models. This allows the user to analyze heterogeneous data sets consisting of different data types—e.g. morphological, nucleotide, and protein—and to explore a wide variety of structured models mixing partition-unique and shared parameters. The program employs MPI to parallelize Metropolis coupling on Macintosh or UNIX clusters. Availability: http://morphbank.ebc.uu.se/mrbayes Contact: fredrik.ronquist@ebc.uu.se * To whom correspondence should be addressed.
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Members of the genus Psilorhynchus are small benthic fishes, commonly referred to as torrent minnows, which inhabit the fast to swift flowing water bodies of the Indo-Burma region and the Western Ghats of Peninsular India. Despite being described scientifically in the mid 18th century, the morphology of Psilorhynchus remains poorly known and its phylogenetic placement within the order Cypriniformes is a matter of considerable debate. In this paper the osteology of Psilorhynchus sucatio is described and illustrated in detail. Notes and/or illustrations on the osteology of 12 other species of Psilorhynchus are also provided for the first time. A phylogenetic investigation of the position of Psilorhynchus within the order Cypriniformes is also conducted. Analysis of 127 morphological characters scored for 52 ingroup taxa (including 12 species of Psilorhynchus) and four outgroup taxa resulted in 14 equally parsimonious cladograms (287 steps long; consitency index, CI = 0.48; retention index, RI = 0.88). Psilorhynchus is recovered as the sister group to the family Cyprinidae, and is regarded as a member of the superfamily Cyprinoidea, which forms the sister group to the Cobitoidea (including all other cypriniform families). The sistergroup relationship between Psilorhynchus and Cyprinidae is supported by eight derived characters (five of which are homoplastic within the order Cypriniformes). The monophyly of Psilorhynchus is supported by 16 derived characters (eight of which are homoplastic within Cypriniformes). Three species groups of Psilorhynchus are proposed, the Psilorhynchus balitora group (including P. amplicephalus, P. balitora, P. breviminor, P. nepalensis, P. rahmani, P. pavimentatus, and P. brachyrhynchus), the Psilorhynchus gracilis group (including P. gracilis, P. melissa, P. robustus, and P. tenura), and the Psilorhynchus homaloptera group (including P. arunachalensis, P. homaloptera, P. microphthalmus, and P. pseudecheneis). The continued use of the family group name Psilorhynchidae is recommended. Comments on the interrelationships of the Cypriniformes are also provided. © 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011.
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DendroPy is a cross-platform library for the Python programming language that provides for object-oriented reading, writing, simulation and manipulation of phylogenetic data, with an emphasis on phylogenetic tree operations. DendroPy uses a splits-hash mapping to perform rapid calculations of tree distances, similarities and shape under various metrics. It contains rich simulation routines to generate trees under a number of different phylogenetic and coalescent models. DendroPy's data simulation and manipulation facilities, in conjunction with its support of a broad range of phylogenetic data formats (NEXUS, Newick, PHYLIP, FASTA, NeXML, etc.), allow it to serve a useful role in various phyloinformatics and phylogeographic pipelines. Availability: The stable release of the library is available for download and automated installation through the Python Package Index site (http://pypi.python.org/pypi/DendroPy), while the active development source code repository is available to the public from GitHub (http://github.com/jeetsukumaran/DendroPy). Contact: jeet{at}ku.edu
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We describe MUSCLE, a new computer program for creating multiple alignments of protein sequences. Elements of the algorithm include fast distance estimation using kmer counting, progressive alignment using a new profile function we call the log‐expectation score, and refinement using tree‐dependent restricted partitioning. The speed and accuracy of MUSCLE are compared with T‐Coffee, MAFFT and CLUSTALW on four test sets of reference alignments: BAliBASE, SABmark, SMART and a new benchmark, PREFAB. MUSCLE achieves the highest, or joint highest, rank in accuracy on each of these sets. Without refinement, MUSCLE achieves average accuracy statistically indistinguishable from T‐Coffee and MAFFT, and is the fastest of the tested methods for large numbers of sequences, aligning 5000 sequences of average length 350 in 7 min on a current desktop computer. The MUSCLE program, source code and PREFAB test data are freely available at http://www.drive5. com/muscle.