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Classification of the Acanthocephala

Authors:
  • Institute of Parasitic Diseases and Parasitology Center

Abstract

In 1985, Amin presented a new system for the classification of the Acanthocephala in Crompton and Nickol's (1985) book 'Biology of the Acanthocephala' and recognized the concepts of Meyer (1931, 1932, 1933) and Van Cleave (1936, 1941, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952). This system became the standard for the taxonomy of this group and remains so to date. Many changes have taken place and many new genera and species, as well as higher taxa, have been described since. An updated version of the 1985 scheme incorporating new concepts in molecular taxonomy, gene sequencing and phylogenetic studies is presented. The hierarchy has undergone a total face lift with Amin's (1987) addition of a new class, Polyacanthocephala (and a new order and family) to remove inconsistencies in the class Palaeacanthocephala. Amin and Ha (2008) added a third order (and a new family) to the Palaeacanthocephala, Heteramorphida, which combines features from the palaeacanthocephalan families Polymorphidae and Heteracanthocephalidae. Other families and subfamilies have been added but some have been eliminated, e.g. the three subfamilies of Arythmacanthidae: Arhythmacanthinae Yamaguti, 1935; Neoacanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1960; and Paracanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1969. Amin (1985) listed 22 families, 122 genera and 903 species (4, 4 and 14 families; 13, 28 and 81 genera; 167, 167 and 569 species in Archiacanthocephala, Eoacanthocephala and Palaeacanthocephala, respectively). The number of taxa listed in the present treatment is 26 families (18% increase), 157 genera (29%), and 1298 species (44%) (4, 4 and 16; 18, 29 and 106; 189, 255 and 845, in the same order), which also includes 1 family, 1 genus and 4 species in the class Polyacanthocephala Amin, 1987, and 3 genera and 5 species in the fossil family Zhijinitidae.
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        
        
        






       
      





      
Echinorhynchus
     


Echinorhynchus
    
       



 

      

       
       




 


      
       
  
  
     



  


     
          
        

     


       

 

   










   

         
     
 

       

    





    

  
 
    

      
       
 
   

        



     


    
       


      
    
   
   

      



        



   
     

         
       
    

    



    
     












    
 
 



 
       


     
       
      
  


        




    
       


      

       

  






       

      
    
  

Rhadinorhynchus ornatus
    Katsuwonus
pelamis ,

  Leptorhynchoides
polycristatus     

       



        




     
      Leptorhynchoides the-
catus    

  




        

    
      
       
        






incertae sedisEchinorhynchussensu lato

          
 











     


     

Apororhynchus
 Arhynchus Neorhynchus 


A. aculeatusnec aculeatum
A. amphistomi
A. bivolucrusnec bivoluerus
 de
A. chauhani
A. hemignathi
nec 
Arhynchus hemignathiNeorhynchus hemignathi

A. paulonucleatusnec
A. silesiacus



Gigantorhynchus

G. echinodiscus
Echinorhynchus echinodiscus
G. lopezneyrainec lopezneirae
G. lutzi
G. ortizi
G. pesteri
G. ungriainec ungariai
Mediorhynchus
Disteganiusnomen nudumEmpodis-
maEmpodius  Heteracan-
thorhynchus  Heteroplus 
Leiperacanthus Micracanthorhynchus 


M. africanus 
Empodius segmentatus 
 Mediorhynchus selengensis M. gallinarum
sensu
 M. africanus    M. gallinarum 

 
         
M. africanusM. galli-
narum Medioryhnchus  
 M. africanusM. gallinarum

M. alecturae



M. cambellensis
M. centurorum
M. channapettae
M. colluricinclae
M. conirostris
M. corcoracis
M. edmondsi
M. emberizae
Echinorhynchus emberizae
nec
M. empodiusnec
Gigantorhynchus empodius  Empodius empo-
dius
M. fatimaae
M. gallinarum
Leiperacanthus gallinarum 
M. gallinarum   Mediorhynchus gallinarum
    M. africanus     

M. gibsoni
M. giganteus
Empodius giganteusEmpodisma
giganteusnec giganteum
M. grandis
Heteroplus grandis
M. indicus
M. kuntzi
M. lagodekhiensis
M. lanius
M. leptis
M. lophuraenec lophura
M. mariae
M. mattei 
M. meiringi
M. micracanthus
 Echinorhynchus alaudae   E. carrucioi 
  E. micracanthus   Micracanthorhyn-
chus micracanthus    Mediorhyn-
chus armenicus
M. mirabilis
Gigantorhynchus mirabilis
M. muritensis
M. nickoli
M. numidae
Heteroplus numidae  Empodisma numidae

M. orientalis
Mediorhynchus bullocki
M.oswaldocruzi
M. otidis
Echinorhynchus otidisHeteroplus otidis
Empodius otidis
; Empodisma otidis
M. pandei 
M. papillosus
Empodius alecturae  Mediorhyn-
chus bakeriM. colini
M. passeris
M. pauciuncinatus
M. peckeri 
M. peruensis 
M. petrochenkoi
M. pintoi
M. quilonensis
M. rajasthanensis
M. najasthanensis  nomen nudum 
M. rajasthanensis
M. robustus
 Mediorhynchus garruli   de  
       
M. sipocotensis
M. rodensis
M. sipocotensisnec sipposotensis nec sipocotense
M. spinaepaucites
M. taeniatus
Echinorhynchus taeniatusE. segmentatus

M. tenuisnec tenue
M. textori 
M. thrushi
M. turdi
M. turnixena
Empodius turnixena
M. vaginatus
Echinorhynchus vaginatus
M. vancleavei
Heteracanthorhynchus vancleavei 
M. wardi
M. zosteropis
Chentrorhynchus zosteropis


Australiformis

Australiformis semoni
Echinorhynchus semoni  Moniliformis se-
moni 
Moniliformis
 Echinorhynchus       Gi-
gantorhynchus Hormorhynchus 


M. acomysi
M. aegyptiacus
M. cestodiformis
 Echinorhynchus cestodiformis    Monili-
formis erinacei
M. clarkinec
Hormorhynchus clarki Moniliformis spiradenta-
tusnec spiradentatisnec spirodentatusde

M. convolutus 
M. echinosorexi
M. gracilis
Echinorhynchus gracilis
M. kalahariensis
M. merionis
M. monechinus
Echinorhynchus monechinus 
M. moniliformis
Echinorhynchus moniliformis  E. grassi 
 E. canis E. belgicus Monili-
formis moniliformis aegypticusM. du-
bius M. travassosi de

M. monoechinus
nec monechinus
M. myoxiincertae sedis
Echinorhynchus myoxi
M. siciliensis
M. m. siciliensisM. pseudoseg-
mentatusspecies inquirenda
M. siciliensisde
M. soricisincertae sedis
 Echinorhynchus soricis   E. appendiculatus



M. spiralis
M. tarsii
M. travassosi
Promoniliformis

Promoniliformis ovocristatus

Echinorhynchus ovocristatus


Cucullanorhynchus

C. constrictruncatus
Heptamegacanthus

H. niekerki
Macracanthorhynchus
EchinorhynchusGigan-
torhynchus

M. catulinus
M. erinacei
M. hirudinaceus
 Taenia haeruca   T. hirudinacea  
Echinorhynchus gigasE. hirudinaceus
Gigantorhynchus gigas G.hirudinaceus
  Hormorhynchus gigas
H. hirudinaceus 
M. ingens
Echinorhynchus hirudinaceus ingensPros-
thenorchis ingens
Multisentis

M. myrmecobius
Neoncicola

N. artibei
N. avicola
Prosthorhynchus avicola
N. bursata
Oncicola bursata
N. curvata
Echinorhynchus curvatus Prosthenorchis
curvatus
N. novellae
 Echinorhynchus novellae   Prosthenorchis no-
vella
N. pintoi
Prosthenorchis pintoi
N. potosi
Prosthenorchis potosi
N. sinensis
N. skrjabini
Oncicola skrjabini
Nephridiacanthus
Nephridiorhynchus

N. gerberi
Oligacanthorhynchus gerbera
N. kamerunensis
 Oligacanthorhynchus kamerunensis   

N. longissimus
 Oligacanthorhynchus longissimus   

N. major
Echinorhynchus majorGigantorhynchus major

N. manisensis
Oligacanthorhynchus manisensis
N. maroccanus
N. palawanensis
 Nephridiorhynchus palawanensis   

N. thapari
Nephridiorhynchus thapari
Oligacanthorhynchus
EchinorhynchusGigan-
torhynchus    Echinopardalis
HamanniellaPardalis
Travassosia

O. aenigma
Echinorhynchus aenigma
O. atratus
Echinopardalis atrata
O. bangalorensis
Echinopardalis bangalorensis
O. carinii
Hamanniella cariniiTravassosia carinii

O. cati
Hamanniella cati
O. circumexus
Echinorhynchus circumexus
O. citilli
Echinorhynchus citilli
O. compressus
Echinorhynchus compressusE. cornicis
E. macracanthus Gigantorhynchus
compressus
O. decrescens
Echinopardalis decrescens
O. erinacei
Echinorhynchus erinaceiE. napaeformis
E. mustelae   E. kerkoides
Prosthorhynchus erinacei  

O. hamatus
Echinorhynchus hamatusGigantorhynchus
hamatusNephridiacanthus hamatus

O. iheringi
Echinorhynchus lagenaeformis
O. indicus
O. kamtschaticus
O. lagenaeformis
 Echinorhynchus lagenaeformis  E. falconis
cyanei
O. lamasi
Echinopardalis lamasi
O. lerouxi
Echinopardalis lerouxi
O. macrurae
Echinopardalis macrurae
O. major
Macracanthorhynchus major
O. manifestus
Echinorhynchus manifestus
O. mariemilyi
Echinopardalis mariemilyi
O. microcephala



Echinorhynchus microcephala   Hamanniella
microcephala
O. minor
O. nickoli
O. oligacanthus
Echinorhynchus oligacanthus
O. oti
O. pardalis
Echinorhynchus pardalis  Pardalis pardalis
   Echinopardalis pardalis 

O. ricinoides
Echinorhynchus ricinoides  E. charadriiplu-
rialis   E. coraciae   
E. macracanthus
O. shillongensis
Nephridiacanthus shillongensis
O. spira
Echinorhynchus spiraE. uromasticus
 Gigantorhynchus aurae
O. taenioides
 Echinorhynchus oligacanthoides    
E. taenioides
O. thumbi
O. tortuosa
Echinorhynchus tortuosa  Hamanniella tortuosa

O. tumida
 Travassosia tumida    Hamanniella tumida

Oncicola 

O. campanulata
Echinorhynchus campanulataEchinorhynchus
ovatus
O. canis
Echinorhynchus canis
O. chibigouzouensis
O. confusa
Prosthenorchis confususnec confusus
O. dimorpha
O. freitasi
Prosthenorchis freitasi
O. gigas
O. juxtatesticularis
Prosthenorchis justatesticularis 
O. luehei
Prosthenorchis luehei
O. machadoi
Prosthenorchis travassosi
O. macrurae
Echinopardalis macrurae
O. magalhaesi
O. malayanus
O. martini
O. michaelseni
O. micracantha
O. oncicola
Echinorhynchus oncicola 
O. paracampanulata
O. pomatostomi 
Echinorhynchus pomatostomiOli-
gacanthorhynchus pomatostomi 

O. schacheri
O. sigmoides
Prosthenorchis sigmoides
O. spirula
Echinorhynchus spirulaProsthenor-
chis spirula  P. elegans

O. travassosi
O. venezuelensis
Pachysentis

P. angolensis 
Oncicola angolensis
P. canicolade
P. dollfusi
Prosthenorchis dollfusi
P. ehrenbergi
P. gethi
Prosthenorchis gethi
P. lenti
Prosthenorchis lenti
P. procumbens
P. procyonis
Prosthenorchis procyonis
P. rugosus
Prosthenorchis rugosus 
P. septemserialis
Prosthenorchis septemserialis
Paraprosthenorchis

P. ornatus
Prosthenorchis

P. elegans
Echinorhynchus elegans 
P. fraterna
Oncicola fraterna
P. lemuri
P. elegans 
P. pardalis nomen nudum
P. sinicus
Tchadorhynchus

T. quentini






Acanthogyrus
Hemigyrus
Acanthogyrus

A.Aacanthogyrus
Acanthogyrus guptaide
A.Atripathiinec tripathi
Acanthosentis



A. A. acanthuri
Acanthosentis acanthuriA. acanthuri



AA.adriaticus
Acanthogyrus lizae
A. A. alternatspinus
A. A. anguillae
Acanthosentis anguillae
A. A. antespinus

antspinus nec an-
tespinis
 Acanthosentis antspinus    A. antspinus
        A. oligospinus

AA. arii 
Acanthosentis arii
A A. bacailai
Acanthosentis bacailai
A. A barmeshoori
A. A betwainec 
Acanthosentis betwai
A.A. bilaspurensis
Acanthosentis bilaspurensis 
A. Acommersoninec cammersoni
Acanthosentis cameroni
A.A. cheni
Acanthosentis coiliae
Neoechinorhynchus coiliae
A.A. dattainec 
Acanthosentis dattaiA. dattai

A.A. giuris
Acanthosentis giuris
A.A. gobindi
Acanthosentis gobindi
A.A. golvani
Acanthosentis golvani
A. A. heterospinus
A. A holospinus
Acanthosentis holospinusA. holospinus

A. A indica
Acanthosentis hilsaiA. indicusA. in-
dica
A. A intermedius

 Hemigyrus intermedius   
Acanthocephalorhynchoides intermedius 

A. A. lizae
A. A malawiensis
A. A maroccanus
 Acanthosentis maroccanus   A. maroccanus

AA.multispinus
Acanthosentis multispinus
A. A nigeriensis
Acanthosentis nigeriensis
A. A papilo
Acanthosentis papilo
A. A parareceptaclis 
AA. partispinus 
Acanthosentis partispinus
A. A. paucispinus 
A. A periophthalmi
Acanthosentis periophthalmi 
A. A phillipi
Acanthosentis phillipi
A. A putitorae
Acanthosentis putitorae
A. A scomberomori 
Acanthosentisscomberomori 
A. A seenghalae
Acanthosentis seenghalae
A. A shashiensis
Acanthosentis shashiensis 
A. A shuklai
Acanthosentis shuklai
A. A siamensis
Acanthosentis siamensis
A. A similis
Acanthogyrus AcanthosentisAcanthosentis
similis
A. A sircari 
Acanthosentis sircariA. sircari

A. A. thapari 
Acanthosentis thapari
A. A tilapiae 
Acanthosentis tilapiae
A. A tripathi
A. A. vancleavei
Acanthosentis vancleavei 
A. A vittatusi
Acanthosentis vittatusi
Palliolisentis

P. ornatus
P. polyonca
P. quinqueungulis
Pallisentis
DevendrosentisFarzan-
dia  Neosentis  Saccosentis

 

Brevitritospinus



P. B allahabadi
P. buckleyinec allahabadii
P. B. cavasii
P. B. croftoni
P. B. fasciatinec fasciata
P. B fotedari
P. B. guntei
P. B. indica
P. B. jagani
P. B. mehrai
P. B. vietnamensis
Pallisentis ophiocephali 
P. vietnamensisP. ophiocephali




Demidueterospinus



P. D. basiri
P. D. ophiocephalus
 Farzandia ophiocephali   Pallisentis magnum
nec ophiocephali
P. D. panadei
Pallisentis sensu stricto





P. P.celatus
Neosentis celatusnec cleatus
P. P. cholodkowskyi 
 Quadrigyruscholodkowskyi   Acanthogyrus
cholodkowskyi     Acanthocephalyn-
choidescholodkowskyi      

P. P chongqingensis
P. P. colisai
P. panadeiP. buckley
P. P. clupei
P. P.gaboes 
 Echinorhynchus gaboes   Pallisentis Far-
zandia gaboes
P. P. garuai
nec
Devendrosentis garuai
P. P. gomtii
P. P. guptai
P. P. jagani
P. P. kalriai
P. P. magnum
P. P. nagpurensis
 Pallisentis Farzandia nagpurensis   

P. P.nandai
P. P. pesteri
Saccosentis pesteri
P. P. rexus
P. P. sindensis
P. P. umbellatus
P. P. ussuriense
Acanthocephalorhynchoides ussuriense
Pararaosentis


P. golvani

Pallisentis golvaniPallisentis
tetraodontae 

P. tetraodontaeP. golvani
 P. tetraodontae
P. golvani 
Raosentis

R. dattai
R. godavarensis
R. ivaniosi
R. podderi
R. thapari
Triaspiron

T. aphanii

Acanthodelta
nec Acanthrodelta
 Deltacanthus    
Deltania

A. scorzai

Deltania scorzaiDelta-
canthus scorzai

Machadosentis 

M. travassosi
Quadrigyrus 

Q. brasiliensis
Q. chinensis
Q. guptai
Q. machadoi
Q. nickoli
Q. polyspinosus
Q. rhodei
Q. simhai
Q. torquatus
Q. torquatus 
de




Dendronucleata

D. americana
D. dogieli
D. petruschewskii


     



Atactorhynchus

A. duranguensis

A. verecundus
Floridosentis

FloridosentisFloridosentis
       


F. mugilis
 Atactorhynchus mugilis    Floridosentis
elongatus
F. pacica
Tanaorhamphus

T. longirostris
Neorhynchus longirostris Neoechinorhyn-
chus longirostris

Eocollis

E. arcanus
E. catostomi
E. harengulae



Gracilisentis

G. gracilisentis
Neorhynchus gracilisentis Neoechinorhyn-
chus gracilisentis
G. mugilus nec mugilis
Gracilisentis mugilussharmai
G. sharmai
G. variabilis 
Echinorhynchus variabilis
Pandosentis 

P. iracundus
P. napoensis
Wolffhugelia

W. matercula


Dispiron

D. catlai
D. heteroacanthus
D. mugilisnec mugili
Gorytocephalus

G. elongorchis
G. plecostomorum
G. spectabilis
Neoechinorhynchus spectabilis 
G. talaensis
Hexaspiron

H. nigericum
nec nigeriensis
H. spinibarbi 
Microsentis

M. wardae
Neoechinorhynchus
 Echinorhynchus     Eo-
rhynchus  Neorhynchus Eo-
sentis



Neoechinorhynchus


N.N. africanus
N. N armenicus
N. N.ascus
N. N australisnec australe
N. N. beringianus
N. N. brentnickoli

N. N.buckneri
N. N buttnerae
N. N carassiinec 
N. N. carpiodi
N. N. chelonos
N. N.chilkaensis
Neoechinorhynchus elongatus
de
N. N. chimalapasensis
N. N. crassusnec crassum
N. N. cristatusnec cristatum
N. N. curemai
N. N. cylindratus
Neorhynchus cylindratusnec cylindratum
N. N. dattai
Neoechinorhynchus rutili
nec
N. N.dimorphospinus
N. N. distractus
Neoechinorhynchus australis
nec distractum
N. N.dorsovaginatus
N. N. edmondsi
Neoechinorhynchus agilis 
N. N emydisnec 
 Echinorhynchus emydis   E. hamulatus 

N. N.emyditoides
Neoechinorhynchus emydis 
nec
N. N formosanus
Eosentis formosanus
nec formosanumnec formosans
N. N. gibsoni
errgilbesonide
N. N.golvani
       
  N. golvani       
  
N. N. brentnickoli 
  N. golvani 
        

N. N. hartwichi
Neoechinorhynchus australis 
N. N iraqensis
N. N. johniinec johni
N. N. limi
N. N longnucleatus 
N. N. macronucleatus
nec macronucleatum
N. N magnapapillatus
N. N mamesi

N. brentnickoliN. golvani

cox1
N. N. moleri
N. N nawazi
N. N. nickoli

N. N. notemigoni
N. N. panucensis
N. N. paraguayensis
Echinorhynchus paucihamatum
nec paraguayense
N. N. pimelodi
N. N. plagiognathopitis
N. N. plaquensis
N. N. prochilodorum
N. N. prolixoides



N. N. prolixusnec prolixum
N. N. pseudemydis
Neoechinorhynchus constrictus
 N. pseu-
demydis     N. emydisN. emyditoides  

N. (N.) pterodoridis
N. N. qatarensis
N. N. quinghaiensisnec 
N. N. rigidus
Eosentis rigidusnec rigidumnec rigidis
N. N. robertbaueri 
N. N.roseum
nec 
N. N. rutili
Echinorhynchus rutili
N. N.salmonis
N. salmonis


N. N. saurogobi
N. N. schmidti
N. N. strigosus nec strigosum
N. N.stunkardivide
N. N. sootai
N. N. tenellus
Neorhynchus tenellusnec tenellum
N. N. tumidusnec tumidum
N. N. tylosuri
Neoechinorhynchus asymetricus
N. N venustusnec venustum
N. N.villoldoi
N. N. wuyiensis
N. N. zabensis
Hebesoma


N. H. agilis
Echinorhynchus agilis
  N. agilisNeorhadinorhyn-
chus macrospinosusRhadinorhynchus pristis 




N. (H.) anguillum
N. H. carinatus
N. H. chrysemydis
N. Hdidelphis
N. H. doryphorus
nec doryphorum
N. H. idahoensis
N. (H.) kallarensis
N. H. lingulatus
N. H. manasbalensisnec manasbalense
N. H. manubrianusnec manubriensis
N. H. pungitius
N. Hrostratus
N. Hviolentus
nec violentum
   Neoechinorhynchus  

N. afghanus
N. ampullata
N. aldrichettae
N. argentatus
N. bangoni
N. brayi
N. cirrhinae
N. coiliae
N. cyanophlycticnec cyanophyctis
N. devdevi
 Eosentis yalei   Neoechinorhynchus yalei 
de
N. glyptosternumi

N. hutchinsoni
N. ichthyobori
N. indicus
N. karachiensis
N. longilemniscus
N. longiorchis
N. magnus
N. nematalosi
N. nigeriensis
N. ningalooensis 
N. octonucleatusnec octonucleatum
N. oreini
N. ovalisnec ovale
N. roonwali
N. saginatusnec saginatum
N. satori
N. simansularis
N. sinicus
N. topseyi
N. tsintaoensisnec tsintaoense
N. zacconis
Octospinifer

O. macilentus
O. rohitaii
O. torosus
O. variabilis
Echinorhynchus variabilis
Octospiniferoides

O. australis
O. chandleri
O. incognita
Paraechinorhynchus

P. kalriai
Paulisentis

P. fractus
P. missouriensis
Zeylonechinorhynchus

Z. longinuchalis

Paratenuisentis

P. ambiguus

Tanaorhamphus ambiguus 


   P. ambiguus     
        
   
      
  
   
        
   
P. kenyensis

Tenuisentis

T. niloticus
Rhadinorhynchus niloticus

       



  

   
Gorgo-
rhynchoides  Serrasentis      





        


Acanthocephaloides
NeoacanthocephaloidesPseudo-
rhynchusYamagutisentis

A. claviformis
A. cyrusi
A. delamuri
Yamagutisentis delamuri
A. distinctus
A. geneticus
A. ichiharai
A. incrassatus
A. irregularis
A. neobythitis
Neoacanthocephaloides neobythitisPseudor-
hadinorhynchus neobythitis   Yamagutisentis neo-
bythitis
A. nicoli 
Yamagutisentis nicoli
A. plagiusae 
A. propinquus
 Echinorynchus propinquus   E. fabri 
  E. kostylewi   E. pumilio  
nec propinguus
A. rhinoplagusiae 
Yamagutisentis rhinoplagusiae
nec rhynoplagusiae
A. spinicaudatus
Neoacanthocephaloidesspinicaudatus
Bolborhynchoides  

Bolborhynchus 
Fresnyarhynchus

B. exiguus

Bolborhynchus exiguus
Fresnyarhynchus exiguous   

Breizacanthus

B. aznari 

B. chabaudei
B. golvani
B. irenae
B. ligur
Euzetacanthus

E. chorinemusi
E. golvani 
E. simplex
 Echinorynchus simplex  E. triglae gurnardi

Heterosentis
Arhythmacanthus

H. brasiliensis
H. fusiformis
Arhythmacanthus fusiformis
H. heteracanthus

Echinorhynchus heteracanthus  
nec hetracanthus
H. hirsutus
H. holospinus
H. martini
H. mysturi
H. overstreeti
Arhythmacanthus overstreeti 
H. paraplagusiarum
Arhythmacanthus paraplagusiarum
H. parasiluri
H. plotosi
Arhythmacanthus plotosi
H. pseudobagri
H. septacanthus
Arhythmacanthus septacanthus
H. thapari
Arhythmacanthus thapari
H. zdzitowieckii
Arhythmacanthus zdzitowieckii
Hypoechinorhynchus
Hypoechinorhynchus  


H. alaeopis
H. golvani
H. magellanicus
H. robustus
H. thermaceri
Paracanthocephaloides

P. cabelleroi Het-
erosentis cabelleroi
P. chabanaudi
Acanthocephaloides chabanaudi
P. golvani 
P. incrassatus



Echinorynchus incrassatusE. devisiana
E. avusAcanthocephaloides incrassatus
de
P. tripathii
Heterosentis plotosi 
Solearhynchus 

S. kostylewi
Paracanthocephaloides kostylewi Acanthocepha-
loides kostylewi
S. soleae
Acanthocephaloides rhytidotes  
  Echinorynchus aurantiacus  
E. corrogatus  E. rhytidotes 
E. soleaeAcanthocephaloides soleae
 Paracanthocephaloides soleae  
  Solearhynchus rhytidotes   

Spiracanthus

S. bovichthys


Caballerorhynchus

C. lamothei
Cavisoma

C. magnum
Oligoterorhynchus magnus
Echinorhynchoides  


E. dogieli

 Neorhadinorhynchusdogieli   

Femogibbosus 

F. assi
Filisoma

F. acanthocybii
F. atropt
F. buceriumnec bucerinum
F. dum
F. liformis
F. indicum
Filisoma hoogliensis
F. inglisi
F. longcementglandatus
F. microcanthinec micracanthinec macrocanthi
F. oplegnathi
F. rizalinum
F. scatophagusi 
Megapriapus   


M. ungriai 
Echinorhynchus ungriai
Neorhadinorhynchus
 Neogorgorhychus  Diplosentis de


N. aspinosus

Rhadinorhynchus aspinosusNeogor-
gorhynchus aspinosusPararhadi-
norhynchus aspinosus
nec aspinosum
N. atlanticus
N. atypicalis
N. macrospinosus
N. madagascariensis
N. myctophumi
N. nudus
 Rhadinorhynchus nudus   Neogorgorhynchus
nudusNipporhynchus nudus
      Echinorhynchus nudus
nec nudum
Paracavisoma

P. impudica
Echinorhynchus impudicusnec impudicum
Pseudocavisoma
Rhadinorhynchoides

P. chromitidis

Cavisoma chromitidisRhadinorhynchus
chromitidis
Rhadinorhynchoides

R. miyagawai




Allorhadinorhynchus

A. segmentatusnec segmentatum
Golvanorhynchus 

G. golvani

Amapacanthus   


A. amazonicus 

Diplosentis

D. amphacanthi
D. manteri
Pararhadinorhynchus

P. coorongensis
P. mugilis




Circinatechinorhynchus

C. pseudorhombi

Acanthocephalus
 Paracanthocephalus   
 Pseudoechinorhynchus


A. acutispinus 
A. acutulus 
A. alabamensis
Acanthocephalus etowani
A. etowani 

A. amini
A. anguillae
Echinorynchus anguillaeE. globulosus 
 E. linstowi E. paronai 
E. proteusAcanthocephalus paronai
de
A. anthuris
Echinorynchus anthuris
A. atratusnec aratus
 Acanthocephalus lucidus de   de 

A. balkanicus
A. clavula
nec
Echinorynchus clavula 
A. correalimai
A. criniae
A. curtus

Paracanthocephalus curtus
Acanthocephalus amuriensis
A. dirus
Echinorynchus dirusAcanthocephalus
jacksoniA. parksidei
A. domerguei
A. echigoensis
Acanthocephalus acerbusA. aculeatus
deA. onchorhynchi
A. elongatus
A. falcatus
Echinorynchus falcatus
A. uviatilisnec uviatilus
A. galaxiinec
A. goaensis
A. gotoi
A. gracilacanthus
 Paracanthocephalusgracilacanthus   

A. halongensis
A. haranti
A. hastae
A. japonicus
Filisoma japonicum   Acanthocepha-
loides japonicus 
A. kabulensis 
A. kashmirensis
A. lizus
A. loktakensis
A. lucii
Echinorynchus luciiE. angustus
E. blennii 
A. madagascariensis
A. manipurensis
A. minor
A. nanus
A. nickoli
A. opsariichthydisnec opsalichtydis nec opsalich-
thydisvide
A. parallelotestis
A. pesteri
A. ranae
 Echinorynchus ranae   E haeruca 
Acanthocephalus praetextusde
A. rauschi
Paracanthocephalus rauschiA. rauschi

A. reunionensis
A. rhinensis
A. saurius
A. serendibensis
A. sichuanensis
A. sinensis 
A. srilankensis
A. tahlequahensis
A. tenuirostris

 Paracanthocephalus tenuirostris   

A. tigrinae
Echinorynchus tigrinae
A. tumescens
Echinorynchus tumescens
A. ula
Anuracanthorhynchus


A. tritaxisentis

Brasacanthus

B. sphoeroides
Echinorhynchus 
MetechinorhynchusPseudoechino-
rhynchus






E. abyssicola
E. alpinus
E. armoricanus
E. attenuatusnec nec 
E. baeri
 Echinorhynchus sevangi   Metechinorhynchus
baeri
E. bothniensis
   E. both-
niensis    
Mysis 

E. brayi
E. briconi
 Metechinorhynchus brinconi    

E. calloti



E. canyonensisnec
E. cestodicola
E. cherchiaenecchierchiae
E. cinctulus
 Pseudoechinorhynchus cinctulus  
E. borealis 
E. coregoni
EchinorhynchusMetechinorhynchuscoregoni 

E. cotti
E. cryophilus
Metechinorhynchus cryophilus 
E. dissimilis
E. gadi
Echinorhynchus acusE. gadicallariae
E. gadiverentisE. hepaticola 
E. lineolatusE. lophiiE. socialis
 E. vancleavei   E. wachniae  
        
E. gadi E. salmonis
   

 E. gadi

       

E. gadi
Gadus morhua
    

E. gadi

   E. gadi
     
G. m. morhueG. m. callarias
E. gomesi
 Metechinorhynchus gomesi    

E. gracilis
E. gymnocyprii
E. hexagrammi
E. indicus
E. jucundus
Metechinorhynchus jucundum  

E. kushiroensis
 Metechinorhynchuskushiroensis   

E. lageniformis
Metechinorhynchus lageniformis

E. laurentianus
E. leidyi
Metechinorhynchus leidyi
E. lenoki
 Pseudoechinorhynchus lenoki   

E. lesteri
E. longiproboscis
E. lotellae
E. malacocephali
Metechinorhynchus malacocephali
E. melanoglaeae 
E. monticelli
 Pseudoechinorhynchus monticelli  

E. muraenolepisi
Metechinorhynchus muraenolepisi
E. oblitus
E. orientalis
E. paranensis
Metechinorhynchus paranensis

E. parasiluri
Pseudoechinorhynchus parasiluri  

E. petrotschenkoi
Metechinorhynchus petrotschenkoiEchinorhyn-
chus georgianusE. nototheniae

E. rhenanus
Metechinorhynchus rhenanus
E. salmonis
E. alpinusE. coregoni
E. murenaeE. pachysomusE. phoe-
nixMetechinorhynchus alpinus
 M. salmonis
   
E. salmonis
   
 Acanthocephalus clavula Acanthocephalus
lucii     Pontoporeia afnis 

E. salobrensis
Metechinorhynchus salobrensis

E. sebastolobi
E. sevani
 Echinorhynchus metechinorhynchus sevani  
nec sevangi
E. theragrae
E. trachyrinci
E. truttae
Metechinorhynchus truttae
E. vancleavei
EchinorhynchusEchinorhynchusvancleavei 
E. veli nec 
E. yamagutii
Frilloechinorhynchus


F. meyeri
Echinorhynchoides meyeri 
Pilum

P. pilum
Pseudoacanthocephalus
   
Pseudoacanthocephalus


   
      P. nickoli
P. smalesi   


P. betsileo
P. bigueti
Acanthocephalus bigueti
P. bufonicola
Acanthocephalus bufonicola 
nec bufonincola
P. bufonis
Echinorhynchus bufonis  Acanthocephalus bu-
fonis
A. breviprostatusA. sinensis
P. caspanensis

Acanthocephalus caspanensis
P. caucasicus
Acanthocephalus caucasicus 
P. elongatus
P. lutzi 


 Echinorhynchus lutzi   Acanthocephalus lut-
zi     Acanthocephalus saopaulensis
Pseudoacanthocephalus saopaulensis

P. nguyenthileae
P. nickoli
P. paratiensis
P. perthensis
P. rauschi
P. reesei
P. rhampholeonotos
P. shillongensis 
P. smalesi
P. xenopeltidis
Echinorhynchus xenopeltidis

Fessisentis

F. acutulus
Acanthocephalus acutulus
F. fessus
F. friedi
Fessisentis vancleavei
F. necturorum
F. tichiganensis
F. vancleavei nec vancleavi
Acanthocephalus vancleavei


Aspersentis
Heteracanthocephalus

A. austrinus
Heteracanthocephalus hureaui 
Aspersentis megarhynchus
A. wheeleri     Echinorhynchus mega-
rhynchus    Rhadinorhynchus wheeleri 

A. dissosthychi
Heteracanthocephalus dissosthychi
A. johni
Rhadinorhynchus johni
A. megarhynchus
Aspersentis wheeleri
A. minor 
A. peltorhampi
 Rhadinorhynchuspeltorhampi   Heteracan-
thocephalus peltorhampi
A. zanclorhynchi
 Echinorhynchus zanclorhynchi    
nec zanchlorhynchi nec zanchlorhynchus

Bullockrhynchus   


B. indicus 

Sachalinorhynchus    


S. skrjabini


Brentisentis

B. chongqingensis
B. uncinus
B. yangtzensis
Dentitruncus

D. truttae
Dollfusentis

D. bravoae
D. chandleri
Telosentis tenuicornis
Echinorhynchuspristis tenuicornis    Rhadinor-
hynchus tenuicornisR. tenuicornis

D. ctenorhynchus
Illiosentis ctenorhynchus 
D. heteracanthus
Illiosentis heteracanthus  

D. longispinus

Telosentis tenuicornis ; Rhadi-
norhynchus tenuicornis Illiosentis
longispinus 
D. salgadoi
Goacanthus

G. panajiensis
Indorhynchus

I. indicus
Rhadinorhynchus indicus
I. pseudobagri
Koronacantha


K. mexicana 
K. pectinarius

Tegorhynchus pectinarius
Metarhadinorhynchus

M. cyprini
Rhadinorhynchus arri   R. cyprini 

M. echeneisi
M. lateolabracis
M. thapari
M. valiyathurae
Paradentitruncus

P. longireceptaculis
Pseudorhadinorhynchus

Hemirhadinorhynchus 

P. cinereus
P. cochinensis



P. deeghai 
P. dhari
P. dussamicitatum
P. ernakulensis
P. guptai
P. leuciscus
Hemirhadinorhynchus leuciscus
P. machidai 
P. markewitschi
nec markewitchi
P. mujibi
P. nandai
P. orissai
P. pseudaspii
P. salmothymi

P. samegaiensisnec samegainensis
P. srivastavai
P. vietnamensis
Tegorhynchus
Illiosentis

T. africanus
Illiosentis furcatus africanus
T. brevis
T. cetratus
Illiosentis cetratusnec centratus
T. edmondsi
Illiosentis edmondsi
T. furcatus
Illiosentis furcatus
T. holospinosus
T. pectinarius
Telosentis pectinarius
Telosentis

T. australiensis
T. exiguus
Echinorhynchus exiguus
T. lutianusi
T. mizellei
T. molini
Echinorhynchus acanthosoma  E. atherinae


Isthmosacanthus

Isthmosacanthus tzroyensis 
Gorgorhyn-
choides      Golvanorhynchus 


 
         
        
      
       
       

Rhadinohynchus
    R. dollfusi  R. echeneisi 
 R. capensisR. trivandricus
       



Longicollum
SpiracanthorhynchusSpirorhynchoides
Spirorhynchus

L. alemniscus 
Spirorhynchus alemniscus   Longicollum minor
Spiracanthorhynchus alemniscus 

L. cadenati
L. chabanaudi
L. dattai 
L. edmondsi
Longicollum pagrosomi 
L. engraulisi
L. indicum 
L. lutianinec lutjani
L. noellae 
L. pagrosominec pagrosoma
L. psettodainec psettodsai
L. quiloni
L. riouxi
Paralongicollum

P. nemacheili
P. sergenti
Tenuiproboscis sergenti Longicol-
lum sergenti
Pomphorhynchus

P. bosniacus
P. bufonis
P. bulbocolli
P. bullocki
P. cylindricanec cylinderica
P. dubious
P. francoisae 
P. intermedius 
P. jammuensis
P. kashmirensis
P. kawi
P. kostylewi
P. laevis
Echinorhynchus proteusnec leave
   
  P. laevis  
       
        
         

P. laevis
  
P. laevis  P. tereticollis
 P. laevis  
 P. laevis 
           

 P. laevis  P. tereticollis

P. lucyi
P. megacanthus
P. moyanoi
P. omarsegundoi
P. oreininecde
P. orientalisnecde
P. patagonicus
P. perforator


Echinorhynchus perforator
P. rocci
P. sebastichthydis
P. sphaericus
Pomphorhynchus patii
P. spindletruncatus
P. tereticollis 
 Echinorhynchus tereticollis   E. attenuatus
Pomphorhynchus dobulaeE. longicol-
lisE. piscinusnec tereti-
colle
P. torinec de
P. yamagutii
P. yunnanensis
Pyriproboscis

P. heronensis

Pomphorhynchus heronensis
Tenuiproboscis

T. bilqeesae
T. clupei
T. edmondi
T. ernakulensis
T. guptai
T. meyeri
T. misgurni


    


Golvanacanthus 

G. blennii
Golvanacanthus problematicus  
nec



Australorhynchus

A. tetramorphacanthus
Cleaveius
Mehrarhynchus

C. circumspinifer
nec circulspinifer
C. clupei
Mehrarhynchus clupei
C. durdanae
C. fotedari
Mehrarhynchus fotedari
C. inglisi
Mehrarhynchus inglisi
C. leiognathi
C. longirostris
C. mysti
Mehrarhynchus mysti
C. portblairensis
C. prashadi
Mehrarhynchus prashadi
C. puriensis
Mehrarhynchus puriensis
C. secundus 
Mehrarhynchus secundus
C. singhai
Mehrarhynchus singhai
C.thapari
Mehrarhynchus thapari
Edmondsacanthus

E. blairi 
Gorgorhynchoides
   Gorgorhynchoides  
    
 

G. bullocki
G. cablei
Neogorgorhynchoides cablei 
G. elongatus
G. epinepheli
G. golvani

Paracanthocephaloides golvani

G. indicus
G. lintoni
G. orientalis
Sphaerirostris orientalis de
Gorgorhynchus
Neoacanthorhynchus
G. celebensis
Rhadinorhynchus celebensis
G. clavatus
Gorgorhynchus cablei
G. lepidus
G. medius
Echinorhynchus mediusRhadinorhynchus me-
diusGorgorhynchus gibber

G. nemipteri
G. ophiocephali
G. polymixiae
G. robertdollfusi
G. satoi
Neoacanthorhynchus satoiGorgorhynchoides
satoi
G. tonkinensis
G. trachinotus
G. valiyanthurae 
Metarhadinorhynchus valiyanthurae


Leptorhynchoides
Pleurorhynchus
  
. 
  Leptorhynchoides  Pseudoleptorhynchoides  
 


L. aphredoderi
L. polycristatus 
L. plagicephalus



 Echinorhynchus plagicephalus   E. husonis
E. acipenseris rutheni 
L. thecatus
Echinorhynchus thecatus
 
Leptorhynchoidesthecatus cox 1


Metacanthocephaloides 

M. zebrini 
Metacanthocephalus 

M. campbelli
Leptorhynchoides campbelli 
Echinorhynchus campbelli
E. rennickiMetechinorhynchus
campbelli
M. dalmori
M. johnstoni
 Leptorhynchoides campbelli     

M. ovicephalus
Leptorhynchoides ovicephalus
M. pleuronichthydis
M. rennicki
Echinorhynchus rennicki E. deben-
hamiLeptorhynchoides debenhami 

Micracanthorhynchina
Bolbosentis Micracanthocephalus
Micracanthorhynchus

M. chandrai 
Hanumantharaorhynchus hemirhamphi 
M. cynoglossi
M. dakusuiensis
M. golvani
M. hemiculturusnec hemicultrus
M. hemirhamphi
Micracanthocephalus hemirhamphi
M. indica
M. kuwaitensis
M. lateolabracis
M. motomurai
Micracanthorhynchus motomurai
M. sajori
Bolbosentis sajori
Paracanthorhynchus

P. galaxiasus
Pseudauchen

P. epinepheli
Rhadinorhynchus epinepheliGorgorhynchus
epinephalinec epinephali
Pseudoleptorhynchoides

P. lamothei
Sclerocollum

SclerocollumNeorhadinorhynchusDiplosentis
  

  

   
Sclerocollum

S. robustum
NeogorgorhynchusrobustusNeorhadinorhyn-
chus robustus
S. rubrimaris
S. saudi

Cathayacanthus

C. bagarii
C.exilis
Rhadinorhynchus exilis
Corynosomoides

C. hemibargi
Megistacantha

M. horridum
Rhadinorhynchus horridus
Neogorgorhynchoides

N. cablei
Paragorgorhynchus

P. albertianus
P. chariensis
Pseudogorgorhynchus


P. arii
Raorhynchus
RaorhynchusRhadinorhynchus

       Rhadinorhynchus

    


  Raorhynchus      
Rhadinorhynchus    
Raorhynchus

R. cadenati
R. guptai
R. inexspectatusnec inexpectatus
R. megalaspisi
R. meyeri
Rhadinorhynchus meyeri
R. polynemi
R. schmidti
R. terebra
 Echinorhynchus terebra   Rhadinorhynchus
terebra
R. thapari
Rhadinorhynchus
Echinosoma  Nipporhynchus
Protorhadinorhynchus


  Rhadinorhynchus   



R. africanus
Nipporhynchus africanus
R. atheri
Nipporhynchus atheri
R. bicircumspinis
R. cadenati
Nipporhynchus cadenati
R. camerounensis
R. capensis
R. carangis
R. chongmingnensis
R. cololabis
R. decapteri
R. ditrematis
Nipporhynchusditrematis Pro-
torhadinorhynchus ditrematis
R. dollfusi
R. dorsoventrospinosus
Rhadinorhynchus dorsoventrospinosus     

R. dujardini 
Rhadinorhynchus pristis
R. echeneisi 
R. erumeii
Nipporhynchus erumeii
R. ganapatii
R. hiansi
R. japonicusnec japonicum
R. johnstoni
Rhadinorhynchus pristis
R. keralensis
R. laterospinosus
R. lintoni
Rhadinorhynchus pristis 
R. ornatus
 Rhadinorhynchus pristis    R. katsuwonis

R. pelamysi
R. plagioscionis
R. plotosi
R. polynemi
R. pristis
Echinorhynchus pristisE. alosae 
Rhadinorhynchus selkirkiR. subulatus

R. salatrix 
R. selkirki
Rhadinorhynchus pristis 
R. seriolae
 Nipporhynchus seriolae   Rhadinorhynchus
pristis 
R. stunkardinec stunkardii
R. trachuri 
Nipporhynchus trachuri  
Rhadinorhynchus japonicusR. selkirki
de
R. trivandricus
R. vancleavei
R. zhukovi
Rhadinorhynchus pristis 
Slendrorhynchus
Diplosentidae

S. breviclaviproboscis

Serrasentis
 Echinorhynchus   Echinogaster
 Echinosoma   Lepido-
somanec Serracentis
Serrasentis    
       


S. chauhani
S. engraulisi
S. fotedari
S. golvani
S. lamelliger
Echinorhynchus lamelligerLepidosoma lamel-
liger
S. manazo
S. mujibi
S. nadakali
S. niger
S. psenesi
S. sagittifer
 Echinorhynchus sagittifer   Echinogaster sagit-
tifer     Serrasentis socialis 
necS. chauhaniS. longa
S. longiformisS. giganticus
S. scomberomori
S. sauridae
S. sciaenusnec scianis
S. sidaroszakaio

Serrasentoides

S. stulariae

Pararhadinorhynchus
     
Sclerocollum
Trajectura

T. ikedai
Diplosentis ikedai
T. perinsolens
Transvena

T. annulospinosa
    

Sauracanthorhynchus  


S. sphenomorphicola 



Pyrirhynchus




P. heterospinus


Centrorhynchus
EchinorhynchusPara-
doxites  Chentrosoma
  Chentrorhynchus   
Gordiorhynchus Travassosina

     Maglacanthus  
      Centrorhynchus  
C. brumptiC. brygooiC. grassei
         
C. atheni 

     Centro-
rhynchus
 Neoechinorhynchus didelphis 


C. acanthotrias
C. albensis
C. albidus
C. aluconis
 Echinorhynchus aluconis   E. otidis 
 E. inequalis   E. appendiculatus 
 E. soricis   Centrorhynchus appendiculatum
C. olssoni
C. amini
C. amphibius
C. appendiculatus 
nec appendiculatum
C. asturinus
Gigantorhynchus asturinus
C. atheni
C. bancrofti
Gordiorhynchus bancrofti
C. batrachus 
Centrorhynchus splendi
C. bazaleticus
C. bengalensisMediorhynchus
de
C. bethaniae
C. bilqeesae
C. bramanec bramae
C. brevicaudatus
C. brumpti
C. brygooi
C. bubonis
C. buckleyi
C. buteonis
Echinorhynchus buteonis  E. caudatus
E. polyacanthoidesCentrorhynchus polyacan-
thusC. wedli
dedeCentrosoma bute-
onis
C. californicus
C. chabaudi 
C. clitorideus
Gordiorhynchus clitorideusnec clitorideum
C. conspectus
C. wardae
C. crotophagicola
C. dimorphocephalus
Echinorhynchus dimorphocephalus Prostho-
rhynchus dimorphocephalus
C. dipsadis
Echinorhynchus dipsadis
C. elongatus
C. falconis 
Gordiorhynchus falconis
C. fasciatus
Echinorhynchus fasciatusE. motacillae
atricapillae
C. sheri 
C. freundi
Gordiorhynchus freundinec
C. fukiensis 
C. galliardi
C. gendrei
Gordiorhynchus gendrei
C. gibsoni
C. giganteusnec
C. glaucidii 
C. globocaudatus
Echinorhynchus globocaudatusE. tuba

C. golvani
C. grassei
C. guira
C. guptai
Pomphorhynchus indicusvide 
Centrorhynchus latai
C. hagiangensis
Gordiorhynchus hagiangensis 
C. halcyonicola
C. hartwichi
Centrorhynchus conspectus
C. horridus 
Echinorhynchus horridusProsthorhyn-
chus horridus
C. indicus
Centrorhynchus falconis
C. insularis
C. itatsinis
Centrorhynchus miyanojyo   C. crocidurus
C. itatsinisde
C. javanicusnec javanicans
C. knowlesi
C. kuntzi
C. latai
Centrorhynchus indicus

C. leptorhynchus
C. lobianchii
Sphaerirostrisde
C. longicephalus
C. lukiensis
C. lucknowensis
C. mabuiae
Echinorhynchus mabuiae
C. macrorchis
C. madagascariensis
Gordiorhynchus madagascariensis
C. magnus
Centrorhynchus microchis
C. mariauxi 
C. merulae
C. microcephalus
Gordiorhynchus microcephalus 
C. migransnec
C. milvus
C. mysentri
C. narcissae 


C. nicaraguensis
C. nickoli
C. ninnii
Echinorhynchus ninniiChentrosoma ninnii
nec ninni
C. olssoni
C. opimus
C. owli 
C. paramaryasis
Centrorhynchus maryasis 
C. petrotschenkoinec petrochenkoi
C. polemaeti
C. polymorphus
Centrorhynchus polymorphus
de
C. ptyasus
C. pycnonoti
C. renardi
Paradoxites renardi
C. robustus
C. sharmai
C. sholapurensis
C. sikkimensis
C. simplex
C. sindhensis
C. sinicus
C. smyrnensis 
C. spilornae
Centrorhynchus andamanensisde

Cspinosus
Echinorhynchus spinosusCentrorhynchus spino-
sus
C. tumidulus
Echinorhynchus tumidulusE. caudatus
E. megacephalusCentrorhynchus mi-
crocervicanthusC. tumidulus
denec microcerviacanthusC. tumidulus
Polyacanthorhynchus megalocephalus
nec tumidulum
C. tyotensis 
C. undulatus
Neolacunisoma

N. geraldschmidti 
Sphaerirostris

S. areolatus
Echinorhynchus areolatus E. orioli
E. sigmoidesCentrorhynchus areolatus

S. batrachus
 Centrorhynchus batrachus   C. splendi  

S. bipartitus
Centrorhynchus bipartitus
S. cinctus
Centrorhynchus cinctus
S. corvi
Centrorhynchus corviC. hargisi

S. dollfusi
Centrorhynchus picae 
S. embae
Centrorhynchus embae
S. erraticus
Centrorhynchus erraticus
S. globuli 
Centrorhynchus globuli
S. lancea
 Echinorhynchus lancea   E. vanelli 
 Centrorhynchus lancea    
C. cinctus   C. embae
 C. scanensis   de 

S. lanceoides
Centrorhynchus lanceoides
S. leguminosus 
Centrorhynchus leguminosus
S. lesiniformis
Echinorhynchus lesiniformisCentrorhynchus les-
iniformis
S. maryasis
Centrorhynchus maryasis
S. opimus
Centrorhynchus opimus
S. physocoracis
 Echinorhynchus physocoracis   Centrorhynchus
physocoracis
S. picae
Echinorynchus picaeE. lobianchii
 E. teres  Centrorhynchus picae 

   S. picae
    
   

S. pinguis
Centrorhynchus pinguisC. bipartitus
; C. corvi   C. skrjabini 
Travassosina pinguis
S. reptans
Centrorhynchus reptans
S. robustus
Echinorhynchus robustus
S. saxicoloides
Centrorhynchus saxicoloides
S. scanensis
Centrorhynchus scanensis
S. serpenticola
Echinorhynchus serpenticola
S. skrjabini
Centrorhynchus corviC. skrjabini

S. tenuicaudatus
Echinorhynchus tenuicaudatusCentrorhynchus
tenuicaudatus 
S. turdi
Centrorhynchus turdi