Article

Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of the essential oils of four Cymbopogon species from Benin

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  • University of Abomey-Calavi UAC-Benin
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Abstract

Cymbopogon species are largely used in folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases some of which related to parasitical diseases as fevers and headaches. As part of our research on antiparasitic essential oils from Beninese plants, we decided to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activities of essential oils of four Cymbopogon species used in traditional medicine as well as their cytotoxicity. The essential oils of four Cymbopogon species C. citratus (I), C. giganteus (II), C. nardus (III) and C. schoenantus (IV) from Benin obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC/MS and GC/FID and were tested in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Plasmodium falciparum respectively for antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activities. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and the human non cancer fibroblast cell line (WI38) through MTT assay to evaluate the selectivity. All tested oils showed a strong antitrypanosomal activity with a good selectivity. Sample II was the most active against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and could be considered as a good candidate. It was less active against Plasmodium falciparum. Samples II, III and IV had low or no cytotoxicity, but the essential oil of C. citraus (I), was toxic against CHO cells and moderately toxic against WI38 cells and needs further toxicological studies. Sample I (29 compounds) was characterised by the presence as main constituents of geranial, neral, β-pinene and cis-geraniol; sample II (53 compounds) by the presence of trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, trans-carveol, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, limonene, cis-carveol and cis-carvone; sample III (28 compounds) by β-citronellal, nerol, β-citronellol, elemol and limonene and sample IV (41 compounds) by piperitone, (+)-2-carene, limonene, elemol and β-eudesmol. Our study shows that essential oils of Cymbopogon genus can be a good source of antitrypanosomal agents. This is the first report on the activity of these essential oils against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Plasmodium falciparum and analysis of their cytotoxicity.

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... and 0.14-1.33% previously reported for C. citratus and C. nardus, respectively [25][26][27][28][29]; whereas that of C. schoenanthus was lower than those found in the literature which were between 1.4% and 3% [30][31][32][33]. The previous studies showed that C. schoenanthus had the highest yield in EO, followed by C. nardus and C. citratus, while in the present study the highest yield was obtained with C. nardus, followed by C. schoenanthus and C. citratus. ...
... The previous studies showed that C. schoenanthus had the highest yield in EO, followed by C. nardus and C. citratus, while in the present study the highest yield was obtained with C. nardus, followed by C. schoenanthus and C. citratus. This could be due to the differences between species [31], in extraction techniques [30], and in environmental conditions [34]. ...
... 75-77.4%, and 58.9-92.28% reported in Cameroon and India, Benin and Brazil, Cameroon and Burkina Faso [26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38], respectively. The major components of the EO from C. nardus were different from geraniol (35.7%), trans-citral (22.7%), cis-cistral (14.2%), gernayl acetate (9.7%), citronellal (5.8%), and citronellol (4,6%) described in Thailand [39], citronellal (27.87%), β-citronellol (11.85%), neral (11.21%), geraniol (22.77%) and geranial (14.54%); geraniol (33.88%), citronellal (27.55%), and citronellol (14.40%) both found in Brazil [28] and β-citronellal (35.9%), β-citronellol (11.6%) and nerol (24.3%) reported in Benin [31].The major components of the EOs from C. schoenanthus were similar to those reported for the same species from Algeria, Benin, and Togo [32,33,40]. ...
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The antifungal and antiaflatoxinogenic activities of the essential oils (EOs) from the leaves of Cymbopogon schoenanthus, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, and their pair combinations were investigated. Antifungal susceptibility and the efficacy of paired combinations of EOs were assessed using agar microdilution and checkerboard methods, respectively. Identification and quantification of chemical components of the EOs were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-MS and GC-FID), respectively. Aflatoxins were separated and identified by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and then quantified by spectrofluorescence. The EO of C. nardus exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The combination of C. citratus and C. nardus and that of C. nardus and C. schoenanthus exhibited a synergistic effect against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus, respectively. Both C. citratus and C. schoenanthus EOs totally inhibited the synthesis of aflatoxin B1 at 1 µL/mL. C. citratus blocked the production of aflatoxins B2 and G2 at 0.5 µL/mL. Both C. citratus and C. schoenanthus totally hampered the production of the aflatoxin G1 at 0.75 µL/mL. The combination of C. citratus and C. schoenanthus completely inhibited the production of the four aflatoxins. The study shows that the combinations can be used to improve their antifungal and antiaflatoxinogenic activities.
... As for C.n, its essential oil has ovicidal and larvicidal activities [12]. Its antimicrobial, analgesic [13], antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial [14] properties are also known. In addition to the various properties, the chemical composition of the oils of these plants are studied [10,11]. ...
... The analysis is carried out on a FOCUS GC equipped with an HP 5MS capillary column of dimensions 30 mx 0.25 mm with 0, 25 µm film thickness. In order to confirm the specificity and selectivity of the GC method, GC-EIMS analyzes were performed on a TRACE GC 2000 series, as described by Kpoviessi et al. [14]. ...
... By comparison of the spectral data and the retention indices with those of the bibliographical references, the constituents of the various essential oils are identified as described by Kpoviessi et al. [14]. ...
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Essential oils (EO) of aromatic plants have always been used by humans for healing, perfume or food. But an oil using does not always give desired results. Faced with this difference in results, it would therefore be advisable to control the chemical composition in order to optimize the biological activity of each EO. This work is interested in the study of influence of the chemical composition on the antioxidant activity and the toxicity of EO of two plants cultivated in Benin. EO of fresh leaves of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (C.n) and of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh (E.c), collected around 7 AM, 1 PM and 7 PM, are obtained by hydrodiffusion. The chemical composition evaluated by GC/FID and GC/MS varies qualitatively and quantitatively depending on the time of harvest. The main compounds identified are monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes which the rate varies. The antioxidant activity of EO tested by DPPH method also varies. The antioxidant activity of C.n EO is interesting at 1 PM (EC50 = 0.97 mg/mL) and weak at 7 AM (EC50 = 1.62 mg/mL). In contrast, that of E.c is better at 7 PM (EC50 = 6.23 mg/mL) and weak at 1 PM (EC50 = 42.64 mg/mL). This variation in oil activity could be explained not only by the variation in chemical composition but also by the presence of certain compounds recognized as antioxidants. Our oil samples tested on Artemia salina Leach larvae are less toxic (LC50 ˃ 26 μg/mL) than camptothecin (LC50 = 13.27 μg/mL), a reference compound.
... The amount of citral is typically used to assess the quality of lemongrass essential oil. The higher the citral, the purer the essential oil [18][19][20]. According to ISO 3217:1974 standard, lemongrass essential oil should contain at least 75% of citral to be considered a product of quality. ...
... The rest is the hydroterpenes (9.9%) and small amounts of alcohols and esters. The results of this work show that the citral content of essential oils is higher than that reported by Manuel A. [19]. Meanwhile, the myrcene content is distinct from the essential oil obtained in Benin (0%) [19] and Nigeria (25.3%) [36]. ...
... The results of this work show that the citral content of essential oils is higher than that reported by Manuel A. [19]. Meanwhile, the myrcene content is distinct from the essential oil obtained in Benin (0%) [19] and Nigeria (25.3%) [36]. These large differences in the composition of essential oils may be explained by factors such as habitation, genetic variability, climate conditions, harvest time, and extraction techniques [14,16,17]. ...
Article
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Lemongrass essential oil has many compounds appropriate for application in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. Of these, citral is a high-value compound of interest to industry. This work aims to evaluate the use of vacuum fractional distillation to separate lemongrass essential oil compounds, producing essential oil fractions containing high citral content. The effect of process parameters, namely vacuum pressure, type column, and energy input, on the fractionation time, content, and recovery of citral in the fractions, was investigated. The fractionation of lemongrass oils successfully provided five fractions, i.e., fraction 1 (F1), fraction 2 (F2), fraction 3 (F3), fraction 4 (F4), and fraction 5 (F5). GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) spectra showed that the main compound contained in F1 and F2 fractions was β-myrcene (>70%). Meanwhile, F4 and F5 were the two main fractions for citral recovery. The optimal conditions of the fractional distillation system included a column height of 400 mm, power input of 165 W, and pressure of 15 mmHg. These conditions correspond to the highest total citral content of 95%, with a recovery of 80% at the F4 and F5 fractions. Therefore, fractional vacuum distillation may be an effective method to upgrade lemongrass essential oil.
... The p-menthadienol compounds found in the essential oil were cis-pmentha-1 (7) The Brazilian essential oil from C. densiflorus flowers is similar to the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of C. giganteus from Cameroon, leaf essential oil from C. giganteus from Benin and different growing stages plant material essential oil of C. martini (Roxb.) W. Watson (Poaceae) from India, especially regarding the p-menthadienol composition [27][28][29] . The p-menthadienols in C. densiflorus essential oils are responsible for some singular fragrance properties that are important for cosmetic and household cleaning products. ...
... Furthermore, the presence of p-menthadienol compounds is closely related to the biological activity of essential oils 28 . Cymbopogon species from Benin, rich in trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol (15.5 %), cis-p-mentha-2,8-dienol (11.3 %) and cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (8.9 %), showed a strong antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 28 . ...
... Furthermore, the presence of p-menthadienol compounds is closely related to the biological activity of essential oils 28 . Cymbopogon species from Benin, rich in trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol (15.5 %), cis-p-mentha-2,8-dienol (11.3 %) and cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (8.9 %), showed a strong antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 28 . Although it has not been the objective of our research to investigate the antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity in Brazilian C. densiflorus flowers essential oil, this warrants further investigation. ...
Article
This study reports, for the first time, the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oil from Brazilian Cymbopogon densiflorus flowers. Thirty chemical compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), corresponding to 95 % of total compounds from an essential oil chromatogram obtained by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID ). The essential oil was mainly composed of cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (26 %), trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (18 %), trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (13 %) limonene (9 %), cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (7 %), cis-carveol (7 %) and carvone (5 %). The identity confirmation of the major compounds was performed by ¹H/¹³C heteronuclear single-quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance (HSQC NMR). The essential oil exhibited a weak antioxidant activity by the DPPH method and a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic bacterial strains tested, showing some efficacy against 7 of the 10 strains with the greatest inhibition observed with the Gram-negative bacterium Shigella sonnei.
... Our lemongrass essential oil had a standard composition comparable to previously published data. The yield of essential oil obtained by our distillation of fresh leaves was 0.5% (w/w), which corresponds to the data of other authors, who published yields of 0.6% [45] or 0.7% [46][47][48]. As expected, the dominant group of terpenes present in essential oil was comprised of oxygenated monoterpenes with the main components being neral (citral b, 33.7%) and geranial (citral a, 29.3%). ...
... The common contents are 36.2% [41], 39.5% [48], 41.3% [42], 41.8% [47], 42.2% [45], 50.5% [25], 52.9% [34], up to 56.8% [49] for citral a and 26.5% [41], 30.4% [47], 32.3% [42], 32.5% [45], 33.1 [49], 35.5% [48], 38.1% [34], up to 38.5% [25] for neral. The presence of 1.5% linalool is comparable with the data published by other authors-0.4% ...
... The common contents are 36.2% [41], 39.5% [48], 41.3% [42], 41.8% [47], 42.2% [45], 50.5% [25], 52.9% [34], up to 56.8% [49] for citral a and 26.5% [41], 30.4% [47], 32.3% [42], 32.5% [45], 33.1 [49], 35.5% [48], 38.1% [34], up to 38.5% [25] for neral. The presence of 1.5% linalool is comparable with the data published by other authors-0.4% ...
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With strong antimicrobial properties, citral has been repeatedly reported to be the dominant component of lemongrass essential oil. Here, we report on a comparison of the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of citral and lemongrass essential oil. The lemongrass essential oil was prepared by the vacuum distillation of fresh Cymbopogon leaves, with a yield of 0.5% (w/w). Citral content was measured by gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and determined to be 63%. Antimicrobial activity was tested by the broth dilution method, showing strong activity against all tested bacteria and fungi. Citral was up to 100 times more active than the lemongrass essential oil. Similarly, both citral and essential oils inhibited bacterial communication and adhesion during P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilm formation; however, the biofilm prevention activity of citral was significantly higher. Both the essential oil and citral disrupted the maturated P. aeruginosa biofilm with the IC50 7.3 ± 0.4 and 0.1 ± 0.01 mL/L, respectively. Although it may seem that the citral is the main biologically active compound of lemongrass essential oil and the accompanying components have instead antagonistic effects, we determined that the lemongrass essential oil-sensitized methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and doxorubicin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells and that this activity was not caused by citral. A 1 mL/L dose of oil-sensitized MRSA to methicillin up to 9.6 times and a dose of 10 µL/L-sensitized ovarian carcinoma to doxorubicin up to 1.8 times. The mode of multidrug resistance modulation could be due to P-glycoprotein efflux pump inhibition. Therefore, the natural mixture of compounds present in the lemongrass essential oil provides beneficial effects and its direct use may be preferred to its use as a template for citral isolation.
... Chiov [44] In vitro (Microdilutions/Culture) 0.25 µg/ml trans-p-mentha-1 (7),-dien-2-ol trans-carveol, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol cis-p-mentha-2,8-dienol cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol limonene cis-carveol cis-carvone Cymbopogon nardus L. [44] In vitro (Microdilutions/Culture) 5.71 µg/mL β-citronellal nerol β-citronellol elemol limonene Cymbopogon schoenantus L. ...
... Chiov [44] In vitro (Microdilutions/Culture) 0.25 µg/ml trans-p-mentha-1 (7),-dien-2-ol trans-carveol, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol cis-p-mentha-2,8-dienol cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol limonene cis-carveol cis-carvone Cymbopogon nardus L. [44] In vitro (Microdilutions/Culture) 5.71 µg/mL β-citronellal nerol β-citronellol elemol limonene Cymbopogon schoenantus L. ...
... Spreng. [44] In vitro (Microdilutions/Culture) 2.10 µg/mL piperitone ( + )-2-carene limonene elemol β-eudesmol Echinophora spinosa L. [56] In vitro (Microdilutions/Culture) 2.7 ± 0.6 µg/mL myristicin terpinolene (Z)-falcarinol Echinophora spinosa L. [56] In vitro (Microdilutions/Culture) 4.0 ± 1.6 µg/mL α-phellandrene p-cymene β-phellandrene E,E-2,6-dimethyl-1,3,5,7-octatetraene α-pinene Echinops giganteus var. lelyin C. D. Adams [58] In vitro (Microdilutions/Culture) 10.50 µg/mL silphiperfol-6-ene presilphiperfolan-8-ol cameroonan-7-α-ol Erigeron floribundus (Kunth) Schultz-Bip. ...
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Trypanosomiases are diseases caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus Trypanosoma. In humans, this includes Chagas disease and African trypanosomiasis. There are few therapeutic options, and there is low efficacy to clinical treatment. Therefore, the search for new drugs for the trypanosomiasis is urgent. This review describes studies of the trypanocidal properties of essential oils, an important group of natural products widely found in several tropical countries. Seventy-seven plants were selected from literature for the trypanocidal activity of their essential oils. The main chemical constituents and mechanisms of action are also discussed. In vitro and in vivo experimental data show the therapeutic potential of these natural products for the treatment of infections caused by species of Trypanosoma.
... Citronella grass has volatile substances in its leaves, such as β-citronelal, β-citronelol, eugenol, geraniol and limonene, among others, generally called monoterpenes Kpoviessi et al. 2014). These substances act as a chemical defense of the plant against predators (Castro et al., 2007). ...
... Citronella essential oil is of economic interest due to substances it contains which have biological activities, such as insecticide (Hernandez-Lambraño et al., 2015;Smitha and Rana, 2015), acaricide (Agnolin et al., 2010) fungicide Veloso et al., 2012) and bactericide (Silva et al., 2010;Nascimento et al., 2011), besides being used in the form of tea as a tranquilizer and digestive (Castro et al., 2010;Kpoviessi et al., 2014) and in cosmetics and flavorings. ...
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Background. Due to the negative impacts caused by the inadequate disposal of dairy cattle wastewater (DCW), alternatives are needed to reduce the environmental impact. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of applying DCW via fertigation on the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and on the production of citronella essential oil (Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle). Methodology. Nitrogen (N) was adopted as a reference element and DCW equivalent amount to be applied so as to replace this element was calculated. Doses equivalent to 100%, 200%, 300% and 400% of the recommended N concentration were applied. After six months of cultivation, the availability of nutrients for the soil and its relationship to the production of essential oil were evaluated. Results. The results showed that DCW supply for citronella cultivation was effective and, in most parameters, equivalent to the treatment with mineral fertilization. Besides, there was no significant difference between the treatments, regarding the quantity and quality of essential oil production. Implications: DCW does not increase the yield of essential oil, but it is an excellent alternative for the supply of nutrients in degraded soils. Conclusions. Therefore, DCW use for fertigation of citronella cultivation is a valid alternative, helping to mitigate the impacts related to its disposal. However, new studies with a longer evaluation period and other types of soil are suggested.
... The plant possess antibacterial and antiinflammatory properties (Alitonou et al., 2012, B. Bayala et al., 2018. and are dominated by the presence of compounds such as Carveol, Limonene, Cis-p-mentha derivatives in the essential oil (Kpoviessi et al., 2014) [26] . Cymbopogon giganteus is an aromatic perennial grass belonging to Poaceae, It is a sweet smelling grass that grows spontaneously in the savannahs of Asian and African tropical regions, It possess a rhizome-bearing stem and can grow up to 3m high (Letouzey 1972) [25] . ...
... The plant possess antibacterial and antiinflammatory properties (Alitonou et al., 2012, B. Bayala et al., 2018. and are dominated by the presence of compounds such as Carveol, Limonene, Cis-p-mentha derivatives in the essential oil (Kpoviessi et al., 2014) [26] . Cymbopogon giganteus is an aromatic perennial grass belonging to Poaceae, It is a sweet smelling grass that grows spontaneously in the savannahs of Asian and African tropical regions, It possess a rhizome-bearing stem and can grow up to 3m high (Letouzey 1972) [25] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Cymbopogon giganteus belonging to Poaceae is an aromatic grass and medicinal plant used to treat various diseases in traditional medicine. The genus Cymbopogon consist of perennial grasses distributed world wide and used for their essential oil. The commercial uses of the various species of cymbopogon are well documented. The ethanopharmacological evidence showed that cymbopogons Possess array of properties and are used for pest control, in cosmetics and as anti-inflammatory agents, besides holding promise as potent antitumor and chemopreventive drugs. In the present study, Cymbopogon giganteus collected from Gnanabharathi campus, Bangalore university, Bangalore. was studied for the essential oil content and composition. The essential oil was extracted by Hydro-distillation method and the oil was subjected to GC/MS analysis to get fingerprint compounds. Dihydrocarveol was found as major compound (28.52%), followed by D-limonene (10.93%), Cis-carveol(7.38%), Cis-p-mentha-2,8-diene-1-ol(7.57%), Trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol(13.81%), Carvotanacetone(3.47%), 3-octadecyne(1.65%).
... About 500 g of each fresh plants material were extracted in steam distillated for 3 h [14] and the oils obtained were stored at 4 °C. The essential oil yields were calculated based on the fresh plant material [15] . ...
... The coupling temperature of the GC was 260 °C and the temperature of the source of the electrons was 260 °C. The data were recorded and analyzed with the Xcalibur 1.1 software (ThermoQuest) [15] . ...
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The uncontrolled use of antimicrobials leads to an increase in the resistance of bacteria which becomes a public health problem. To overcome this problem, our study aims to establish a link between chemical composition and antimicrobial activity and then evaluate cytotoxicity, of seven essential oils. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils was assessed by macrodilution and solid-medium diffusion method on agar, then cytotoxicity test was evaluated in vitro by MTT method. Results showed that essential oils of Cymbopogon schoenantus, Cymbopogon giganteus, Cymbopogon citratus and Citrus aurantifolia are the most bactericidal. Analysis of antimicrobial activity and chemical composition reveal that the essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the least oxygenated (14.9%), is the least active. The other essential oils, which are more active, are all rich in oxygenated compound (28.4% to 87.0%). The cytotoxicity assessment shows that our essential oils are less cytotoxic than camptothecin.
... The plant possess antibacterial and antiinflammatory properties (Alitonou et al., 2012, B. Bayala et al., 2018. and are dominated by the presence of compounds such as Carveol, Limonene, Cis-p-mentha derivatives in the essential oil (Kpoviessi et al., 2014) [26] . Cymbopogon giganteus is an aromatic perennial grass belonging to Poaceae, It is a sweet smelling grass that grows spontaneously in the savannahs of Asian and African tropical regions, It possess a rhizome-bearing stem and can grow up to 3m high (Letouzey 1972) [25] . ...
... The plant possess antibacterial and antiinflammatory properties (Alitonou et al., 2012, B. Bayala et al., 2018. and are dominated by the presence of compounds such as Carveol, Limonene, Cis-p-mentha derivatives in the essential oil (Kpoviessi et al., 2014) [26] . Cymbopogon giganteus is an aromatic perennial grass belonging to Poaceae, It is a sweet smelling grass that grows spontaneously in the savannahs of Asian and African tropical regions, It possess a rhizome-bearing stem and can grow up to 3m high (Letouzey 1972) [25] . ...
Research
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Cymbopogon giganteus belonging to Poaceae is an aromatic grass and medicinal plant used to treat various diseases in traditional medicine. The genus Cymbopogon consist of perennial grasses distributed world wide and used for their essential oil. The commercial uses of the various species of cymbopogon are well documented. The ethanopharmacological evidence showed that cymbopogons Possess array of properties and are used for pest control, in cosmetics and as anti-inflammatory agents, besides holding promise as potent antitumor and chemopreventive drugs. In the present study, Cymbopogon giganteus collected from Gnanabharathi campus, Bangalore university, Bangalore. was studied for the essential oil content and composition. The essential oil was extracted by Hydro-distillation method and the oil was subjected to GC/MS analysis to get fingerprint compounds. Dihydrocarveol was found as major compound (28.52%), followed by D-limonene (10.93%), Cis-carveol(7.38%), Cis-p-mentha-2,8-diene-1-ol(7.57%), Trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol(13.81%), Carvotanacetone(3.47%), 3-octadecyne(1.65%).
... Studies that evaluated the cytotoxic effect of essential oils of species of the Cymbopogon genus on mammalian cells showed that these are usually similar to that observed in the present study for C. winterianus (LC 50 = 96.56 µL/mL) (Figures 2 and 5, Table 2) so that the LC 50 varies in the range of 50-300 µL/mL, where an LC 50 > 50 µL/mL is indicated as non-cytotoxic [29,30]. In fact, in Cymbopogon spp. with a similar proportion of constituents to that observed here in EOCW, a cytoprotective effect is observed [31]. ...
... It has been shown that geraniol, despite its mild cytotoxicity in human lymphocytes, is able to scavenge free radicals similarly to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol, which are potent antioxidants [38]. Regarding citronellal, the second most-abundant compound in EOCw (Table 1), it is known to be non-toxic to mammalian cells (LC 50 > 50 µg/mL) [30]. ...
Article
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Cymbopogon winterianus, known as “citronella grass”, is an important aromatic and medicinal tropical herbaceous plant. The essential oil of C. winterianus (EOCw) is popularly used to play an important role in improving human health due to its potential as a bioactive component. The present study aimed to identify the components of the essential oil of C. winterianus and verify its leishmanicidal and trypanocidal potential, as well as the cytotoxicity in mammalian cells, in vitro. The EOCw had geraniol (42.13%), citronellal (17.31%), and citronellol (16.91%) as major constituents. The essential oil only exhibited significant cytotoxicity in mammalian fibroblasts at concentrations greater than 250 μg/mL, while regarding antipromastigote and antiepimastigote activities, they presented values considered clinically relevant, since both had LC50 < 62.5 μg/mL. It can be concluded that this is a pioneer study on the potential of the essential oil of C. winterianus and its use against the parasites T. cruzi and L. brasiliensis, and its importance is also based on this fact. Additionally, according to the results, C. winterianus was effective in presenting values of clinical relevance and low toxicity and, therefore, an indicator of popular use.
... Besides carvone and citronella, E,Z-2,6 nonadienal derived from cereal products and nerol derived from essential oils such as lemongrass (Kpoviessi et al., 2014), are still deserving of further studies because of the therapeutic potential of OLFR43 in the Metabolic Syndrome. ...
... It has a good reaction to esters, acetones, ketones, terpenes, sulfur compounds, aldehydes, alcohols and lactones, but almost no reaction to phenols, pyrazines, benzaldehydes, acids and furanone (Christiane, Franziska, Johanna & Dietmar, 2016 compounds also had the ability to activate OR1A1 (Ahmed et al., 2018). The typical natural ligands of OR1A1, citral, nerol, estragole and 3-methyl-2, 4-nonanedione, are generally existed in plants and vegetable (Chizzola, 2011;Du, Clery & Hammond, 2008;Kpoviessi et al., 2014). ...
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The Metabolic Syndrome has become one of the major public health challenges in the world, and adjusting the glucose and lipid to the normal level is crucial for treating the Metabolic Syndrome. Olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed in extra‐nasal tissues participate in diverse biological processes, including the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Ectopic ORs can regulate insulin secretion, glucagon secretion, fatty acid oxidation, lipogenesis, thermogenesis, and so forth. Understanding the physiological function and deciphering the olfactory recognition code by suitable ligands make ectopic ORs potential targets for the treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome. Thus, we delineate the roles and mechanisms of ectopic ORs in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, summarize the corresponding natural ligands, and discuss existing problems and therapeutic potential of targeting ORs in the Metabolic Syndrome.
... Results showed that the amount of essential oils and the chemical composition depend on the geographic origin (Kumar et al. 2011). However, regardless its origin, lemongrass is characterized by a high production of citral (70-80%) with variable amounts as compared to other species from the genus Cymbopogon (Ganjewala 2009;Gbenou et al. 2013;Kpoviessi et al. 2014;Solórzano-Santos and Miranda-Novales 2012). Our results also showed that citral with both isomers neral and geranial presented 80.4% of the chemical composition. ...
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Chemical composition and allelopathic activity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils growing inTunisia. Essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf) cultivated in Tunisia, were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and their allelopathic effect on four weeds species was studied. The results showed that the average yield of essential oils was 0.85(v/w). Four main components representing 91.08% of the total oil were identified. Monoterpenes aldehydes were dominants (79.80%) and the major component was citral present with both isomers the (E)-citral (geranial), 46.01% and (Z)-citral (neral), 34.39%. The results showed also that the reduction of the germination percentage depends on the concentration level of the essential oils and the weeds species. They inhibited significantly the germination of Phalaris paradoxa L., Lolium rigidum L., Cichorium intybus L. and Convolvulus arvensis L seeds. However, this inhibition was noticeable for the grass weeds Phalaris paradoxa L., Lolium rigidum L. than the remaining species in very low concentrations.
... The plant is mainly exploited for its essential oil content. Citronella essential oil is characterized by the presence of two major chemical groups, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, along with a great amount of their oxygenated derivatives 16,17 . The chemical composition of citronella essential oil varies with the geographical origin, environmental factors, ecological and climatic conditions, developmental stages, harvest time, genetic factors. ...
Article
The present study aims for quantitative analysis of citronella essential oil followed by its antifungal evaluation on maize fungi. GC/MS analysis of Cymbopogon nardus essential oil indicated the presence of citronellal (22.15 %), citronellol (16.34 %), and geraniol (11.16 %) as major constituents. Saponification value, acid value and moisture content were 139.15 mg/g, 2.1 mg/g and 20 %, respectively. The essential oil and its isolated compounds were tested for their antifungal potential against Fusarium verticillioides and Dreschlera maydis using the Poisoned food technique. C. nardus essential oil markedly suppressed the growth of F. verticillioides and D. maydis with ED50 values 0.095 and 0.098 mg/ml, respectively and was comparable to synthetic fungicide. The essential oil provides a great scope to be used as a natural eco-friendly fungicide for the control of maize fungi.
... The antiparasitic activity presented by the essential oil of P. guajava flowers can be attributed to the synergism between the constituents present in the essential oil analyzed (Bakkali et al., 2008). In addition, among the constituents present in the oil, there are those that already have recognized trypanocidal activity reported in the literature, such as terpenes: α-cadinol (37.8%), β-caryophyllene (12.2%), nerolidol (9.1%), α-selinene (8.8%), β-selinene (7.4%), and caryophyllene oxide (7.2%) ( Table 1) previously identified in the essential oils of the species Annona vepretorum, A. squamosa, Cymbopognon giganteus, C. nardus, C. citratus, C. schoenantus, Hagenia abyssinica, Leonotis ocymifolia, Moringa stenopetala, oils that also had significant trypanocidal effect (Meira et al., 2014;Kpoviessi et al., 2014;Nibret and Wink, 2010). ...
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Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that lives inside host xylem vessels, where it forms biofilm which is believed to be responsible for disrupting the passage of water and nutrients. Pectobacterium carotovorum is a Gram-negative plant-specific bacterium that causes not only soft rot in various plant hosts, but also blackleg in potato by plant cell wall degradation. Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, has been commonly treated with nifurtimox and benzonidazole, two drugs that cause several side effects. As a result, the use of natural products for treating bacterial and neglected diseases has increased in recent years and plants have become a promising alternative to developing new medicines. Therefore, this study aimed to determine, for the first time, the chemical composition of essential oil from Psidium guajava flowers (PG-EO) and to evaluate its in vitro anti-Xylella fastidiosa, anti-Pectobacterium carotovorum, anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and cytotoxic activities. PG-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus while its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major compounds identified in PG-EO were α-cadinol (37.8%), β-caryophyllene (12.2%), nerolidol (9.1%), α-selinene (8.8%), β-selinene (7.4%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.2%). Results showed that the PG-EO had strong trypanocidal activity against the trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (IC 50 = 14.6 μg/mL), promising antibacterial activity against X. fastidiosa (MIC = 12.5 μg/mL) and P. carotovorum (MIC = 62.5 μg/mL), and moderate cytotoxicity against LLCMK 2 adherent epithelial cells in the concentration range (CC 50 = 250.5 μg/mL). In short, the PG-EO can be considered a new source of bioactive compounds for the development of pesticides and trypanocide drugs.
... Medicinal use: Malaria (Myanmar) Antiparasitic pharmacology: Essential oil (containing mainly the aliphatic monoterpene aldehydes geranial (α-citral), neral (β-citral), and β-pinene) inhibited the survival of T. brucei brucei (strain 427) and P. falciparum (chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7) with the IC 50 values of 1.8 and 47.9 μg/mL, respectively, and SI values of 21.7 and 0.9, respectively (Kpoviessi et al., 2014). Citral (mixture of geranial and neral) inhibited the survival of metacyclic T. cruzi (strain Dm28c) trypomastigotes with the IC 50 value of 24.5 μg/mL (Cardoso & Soares, 2010). ...
Chapter
Medicinal plants in Asia and the Pacific in the Clade Monocots are principally employed for the treatment of malaria, and to a lesser extend helminthiasis and dysentery. Few of these plants have been examined for their antiparasitic properties both in vitro and in vivo. Plants in this Clade produce isoquinoline, pyridine, piperidine, indole, and steroidal alkaloids, steroidal saponins, stilbenes, and phenanthrenes.
... Among the monoterpenoids, it is considered one of the most promising and potent antimicrobial compounds due to its strong antibacterial and antifungal activities. It has been reported to have antifungal activity against P. digitatum [18][19][20] and antibacterial activity against a broad range of food-borne pathogens [15]. However, citral is insoluble in water, has poor stability, high volatility, and is prone to oxidation, which greatly limits its applications in pure form [21]. ...
... There have been a few studies concerning antikinetoplastid actions of the minor EO-ML constituents. For example, some authors showed IC 50 values of: 4.2 µg/mL for limonene, 1.0 µg/mL for α-pinene [29], 47.4 µg/mL for β-pinene [30] and 0.02 µg/mL for terpinen-4-ol [31] against T. brucei; as well as 37.9 µg/mL for limonene [32] 105 µg/mL for α-terpineol [28] and 37 µg/mL for α-pinene [27] against L. amazonensis. Although the concentrations of these compounds were less than 1,8-cineole, the presence of known components with antikinetoplastid activity in the oil could, therefore, account for the inhibitory effect found for EO-ML. ...
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Essential oils (EOs) are known for their use in cosmetics, food industries, and traditional medicine. This study presents the chemical composition and therapeutic properties against kinetoplastid and eukaryotic cells of the EO from Melaleucaleucadendra (L.) L. (Myrtaceae). Forty-five compounds were identified in the oil by GC-MS, containing a major component the 1,8-cineole (61%). The EO inhibits the growth of Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma brucei at IC50 values <10 μg/mL. However, 1,8 cineole was not the main compound responsible for the activity. Against malignant (22Rv1, MCF-7, EFO-21, including resistant sublines MCF-7/Rap and MCF-7/4OHTAMO) and non-malignant (MCF-10A, J774A.1 and peritoneal macrophage) cells, IC50 values from 55 to 98 μg/mL and from 94 to 144 μg/mL were obtained, respectively. However, no activity was observed on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Candida parapsilosis, Microsporum canis, or Trypanosoma cruzi. The EO was able to control the lesion size and parasite burden in the model of cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice caused by L. amazonensis compared to untreated animals (p < 0.05) and similar with those treated with Glucantime® (p > 0.05). This work constitutes the first evidence of antiproliferative potentialities of EO from M. leucadendra growing in Cuba and could promote further preclinical investigations to confirm the medical value of this plant, in particular for leishmaniasis treatment.
... The crude protein and ether extracts fall within the recommended ranges by NRC (1994). The values for the crude fiber obtained in this study were lower than the values reported by (Ambade et al., 2015), antiinflammatory (Collota et al., 2009;Alagbe et al., 2020), hepatoprotective (Omokore and Alagbe, 2019;Piarua et al., 2012;Tajidin et al., 2012;Chukwuocha et al., 2016), cytotoxic (Aftab et al., 2011;Chowdury et al., 2015), antithrombotic (Carlson et al., 2001), antidiabetic (Coelho et al., 2016), miracicidal and cercaricidal (Ajayi et al., 2002), antioxidant (Jayasinha, 2001;Balakrishnan et al., 2014), neuroprotective (Ntonga et al., 2014;Ferdousy et al., 2017), antiplasmodial (Kpoviessi et al., 2014), antifungal (Nishijima et al., 2014Leon et al., 2011;Ibrahim et al., 2010), cardiovascular (Garodia et al., 2007 and antiviral activities (Escandefi et al., 2007;Adedapo et al., 2009;Alagbe, 2017). They also have the ability to reduce the invasion of pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts, thus preventing dysbiosis (Akintayo and Alagbe, 2020;Huang and Lee, 2018), scavenging free radicals (Yu et al., 2012;Zhou et al., 2016;Lee et al., 2011 andBasedovsky et al., 1991) and growth improvement in animals (Mohammed et al., 2016;Hernandez et al., 2004 andMansoub et al., 2011). ...
Article
This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of Cymbopogon citratus oil (LGO) on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. A total of 250 one-day-old chicks of Ross 308 strain were divided into 5 treatments with 5 replicate per treatment of 10 birds in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments include a control diet (T1) with no Cymbopogon citratus oil (LGO). LGO was supplemented at 0.1%, 0.2 %, 0.3 % and 0.4 % in diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The experiment lasted for 56 days; feed and water were administered ad libitum. Results obtained revealed that average daily weight gain (ADWG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily water consumption (ADWC) and feed:gain were significantly influenced by LGO (P˂0.05). Highest mortality was recorded in T1 (4.15 %) followed by T2 (1.71 %), T3 (0.50 %), none was recorded in T4 and T5 (P˂0.05). dressing percentage, carcass and relative organ weight were significantly different among the treatments (P˂0.05).There was no noticeable inflammation was observed on the liver, kidney spleen and other internal organs. It was concluded that LGO is rich in phytochemical constituents and can be safely included in the diets of broiler chicks up to 0.4 % level without causing any detrimental effect on the growth performance and carcass of birds.
... The presence and percentages of elemol in the essential oil from roots of other Cymbo-pogon species have already been described in the literature, e.g. 19.1-42.3 in EO from the underground parts of C. flexuosus 7 , 10.67 25 and 14.5 26 in C. winterianus, 9 27 and 4.8 28 in C. nardus 27 , 4.9 27 in C. schoenantus, and 9.43 29 in C. proximus. To our best knowledge, we were the first to identify such a high concentration of elemol in C. citratus essential oil. ...
Article
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Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf.) is a perennial plant indigenous to semi-tropical regions of Asia and cultivated in other semi-tropical countries. The present study aimed to examine the key chemical constituents of various parts of lemongrass cultivated in the temperate climate of Poland. The content of essential oil and its composition were determined in 4 plant parts: leaves (part C), overground shoots (part B), underground shoots (part A), and roots (part R). Moreover, the content of dry weight, chlorophyll, polyphenols and macro- and microelements was determined in the edible parts (excluding roots). The essential oil from the aerial part predominantly contained neral (> 30%) and geranial (> 40%), which is consistent with the data reported in literature; the main component of essential oil (EO) from the underground part was elemol (65%); interestingly, such a high concentration of it was found for the first time. The concentration of chlorophyll was found to be higher in leaves, as compared to parts B and A. The highest level of potassium, magnesium, zinc and sodium was found in part A while of calcium and copper in leaves. The quality of lemongrass raw materials grown in temperate climates did not differ significantly from those obtained in warmer regions. The study findings confirmed the usefulness of leaves as a raw material for the preparation of infusions (higher concentration of pigments, polyphenols and EO) and of near-ground parts of a plant as a culinary material (a higher content of macroelements at lower concentrations of green pigments and dry weight). graphical abstract Fullsize Image
... The properties of C. nardus have been extensively investigated and showed a varied range of antimicrobial effects including antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic properties. [1][2][3] However, its antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens remains unknown. Despite the commonly used of standard antibacterial agents including 0.2% chlorhexidine and triclosan in oral care products, finding an alternative natural source antibacterial agent is a top priority because adverse effects such as emerging multidrugresistant pathogens in the environment by the latter. ...
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Introduction: Cymbopogon nardus is a strong aromatic plant with relevant medicinal properties due to its essential chemical compounds and its potential therapeutic effects. This study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of citronella essential oil against several oral pathogens and to identify the volatile compounds. Methods: The essential oil of C. nardus was purchased from Excellent Wisdom Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia. The source of raw material was collected from Malacca, the southern region of Malaysia, and the company made its taxonomic identification. An experimental in-vitro study was conducted on the essential oil processed from C. nardus genus Cymbopogon of Poaceae family. The in-vitro antimicrobial activities of C. nardus essential oil were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 33478), and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) using agar well diffusion assay. The identification of the volatile compounds was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: The C. nardus essential oil exhibited inhibitory activity against C. albicans at the concentration of 6.25%, whereby the inhibitory activity against S. mutans and S. sobrinus began at the concentration of 25%. The antimicrobial activity of C. nardus essential oil was statistically significant at the concentration of 50% in all tested pathogens. The GC-MS analysis of the C. nardus essential oil revealed the presence of few constituents, which include monoterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenolic compounds. Monoterpenes were the major identified terpenoids and contributed to 54.45% of the total volatile composition. The main identified monoterpenes were citronellal (11.35%), z-Citral (11.34%), β-Myrcene (6.70%), and β-Trans-ocimene (6.03%), which was the first time β-Myrcene and β-Trans-ocimene was found in high percentage. Conclusion: C. nardus essential oil is an active antibacterial agent against several oral pathogens, and the percentages of active volatile compounds are different within different origins.
... Secondary metabolites such as citral (3, 7-dimethyl-2, 6-octadienal), myrcene and citronellal have been isolated from lemon grass and were characterized as antimalarial compounds. These isolated compounds show pronounced activity against Plasmodium species [82][83][84] . Dichloromethane extract of C. citratus was tested against P. berghei and P. falciparum with pronounced activities of 2-10 μg/mL [83] . ...
... Enantiomers are generally present in terpenoids, yet they are restricted to certain subclasses, namely the monoterpene, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes (in a lesser proportion), and sesterterpenes (with a single case identified) [8]. β-citronellol is an enantiomer found in the monoterpene class [9], and although its optically active forms are present in the composition of essential oils of different species of medicinal plants in Central America, South America, Asia, and Africa, its isomeric optical forms are still poorly explored [1, [10][11][12]. For example, it was found that the R-(+) isomer of β-citronellol has anticonvulsant activity and this effect is attributed to its ability to reduce neuronal excitability through the blocking of voltage-dependent Na+ channels in rodents [13]. ...
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The enantiomers (R)-(+)-β-citronellol and (S)-(−)-β-citronellol are present in many medicinal plants, but little is understood about their bioactivity against Candida yeasts. This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of positive and negative enantiomers of β-citronellol on strains of Candida albicans and C. tropicalis involved in candidemia. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined. The evaluation of growth kinetics, mechanism of action, and association studies with Amphotericin B (AB) using the checkerboard method was also performed. R-(+)-β-citronellol and S-(−)-β-citronellol presented a MIC50% of 64 µg/mL and a MFC50% of 256 µg/mL for C. albicans strains. For C. tropicalis, the isomers exhibited a MIC50% of 256 µg/mL and a MFC50% of 1024 µg/mL. In the mechanism of action assay, both substances displayed an effect on the fungal membrane but not on the fungal cell wall. Synergism and indifference were observed in the association of R-(+)-β-citronellol and AB, while the association between S-(−)-β-citronellol and AB displayed synergism, additivity, and indifference. In conclusion, both isomers of β-citronellol presented a similar profile of antifungal activity. Hence, they can be contemplated in the development of new antifungal drugs providing that further research is conducted about their pharmacology and toxicity.
... However, although in the literature, piperitone was only found in an EO from Benin with antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity [49], in Cuban samples, it was found in higher concentrations of EOs (19 to 24%) that showed a broad spectrum of antiprotozoal effects mainly from Piper species [46,47]. In contrast, a diverse number of studies from worldwide plants, EOs with germacrene D and with antikinetoplastid activity correlated with antiplasmodial activity shown by Cuban EOs with this compound [50]. ...
Article
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Essential oils (EOs) are a mixture of chemical compounds with a long history of use in food, cosmetics, perfumes, agricultural and pharmaceuticals industries. The main object of this study was to find chemical patterns between 45 EOs and antiprotozoal activity (antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal), using different machine learning algorithms. In the analyses, 45 samples of EOs were included, using unsupervised Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) and supervised Random Forest (RF) methodologies. In the generated map, the hit rate was higher than 70% and the results demonstrate that it is possible find chemical patterns using a supervised and unsupervised machine learning approach. A total of 20 compounds were identified (19 are terpenes and one sulfur-containing compound), which was compared with literature reports. These models can be used to investigate and screen for bioactivity of EOs that have antiprotozoal activity more effectively and with less time and financial cost.
... A similar result was obtained by several authors whose studies have been carried out in different many countries. [35,42,43] Further, in Côte d'Ivoire, Kouamé et al. [34] worked on chemotypes characterized by a high percentage of citral and neral. However, myrcene, was detected as the only majority hydrocarbon monoterpene in this essential oil. ...
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Among the alternatives to environmentally toxic and socio‐economically unacceptable chemical pesticides, essential oils from Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus were tested on the main pests and beneficial insects of the cotton plant in Côte d'Ivoire. After extraction and chemical analysis of the essential oils, field trials were carried out using a Fisher block system with three treatment repetitions where their effects compared with those of a registered synthetic insecticide (IBIS A 52 EC). Foliar applications of the products were carried out in accordance with the cotton plant protection extension programme in Côte d'Ivoire from the 45th to the 115th day after plant emergence, with one application every fortnight. Twenty‐three and forty compounds representing about 96 and 99 % of the oil composition of O. gratissimum and C. citratus respectively were elucidated. The most abundant compounds were p‐cymene and thymol (O. gratissimum) and myrcene, neral and geranial (C. citratus). The essential oil of O. gratissimum at concentrations of 2 and 5 % showed insecticidal activity on all pests (biting‐sucking and carpophagous), except the phyllophagous Syllepte derogata. C. citratus, at a low concentration (1 %), was particularly toxic to whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), however it favoured the action of beneficial insects, specifically black ants and ladybirds in the cotton plots, unlike the chemical product. EO of O. gratissimum (1.60 and 4.62 mg GALAE/g, respectively) and C. citratus (2.26 and 2.78 mg GALAE, respectively) exhibited also significant acetyl and butyryl cholinesterase inhibitors. Insecticide formulations based on the essential oils of O. gratissimum and C. citratus offer favourable prospects for their use in cotton cultivation as an alternative to chemical pesticides.
... Chemical analysis of the essential oils of the three aromatic plants revealed that the extract of C. citratus was the richest in oxygenated monoterpenes with predominance of the compounds such as α-Citral (or geranial) and Neral. This same observation has been made by several authors in many countries [20], [11], [21], [22]. In Côte d'Ivoire, Kouamé et al. [23] worked on chemotypes that were characterized by a high percentage of Citral and Neral. ...
Article
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In Côte d'Ivoire, the loss of cotton yield is mainly due to attacks caused by pest insects such as, the pink worm, Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders. For decades, the repeated use of chemical insecticides to control these pests has threatened the viability of the production system. Faced with the negative consequences linked to the use of synthetic chemicals, the search for alternative methods is essential. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate the chemical properties and the insecticidal activity of essential oils extracted from Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus and Citrus sp on P. gossypiella. In the laboratory, nine concentrations (0.25; 0.50; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32 and 64 %) for each of the three essential oils, with three replications, were tested by topical application method on adults of the pest using a micro-applicator. Results showed that the pest developed variable levels of sensitivity to those plant oils. The one extracted from C. citratus was the most toxic to P. gossypiella. The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) measured were 1.67 and 4.07 % respectively. Furthermore, the results of the gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GS/SM) analysis indicated that the essential oils of the three aromatic plants evaluated were strongly composed of monoterpenes (91.57-100 %). C. citratus extract was the richest in oxygenated monoterpenes (73.71 %) followed by C. nardus extract (46.59 %). The essential oil of C. citratus can be used rationally as an alternative option to chemical in the current cotton pest control program in Côte d'Ivoire.
... C. giganteus is routinely used in folk medicine for the treatment of epilepsy (Adjanohoun et al., 1989), psychosis (Adjanohoun et al., 1986;Kerharo and Adam, 1974) and mental disorders (Hodouto, 1990;Malgras, 1992). The cytotoxicity, anti-trypanosomal and antiplasmodial effects of this plant have also been reported (Kpoviessi et al., 2014). Moreover, in a previous study, we demonstrated that C. giganteus decoction significantly exhibited an antianxiety activity in rats (Pale et al., 2018). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Epilepsy is a neurological disorder of the brain characterized by periodic and unpredictable occurrence of a transient behavior alteration due to the rhythmic, synchronous and disordered firing of brain neuron. Worldwide, approximately 50 million people currently live with epilepsy and close to 80% of people with epilepsy live in poor countries. However, it was noticed in many countries worldwide that people with epilepsy and their families suffer from stigma and discrimination and that situation exposes them to high psychological conditions such as depression and anxiety as well as more physical problems including bruising and fractures from injuries related to seizures. However, several plants-based products used for epilepsy and anxiety treatments in different system of folk medicine have exhibited a significant anti-epileptic and antianxiety activities using animal models with fewer side effects. Aim of the study The study aimed at evaluating the antiepileptic, status post-epilepticus and anxiolytic effects of Cymbopogon giganteus decoction in rat model induced by pilocarpine. Materials and methods A total of 90 rats were partitioned into 7 groups and treated as follow: animals of groups I (normal control) and II (considered the negative control) received distilled water (10 mL/kg); while groups III, IV, V, and VI were treated with the C. giganteus extract at 34, 85, 170 and 340 mg/kg p.o, respectively; and the group VII (considered positive control) received sodium valproate at 300 mg/kg, i.p. After 40 min post-treatment, a single dose of n-methyl-scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p) was administered to animals of groups (II, III, IV, V, VI, VII) followed by pilocarpine (360 mg/kg, i.p). Animal of group I (normal group) received distilled water. Rats were further observed for 6 h to evaluate the severity and the duration of the acute seizures of epilepsy according to Racine scale. Anxious behavior status post-epilepticus was also assessed in the same rats used above in the Elevated Plus Maze and number of entries into the open or closed arms and the time spent on either open or closed arms of the platform were recorded. Animals were also evaluated on Open Field Test and the number of rearing, crossing, grooming, defecation and center time were registered. Results C. giganteus decoction significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the animal mortality, the number and duration of convulsions and effectively increased the latency of convulsions. The plant extract significantly (P < 0.05) improved GSH level and SOD activity, reduced MDA and CAT activity, increased GABA level and decreased GABA-t activity in hippocampus. The anxiety induced by pilocarpine was also significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by the extract of the plant. Conclusions Thus, C. giganteus has demonstrated its antiepileptic and anxiolytic activities in rat model and may be used as preventive measure for patients suffering from epilepsy seizures and anxiety.
... Likewise, Durant et al. (2014) reported the antiplasmodial activity of extracts from leaves of Plinia cerrocampanensis (IC 50 PfW2: 7.3 μg/mL, IC 50 PfHB3: 10.2 μg/mL) and found benzaldehyde (12- Table 2) and caryophyllene (35- Table 2) among its constituents. Similarly, Kpoviessi et al. (2014) reported the presence of D-limonene (2- Okokon et al. (2017a, b) reported the presence of hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (74- Table 2) and 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (82- Table 2) as constituents of antiplasmodial extracts and fractions from Zea mays μg/mL, IC 50 PfINDO: 3.69-49.10 μg/mL), and Alchornea laxiflora μg/mL). ...
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Terminalia mantaly (H. Perrier) and Terminalia superba (Engl. & Diels) are sources of treatment for various diseases, including malaria and/or related symptoms in parts of Southwestern Cameroon. However, there is limited information on the extent of the antiplasmodial potential of their extracts. Aim of the study The present study was designed to investigate the antiplasmodial potential of chromatographic sub fractions (SFs) from promising fractions of Terminalia mantaly (Tm) [TmsbwChl, the chloroform fraction from water extract of Tm, IC50 (μg/mL) PfINDO: 0.56, Pf3D7: 1.12; SI > 357 (HEK/PfINDO) & 178 (HEK/Pf3D7)] and Terminalia superba (Ts) [TsrmEA, the ethyl acetate fraction from methanolic extract of Ts, IC50 (μg/mL) PfINDO: 1.82, Pf3D7: 1.65; SI > 109 (HEK/PfINDO) & 121 (HEK/Pf3D7)] obtained from previous studies. The SFs were tested against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 (Pf3D7-chloroquine sensitive) and INDO (PfINDO-chloroquine resistant) strains in culture. Also, the phytochemical profile of potent SFs was determined and finally, the inhibition of the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum by the SFs with the highest promise was assessed. Material and methods Selected SFs were submitted to a second bio-guided fractionation using silica gel column chromatography. The partial phytochemical composition of potent antiplasmodial SFs was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The SYBR Green I-based fluorescence microtiter plate assay was used to monitor the growth of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in culture in the presence or absence of extracts. Microscopy and flow cytometry counting was used to assess the Plasmodium falciparum stage–specific inhibition and post–drug exposure growth suppression by highly potent extracts. Results Twenty-one of the 39 SFs afforded from TmsbwChl showed activity (IC50: 0.29–4.74 μg/mL) against both Pf3D7 and PfINDO strains. Of note, eight SFs namely, Tm25, Tm28-30, Tm34-36 and Tm38, exerted highly potent antiplasmodial activity (IC50 < 1 μg/mL) with IC50PfINDO: 0.41–0.84 μg/mL and IC50Pf3D7: 0.29–0.68 μg/mL. They also displayed very high selectivity (50 < SIPfINDO, SIPf3D7 > 344) on the two Plasmodial strains. On the other hand, 7 SFs (SFs Ts03, Ts04, Ts06, Ts09, Ts10, Ts12 and Ts13) from TsrmEA showed promising inhibitory potential against both parasite strains (IC50: 2.01–5.14 μg/mL). Sub fraction Tm36 (IC50PfINDO: 0.41 μg/mL, SIPfINDO > 243; IC50Pf3D7: 0.29 μg/mL, SIPf3D7 > 344) showed the highest promise. The GC–MS analysis of the 8 selected SFs led to the identification of 99 phytometabolites, with D-limonene (2), benzaldehyde (12), carvone (13), caryophyllene (35), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (74) and 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (82) being the main constituents. Sub fractions Tm28, Tm29, Tm30, Tm36 and Tm38 inhibited all the three intraerythrocytic stages of P. falciparum, with strong potency against ring stage development, merozoite egress and invasion processes. Conclusions This study has identified highly potent antiplasmodial SFs from Terminalia mantaly with significant activity on the intraerythrocytic development of Plasmodium falciparum. These SFs qualify as promising sources of novel antiplasmodial lead compounds. Further purification and characterization studies are expected to unravel molecular targets in rings and merozoites.
... Indeed, the antifungal activity of this essential oil is closely related to its chemical composition. As for C citratus oil, according to the work of [27] and [16], the essential oil extracted from the leaves is characterized by the presence of five main constituents which are E-citral, Zcitral, beta-myrcene, selina-6-en-4-ol and cis-ocimene. These compounds are believed to act synergistically by altering membrane permeability and denaturing the proteins of the pathogen [13]. ...
... This type of molecule has previously been identified in the essential oils of many other aromatic plants, including C. giganteus, C. nervatus, and C. densiflorus (Omar et al. 2016;Spencer et al. 2021). Moreover, p-menthadienols have been indicated as the responsible compounds for antimicrobial, spasmolytic, and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activities of essential oils (Kpoviessi et al. 2014;Omar et al. 2016;Spencer et al. 2021). p-Mentha-2,8-dien-1-o1 is a commercially important molecule used as an intermediate for the large-scale production of cannabinoids (Tadayon and Ramazani 2021). ...
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Cymbopogon martini variety sofia, commonly known as ginger-grass, is an important aromatic crop used by the perfumery, medicinal and cosmetic industries worldwide. This study explores the chemical and possible pharmacological profile of hydro-distilled essential oil of C. martini variety sofia against skin inflammation. The essential oil extracted by the hydrodistillation process was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to identify its constituents, and was coded as CMA-01 for further in vitro and in vivo pharmacological study related to skin inflammation. The chemical fingerprint revealed that CMA-01 oil has (E)-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (21.0%), (E)-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (18.1%), (Z)-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (17.4%), (Z)-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (9.0%), limonene (7.7%), and (E)-carveol (5.7%) as major components. The pre-treatment of CMA-01 showed significant inhibition of pro-inflammatory markers in activated HaCat cells without cytotoxic effect. The in vivo study revealed the ameliorative impact of CMA-01 against skin inflammation induced by TPA in mouse ears as evidenced by a reduction of ear edema, pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNF-α), oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde and nitric-oxide) and histological changes in ear tissues without any skin irritation response on rabbit skin. These findings suggest the suitability of CMA-01 as a valuable therapeutic candidate for the treatment of skin inflammation.
Article
Ethnopharmacology relevance Our recently published paper demonstrated that ethyl acetate fractions obtained from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (C. citratus) leaves, which are consumed as infusion in folk medicine due to their therapeutic properties, are rich in polyphenols and exhibit promising antioxidant activity by acting through different mechanisms in vitro. However, studies regarding the toxicity of these fractions are necessary to investigate their safe use in future biomedical applications. Aim of the stud yThis study aimed to investigate the toxicity of ethyl acetate (obtained in acidic and basic conditions and after the essential oil removal from the leaves) and chloroform fractions, essential oil, and its pure constituents, citral and geraniol. Materials and methods The toxicity of C. citratus samples was evaluated by using Artemia salina (A. salina) and human blood cells (leukocytes and erythrocytes). Results The A. salina lethality assay demonstrated that C. citratus fractions were moderately toxic with LC50 values ranging from 146.12 to 433.15 μg mL⁻¹, whereas the essential oil and isolated compounds were highly toxic with LC50 lower than 100 μg mL⁻¹. Leukocyte viability decreased after incubation in the presence of the fractions obtained after the essential oil removal from the plant leaves, as well as in the presence of essential oil, citral and geraniol. The same samples increased the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis revealed significant changes in cell morphology. Interestingly, our results suggest that the previous removal of essential oil from plant leaves facilitated the extraction of cytotoxic compounds from C. citratus. Conclusions It was demonstrated that C. citratus ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, essential oil, as well citral and geraniol were considered toxic to A. salina, cytotoxic to human blood cells and showed to induce alterations in the erythrocyte membrane at higher concentrations. These fractions will be further investigated to identify the phytochemicals involved in the observed cytotoxic effects and explored using in vivo models.
Article
Background and objectives Candida albicans is a highly adaptable dimorphic fungal pathogen capable of developing tolerance and resistance to antifungal agents. The treatment of candidiasis becomes more difficult due to the development of biofilms and their morphological variations. Lemongrass oil has been reported for various biological properties and is normally used in various medical applications. In the present study, Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass) oil was analyzed for phytochemicals, studied for its antifungal, anti-biofilm on C. albicans, and cytotoxic effect on HaCaT keratinocytes. Methods Using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry, the quantitative phytochemical analysis of lemongrass oil was investigated. Antifungal activity and inhibitory activity on biofilm formation of lemongrass oil in C. albicans were evaluated. Cytotoxicity of lemongrass oil on HaCaT keratinocytes was determined by MTT assay. Results The GC-MS analysis revealed that lemongrass oil contains 16 different components. The major components were 4-tert-butylcalix, panaquinquecol 7, and diethyl-, 3, 4-dihydro-1-naphthalenyl ester. The minimum inhibitory concentration was 1.25 µl/ml and the minimum fungicidal concentration was 2.5 µl/ml. Complete inhibition of biofilm formation was observed at 0.5 µl/ml concentration of lemongrass oil and 90.9% inhibition was observed at 0.25 µl/ml concentration. The cell viability of HaCaT keratinocytes was maintained above 51.5% at 1.25 µl/ml concentration, and only a moderate cytotoxic effect was observed at a higher concentration. Conclusion Lemongrass oil showed antifungal activity against C. albicans and the lower concentrations inhibited biofilm formation. Cytotoxicity was not observed on HaCaT keratinocytes at lower concentrations. Further studies on the active components of lemongrass oil can be effectively useful in controlling biofilm formation in both medical devices and Candida related infections.
Article
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Sprengel (Poaceae) is an aromatic plant whose aerial parts and rhizome produced an essential oil with pleasant odor. A chemical variability has been observed depending of the countries where the plant grows wild, including Algeria. The chemical compositions of 24 oil samples isolated from plants harvested in Central Algeria have been investigated, in order to evidence homogeneity or chemical variability within a given area of harvest. Twenty of these were dominated by cis ‐ and trans ‐ p ‐menth‐2‐en‐1‐ols (22.6% ± 3.6 and 14.3% ± 1.7, respectively) beside four atypical compositions. Otherwise, aerial parts and rhizomes produced similar essential oils. Lastly, a fair antimicrobial activity was measured against Staphylococcus aureus strain, while the antioxidant potential was low.
Article
Residual film method was followed to analyze the toxicity of deltamethrin, essential oils (EOs) of Cymbopogon citratus and Cinnamonum camphora in separate and form of various combinations against LHR1 and LHR2 populations of fifth instar larvae of Trogoderma granarium. The cytotoxic potential of LC50s of both EOs, deltamethrin and their various combinations was as well investigated. The LHR2 population showed 23.73 fold deltamethrin resistance with respect to LHR1 population. Both EOs had high insecticidal activity than deltamethrin but C. citratus EO was less toxic than C. camphora EO against both populations. Based on strength of synergism and dose reduction index, the order of insecticidal activity of combinations in LHR1 population was: C. citratus EO: deltamethrin < C. camphora EO: deltamethrin < C. citratus EO: C. camphora EO < C. citratus EO: C. camphora EO: deltamethrin. In LHR2 population the order was: C. citratus EO: C. camphora EO < C. citratus EO: deltamethrin < C. camphora EO: deltamethrin < C. citratus EO: C. camphora EO: deltamethrin. Following to exposure of LC50 of each treatment various markers of cytotoxicity viz., haemocyte viability, cell proliferation rate and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity were decreased significantly with respect to control in both populations. Except for deltamethrin, each treatment significantly increased the lactate dehydrogenase activity. Phenoloxidase activity was reduced significantly in LHR1 population following to exposure of each treatment. Likewise, LHR2 population also showed significantly reduced activity of phenoloxidase following to exposure of each treatment except deltamethrin as it increased the activity. Furthermore, each marker of cytotoxicity was fluctuated in relation to the toxicity of LC50 of treatments and combination contained both EOs and deltamethrin produced highest cytotoxicity. Findings of this study should be used in granaries for the effective control of insecticide resistance in T. granarium¹.
Article
Objective: This study investigated the antifungal and antibiofilm activity of Cymbopogon nardus essential oil (EO) and its major compound, citronellal, in association with miconazole and chlorhexidine on clinical strains of Candida albicans. The likely mechanism(s) of action of C. nardus EO and citronellal was further determined. Materials and methods: The EO was chemically characterized by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antifungal activity (MIC/MFC) and antibiofilm effects of C. nardus EO and citronellal were determined by the microdilution method, and their likely mechanism(s) of action was determined by the sorbitol and ergosterol assays. Then, the samples were tested for a potential association with standard drugs through the checkerboard technique. Miconazole and chlorhexidine were used as positive controls and the assays were performed in triplicate. Results: The GC-MS analysis tentatively identified citronellal as the major compound in C. nardus EO. Both samples showed antifungal activity, with MIC of 256 µg/mL, as compared to 128 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL of miconazole and chlorhexidine, respectively. C. nardus EO and citronellal effectively inhibited biofilm formation (p < 0.05) and disrupted preformed biofilms (p < 0.0001). They most likely interact with the cell membrane, but not the cell wall, and did not present any synergistic activity when associated with standard drugs. Conclusion: C. nardus EO and citronellal showed strong in vitro antifungal and antibiofilm activity on C. albicans. Clinical relevance: Natural products have been historically bioprospected for novel solutions to control fungal biofilms. Our data provide relevant insights into the potential of C. nardus EO and citronellal for further clinical testing. However, additional bioavailability and toxicity studies must be carried out before these products can be used for the chemical control of oral biofilms.
Chapter
Oleoresin is a mixture of volatile and nonvolatile components available in whole extract of natural herb or spice. It principally comprises essential oils and resin. Lemongrass oleoresins come from the Cymbopogon species, which grow in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Oleoresin of lemongrass is a dark green-colored viscous liquid having a characteristic lemon aroma and flavor and is mostly used as a flavoring ingredient. The lemon prefix in the lemongrass specifies the characteristic lemon-like odor, which is due to the availability of citral content (mixture of two isomeric aldehydes, geranial and neral). It has been utilized in synthesizing flavors, perfumes, cosmetics, detergents, and in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Different methods are used to extract the lemongrass essential oil, but steam distillation is the most suitable method as it doesn’t alter the quality of the obtained oil. The chemical composition of lemongrass oil varies depending on its extraction methods, genetic differences, harvest period, photoperiod, plant age, farming practices, and geographical origin. Lemongrass essential oil has shown several biological activities, including antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoan, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic, antiinflammatory, antimalarial, antinociceptive, antihepatotoxic activities, etc. Lemongrass oil is a potent food preservative because of its extraordinary antifungal and antibacterial activities.
Chapter
Certain plants produce some essential oils containing phenylpropanoids/terpenoids (eg, (E)-anethole, estragole, eugenol, (E)-isoeugenol, safrole, (E)-/(Z)-citral, (R)-/(S)-citronellal, (E)-/(Z)-geraniol and carvacrol) as main constituents (relative amounts > 50 %), which are isolated of different parts from star anise/aniseed, winter tarragon/Mexican tarragon, clove tree, sassafras, lemongrass, lemon balm, citronella grass, palm rose, and Cuban oregano. These EO/molecules have many and different bioactivities (eg, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer/chemopreventive, cytotoxic/toxic, anesthetic/analgesic, antinociceptive, antispasmodic, pro-cholinergic, anticonvulsant, hypotensor/vasorelaxant, antidiabetic, insecticidal, larvicidal, fumigant and repellent, among other) and are used as flavoring/preserving/active ingredients in foods and beverages, personal care and cosmetics, perfumery, etc., as well as raw materials. Since the 1950s, the EO have been sources of substances as starting materials for different chemical synthesis; however, with the emergence of green chemistry, the EO and their main constituents (as biomass) have become attractive to the scientific community, as starting/raw material for fine chemical synthesis. Some examples are the preparation/obtaining of tetrahydroquinoline, isoindoloquinolinone, dihydrobenzofuranol, iridoid, octahydroacridine, trioxane, oxirane and benzochrome derivatives, from EO isolated of star anise fruit, clove bud, citronella and palm rose grasses, and Cuban oregano leaves. These hemisynthetic derivatives showed interesting biological properties, eg, antiparasitic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, and anticancer.
Thesis
Essential oils (EOs), as natural products, have unique physicochemical properties with superior added qualities to products. Nowadays, EOs have become an essential part of the different industrial fields including pharmaceutical and food industries and other health-related commercial fields since they can promote the health status for the consumers. EOs exhibit a wide range of bioactivities such as antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant. However, EOs consist of many sensitive and volatile molecules that could be easily lost during manufacturing which lead to reducing their functionality in the final product. Therefore, the encapsulation technique is an essential approach to provide an effective way to coat the desired compounds with a protective shell that isolates the bioactive ingredients from undesirable reactions and other external factors. The aim of the present study is the encapsulation of REO in three different types of cyclodextrin ,namely β-cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and methyl- β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), using three different techniques: Co-precipitation (β-cyclodextrin), Kneading (β-cyclodextrin, Hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin), and evaporation (methyl-beta-cyclodextrin). In addition, the release profile of the encapsulated REO was studied, using GC-MS. The characterization of the produced inclusion complexes was performed by using various methods, such as Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) while the inclusion efficiency was determined directly using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The encapsulation of REO in the cyclodextrins was successful and efficient. Keywords: Essential oils, REO, Nanoencapsulation, Encapsulation techniques, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) inclusion complexes (PDF) Synthesis and Characterization of Inclusion Complexes of Rosemary Essential Oil with Various β-cyclodextrins. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344173549_Synthesis_and_Characterization_of_Inclusion_Complexes_of_Rosemary_Essential_Oil_with_Various_b-cyclodextrins [accessed Sep 09 2020].
Article
Infections associated with biofilms developed by Candida spp. are becoming a great problem due to its resistance against the immune response of the host and the action of antifungal agents. Hence, finding substances that can inhibit the development of biofilms increases the likelihood that these compounds one day can become good antifungals applied in the clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of β-citronellol enantiomers on the biofilm formation by Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis isolated from bloodstream infections. Inhibition was evaluated by reading microplates treated with different concentrations of R-(+)-β-citronellol, S-(-)-β-citronellol and amphotericin B, compared to negative control, in spectrophotometer at 590 nm. All tested concentrations of β-citronellol enantiomers inhibited the biofilm formation of Candida. However, it is still necessary to evaluate the behavior of these isomers on mature biofilms, so that they can become more viable as antifungal therapeutical agents.
Article
Pyrazolopyrimidine scaffold is one of the privileged heterocycles in drug discovery. This scaffold produced numerous biological activities in which anticancer is important one. Previous studies showed its importance in interactions with various receptors such as growth factor receptor, TGFBR2 gene, CDK2/cyclin E and Abl kinase, adenosine receptor, calcium-dependent Protein Kinase, Pim-1 kinase, Potent Janus kinase 2, BTK kinase, P21-activated kinase 1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, histone lysine demethylase and Human Kinesin-5. However, there is a need of numerous studies for the discovery of target based potential compounds. The structure activity relationship studies may help to explore the generation of potential compounds in short time period. Therefore, in the present review we tried to explore the structural aspects of Pyrazolopyrimidine with their structure activity relationship against various targets for the development of potential compounds. The current review is the compilation of significant advances made on Pyrazolopyrimidines reported between 2015 and 2020.
Chapter
Secondary metabolites (SMs) are known to have a wide range of therapeutic values. Large numbers of drugs are derived from these SMs. These naturally occurring SMs known to act as a potent source of antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and insecticidal agents. Aromatic plants are the prime source of variety of easily available SMs. Numerous classes of these SMs also act as powerful natural antioxidants. Antioxidants are the compounds that inhibit or slow down the oxidation of other molecules and help to cure the oxidative stress condition. Oxidative stress is the condition where the amount of free radicals in the body of organism exceeds the homeostatic balance of free radicals and indigenous antioxidant. This excess of free redials leads to various types of chain reactions that damage cells. These free radicals are the cause of more than hundred kinds of diseases in living beings. Cymbopogon is a genus of about 180 species of monocots grasses in a family of Poaceae (Gramineae). The species of genus Cymbopogon are rich source of naturally occurring antioxidants (such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, hydroquinone, terpenoids and fatty alcohols, etc.), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates) is one of them. Further, the pharmacological applications of lemongrass are also well explored. Hence in the present chapter, we intend to discuss the botanical description, traditional uses, phytochemistry, antioxidant potential, health benefits, and potential economic importance of lemongrass.
Chapter
Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is one of the most important EO(essential oil crops) and is cultivated worldwide. It is composed primarilyof monoterpenes, whose medicinal properties are mainly due to their EO composition, accumulated in glandular trichomes. Nowadays, agriculturerelies heavily on the use of synthetic chemicals, such as fertilizers andpesticides, to achieve high yields but without taking into account theirdeleterious effects on the environment. However, there is an interestingbiotechnological alternative using microorganisms to increase theavailability and intake of nutrients by crops and to control phytopathogenicorganisms and herbivorous insects. The group of bacteria termed plantgrowth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonizes the rhizosphere andstimulates plant growth and development by direct or indirect mechanisms.Thus, in the search for new strategies of plant production to optimizeessential oil (EO) yield, inoculation with PGPR is an interesting candidate.We present here an integrated summary of our experimental findings froman analysis of the community of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains in therhizosphere of commercially grown Mentha piperita, including the effectsof inoculation and co-inoculation with different PGPR strains (native andwild type) on total EO yield and glandular trichome density. Thequalitative and quantitative compositions of the main monoterpenes(menthol, menthone, pulegone, limonene and linalool) were alsodetermined to analyze the effects of the volatiles emitted byPGPR rhizobacteria on EO production. The various PGPR strains(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GB03, Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r,Azospirillum brasilense SP7, Pseudomonas putida SJ04-SJ25-SJ48) andco-inoculations evaluated produced significant increases in the productionof EO in peppermint plants, but at different magnitudes. Bacterialinoculants are thus an effective biotechnological tool for stimulating thesecondary metabolism in plants. Application of these techniques maycontribute to environmental conservation, increased crop productivity andsustainable agricultural practices.
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The essential oils extracted from Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cymbopogon martini were analyzed by trapping the volatile organic compounds using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and evaluated their antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) and Sclerotium oryzae Cattan (Magnaporthales: Magnaporthaceae). The major volatile organic constituents of C. flexuosus-citral (22.94%), neral (19.88%), camphene (8.37%), cyclohexene, 1-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl-(R) (5.75%); C. winterianus-citronellal (42.47%), D-limonene (10.86%), geraniol (9.44%), citronellol (6.25%); C. martini-geraniol (43.80%), a-ocimene (10.75%), geranyl acetate (6.35%), 2,6-octadienal, 3,7-dimethyl-(E) (5.83%), were found in concentrations higher than 5.0% (calculated as % peak area of GC-MS analysis using a nonpolar column). In addition, the antifungal tests were also demonstrated that the essential oil of C. flexuosus C. winterianus and C. martini have excellent inhibitory effect against S. oryzae and F. oxysporum. The IC50 values of essential oils from C. flexuosus, C. winterianus and C. martini against at S. oryzae and F. oxysporum were 0.42, 0.41, 1.99 and 0.73, 2.02, 2.01 μL/plate respectively. The significant aroma may be the results of combined 30 volatile organic compounds from essential oils of Cymbopogon species which could be used as safe biocontrol agents to prevent stored product commodities from fungal pathogens.
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The antimicrobial effect of aqueous extract of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on some isolated microorganisms under varying parameters was investigated. Aqueous extract of lemongrass was prepared and its antimicrobial effect was evaluated against isolated bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans) at varying temperature (40, 60 and 80 0 C) and concentration (10-1 , 10-2 , 10-4 , 10-8 and 10-16 mol/L) of the lemongrass aqueous extract shows that the extract was resisted by Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. The aqueous C. citratus was able to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and this inhibition increases as the concentration of the aqueous extract increase irrespective of the temperature of extraction. The aqueous extract of C. citratus is a tremendous antimicrobial substance especially towards Staphylococcus aureus.
Conference Paper
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Fumigation and residual contact toxicity of eugenol and citral standards which are major components in clove and cinnamon, and lemon grass essential oils, respectively, was investigated against adult of the stored product mite Tyrophagus communis Fan & Zhang. The fumigation bioassay was performed with 0 (95% ethanol), 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5 and 1.8 µl/L air essential oils in 25 L fumigation chamber for 1 hr. The residual contact bioassay was carried out with the essential oils at 0 (95% ethanol), 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 µg/cm 2 in glass tubes, sized 0.4 cm in diameter and 3 cm in length covered with filter paper on both ends. The mortalities of mite in both bioassays were observed at 24 hr after the treatments. The results showed that eugenol and citral standards at 1.8 µl/L air resulted in complete mortality in the fumigation bioassay with LC 50 of 1.12 and 1.16 µl/L air, respectively. Besides, residual contact of eugenol and citral standards at 120 µg/cm 2 showed complete mortality with LC 50 value of 70.78 and 72.99 µg/cm 2 , respectively.
Article
Sawtoothed grain beetles, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), cause severe damage to various stored products, reducing their quality and nutritional value. Several chemical pesticides have been introduced to control this pest and mitigate damage, but these pesticides also affect human health and the environment, enticing researchers to seek safer products and technology, such as plant-based products and nanotechnology. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of citronella essential oil and its nanoemulsion in controlling O. surinamensis adults. The citronella essential oil was obtained through hydrodistillation, and analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS based on the GC-MS analysis, the predominant compounds were citronellal (46.95%), citronellol (9.49%), linalool (9.46%), β-caryophyllene (8.39%). The particles size of the prepared nanoemulsion was 57.98 nm. The lethal concentration that causes 50% mortality (LC50) in O. surinamensis adults for the pure essential oil and its nanoemulsion was 10, 15, 20, and 25 µL/L. The nanoemulsion was more effective against both females (LC50 = 20.3 µL/L) and males (LC50 = 15.7 µL/L) than the pure essential oil (LC50 = 40.02 and 52.5 µL/L, respectively). There was a significant difference in toxicity between the pure essential oil and its nanoemulsion. In addition, there were statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) between males and females when using citronella nanoemulsion only. In conclusion, citronella nanoemulsion is effective in controlling O. surinamensis and represents a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for protecting stored products.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: In French Guiana, traditional phytotherapies are an important part of self-healthcare, however, a precise understanding of the interactions between local phytotherapies and biomedicine is lacking. Malaria is still endemic in the transition area between French Guiana and Brazil, and practices of self-treatment, although difficult to detect, have possible consequences on the outcome of public health policies. Aim of the study: The objectives of this research were 1) to document occurences of co-medication (interactions between biomedicine and local phytotherapies) against malaria around Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock (SGO), 2) to quantify and to qualify plant uses against malaria, 3) and to discuss potential effects of such co-medications, in order to improve synergy between community efforts and public health programs in SGO particularly, and in Amazonia more broadly. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 in SGO. Inhabitants of any age and nationality were interviewed using a questionnaire (122 questions) about their knowledge and habits regarding malaria, and their use of plants to prevent and treat it. They were invited to show their potential responses on a poster illustrating the most common antimalarial plants used in the area. In order to correlate plant uses and malaria epidemiology, all participants subsequently received a medical examination, and malaria detection was performed by Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results: A total of 1566 inhabitants were included in the study. Forty-six percent of them declared that they had been infected by malaria at least once, and this rate increased with age. Every person who reported that they had had malaria also indicated that they had taken antimalarial drugs (at least for the last episode), and self-medication against malaria with pharmaceuticals was reported in 142 cases. A total of 550 plant users was recorded (35.1% of the interviewed population). Among them 95.5% associated pharmaceuticals to plants. All plants reported to treat malaria were shared by every cultural group around SGO, but three plants were primarily used by the Palikur: Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus aurantifolia and Siparuna guianensis. Two plants stand out among those used by Creoles: Eryngium foetidum and Quassia amara, although the latter is used by all groups and is by far the most cited plant by every cultural group. Cultivated species accounts for 91.3% of the use reports, while wild taxa account for only 18.4%. Conclusions: This study showed that residents of SGO in French Guiana are relying on both traditional phytotherapies and pharmaceutical drugs to treat malaria. This medical pluralism is to be understood as a form of pragmatism: people are collecting or cultivating plants for medicinal purposes, which is probably more congruent with their respective cultures and highlights the wish for a certain independence of the care process. A better consideration of these practices is thus necessary to improve public health response to malaria.
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As part of ongoing research on the chemical composition and the antimicrobial properties of Burkinabe plants essential oils alone and in combination, essential oils (EOs) from leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus from Burkina Faso were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Five constituents, which accounted for 96.3% of the oil, were identified in the EO of C. citratus. Geranial (48.1%), neral (34.6%) and myrcene (11.0%) were the major constituents. For C. giganteus a total of eight compounds were identified which represented 86.0% of the oils extracted. The dominant compounds were limonene (42%) and a set of monoterpene alcohols: trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (14.2%), cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (12%), trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (5.6%) and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (5.2%). The EOs were tested against nine bacteria by using disc diffusion and microdilution methods. C. giganteus EO showed antimicrobial effects against all microorganisms tested whereas C. citratus EO failed to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the two EOs was quantified by the checkerboard method. Combinations of the two EOs exerted synergistic, additive and indifferent antimicrobial effects. Results of the present investigation provide evidence that the combinations of plant EOs could be assessed for synergistic activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose.
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Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, 4th Edition. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL Is out of print, but you can obtain a free pdf of it at www.juniperus.org
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Pharmacodynamic research plays an important role in the development of new antibacterial agents. Characterization of this pharmacodynamic can be used to design the best dose and dosing strategy for clinical trials. The pharmacodynamic properties can be determined by studying the bactericidal activity and the postantibiotic effects (PAE). Measurements of both bactericidal activity and the lag time could be useful in screening the efficacy of antimicrobial agents. In this study, the pharmacodynamic properties of essential oils from Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass) and Cymbopogon nardus (citronella) as well as the combinations of both essential oils were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. At high concentrations (1.0 × minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and 0.5 × MBC), citronella and lemongrass essential oils alone or in combinations indicate high bactericidal activities toward S. aureus and E. coli, as shown by the decrease of optical absorbance values serially up to 24 h. However, these two essential oils or its combinations at lower concentrations (0.25 × MBC and 0.125 × MBC) showed the bacterial regrowth after 3 and 1 h of exposure time against S. aureus and E. Coli, respectively. Generally, citronella and lemongrass essential oils as well as its combinations indicate a significant lag of regrowth or PAE values which were more than 0.5 h towards both E. coli and S. aureus. This finding suggests that essential oils from Cymbopogon species showed a potential antimicrobial activity that can further be used for clinical treatment; thus, there is need for a study on the possible impact of PAE in the clinical situation.