LXR fuels fatty acid-stimulated oxygen consumption in white adipocytes

Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, United States.
The Journal of Lipid Research (Impact Factor: 4.42). 11/2013; 55(2). DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M043422
Source: PubMed


Liver X receptors (LXR) are transcription factors known for their role in hepatic cholesterol and lipid metabolism. Though highly expressed in fat, the role of LXR in this tissue is not well characterized. We generated adipose tissue LXRα knock-out (ATaKO) mice and show that these mice gain more weight and fat mass on a high fat diet (HFD) compared to wildtype controls. White adipose tissue (WAT) accretion in ATaKO mice results from both a decrease in WAT lipolytic and oxidative capacities. This was demonstrated by decreased expression of the β2- and β3-adrenergic receptors, reduced level of phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and lower oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in WAT of ATaKO mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in vivo and in vitro led to decreased adipocyte size in WAT and increased glycerol release from primary adipocytes, respectively, with a concomitant increase in OCR in both models. In summary, our findings show that absence of LXRα in adipose tissue results in elevated adiposity through a decrease in WAT oxidation, secondary to attenuated FA availability.

Download full-text


Available from: Lea Dib
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Liver X receptors (LXRs) have been recognized as a promising therapeutic target for atherosclerosis; however, their role in insulin sensitivity is controversial. Adiponectin plays a unique role in maintaining insulin sensitivity. Currently, no systematic experiments elucidating the role of LXR activation in insulin function based on adiponectin signaling have been reported. Here, we investigated the role of LXR activation in insulin resistance based on adiponectin signaling, and possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice maintained on a regular chow received the LXR agonist, T0901317 (30 mg/kg.d) for 3 weeks by intraperitoneal injection, and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with T0901317 or GW3965. T0901317 treatment induced significant insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice. It decreased adiponectin gene transcription in epididymal fat, as well as serum adiponectin levels. Activity of AMPK, a key mediator of adiponectin signaling, was also decreased, resulting in decreased Glut-4 membrane translocation in epididymal fat. In contrast, adiponectin activity was not changed in the liver of T0901317 treated mice. In vitro, both T0901317 and GW3965 decreased adiponectin expression in adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, an effect which was diminished by LXRα silencing. ChIP-qPCR studies demonstrated that T0901317 decreased the binding of PPARγ to the PPAR-responsive element (PPRE) of the adiponectin promoter in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, T0901317 exerted an antagonistic effect on the expression of adiponectin in adipocytes co-treated with 3 µM Pioglitazone. In luciferase reporter gene assays, T0901317 dose-dependently inhibited PPRE-Luc activity in HEK293 cells co-transfected with LXRα and PPARγ. These results suggest that LXR activation induces insulin resistance with decreased adiponectin signaling in epididymal fat, probably due to negative regulation of PPARγ signaling. These findings indicate that the potential of LXR activation as a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis may be limited by the possibility of exacerbating insulin resistance-related disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Liver X receptor (LXR) agonists exert potent antiatherosclerotic actions but simultaneously induce excessive triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the liver. To obtain a detailed insight into the underlying mechanism of hepatic TG accumulation, we used a novel computational modeling approach called analysis of dynamic adaptations in parameter trajectories (ADAPT). We revealed that both input and output fluxes to hepatic TG content are considerably induced on LXR activation and that in the early phase of LXR agonism, hepatic steatosis results from only a minor imbalance between the two. It is generally believed that LXR-induced hepatic steatosis results from increased de novo lipogenesis (DNL). In contrast, ADAPT predicted that the hepatic influx of free fatty acids is the major contributor to hepatic TG accumulation in the early phase of LXR activation. Qualitative validation of this prediction showed a 5-fold increase in the contribution of plasma palmitate to hepatic monounsaturated fatty acids on acute LXR activation, whereas DNL was not yet significantly increased. This study illustrates that complex effects of pharmacological intervention can be translated into distinct patterns of metabolic regulation through state-of-the-art mathematical modeling.-Hijmans, B. S., Tiemann, C. A., Grefhorst, A., Boesjes, M., van Dijk, T. H., Tietge, U. J. F., Kuipers, F., van Riel, N. A. W., Groen, A. K., and Oosterveer, M. H. A systems biology approach reveals the physiological origin of hepatic steatosis induced by liver X receptor activation. © FASEB.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The FASEB Journal
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tormentic acid (TA) has been reported to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. However, the effects of TA on neuroinflammation have not been reported. In this study, we investigated whether TA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in BV2 microglia cells. BV2 microglia cells were treated with TA for 1 h before exposure to LPS. The expression of iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) were detected by western blotting. The expression of cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β were detected by ELISA. The results showed that TA inhibited nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by inhibiting iNOS and COX-2 expression. TA also inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β expression. Furthermore, TA could activate LXRα and inhibit LPS-induced NF-κB activation. Knowdown of LXRα reversed the anti-inflammatory effects of TA. In conclusion, our results indicate that TA exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia cells by activating LXRα. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Neuroscience
Show more