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We examine the influence of corruption on migration for 111 countries between 1985 and 2000. Robust evidence indicates that corruption is among the push factors of migration, especially fuelling skilled migration. We argue that corruption tends to diminish the returns to education, which is particularly relevant to the better educated.
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... Another set of sending country determinants of migrants' education is the quality of governance in sending countries (e.g., corruption levels) and the quality of political institutions (Ariu et al., 2016;Cooray & Schneider, 2016). Studies focused on OECD destinations found that worse political institutions in the countries of origin can be a push factor for high-skilled emigrants; and less skilled emigrants were more likely to migrate when the corruption level was low (Ariu et al., 2016;Cooray & Schneider, 2016;Dimant et al., 2013). This is perhaps because corruption often led to greater tax burdens for high-income groups, and weak political structures also motivated the high-income groups to migrate (Dimant et al., 2013). ...
... Studies focused on OECD destinations found that worse political institutions in the countries of origin can be a push factor for high-skilled emigrants; and less skilled emigrants were more likely to migrate when the corruption level was low (Ariu et al., 2016;Cooray & Schneider, 2016;Dimant et al., 2013). This is perhaps because corruption often led to greater tax burdens for high-income groups, and weak political structures also motivated the high-income groups to migrate (Dimant et al., 2013). Dutta and Roy (2011) found that good accountability and stability within the political institutions were associated with fewer skilled emigrations for both developed and developing countries of origin. ...
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This paper studies how economic, educational, political, geographic, and demographic factors are associated with immigrant skill selection in South Africa and the USA to test the theories related to immigrant selection in the two different destination countries. I use data from South Africa’s 2011 census and the American Community Survey for 2007–2011. The analytical sample includes immigrants in South Africa and the USA who migrated at age 25 or older from Europe, Africa, and Asia from 1990 to 2011. The study found that the conventional theories in migrant selection do not hold for international migration between developing countries. More extensive Asian Diaspora in South Africa was associated with the emigration of more highly educated Asians. Lower GDP per capita in African countries was associated with more educated emigration to South Africa. The findings also suggest that for developing countries, such as the ones in Africa and Asia, better economic equality and political stability might help prevent brain drain.
... Docquier et al. (2007) find that brain drain increases with political instability, whereas government effectiveness has no significant influence on the composition of the migrant flow. Common ways of measuring political instability and conflict are the number of deaths in civil war (Dimant et al. 2013), number of regime changes (Dreher et al. 2011), irregular transfers of power (Karemera et al. 2000) and number of years in conflict (Naudé 2010). Naudé (2010) investigates the determinants of African migration and finds that armed conflict and lack of job opportunities are the main drivers of migration, whereas Rayp and Ruyssen (2010) investigate whether intra-regional migration in Africa is influenced not only by the level of democracy, but also by the number of years in conflict. ...
... Corruption is another push factor influencing individuals' migration decision. Dimant et al. (2013) find that corruption mostly fuels skilled emigration, because it worsens individuals' living and working conditions and lowers the returns to education. Corruption can lead to higher inequality in access to positions in the public administration and management structure of companies, given that it depends on networking and political connections. ...
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This paper empirically investigates the effects of governance quality on the number of African asylum seekers in Europe over the period 1996–2018 and evaluates the extent to which official development aid acts as a catalyst. With this purpose in mind, different gravity model specifications and estimation approaches have been employed. The obtained results suggest that the asylum flows are strongly determined by governance quality in the country of origin and that this effect does depend on the amount of foreign aid received from developed countries. Moreover, it is also found that development aid is only effective in reducing asylum applications coming from countries with good governance. Moreover, we find no differences in the estimated elasticity of foreign aid on asylum claims for the beneficiaries of the European Union Emergency Trust Fund (EUTF) for Africa, the main aim of which has been to improve living conditions of potential migrants in their countries of origin.
... Higher exposure to corruption is also associated with a weaker political culture overall, including a lower belief in the political system (Caillier, 2010;Seligson, 2002) and lower voter turnout (Carreras & Vera, 2018;Chong et al., 2015). The rising migration of skilled workers (Dimant, Krieger & Meierrieks, 2013;Poprawe, 2015) and the weakening of the judiciary's independence (Buscaglia & Dakolias, 1999;della Porta, 2001) have likewise been identified as potential consequences of political corruption. ...
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... The economic-related motive of corruption is largely underresearched (Dimant et al., 2013;Carling et al., 2015) and has not previously been mentioned in the context of economic migration. Nonetheless, I derived it from the literature especially because Lapshyna (2014) and Poprawe (2015) demonstrate that, while income is a primary motive, corruption is also relevant. ...
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... Rowlands (1999) observes that governance is likely to be an important factor for emigration from poor to wealthy countries. Studies also use corruption as an indicator of political institutions and examine emigration due to corruption (Dimant et al., 2013;Ariu and Squicciarini, 2013;Cooray and Schneider, 2016;Poprawe, 2015). Wong and Celbis (2015) use the level of human rights protection as an indicator of institutions and report that an increase in human rights increases migration by more than fifty percent. ...
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... This topic has attracted interests amongst academicians, researchers and policy makers as it affects economies significantly via different transmission channels such as economic performance, socio-political instability, macroeconomic instability, human capital accumulation and environmental quality. This vast interest has resulted in the various streams of literature on corruption and its consequences on economies (Wei 2000;Tanzi et al. 2002;Aidt 2009;Evrensel 2010;Samimi and Abedini 2012;Dimant et al. 2013;Chiung-Ju 2016;Fredriksson and Neumayer 2016;Arminen and Menegaki 2019). ...
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