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The Impact of Television Viewing on Brain Structures: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses

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The Impact of Television Viewing on Brain Structures: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses

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Abstract

Television (TV) viewing is known to affect children's verbal abilities and other physical, cognitive, and emotional development in psychological studies. However, the brain structural development associated with TV viewing has never been investigated. Here we examined cross-sectional correlations between the duration of TV viewing and regional gray/white matter volume (rGMV/rWMV) among 133 boys and 143 girls as well as correlations between the duration of TV viewing and longitudinal changes that occurred a few years later among 111 boys and 105 girls. After correcting for confounding factors, we found positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the frontopolar and medial prefrontal areas in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV/rWMV of areas of the visual cortex in cross-sectional analyses, and positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the hypothalamus/septum and sensorimotor areas in longitudinal analyses. We also confirmed negative effects of TV viewing on verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. These anatomical correlates may be linked to previously known effects of TV viewing on verbal competence, aggression, and physical activity. In particular, the present results showed effects of TV viewing on the frontopolar area of the brain, which has been associated with intellectual abilities.

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... The audio-visual nature of television news prompts the increased involvement of viewers with the content than any other media. Various stakeholders use this increased involvement to impart knowledge, manipulate emotions and shape opinion of TV news consumers [3,70]. Recent years have witnessed rapid advancements in digital video production technologies and rising consumption of TV broadcasts in households. ...
... This translates into roughly 198 billion man minutes of news consumption. Several studies correlated duration of television news consumption and its impact on mass opinion [3,70]. Thus, TV news indeed has potential to influence a large number of consumers. ...
... Television news videos are seldom used due to difficulty in acquiring discrete videos from different news channels and over time for news stories reporting an event of interest. Thus, a system capable of automatic segmentation of TV news stories is immensely useful for social scientists in order to gather the data for their studies [3,59,65,70]. ...
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TV news channels present rich and complete experience of various events through audio-visual content. This makes television news an influential medium to affect masses and thus persuaded various social scientists and regulators to monitor and analyze the content of broadcast videos. An organized archive of newscast is a prerequisite for any such analysis. Creating such archive requires segmentation of continuous news videos into suitable logical units. Based on the application, these logical units may be one of channel content obtained after advertisement removal, different shows, news stories or video shots. In this work, we propose an end to end system with software architecture for segmenting the TV broadcast videos at all these four granularities. The videos are segmented into shots. Video shots are used as basic unit for all further processing. Video shots are first subjected to advertisement detection and removal to obtain the non-commercial channel content. This channel content is further processed to identify various program boundaries. We propose to identify three types of shows based on the presentation format viz. news bulletins, interviews and debates. News bulletins so obtained are processed further to obtain news stories. We propose a modular and scalable framework and software architecture for the broadcast segmentation system for deployment on a computation cluster. This involves scheduler based recording module and broadcast segmentation module. We have presented the detailed software architecture for individual modules, automation of entire processing pipeline along with resource and database management systems. We have implemented and verified the software architecture by deploying the proposed system on a cluster of nine desktops and one workstation. The deployed system was used for round the clock processing of three Indian English news channels.
... Sedentary behavior is one environmental factor that can influence brain structure and function [13]. In healthy children, there are only four studies examining the influence of sedentary behaviors on the brain, with one focused on brain connectivity [14] and the other three on brain structure [12,15,16]. For example, the longitudinal studies from Takeuchi et al. in normal-weight children showed that while more time watching TV was associated with greater regional gray matter volume (i.e., in the frontopolar and the medial prefrontal areas, and the hypothalamus/septum and the sensorimotor areas), frequent internet use was associated with a reduction in regional gray matter volume (i.e., the prefrontal areas, the anterior cingulate, the insula, and the temporal and occipital areas) [15,16]. ...
... In healthy children, there are only four studies examining the influence of sedentary behaviors on the brain, with one focused on brain connectivity [14] and the other three on brain structure [12,15,16]. For example, the longitudinal studies from Takeuchi et al. in normal-weight children showed that while more time watching TV was associated with greater regional gray matter volume (i.e., in the frontopolar and the medial prefrontal areas, and the hypothalamus/septum and the sensorimotor areas), frequent internet use was associated with a reduction in regional gray matter volume (i.e., the prefrontal areas, the anterior cingulate, the insula, and the temporal and occipital areas) [15,16]. As such, it is relevant to examine both overall and specific sedentary behaviors in relation to brain structure in children. ...
... There are only two previous longitudinal studies examining the influence of sedentary behaviors (i.e., watching TV and internet use) on gray matter volume in children [15,16]. One study found that watching more TV was associated with greater gray matter volume in the frontopolar and the medial prefrontal areas in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, as well as positive associations in areas of the visual cortex using cross-sectional analyses and positive associations in the hypothalamus/septum and the sensorimotor areas in longitudinal analyses [15]. ...
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We investigated the associations of different sedentary behaviors (SB) with gray matter volume and we tested whether SB related to gray matter volume is associated with intelligence. Methods: 99 children with overweight or obesity aged 8-11 years participated in this cross-sectional study. SB was measured using the Youth Activity Profile-Spain questionnaire. T1-weighted images were acquired with a 3.0 T Magnetom Tim Trio system. Intelligence was assessed with the Kaufman Brief Test. Whole-brain voxel-wise multiple regression models were used to test the associations of each SB with gray matter volume. Results: Watching TV was associated with lower gray matter volume in six brain regions (β ranging -0.314 to -0.489 and cluster size 106 to 323 voxels; p < 0.001), playing video games in three brain regions (β ranging -0.391 to -0.359, and cluster size 96 to 461 voxels; p < 0.001) and total sedentary time in two brain regions (β ranging -0.341 to -0.352, and cluster size 897 to 2455 voxels; p < 0.001). No brain regions showed a significant positive association (all p > 0.05). Two brain regions were related, or borderline related, to intelligence. Conclusions: SB could have the potential to negatively influence brain structure and, in turn, intelligence in children with overweight/obesity.
... Assessments of psychological variables. The following descriptions were largely reproduced from previous published work from the same project e.g., 43,47 . In both the baseline and follow-up experiments, children's Full Scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) was measured using the Japanese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) for participants aged 16 years or older 19 or the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) for participants younger than 16 years 20 . ...
... In the baseline experiment, the SES measure consisted of three questions answered by the participant's guardian. The first concerned annual family income as previously reported e.g., 43,47 . Annual income data were collected using discrete variables with the currency exchange rate set at $1 US (USD) = 100 yen: 1. annual income < $20,000 USD; 2. annual income $20,000-40,000 USD; 3. annual income Table 6 Brain regions that exhibited significant positive associations between baseline childhood SES and baseline to follow-up experiment MD changes in longitudinal analyses. ...
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Childhood socioeconomic status is robustly associated with various children’s cognitive factors and neural mechanisms. Here we show the association of childhood socioeconomic status with psychometric intelligence and mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy using diffusion tensor imaging at the baseline experiment ( N = 285) and longitudinal changes in these metrics after 3.0 ± 0.3 years ( N = 223) in a large sample of normal Japanese children (mean age = 11.2 ± 3.1 years). After correcting for confounding factors, cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses show that higher childhood socioeconomic status is associated with greater baseline and baseline to follow-up increase of psychometric intelligence and mean diffusivity in areas around the bilateral fusiform gyrus. These results demonstrate that higher socioeconomic status is associated with higher psychometric intelligence measures and altered microstructural properties in the fusiform gyrus which plays a key role in reading and letter recognition and further augmentation of such tendencies during development. Definitive conclusions regarding the causality of these relationships requires intervention and physiological studies. However, the current findings should be considered when developing and revising policies regarding education.
... Neurotransmitters deficiency such as dopamine, acetylcholine, GABA, and 5-Hydrotryptamine (5-HT) was reported in internet addicted urban abandoned children, which may cause a spectrum of aberrant behaviors [17]. The grey and white matters volumes in the developing brain can be affected by the prolonged electronic screen exposure, that may be associated with verbal competence, aggressiveness and can affect cognitive abilities [18]. Significantly reduced levels of melatonin have been found in a group of individuals who were exposed to electronic screen [19]. ...
... Several studies showed that exposure to certain screen activities during critical stages of neural development may alter gene expression, leading to structural, synaptic and functional changes in the developing brain [16][17][18][19]. Most of the ASD cases were watching electronic devices >4 hours (75.7%), compared with 33.1% among the control group, with significant P-value of 0.001. ...
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Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) characterized by persistent impairment in social communication and interaction, and restricted repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests and activities. Many studies in different countries suggest that increased screen time exposure in young children is associated with negative health outcome such as: Impaired language development, mood and autistic like behavior. A cross sectional case control study was done in Al-Nasiriya city, south of Iraq, during a period of 2 years from 1st of January 2019 to the end of December 2020. The study included 107 child diagnosed with ASD in Al-Nasiriya Autism center, their mean age was 5.3 years, and 263 child included as a control group, their mean age was 5.6 years. Specially designed structured questionnaire was used to collect the information. The data was collected by direct face-to-face interview. Patients were followed up for a period of 6-12 months. The study showed that there was a significant relationship between age of starting electronic screen exposure and ASD in which more than 81% of ASD patients started electronic screen exposure at ≤ 2years of age (27.1% at age <1 year and 54.2% at age 1-2 years) compared to 62.8% of control group (P value=0.001). Most ASD patients (75.7%) watched screen devices for more than 4 hours/day (P value=0.001). TV watching has a significant relation with ASD, and mixed electronic devices watching was dominant in both groups (P value=0.001). Watching and listening to children songs was significantly associated with ASD, P value=0.001. There was a significant association between ASD and increased level of education of both parents. The study showed that there was a significant improvement in about 2/3 of patients after eliminating or reducing screen exposure. Early and prolonged exposure to screen devices is an important trigger for ASD. Education of society about the risk of early and prolonged exposure of children to electronic screen devices is recommended and screen device exposure for children below 2 years of age should be discouraged.
... 10,11 Cortical development during the preschool period is characterized by exuberant synaptogenesis and subsequent pruning to improve brain connectivity, which is mainly driven by social interaction. 12 By honing a synchronized orchestra of coordinated functions in brain plasticity, human physical, and social interaction provide stimulation for cognitive, motor, and emotional growth and development. 13 It is not surprising that cumulative hours of discretionary screen time are associated with less effective executive processes that govern decision-making. ...
... 13 It is not surprising that cumulative hours of discretionary screen time are associated with less effective executive processes that govern decision-making. 12 Ineffective mental governance promotes less healthy behavioral dispositions and routines. 10 Thus, excessive discretionary screen time likely creates a time debt for actively polishing developmental skills and may explain, in part, the risks of poor physical and mental health and social and academic impairment in middle childhood. ...
Article
Background: North American child media guidelines suggest screen-free zones without offering clear evidence and alternative harm-reduction strategies. Our hypothesis is that having a bedroom television during the preschool years will be prospectively associated with mental and physical health risks in adolescence. Methods: Participants are from a prospective-longitudinal birth cohort of 907 girls and 952 boys from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. Child outcomes at ages 12 and 13, measured by multiple sources, were linearly regressed on having a bedroom television at age 4. Results: Bedroom television at age 4 predicted a higher body mass index at age 12 (standardized B = 0.10, p < 0.001), more unhealthy eating habits at age 13 (B = 0.10, p < 0.001), higher levels of emotional distress (B = 0.12, p < 0.001), depressive symptoms (B = 0.08, p < 0.001), victimization (B = 0.07, p < 0.001), physical aggression (B = 0.09, p < 0.001), and lowers levels of sociability (B = -0.09, p < 0.001) at age 12, above and beyond pre-existing individual and family factors. Conclusion: The bedroom as a screen-based preschool zone does not bode well for long-term cardio-metabolic wellness, mental health, and social relationships.
... 33 In this age, children's extreme use of digital devices may be like environmental deprivation during critical periods and has negative effects on brain development. 34 The parent-child interaction also affects the prefrontal cortex areas of the brain which are bases of executive function skills. 24,26,35 The quality of parent-child interaction plays an important role in the development of executive function skills. ...
... This finding is consistent with the findings of previous studies that have shown that parent-child interactions affect the children brain. 24,26,30,31,34,35 This increase in the alpha and beta in the frontal area of the brain is coincident with the positive changes seen in the children's executive function skills in this study. It is possible that an increase in alpha and beta bands has led to improvement in children's executive functioning skills, social interactions, and school performance. ...
Article
Objective In the last decade, the use of digital devices among children has increased. This study examines the effects of parent–child interaction training on the amount of time children use digital devices, conflict and closeness in parent–child relationships, executive functions, and the electroencephalogram absolute power in children who excessively use the digital devices. Method The sample group consisted of 12 children (24 to 47 months) who spent more than half of their waking hours using digital devices. Parents were trained to intensive interaction with the child for two months. Electroencephalogram absolute power, parent–child interaction, the amount of time children use digital devices, and children’s executive function skills were assessed. Results Parent–child intensive interaction reduces the use of digital devices; decrease the conflicts and increase the closeness in parent–child relationships; decrease executive functioning problems; and increase the absolute power of alpha and alpha 2 (F3), beta 1 (F3), and beta and beta 2 (F3, Fp2). Conclusion These findings provide evidence of the negative effects of the excessive use of digital devices in children, the importance of parent–child interaction, and its positive impacts on cognitive and brain functions in children. It might contribute to better understand the importance of parent–child interaction in the early years.
... Electronic media use has the potential to diminish concentration [18] and children and adolescents may be particularly susceptible to what they see on screen, which in turn may influence their beliefs and behaviours [19]. Excessive media use may even affect brain structure and function including reward processing, as shown in imaging studies with children and adolescents from 5 to 18 years of age [20][21][22][23]. However, electronic media use may also enhance school performance through increased access to information and resources, and improved skills in technology. ...
... Television viewing in childhood (ages 5-11 years) has been linked with increased attentional problems in adolescence (13 and 15 years of age) [53] and insufficient sleep has also been linked with deficits in academic performance [16]. Higher levels of television viewing have also been shown to affect the prefrontal cortex (frontopolar), which is associated with intellectual ability in children and adolescents [22]. Also, in the current study, participants spent between two to three times longer watching television compared with playing video games or using computers, which may explain our findings of associations between television viewing and academic performance. ...
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Introduction: The effects of electronic media use on health has received much attention but less is known about links with academic performance. This study prospectively examines the effect of media use on academic performance in late childhood. Materials and methods: 1239 8- to 9-year-olds and their parents were recruited to take part in a prospective, longitudinal study. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test at baseline and 10-11 years of age. Parents reported on their child's duration of electronic media use. Results: After control for baseline reading, watching more than two hours of television per day at 8-9 years of age predicted a 12-point lower performance in reading at 10-11 years, equivalent to the loss of a third of a year in learning. Using a computer for more than one hour a day predicted a similar 12-point lower numeracy performance. Regarding cross-sectional associations (presumed to capture short-term effects) of media use on numeracy, after controlling for prior media exposure, watching more than two hours of television per day at 10-11 years was concurrently associated with a 12-point lower numeracy score and using a computer for more than one hour per day with a 13-point lower numeracy performance. There was little evidence for concurrent effects on reading. There was no evidence of short- or long-term associations between videogame use and academic performance. Discussion: Cumulative television use is associated with poor reading and cumulative computer use with poorer numeracy. Beyond any links between heavy media use and health risks such as obesity, physical activity and mental health, these findings raise a possibility of additional risks of both television and computer use for learning in mid-childhood. These findings carry implications for parents, teachers and clinicians to consider the type and timing of media exposure in developing media plans for children.
... The invasion of electronic materials has changed the world. The American Academy of Paediatrics suggests one or two hours' limit of television for children, and completely discourage that for children below two years (Takeuchi et al., 2015). A study done in United States showed that one hour of television watching was associated with lower obesity incidence, in contrast to four hours of watching (Takeuchi et al., 2015). ...
... The American Academy of Paediatrics suggests one or two hours' limit of television for children, and completely discourage that for children below two years (Takeuchi et al., 2015). A study done in United States showed that one hour of television watching was associated with lower obesity incidence, in contrast to four hours of watching (Takeuchi et al., 2015). ...
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Childhood obesity is increasing in frequency worldwide with including developing countries, while it was considered previously as the disease of the first world or rich people. The aim is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity with associated risk factors in obese children visiting Al-Kindy Obesity Unit. Throughout a period started in December 1, 2019 to February 29, 2020 in Baghdad, 109 children were randomly involved, 69 (63.3%) girls and 40 (36.7%) boys. Body mass index was evaluated in front of standard tables. A questionnaire was built to gather suspected risk factors. Eight (7.3%) of our sample were overweight [1 (2.5%) boy and 7 (10.1%) girls] and 101 (92.7 %) of our sample were obese [39 (97.5%) boys and 62 (89.9%) girls]. Significant associations were found between overweight and health education, sleep, physical activity, snacks and TV watching. Obesity was more frequently encountered than overweight in children with (heavy weights) who seek help visiting obesity units. Unbalanced dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle and spending more hours on watching TV are important risk factors.
... In the example of 22 pairs of mothers and their 2-year-old children, the best indicators of social and emotional development of children and positive-constructive the attitude of mothers towards them are used, provided that they use for joint games the interactive media, in contrast to conventional toys or joint TV viewing [21]. e most widespread discussion was about the results of a study by Japanese scientists who for the rst time in history recorded the "structural development of the brain associated with television viewing" and proved the presence of structural changes in the brain in children, depending on the time they spent watching television broadcasts [22]. Researchers from the University of Tohoku examined 276 children (133 boys and 143 girls) under the age of 5 to 18, who daily watched television from a few minutes to four hours a day. ...
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Introduction: The continuous informatization of modern life dictates the need to identify the consequences of using technologies of informational and psychological influence on the psyche and behavior of the users. The aim is to analyze the presence of the neurobiological basis of the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenic effect of informational and psychological influence on the state of mental health of the population. Material and methods: In the MEDLINE, Index Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases, content analysis was carried out in three languages on the verification of interconnections between the use of TV and Internet resources and the various characteristics of the mental state of users. Conclusions: The presence and mechanisms of the formation of harmful effects of watching television or using the Internet (social networks), for the state of mental health and psychological well-being of persons of all ages, both children and adults, is proved not only by empirical but also instrumental researches. The way to prevent the negative effects of the use of on-screen technologies of informational and psychological influence is intellectual and physical activity, the capacity for critical reflection of information, the skills of positive thinking, and communication with nature and oneself without any additional means of informational influence.
... Specifically, more screen time has been linked to language (9, 10) and cognitive delays (11), developmental domains that are frequently impaired in children with ASD (12). Greater early screen exposure is also associated with structural and functional brain changes associated with poorer language development, intelligence, and executive function (13,14) and it has been proposed that high screen exposure early in life could contribute to the impaired social attention mechanisms seen in children with ASD (15). In addition, children with ASD often exhibit challenging behaviors, experience dysregulation, and have difficulties with attention and executive function (16)(17)(18), outcomes associated with higher screen time (19)(20)(21)(22)(23). ...
Article
There is growing concern regarding early screen media exposure and its potential effects on developmental delays including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is little research examining whether interventions can decrease screen media exposure and ASD behaviors among children with ASD. Participants were 9 children ages 18 to 40 months with an ASD diagnosis who watched screens at least 2 hours per day. Screen viewing history and weekly screen viewing and social interaction were assessed. The intervention involved a parent education program followed by weekly one‐hour in‐home support visits aimed at replacing screen time with social engagement time over a 6‐month period. Child autism symptoms (Brief Observation of Social Communication Change), functional behavior (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales), and development (Mullen Scales of early Learning) were assessed before and after intervention; parents completed questionnaires on parental stress (Autism Parenting Stress Index) and their perceptions of the intervention. Children’s screen viewing decreased from an average of 5.6 hours/day prior to intervention to 5 min/day during the study. Significant improvements were observed in core autism symptoms and parent stress from pre‐ to post‐intervention. Parent education and training/support to minimize screen time and increase social interaction for young children with ASD was well‐tolerated by parents and children. These promising preliminary results suggest that further research on early screen media viewing, ASD and screen reduction intervention is warranted.
... Over-exposure to digital media may lead to neurochemical and neuroanatomical changes in the brain and influence learning and cognition [16]. But whether excessive screen time during early childhood has any direct effect on increasing the risk for ASD is still inconclusive, with some studies reporting an association [8,17,18] and others finding none [19]. ...
Article
Objective To study the early social experience and digital media exposure in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison with typically developed children. Methods Details of digital-media exposure and early social experience in 65 children with ASD were compared with those in a control group of equal number of typically developed children, matched for age and gender. Prenatal and perinatal factors were also studied. The diagnosis of ASD was based on the International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN) diagnostic tool and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria. Variables which were biologically relevant and has a P value of < 0.05 in the univariate analysis were analyzed by logistic regression to obtain the adjusted effect measures. Results Children with ASD were exposed to digital media at an earlier age and spent significantly more time with digital media and less time with their mothers, compared to typically developed children. Exposure to digital media before 21 mo was associated with risk of ASD and the risk increased when mothers spent less than 6.5 h per day with the baby. Family history of epilepsy and developmental delay, maternal stress during the antenatal period, and absence of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 mo were significantly more in children with ASD. Conclusion There are significant differences in the early life social experience and digital-media exposure in children with ASD compared to typically developed counterparts. Given the reported rise in prevalence of ASD, these findings stress the need for further prospective studies to explore these potentially modifiable risk factors.
... Die neurobiologischen Vorgänge ähneln denen bei Suchterkrankungen; im funktioniellen MRI lassen sich hirnstrukturelle Veränderungen in den Regionen, die Aufmerksamkeit, Impulskontrolle, emotionale Regulation sowie motorische Funktion und sensomotorischer Koordination nachweisen. Der Dopaminstoffwechsel scheint beeinträchtigt [2,3,6]. ...
Article
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Die Prävention ist im Bereich Medien extrem wichtig, auch und gerade bei Kindern mit Entwicklungsstörungen. Die Eltern spielen eine zentrale Rolle, da im frühen Kindesalter die eigenen Regulationsmöglichkeiten der Kinder nicht oder noch nicht genügend ausgeprägt sind. Kinder mit neuropädiatrischen Erkrankungen und Entwicklungsstörungen sind ein „Risikokollektiv“, aber Medien bieten auch besonders gute Möglichkeiten der Teilhabe und Erweiterung der Fähigkeiten. Bewusstes Abwägen, Aussuchen pädagogischer Inhalte und Abstimmen mit den laufenden Therapien sind wichtig. Hierzu ist es notwendig, den Mediengebrauch standartmäßig zu erfassen und frühzeitig zu intervenieren, wenn zu viel, das falsche oder sinnlos konsumiert wird. Eltern muss frühzeitig Hilfe, sowohl im Rahmen der Therapien (z. B. durch gemeinsames Erarbeiten eines festen Rituals „Beginn und Beenden“) als auch im psychosozialen Umfeld gegeben werden, ggf. auch im Rahmen einer intensiveren, auch stationären Maßnahme, wenn die Umfeldveränderung dazu notwendig ist.
... Historically, dose-response effects in non-diseased populations have been driven by faster performance after acute exercise (Tomporowski, 2003;McMorris et al., 2008;McMorris and Hale, 2012); however, more recent work in children and young adults has highlighted the detrimental effects of prolonged sitting time on cognition (Drollette et al., 2012;Pontifex et al., 2015). Our findings may be the result of screen time during the sitting session (Takeuchi et al., 2015), where almost 90% of the current sample opted to watch television. Given the rise in incentivized sedentary behaviors in the 21st century (e.g., desk jobs and delivered goods) and high prevalence of screen time in our daily lives, it is encouraging that a short bout of exercise has the capacity to at least maintain select domains of cognitive functioning. ...
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Objective: To examine the differential effects of acute exercise duration on domains of executive function and processing speed in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Participants (N = 48, Mage = 56.02 ± 10.99) completed two sessions in counterbalanced order: moderate-intensity treadmill walking and sitting. Participants were also randomized to one of three duration conditions: 10 (n = 15), 20 (n = 16), or 30 (n = 17) min, reflecting the length of time spent walking and sitting. Immediately before and after each session, women completed a battery of cognitive tasks (e.g., inhibition, cognitive flexibility, spatial working memory, and processing speed). Results: Within- and between-subjects repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed time by condition interactions on both processing speed (p = 0.02) and spatial working memory (ps < 0.07), such that women demonstrated improved cognitive functioning regardless of the time spent walking. There were also several moderately sized three-way (e.g., time by condition by duration) interactions driven by declines in cognitive functioning after sitting on cognitive flexibility in the 10 (d = -0.96) and 30-min (d = -0.52) groups and inhibition in the 20-min group (d = 0.75). On the processing speed task, women performed significantly faster after walking compared with after sitting in the 20-min group (d = -0.24). Conclusions: For select cognitive domains, walking anywhere from 10 to 30 min is associated with significant benefits. Our findings suggest the need for further research into the mechanisms and dose-response relationships between acute exercise and cognition as well as how such acute bouts may be accumulated for larger, lasting cognitive benefits after breast cancer. Clinical trial registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT04255225.
... Structural wholebrain regression analyses were performed to investigate any associations between email dependence scores and rGMV and rWMV. Age, sex, and total intracranial volume, calculated using voxel-based morphometry (for details of calculation see [62]), were added as covariates. Multiple comparison correction was performed using threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) [63] with randomized (5000 permutations) nonparametric testing, using the TFCE toolbox (http://dbm.neuro.uni-jena.de/tfce/ ...
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Despite the widespread use of email, our knowledge regarding the consequences of email addiction is lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop an email addiction tendency scale to evaluate its correlation to behavior and brain structure. Following this, the validity and reliability of the developed scale was investigated. We used voxel-based morphometry, correlation, and univariate regression analysis to assess the relationships between email addiction tendency scores and regional gray and white matter volumes, depression, and nonverbal reasoning abilities in a large sample of healthy young adults (n = 1152; mean age, 20.69 ± 1.84 years). The content validity ratio, content validity index, principal component analysis, and confirmatory factorial analysis all showed that the email addiction tendency scale (EATS) has high validity. Additionally, the Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency and split-half reliability coefficient showed that the EATS has high reliability. We found that email addiction tendency scores were significantly negatively correlated with nonverbal reasoning. We also observed that the email addiction tendency scores were significantly and positively correlated with depression symptom severity and gray matter volume of the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPC) in subjects. These results indicate that email addiction tendency is associated with lower mental health outcomes and increased GMV in the left RLPC.
... De nombreuses études ont montré que la durée d'exposition aux écrans était liée au risque de troubles du langage [8][9][10][11]20 . Ce résultat n'a pas été retrouvé dans notre étude, mais la moyenne d'âge de notre échantillon n'était pas la même, car nous avons inclus les enfants entre 3,5 et 6,5 ans, tandis que la moyenne d'âge des enfants des autres études était d'environ 2 ans. ...
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Background – Children are exposed early to the screens, whereas this use can influence their psychomotor development. Objective – Explore the associations between childhood exposure to screens, such as televisions, computers, game consoles, tablets and smartphones, and primary language disorders. Method – This multicentric case-control study comprised 167 children aged 3.5-6.5 years, who were born in 2010-2012 and diagnosed with primary language disorders, and 109 matched controls without language disor-ders. Questionnaires were completed by their parents who were recruited by 16 family doctors and 27 speech and language therapists in the Ille-et-Vilaine region of France. The data were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model and presented as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results – We found that cases (44.3%) and controls (22.0%) exposed to screens in the morning before nursery or primary school were three times more likely to develop primary language disorders (aOR=3.40, 95%CI [1.60-7.23]). When this risk was combined with rarely or never discussing screen content with their parents (aOR=2.14 [1.01-4.54]) they were six times more likely to have language problems (aOR=5.86 [1.44-23.95]). Conclusion – Being exposed to screens in the morning before school, and rarely or never discussing screen content with parents, meant children were six times more likely to develop primary language disorders.
... A Japanese study showed an association between TV consumption and an increase of gray matter volume in the medial prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area, as well as a negative correlation with the verbal intelligence quotient [75]. ...
Article
Background: This review summarizes the state of knowledge of use of new media on the development in early childhood in 6 sections: descriptive utilization data, psychosocial and emotional development, cognition and language, motor development, nutrition and sleep, and influence of parental media consumption. Methods: The review is based on a literature search of this topic in peer-reviewed journals. We included 87 articles, books, and book chapters. The used literature data bases were ERIC, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO and PSYNDEX. Results: Manifold studies describe in young children's utilization data the pervasive nature of digital exposure and impressive usage times and availability. They confirm adverse influences of electronic media use (television, video games) on children's emotional and behavioral problems and well-being, e. g. on physical activity, sleep and obesity. In general a positive effect in sense of knowledge transfer of age could be found for high quality educational media, however predominantly the impact of media use at younger age was negative. Conclusions: High frequent media use in early childhood is likely to have a negative impact on psychosocial development, positive effects such as knowledge transfer may be seen beyond the age of 18 months. As parental media use is a strong predictor of child media habits, reducing parental media use and enhancing parent-child interactions might be important areas to address when trying to change the media behavior of young children. In view of the scarcity of studies for early childhood, it is advisable to use digital play and communication devices cautiously and restrictively in this vulnerable development phase.
... American Academy of Pediatrics (2016) recommends parents avoid the exposure to digital devices in children younger than 24 months and they limit screen use to 1 h per day for children 2-5 years of age (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2016). Children excessive screen time, especially during critical periods of development can be led to deficits in social behaviors (Cheng et al., 2010;Christakis et al., 2004), changes in brain structures (Takeuchi et al., 2015) and decreasing child-parent communication quality and quantity (Kirkorian et al., 2009;Nathanson and Rasmussen, 2011;Özyurt et al., 2018). Pouretemad in 2000 was one of the first to investigate the associations between Digital Nanning and autism symptoms (Pouretemad, 2000). ...
Article
Recent studies have shown the relationship between excessive screen time and autism symptoms. Unfortunately, there are no studies that evaluated the interventions for children with autism symptoms and excessive screen-time. This paper is a preliminary attempt to examine the effects of parent training on the duration of screen-time, repetitive behaviors and brain electrophysiological characteristics in young children with subthreshold autism symptoms and excessive screen time. Results showed that after the 2 months’ parent-child interaction, children's screen-time and repetitive behaviors decreased and EEG ratio power in some channels changed. Our findings suggest that parent training have positive effects on young children with excessive screen-time and autism symptoms.
... American Academy of Pediatrics (2016) recommends parents avoid the exposure to digital devices in children younger than 24 months and they limit screen use to 1 h per day for children 2-5 years of age (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2016). Children excessive screen time, especially during critical periods of development can be led to deficits in social behaviors (Cheng et al., 2010;Christakis et al., 2004), changes in brain structures (Takeuchi et al., 2015) and decreasing child-parent communication quality and quantity (Kirkorian et al., 2009;Nathanson and Rasmussen, 2011;Özyurt et al., 2018). Pouretemad in 2000 was one of the first to investigate the associations between Digital Nanning and autism symptoms (Pouretemad, 2000). ...
... American Academy of Pediatrics (2016) recommends parents avoid the exposure to digital devices in children younger than 24 months and they limit screen use to 1 h per day for children 2-5 years of age (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2016). Children excessive screen time, especially during critical periods of development can be led to deficits in social behaviors (Cheng et al., 2010;Christakis et al., 2004), changes in brain structures (Takeuchi et al., 2015) and decreasing child-parent communication quality and quantity (Kirkorian et al., 2009;Nathanson and Rasmussen, 2011;Özyurt et al., 2018). Pouretemad in 2000 was one of the first to investigate the associations between Digital Nanning and autism symptoms (Pouretemad, 2000). ...
Article
Recent studies have shown the relationship between excessive screen time and autism symptoms. Unfortunately, there are no studies that evaluated the interventions for children with autism symptoms and excessive screen-time. This paper is a preliminary attempt to examine the effects of parent training on the duration of screen-time, repetitive behaviors and brain electrophysiological characteristics in young children with subthreshold autism symptoms and excessive screen time. Results showed that after the 2 months' parent-child interaction, children's screen-time and repetitive behaviors decreased and EEG ratio power in some channels changed. Our findings suggest that parent training have positive effects on young children with excessive screen-time and autism symptoms.
... With the emergence of skill-training applications and active video games, such as Wii Sports and Dance Dance Revolution, recommendations of screen use for children and adolescents may need to be re-evaluated. However, simply providing children with access to active video games is unlikely to prompt spontaneous engagement in more physical activity and may not benefit public health (Baranowski et al., 2012 [104] ). More research in this field is needed to ascertain whether and how active video games can be used to boost children's activity and fitness. ...
... When we inquire into the long-term effects of advertising to children and youth especially, what we're investigating is not only the behavioral outcomes, but the neurological imprinting and wiring performed (Kubey 1996;Christakis 2006Christakis , 2010Barber 2008;Takeuchi et al. 2015). If children are constantly being seduced by new desires, from a medium they are helpless to on an evolutionary level-TV as teacherthen they are more likely to become addicts not just of those things being sold to them when they are young, but to other dangerous substances as well when they are older (Alexander 2010;DiClemente 2018). ...
Article
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Mimicry is common among animals, plants, and other kingdoms of life. Humans in late capitalism, however, have devised an unique method of mimicking the signs that trigger evolutionarily-programmed instincts of their own species in order to manipulate them. Marketing and advertising are the most pervasive and sophisticated forms of known human mimicry, deliberately hijacking our instincts in order to select on the basis of one dimension only: profit. But marketing and advertising also strangely undermine their form of mimicry, deceiving both the intended targets and the signaler simultaneously. Human forms of mimicry have the regular consequence of deceiving the imitator, reducing meta-cognitive awareness of the act and intentions surrounding such deception. Therefore, the deceiver in the end deceives himself as well as intended targets. Drawing on scholarship applying Niko Tinbergen’s ethological discovery of supernormal stimuli in animals to humans, this article analyzes sophisticated mass mimicry in contemporary culture, in both intended and unintended forms.
... This type of economy then was studies as a field of education, personnel policy, and jurisprudence by following researchers in Russia: Agarmizyan I.R., Kruk E.A., Prokhorova V.B. [31]; Baskakova M.E., Soboleva I.V [32]; Kondrasheva N.N. [33]; Ovchinnikiv A.I., Astapova E.V., Alekseeva M.V., Veselaya T.V., Antsiferova N.A. [34]; Peshkova G.U., Samarina A.U. [35]; Teplykh M. S., Akhmetzyanova M. P., Bashirova T. A. [36] and others. ...
... Structural whole-brain multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate associations of IAT scores with rGMV and rWMV. Age, sex, and total intracranial volume calculated using voxel-based morphometry (for details of calculation see 86 ) were added as covariates. ...
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An increasing number of young people use internet excessively over the last decades, which leads to adverse impacts on individuals and society. The structural and functional brain characteristics associated with the excessive use of the internet have attracted substantial research attention in the past decade; however, due to the small sample sizes of past studies, many findings are inconsistent. Also, the relationship between internet addiction tendency (IAT) and regional brain activity during working memory (WM), a critical cognitive function governing learned behavior, has not been explored. In current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and multiple regression analysis to assess the relationship between IAT score and regional gray and white matter volumes (rGMVs and rWMVs) and brain activity during a WM task in a large sample of healthy young adults (n= 1,154, mean age, 20.71 ± 1.78 years). We found a significant positive correlation between IAT score and GMV of right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG) and significant negative correlations with WMVs of right temporal lobe (sub-gyral and superior temporal gyrus), right sublobar area (extra-nuclear and lentiform nucleus), right cerebellar anterior lobe, cerebellar tonsil, right frontal lobe (inferior frontal gyrus and sub-gyral areas), and the pons. Also, IAT was significantly and positively correlated with brain activity in the default-mode network (DMN), medial frontal gyrus, medial part of the superior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex) during a 2-back WM task. Moreover, whole-brain analyses of rGMV showed significant effects of interaction between sex and the IAT scores in the area spreading around the left anterior insula and left lentiform. This interaction was moderated by positive correlation in females. These results indicate that IAT is associated with (a) increased GMV in rSMG, which is involved in phonological processing, (b) decreased WMVs in areas of frontal, sublobar, and temporal lobes, which are involved in response inhibition, and (c) reduced task-induced deactivation of the DMN, indicative of altered attentional allocation.
... Many studies have shown that the duration of exposure to screens has been linked to the risk of language disorders (8)(9)(10)(11)20). This result was not verified by our study, but our sample age was not the same as we included children aged between 3.5 and 6.5 years, while the average age in other studies was around two years of age. ...
Article
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Aim We explored the associations between childhood exposure to screens, including televisions, computers, game consoles, tablets and smartphones, and primary language disorders. Methods This multi‐centre case‐control study comprised 167 children aged 3.5‐6.5 years, who were born in 2010‐2012 and diagnosed with primary language disorders, and 109 matched controls without language disorders. Questionnaires were completed by their parents who were recruited by 16 family doctors and 27 speech and language therapists in the Ille‐et‐Vilaine region of France. The data were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model and presented as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results We found that cases (44.3%) and controls (22.0%) exposed to screens in the morning before nursery or primary school were three times more likely to develop primary language disorders (aOR 3.40, 95% CI 1.60‐7.23). When this risk was combined with rarely or never discussing screen content with their parents (aOR 2.14, 95% CI 1.01‐4.54) they were six times more likely to have language problems (aOR 5.86, 95% CI 1.44‐23.95). Conclusion Being exposed to screens in the morning before school, and rarely or never discussing screen content with parents, meant children were six times more likely to develop primary language disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Excessive exposure to screen time can reduce the time during which the child engages in conversations with adults and older children, which may lead to impaired language development [24]. In addition, the accumulation of visual stimuli and brain exposure to screen images can be harmful and can lead to damage to the frontopolar region of the brain, responsible for language development [25]. ...
Article
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Background Globally, children’s exposure to digital screens continues to increase and is associated with adverse effects on child health. We aimed to evaluate the association of screen exposure with child communication, gross-motor, fine-motor, problem-solving, and personal-social development scores. Methods We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study with cluster sampling among children 0–60 months of age living in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Child screen time was assessed by maternal report and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations were used to define excessive screen time exposure. Child development was assessed with the Brazilian Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Generalized linear regression was used to determine the association of screen exposure with developmental outcomes. We also examined the potential non-linear relationship of screen time with development scores using spline analyses. Results A total of 3155 children 0–60 months of age had screen time exposure evaluated and 69% percent were identified as exposed to excessive screen time. This percentage of excess screen time increased with child age from 41.7% for children 0–12 months to 85.2% for children 49–60 months. Each additional hour of screen time was associated with lower child communication (standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.03; 95% CI: − 0.04, − 0.02), problem solving (SMD: -0.03; 95% CI: − 0.05, − 0.02) and personal-social (SMD: -0.04; 95% CI: − 0.06, − 0.03) domain scores. Conclusions Excess screen time exposure was highly prevalent and independently associated with poorer development outcomes among children under 5 years of age in Ceará, Brazil.
... No changes were identified in sensorimotor areas as related to TV watching time; the effect may not be direct, since watching this media is often associated with less physical activity, which, in turn, causes changes in the volume of gray matter in sensorimotor areas. 12 ...
Article
Objective: To identify the consequences of technology overuse in childhood. Data source: A systematic review was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed (National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health) and BVS (Virtual Health Library), considering articles published from 2015 to 2020, in English, Portuguese and Spanish using the terms "Internet", "Child" and "Growth and Development". Data synthesis: 554 articles were found and 8 were included in the analysis. The studies' methodological quality was assessed by the Strobe and Consort criteria, being scored from 17 to 22 points. The articles showed positive and negative factors associated with the use of technology in childhood, although most texts emphasize the harmful aspects. Excessive use of internet, games and exposure to television are associated with intellectual deficits and mental health issues, but can also enable psychosocial development. Conclusions: Preventing the use of the internet is a utopic measure ever since society makes use of technologies. The internet is associated with benefits as well as with harms. It is important to optimize the use of internet and reduce risks with the participation of parents and caregivers as moderators, and training of health professionals to better guide them.
... This is a longitudinal study of prospective analyses. Although multiple ways of associating BP with outcomes exist, we concentrated on the associations between baseline exposure variables and longitudinal outcome changes, as cases of our previous studies of this kind exist [47,48]. This is because, as described previously [47], to indicate causality at certain levels with the analyses in a prospective longitudinal cohort study, it is important that certain variables measured in the baseline predict (or precede) subsequent changes in outcome variables. ...
Article
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Hypertension is a pervasive public health concern due to strong associations with cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Alternatively, the associations between hypertension and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease are complex and recent large sample studies reported positive associations. In this paper, we examine the associations between diastolic blood pressure (BP) and subsequent changes in brain structure and cognitive function over several years by multiple regression analyses (with adjustment for a wide range of potential confounding variables) among a large cohort from the UK Biobank. Higher baseline diastolic BP was associated with a slightly smaller relative increase (relative improvements) in reaction time and a slightly greater reduction in depression scores. Higher baseline diastolic BP was also associated with a greater total gray matter volume (GMV) retention, while aging alone was associated with GMV reduction. White matter microstructural analyses revealed that a greater diastolic BP was associated with reduced longitudinal mean and regional fractional anisotropy, greater increases in mean and regional mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity, a greater decline in mean intracellular volume fraction, and greater increases in mean and regional isotropic volume fraction. These white matter microstructural changes were consistent with those seen in the aging process. Additional analyses revealed a greater cheese intake level at baseline, which is associated with a subsequent decline in diastolic BP and a relative subsequent increase in depressive tendency together with a relative increase in fluid intelligence and visuospatial memory performance. These results are congruent with the view that a higher BP in the aging brain has a complex role.
... For instance, previous research found that ≤ 2 h/day of ST was linked to superior global cognition [19]. In contrast, frequent use of video games was related to conduct problems, and increased television viewing was negatively associated with children's cognitive development [41]. Growing evidence suggests that screen use may differentially impact EF resulting from screen type, content, and task requirements [7]. ...
Article
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Objective Childhood is a critical period for brain development. However, it remains unknown whether the behaviors in a typical 24-h day are related to children’s executive function (EF). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the 24-h movement guidelines and children’s EF. Method Children aged 7–12 years ( n = 376) were studied in 2017 in China. Physical activity (PA) was accelerometer-derived, while screen time (ST) and sleep duration were self-reported. Meeting the 24-h movement guidelines was defined as: 1) ≥ 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA; 2) ≤ 2 h/day of recreational ST; 3) 9–11 h/night of sleep. EF was assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Number of completed categories (CC), shifting efficiency (SE), non-perseverative errors (NPE), and failure to maintain set (FMS) were used to measure four processes of EF, respectively represented global performance, cognitive flexibility, efficiency in rule discovery, and sustained attention. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were completed to explore the associations of meeting the PA, ST, and sleep duration recommendations with four processes of EF. Results Statistically significant positive associations were observed between the number of guidelines met, regarded as a continuous variable, with CC [ β = 0.343 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.125, 0.561)] and SE [ β = 4.028 (95% CI: 0.328, 7.727)], while number of guidelines met negatively related to NPE [ β = − 4.377 (95% CI:-7.952,-0.802)]. Participants not meeting the two recommendations for PA and sleep duration had lower scores in CC [ β = -0.636(95% CI:-1.125,-0.147)] and SE [ β = -10.610 (95% CI:-18.794,-2.425)] compared with those meeting the two, suggesting inferior global performance and worse efficiency in rule discovery. However, ST recommendation had no significant association with any processes of EF. Conclusion Meeting more recommendations of the 24-h movement guidelines was associated with superior EF in children. Specifically, more PA and healthy sleep duration should be encouraged to promote children’s EF.
... For example, in both structural and functional MRI studies, regions of the frontal lobe and anterior cingulate cortex have been found to be associated with ADHD 20À23 and screen-based activities. 24,25 Tracts in the corpus callosum, inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, were found to be correlated with ADHD 26 and some screen-based activities, e.g. Internet gaming 27,28 in diffusion MRI studies. ...
Article
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Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been reported to be associated with longer screen time utilization (STU) at the behavioral level. However, whether there are shared neural links between ADHD symptoms and prolonged STU is not clear and has not been explored in a single large-scale dataset. Methods Leveraging the genetics, neuroimaging and behavioral data of 11,000+ children aged 9–11 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development cohort, this study investigates the associations between the polygenic risk and trait for ADHD, STU, and white matter microstructure through cross-sectionally and longitudinal analyses. Findings Children with higher polygenic risk scores for ADHD tend to have longer STU and more severe ADHD symptoms. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values in several white matter tracts are negatively correlated with both the ADHD polygenic risk score and STU, including the inferior frontal-striatal tract, inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus and corpus callosum. Most of these tracts are linked to visual-related functions. Longitudinal analyses indicate a directional effect of white matter microstructure on the ADHD scale, and a bi-directional effect between the ADHD scale and STU. Furthermore, reduction of FA in several white matter tracts mediates the association between the ADHD polygenic risk score and STU. Interpretation These findings shed new light on the shared neural overlaps between ADHD symptoms and prolonged STU, and provide evidence that the polygenic risk for ADHD is related, via white matter microstructure and the ADHD trait, to STU. Funding This study was mainly supported by NSFC and National Key R&D Program of China.
... In fact, reading increases brain connectivity in areas related to language and sensory regions [37]. Conversely, spending extended periods watching TV favors thickening of the frontal lobe and contributes to a decrease in verbal reasoning ability [38]. This may be because the way we interact with books and TV is quite different. ...
Article
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Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) may be important markers in the prediction of cognitive deterioration. The aim of this study was to find associations between individual lifestyle factors, which may contribute to cognitive impairment (CI) in people with SMCs and to conduct a literature review on the relationship between internet use and CI in subjects over 50 years old, as a related factor. This was a case-controlled study that included 497 subjects aged over 50 years with SMCs who were recruited from 19 community pharmacies. Three screening tests were used to detect possible CIs, and individuals with at least one test result compatible with a CI were referred to primary care for evaluation. Having self-referred SMC increased the odds of obtaining scores compatible with CI and this factor was significantly related to having feelings of depression (OR = 2.24, 95% CI [1.34, 3.90]), taking anxiolytics or antidepressants (OR = 1.93, 95% CI [1.23, 3.05]), and being female (OR = 1.83, 95% CI [1.15, 2.88]). Thirty percent of our sample obtained scores compatible with CI. Age over 70 years increased the odds of obtaining scores compatible with CI. A high-level education, reading, and daily internet use were factors associated with a reduced risk of positive scores compatible with CI (37–91%, 7–18%, and 67–86%, respectively), while one extra hour television per day increased the risk by 8–30%. Among others, modifiable lifestyle factors such as reading, and daily internet usage may slow down cognitive decline in patients over 50 with SMCs. Four longitudinal studies and one quasi-experimental study found internet use to be beneficial against CI in patients over 50 years of age.
... Despite the fact that there are significant gender differences in the amount of time children spend watching television, according to our results, gender is not a statistically significant predictor of the level of development of phonological memory in preschool age. Our data are consistent with previous studies that showed the negative impact of watching television on cognitive, emotional, and executive functions (Lillard and Peterson, 2011;Yousef et al., 2014;Takeuchi et al., 2015). Albeit the negative outcome of television exposure (both specialized child content and adult content) is described for literacy and speech development (Zimmerman et al., 2007;Barr et al., 2010), some research emphasize there is no association between television exposure and language development (Schmidt et al., 2009;Bittman et al., 2011). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to fill this gap by examining the relationship between phonological memory in preschool children and their passive (watching TV) and active screen time with using of Smart Screen Technologies such as tablets and phones with a touch screen interface. Study was conducted in two stages: in Time 1, the association between children’s phonological memory, passive and active screen time and family factors was examined; in Time 2 (1 year later) the impact of passive and active screen time on a child’s individual progress in phonological memory development was evaluated. The study enrolled 122 preschool children aged 5–6 years ( M = 5.72, SD = 0.33); boys (54.9%). Information on each child’s average daily passive and active screen time was obtained from a survey with the mother. The survey provided information on how much time each child spent on a typical day with passive (“traditional”) and active (interactive) use of digital devices. For family factors, we included maternal highest educational qualification, family’s financial situation. For children’s characteristics, age, gender and non-verbal fluid intelligence were included. The results indicate that time spent passively with digital devices (watching TV) is negatively related to a child’s ability to process verbal information. In contrast, the interactive time the child spent with Smart Screen Technologies is not significant and does not pose a threat to the development of phonological memory in preschool age. The study also showed that passive and active use of digital devices has no long-term impact on children’s phonological memory development progress over a year. The implications are that use of Smart Screen Technologies, which implies a higher degree of interactivity, is not associated with either short- or long-term negative effects on phonological memory development in preschool age, contrary to passive screen time exposure. The results can be applied in the elaboration of principles and programs on the use of digital devices for the entertainment and education of preschool children.
... Structural whole-brain multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate associations of IAT scores with rGMV and rWMV. Age, sex, and total intracranial volume calculated using voxel-based morphometry (for details of calculation see [90]) were added as covariates. ...
Article
Full-text available
The structural and functional brain characteristics associated with the excessive use of the internet have attracted substantial research attention in the past decade. In current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and multiple regression analysis to assess the relationship between internet addiction tendency (IAT) score and regional gray and white matter volumes (rGMVs and rWMVs) and brain activity during a WM task in a large sample of healthy young adults (n = 1,154, mean age, 20.71 ± 1.78 years). We found a significant positive correlation between IAT score and gray matter volume (GMV) of right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG) and significant negative correlations with white matter volume (WMV) of right temporal lobe (sub-gyral and superior temporal gyrus), right sublobar area (extra-nuclear and lentiform nucleus), right cerebellar anterior lobe, cerebellar tonsil, right frontal lobe (inferior frontal gyrus and sub-gyral areas), and the pons. Also, IAT was significantly and positively correlated with brain activity in the default-mode network (DMN), medial frontal gyrus, medial part of the superior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex during a 2-back working memory (WM) task. Moreover, whole-brain analyses of rGMV showed significant effects of interaction between sex and the IAT scores in the area spreading around the left anterior insula and left lentiform. This interaction was moderated by positive correlation in women. These results indicate that IAT is associated with (a) increased GMV in rSMG, which is involved in phonological processing, (b) decreased WMV in areas of frontal, sublobar, and temporal lobes, which are involved in response inhibition, and (c) reduced task-induced deactivation of the DMN, indicative of altered attentional allocation.
... Rating merupakan ukuran tingkat popularitas program televisi terhadap penonton (Indrajati et al., 2020) waktu tertentu dalam program televisi terhadap total penonton pada semua stasiun televisi (Kristanty, 2017 (Moeller, 1996). Televisi juga disebut memiliki pengaruh kuat terhadap perkembangan anak-anak (Guru et al., 2013), perkembangan otak (Takeuchi et al., 2015), perkembangan bidang per-televisian (Peirce et al., 2012), perkembangan industri televisi (Simons, 2014), dan perkembangan sosio keagamaan (Siagian et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Tayangan drama atau sinetron populer di televisi dengan rating tinggi telah menarik perhatian sejumlah peneliti untuk mengkajinya dari berbagai aspek. Terdapat beberapa judul sinetron popular di Indonesia yang telah dikaji dalam berbagai bentuk penelitian. Tingginya jumlah kajian, menunjukkan semakin tingginya kesadaran peneliti untuk mengkaji realitas yang aktual, namun sekaligus menimbulkan kekhawatiran terjadinya pengulangan tema riset. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan pemetaan hasil penelitian terkait sinetron popular di Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan adalah Bibliometrik. Hasil riset yang berlandaskan berpikir reflektif menunjukkan bahwa sinetron "Anak Jalanan" menjadi sinetron yang paling banyak diteliti. Tingginya jumlah riset tentang judul sinetron ini berkaitan dengan rating and share sinetron tersebut. Tren penelitian terkait sinetron populer juga cenderung meningkat setelah tahun kedua atau ketiga penayangan, dan trennya menurun setelahnya. Penelitian ini juga menemukan bahwa berakhirnya sinetron tidak langsung menghentikan keberlangsungan riset tentang sinetron tersebut. Temuan lainnya adalah terdapat enam klaster topik. Masing-masing klaster yang tercermin dalam kata kunci memiliki karakteristik khusus terkait topik riset-riset terdahulu tentang tayangan sinetron di Indonesia. Adapun implikasi dari temuan ini adalah adanya peningkatan jumlah kajian yang berkaitan dengan masa tayang dikhawatirkan mengarah kepada tren yang bersifat temporer. Terdapatnya similiaritas topik yang tercermin pada kata kunci menunjukkan adanya kesamaan minat, ide, dan penggunaan metode yang harus diantisipasi agar tidak terjadi pengurangan nilai originalitas dan aksiologi dari sebuah karya ilmiah.
... As such, it is difficult to determine whether media consumption truly has a causal effect on mental health. While this issue has not been studied in regard to COVID-19 specifically, research suggests that the relationship between media consumption and mental health is bidirectional (Aalbers et al., 2019;Takeuchi et al., 2015). Consequently, it is plausible that consumption of COVID-19-related news does have some negative effect on mental health. ...
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Children's screen time is increasing and has devastating effects on various aspects of their development and health. This systematic review study was conducted to investigate the role of family and shortcomings in interventions to reduce children's use of digital media. PsycNet, ScienceDirect, Medline, Pub- Med, Scopus, Web of Science, ISC, SID and IranDoc were searched from 2000 to 2019. All research studies that were RCT with children under age 12 and aimed to reduce ST in children were eligible to study. 18 of them were eligible and were included in the review. Most of the strategies used were behavioral and cogn- itive, and family factors, including communication between family members and child-parent relationship as an impor- tant and influential factors in managing child behavior were largely neglected across the articles reviewed. Awareness of parents about the negative consequences of children's over- use of digital devices and training them to perform alternative and joint activities as two main elements can make interventions be more effective than when they focus only on teaching skills to children. In addition, involving parents in interventions is more effective when other influential factors such as child and parent characteristics, quality of parent-child interaction, patterns of pare- nting behaviors, parenting styles and influencing factors in home environment should also be considered. Keywords: Child, Digital Devices, Fam- ily, Interaction, Intervention, Parents, Pa- rent- Child, Screen Time.
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Aim: Young children's access to digital devices has increased significantly in recent years. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use these devices extremely because of restricted and repetitive interests. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the use of digital devices with feeding and sleep problems in young children with ASD symptoms. Method: The present research was a cross-sectional study. 45 young children with ASD symptoms between 16 and 36 months were selected by convenience sampling method. Data were collected using a lifestyle checklist, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS-2), and the Feeding Problem Inventory (FPI). Pearson correlation coefficient and enter regression were used to analyze the data. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient and simultaneous regression analysis showed that children's use of digital devices had a significant relationship with sleeping late (p <05, r = 0.30), limited food interests (p <05, r = 0 / 31), the mother's dissatisfaction with the child's feeding (p <05, r = 0.32) and the total score of feeding problems (p <05, r = 0.31) in young children and explain 0.09, 0.11, 0.10 and 0.13% of the changes related to the above variables, respectively. Conclusion: More use of digital devices by children with ASD symptoms is associated with the problems in late sleep and limited food interest diversity, maternal dissatisfaction with the child's feeding behavior, and feeding problems in general. It seems necessary to provide interventions to manage the use of digital devices in children with autism spectrum disorder symptoms.
Article
Importance: Screen time has become an integral part of children's daily lives. Nevertheless, the developmental consequences of screen exposure in young children remain unclear. Objective: To investigate the screen time trajectory from 6 to 72 months of age and its association with children's development at age 72 months in a prospective birth cohort. Design, setting, and participants: Women in Shanghai, China, who were at 34 to 36 gestational weeks and had an expected delivery date between May 2012 and July 2013 were recruited for this cohort study. Their children were followed up at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 72 months of age. Children's screen time was classified into 3 groups at age 6 months: continued low (ie, stable amount of screen time), late increasing (ie, sharp increase in screen time at age 36 months), and early increasing (ie, large amount of screen time in early stages that remained stable after age 36 months). Cognitive development was assessed by specially trained research staff in a research clinic. Of 262 eligible mother-offspring pairs, 152 dyads had complete data regarding all variables of interest and were included in the analyses. Data were analyzed from September 2019 to November 2021. Exposures: Mothers reported screen times of children at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 72 months of age. Main outcomes and measures: The cognitive development of children was evaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition, at age 72 months. Social-emotional development was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which was completed by the child's mother. The study described demographic characteristics, maternal mental health, child's temperament at age 6 months, and mental development at age 12 months by subgroups clustered by a group-based trajectory model. Group difference was examined by analysis of variance. Results: A total of 152 mother-offspring dyads were included in this study, including 77 girls (50.7%) and 75 boys (49.3%) (mean [SD] age of the mothers was 29.7 [3.3] years). Children's screen time trajectory from age 6 to 72 months was classified into 3 groups: continued low (110 [72.4%]), late increasing (17 [11.2%]), and early increasing (25 [16.4%]). Compared with the continued low group, the late increasing group had lower scores on the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (β coefficient, -8.23; 95% CI, -15.16 to -1.30; P < .05) and the General Ability Index (β coefficient, -6.42; 95% CI, -13.70 to 0.86; P = .08); the early increasing group presented with lower scores on the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (β coefficient, -6.68; 95% CI, -12.35 to -1.02; P < .05) and the Cognitive Proficiency Index (β coefficient, -10.56; 95% CI, -17.23 to -3.90; P < .01) and a higher total difficulties score (β coefficient, 2.62; 95% CI, 0.49-4.76; P < .05). Conclusions and relevance: This cohort study found that excessive screen time in early years was associated with poor cognitive and social-emotional development. This finding may be helpful in encouraging awareness among parents of the importance of onset and duration of children's screen time.
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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of early Emotional Dysregulation (ED) at preschool age as a risk factor or predictor of later media use behavior and Gaming Disorder (GD) in school age. Methods: 80 patients (63.7% male; mean age = 4.2, SD = 1.23) who had attended a special outpatient program for preschoolers at measuring point time t1 were contacted at measuring point time t2 (mean age = 9.2, SD = 2.03). At t1, the comprehensive clinical assessment comprised Child Behavior Checklist—Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP). At t2, parents completed a questionnaire on their children's media availability, usage times, and GD. Results: ED predicts a more intense use of digital media in the future. The daily average screen-use time at t2 varies significantly between the groups (148 min for children with ED at t1 and 85 min for children without ED at t1). The intensity of media use can be considered a significant predictor for the presence of a GD in dimensional assessment. When GD is classified categorically, according to the DSM-5 criteria, there is no significant correlation between ED and later GD diagnosis, neither between screen-use time and GD diagnosis. However, at dimensional level, preschool children with ED show significantly higher GD symptom scores at 9 years of age. Conclusion: ED at preschool age is strongly associated with time spent video gaming and GD symptoms 5 years later. Our results strongly indicate that emotion dysregulation in preschool children is a risk factor for later problematic video game playing behavior. This strengthens the concept of ED in the etiology of media use and provides potential targets for early GD prevention.
Article
The article presents research data on the impact of the use of information-communication technologies on the organism of children, including in conditions of the educational process. There were revealed peculiarities of cognitive functions in children, the perception of information from the computer screens and e-readers, and paper. There were established potential risks for the development and health of children due to the use of informational and communication technologies. There was proposed the system of hygiene of the health and safety of children in modern hyper-informational society. The main task of its implementation is to achieve the objectives of the Government of the Concept of information security of children.
Article
Introduction. Preschool children are active users of digital devices, which affects their cognitive development. The nature of these impacts has not been sufficiently studied, and there are different opinions of experts on this issue. Thus, the purpose of this article is to analyze the findings of research investigations devoted to the impact of digital devices on preschool children’s cognitive development. Materials and Methods. The authors conducted a systematic literature review of 46 full-text research articles describing the relationship between the use of digital devices (screen time and media content features) and the development of speech and mathematical skills, as well as the development of executive functions in 3-7 year-old children. The review is based on the cultural-historical approach. Results. The analysis of studies has shown that the impact of using digital devices on preschool children’s cognitive development depends on screen time, the exposure type (background TV or targeted use of digital devices), the content (educational or entertaining content), age appropriateness (age-appropriate or inappropriate content), the extent of how realistic the content is (fantasy or realistic content), the stimulus material complexity (visual or audial, black and white or color). There are also conclusions about the most relevant prospects for further research on the impact of the use of digital devices on the cognitive development of children. Conclusions. The review has indicated that long screen time negatively affects the development of speech and mathematical skills and executive functions in preschool children. The study has revealed that the content impact on cognitive development depends on the characteristics of this content. In particular, children-oriented educational content can contribute to cognitive development. Adult-oriented content can negatively affect cognitive development.
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Early adolescents may daily spend excessive screen-time (with television viewing, computer/console gaming, discussion forums/chatting online, internet surfing, doing homework, and electronic mails) while its association with cumulating several school-behavior-mental-health difficulties (SBMDs) (poor-academic-performance, being obese, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/other-illicit-drugs use, suffered violence, sexual abuse, perpetrated violence, poor social support, depressive symptoms, and suicide attempt) is poorly addressed. We investigated this association among 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5±1.3). They completed a questionnaire including socioeconomic features, daily screen-time for various screen-based activities (coded 1=<2/2=2-4/3=≥5 hours; daily-total-screen-time level DSAtotal was defined as their sum and categorized into 4 levels: 6-7/8-9/10-12/≥13), various SBMDs and the time of their onset during the life course (their cumulated number SBMDscore was categorized into 5 levels: 0/1/2/3-4/≥5). Logistic regression modeling showed that the DSAtotal was strongly associated with all SBMDs (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio reaching 8.28, p<0.001) and SBMDscore (gender-age-adjusted relative risk reaching 11.60, p<0.001, pseudo R²=0.039). These associations remained strongly significant when controlling for socioeconomic adversities (contributions 20-38%). The proportion of subjects without each SBMD steadily decreased with age according to DSAtotal levels. These findings help to understand the impacts of high DSAtotal on SBMDs in early adolescents and identify at-risk adolescents for prevention and care.
Article
Introduction. Aim - improvement of methodological approaches to the assessment of potential damages to schoolchildren’s health. Materials and methods. There were surveyed 523 schoolchildren of educational institutions of the Tula region. Children are divided into three groups with pronounced, moderate and optimal intensity factors of the school environment. For assessing the damage to health, morbidity indices of negotiability, data of preventive medical examinations, characteristics of physical development were used. Results. Objects with an average and significant level of the potential risk of harm to health prevail among the children’s organizations in the country. The class of danger, the severity of the consequences for the health of the population exposed are the basis of the existing risk-oriented model of state control. An innovative approach to the hygienic assessment of sanitary and epidemiological well-being, taking into account the influence of a complex of factors of the intraschool environment, critical age periods of maturation of the child’s body, risks to children’s health, is proposed. In the examined children, violations of posture and vision, diseases of the nervous system, alimentary-dependent diseases, etc. were established to prevail. The greatest potential risk to health is caused by the influence of factors of the educational environment and the educational process, lifestyle. Conclusion. The use of the proposed methodological approach will allow solving complex tasks in the environment-health system: to identify the leading health problems and potential risk factors; the formation of risk-oriented programs for the health of children and adolescents.
Article
Introduction. The digitalization of education in the Russian Federation accompanied by the intensive use of digital tools in children and adolescents’ education and leisure activities actualizes the problems of preserving the health of the younger generation. The aim of the study was to assess the current medical and social problems of informatization of education and the formation of approaches to the hygienic regulation of the main risk factors for the health of students, to determine the technologies for ensuring their hygienic safety in the digital environment. Materials and methods. The expert and analytical research were carried out using scientific publications, Internet resources, normative and methodological documents showing the features of the organization of educational activities of students in the digital environment, the technology of ensuring their hygienic safety. Results. It shows the high degree of development of the digital environment in the Russian education system; a diverse arsenal of digital educational resources and services that are most in demand by participants in the educational process; prospects for the modernization and development of education in the course of the introduction of the digital educational environment (DEE). The new digital environment can negatively impact the lifestyle and behavior of children and adolescents and contribute to the formation of additional risk factors for their health. In the context of the increased informatization of the educational process and the active use of electronic learning tools (ESE), there is an increase in the information load and psychoemotional overstrain in children and adolescents, an increase in various forms of information dependence, borderline mental disorders and behavioural disorders, the prevalence of school-related conditions and diseases. Conclusion. Among the measures related to the safety of the use of digital technologies and means of their provision in the educational and leisure activities of children, the implementation of technologies aimed at assessing the main risk factors for children’s health in the developing digital environment and the prospects for the development of hygienic rationing; compliance with hygiene regulations and rules of work when using ESO; training and education of children, parents and teachers; expertise of educational programs and technologies; monitoring the effectiveness of the implementation of DEE.
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Physical activity and sedentary behaviors have been linked to a variety of general health benefits and problems. However, few studies have examined how physical activity during childhood is related to brain development, with the majority of work to date focusing on cardio-metabolic health. This study examines the association between physical activity and screen time with white matter microstructure in the general pediatric population. In a sample of 2532 children (10.12 ± 0.58 years; 50.04% boys) from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we assessed physical activity and screen time using parent-reported questionnaires. Magnetic resonance imaging of white matter microstructure was conducted using diffusion tensor imaging. Total physical activity was positively associated with global fractional anisotropy (β = 0.057, 95% CI = 0.016, 0.098, p = 0.007) and negatively associated with global mean diffusivity (β = −0.079, 95% CI = −0.120, −0.038, p
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The strategic goal of the state policy in the field of information security of children is to ensure the harmonious development of the younger generation, to minimize risks associated with the formation of hyperinformative society. The hygienic safety of the life of children under the use of information technology is a necessary condition for their balanced growth, development and formation of health. Modern information technologies of training provide children easy access to information resources, remoteness, mobility, interactivity, the possibility of the formation of social and educational networks, and educational communities, modeling and animation of various processes and phenomena. The purpose of the study is the substantiation of the system of the sanitary safety of hyperinformation of children’s life activity. The analytical method has allowed justify a system of hygienic and medical-psychological-pedagogical safety of the life of children’s life activity in hyperinformational society. The system includes the criteria of hygienic safety for information and communication technologies (ICT) and their means of support; modern sanitary rules and regulations to ensure hygienic safety for the children of information and communication technologies of training in educational institutions; federal recommendations of care for students in conditions of modern information and communications technology of training and information of children’s life activity; federal guidelines for the preservation of mental and psychological health and well-being of students; recommendations for family in security of children’s life activity in hyperinformational space; recommendations for producers and content distributors of providing medical, psychological and educational safety of children’s life activity; game educational programs on rules of the safe use of the Internet by children; monitoring the effectiveness of hygienic safety and protection of children from negative information. The implementation of hygienic children’s safety system will allow provide the best personal mental and physical development, the preservation of mental and psychological health and well-being of children in hyperinformational society; achieve expected results of the Concept of information security of children approved by the Decree of the Russian Federation dated December 2, 2015 № 2471-r, in terms of creating a new media environment.
Preprint
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) would correspond to a preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to find associations between lifestyle individual factors compatible scores with cognitive impairment (CI) in SCD people. Methods: This is a case-control study to detect SCD, CI and potential associated factors in 497 patients over 50 years in Community Pharmacies. Three screening tests detected possible CI and patients with at least one test compatible with CI were referred to Primary Care to be evaluated. Results: In self-complaint patients statistically significant with depressive feelings were found (86.8%) with benzodiazepines consumers (83.9%) and female patients (81.2%). Thirty percent of our sample obtained scores compatible with CI. Being older than 70 years old increased the odds of obtaining scores compatible with CI. High level education, reading and internet use were able to reduce the odds of positive scores compatible with CI (37%-91%, 7%-18% and 67%-86%), whereas, one extra hour television/day increased the risk in 8%-30%. Reading was able to nullify the effect of both internet and TV consumption. Conclusion: Not just the age but also modifiable lifestyle factors are acting in favour of a cognitive decline.
Article
Background Night‐shift lifestyles affect children as well as adults, and are associated with sleep and behavioral problems among children. This study aimed to investigate associations among sleep patterns, individual/environmental factors, and problematic behaviors in children at age 5 years. Methods Data for sleep patterns, individual/environmental factors and problematic behaviors for 8,689 5‐year‐old children were collected from health checkup records. Problematic behaviors investigated were anxious behavior (being afraid, difficulty being separated from the mother), developmental behavior (violence, restlessness, rebellious behavior, restrictive diet, stereotypic play), personal habits (thumb‐sucking, nail‐biting, tic, masturbation), and excretory problems. The relationships between sleep patterns (bedtime, sleep duration) and the presence of these behaviors were analyzed. Individual/environmental factors that affected problematic behaviors were statistically identified using a tree form model. Results Late bedtime and short sleep duration showed significant adverse effects on children’s problematic behaviors (odds ratio [OR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.11 and: OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.87–0.97, respectively). Long television watching time, abnormality at birth, and lack of father’s support also showed significant adverse effects on problematic behaviors (OR 2.34, 95% CI: 1.87–2.94), and significantly affected late bedtime and short sleep duration. Conclusions There were significant associations among sleep patterns, individual/environmental factors, and problematic behaviors in 5‐year‐old children. Improving children’s sleep patterns, reducing the duration of television watching, and improving support from father may reduce problematic behaviors.
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Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS) results from excessive, uncontrolled activation of the alternative pathway of the complement system. It is important to distinguish aHUS from other thrombotic microangiopathies. The aim of this paper is to discuss the complexity and relevance of the genetic background of aHUS patients. The review discusses the genetic variants that are important for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of patients, which is inevitably important for the qualification of patients for treatment with eculizumab. These variants are not only found in the genes involved in the control of complement system but are also related to the coagulation system. The paper emphasizes the diagnostic difficulties resulting from the extremely diverse genetic background of the patients. It is important to conduct further genetic studies of aHUS patients, also paying attention to genes unrelated to the complement system. The paper contains information on the role of genetic predisposition in tailoring the risk for aHUS and determining its clinical outcome, including qualification for eculizumab therapy.
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The objectives of reforming the Russian education open up new possibilities for organizing the educational process on the basis of the shaping of principles of a healthy lifestyle embodied in standards of preschool education. The study was conducted in 8 Moscow kindergartens. The questionnaire survey included 437 parents of children of young preschool-age (3-4 years) and older preschool-age (5-7 years). The vital activity of modern preschool children was established to be characterized by the elevated of the static and emotional load against the background of deficiency of physical activity due to the increased use of gadgets and watching television, visiting other classes for preparation for school. Failure to comply with a rational mode of the day in the family has a negative impact on the health status of preschool children. Familiarizing parents to a healthy lifestyle, the optimization of mental and physical loads, the increase in the physical activity for children are the priority areas in health promotion work with preschool children.
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Does the structure of an adult human brain alter in response to environmental demands? Here we use whole-brain magnetic-resonance imaging to visualize learning-induced plasticity in the brains of volunteers who have learned to juggle. We find that these individuals show a transient and selective structural change in brain areas that are associated with the processing and storage of complex visual motion. This discovery of a stimulus-dependent alteration in the brain's macroscopic structure contradicts the traditionally held view that cortical plasticity is associated with functional rather than anatomical changes.
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Numerous brain lesion and functional neuroimaging studies have suggested that the dorsolateral and frontopolar prefrontal regions are involved in complex cognitive processes subserving thought and memory. However, previously proposed functional subdivisions of prefrontal function have concentrated predominantly on posterior prefrontal cortex, including the dorsolateral, ventral, and medial regions. Far less consideration has been given to characterizing the psychological processes mediated by the frontopolar cortex. Here we review published neuroimaging studies of reasoning and episodic memory, two domains in which the frontopolar cortex has been frequently activated. The results suggest that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved when externally generated information is being evaluated, whereas the frontopolar cortex becomes recruited when internally generated information needs to be evaluated. A hierarchical model of prefrontal function is proposed in which dorsolateral and frontopolar regions are serially recruited as a reasoning or memory task requires evaluation of internally generated information.
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Early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems in children . Christakis DA, Zimmerman FJ, Di Giuseppe DL & McCarty CA. ( 2004 ) Pediatrics , 113 , 708 – 713 . Cross-sectional research has suggested that television viewing may be associated with decreased attention spans in children. However, longitudinal data of early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems have been lacking. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that early television exposure (at ages 1 and 3) is associated with attentional problems at age 7. We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a representative longitudinal data set. Our main outcome was the hyperactivity subscale of the Behavioural Problems Index determined on all participants at age 7. Children who were > 1.2 standard deviations above the mean were classified as having attentional problems. Our main predictor was hours of television watched daily at ages 1 and 3 years. Data were available for 1278 children at age 1 and 1345 children at age 3. Ten percent of children had attentional problems at age 7. In a logistic regression model, hours of television viewing per day at both ages 1 and 3 were associated with attentional problems at age 7 [1.09 (1.03–1.15) and 1.09 (1.02–1.16), respectively]. Early television exposure is associated with attentional problems at age 7. Efforts to limit television viewing in early childhood may be warranted, and additional research is needed.
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Empathizing is defined as the drive to identify the mental states of others in order to predict their behavior and respond with an appropriate emotion. Systemizing is defined as the drive to analyze a system in terms of the rules that govern it to predict its behavior. We undertook voxel-by-voxel investigations of regional white matter volume (rWMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion tensor imaging to discover the WM structural correlates of empathizing, systemizing, and their difference (D score: systemizing - empathizing). Whole brain analyses of covariance revealed that across both sexes, the D score was negatively correlated with rWMV in the WM area in the bilateral temporal lobe, near the right inferior frontal gyrus, near the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and near the posterior cingulate cortex and positively correlated with FA in an area involving the superior longitudinal fasticulus. Post-hoc analyses revealed that these associations were generally formed by both the correlation between WM structures and empathizing as well as the opposite correlation between WM structures and systemizing. A significant effect of interaction between sex and the D score on rWMV, which was mainly observed because of a positive correlation between rWMV and empathizing in females and a negative correlation between rWMV and systemizing in females, was found in an area close to the right inferior parietal lobule and temporoparietal junction. Our results suggest that WM structures involving the default mode network and the mirror neuron system support empathizing, and that a WM structure relating to the external attention system support systemizing. Further, our results revealed an overlap between positive/negative WM structural correlates of empathizing and negative/positive WM structural correlates of systemizing despite little correlation between empathizing and systemizing, which supports the previously held idea that there is a trade-off between empathizing and systemizing in the brain.
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Background: Experiences of early life stress, increased psychological arousal and the body's physiologic stress response seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present study, we investigated alterations in grey matter of central stress-regulating structures in female patients with BPD. Methods: We examined T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of unmedicated, right-handed female patients with BPD (according to DSM-IV criteria) and healthy controls matched for age, intelligence and education using fully automated DARTEL voxel-based morphometry. Our regions of interest analyses included the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and hypothalamus. Results: We enrolled 30 patients and 33 controls in our study. The grey matter of patients with BPD was reduced in the hippocampus, but increased in the hypothalamus compared with healthy participants. Hypothalamic volume correlated positively with the history of traumatization in patients with BPD. No significant alterations were found in the amygdala and ACC. Limitations: This study is limited by the lack of measures of corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels. Furthermore, moderate sample size and comorbid disorders need to be considered. Conclusion: Our findings provide new evidence for grey matter alterations in the hypothalamus and replicate previously reported decrements in hippocampal volume in patients with BPD. Understanding the role of the hypothalamus and other central stress-regulating structures could help us to further understand the neurobiological underpinnings of this complex disorder.
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Executive functions involve control processes such as goal-oriented planning, flexible strategy generation, sustaining set maintenance, self-monitoring, and inhibition. Executive functions during everyday events (EFEEs) are distinct from those measured under laboratory settings; the former can be severely impaired while the latter remain intact. Non-routine everyday problems due to executive dysfunctions affect individual functioning in everyday life and are of great clinical interest. Despite the importance of anatomical bases underlying better EFEEs, such bases have never been investigated among non-clinical samples. Using voxel-based morphometry to measure regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and regional white matter volume (rWMV) and diffusion tensor imaging to determine fractional anisotropy values, we identified the anatomical correlates of better EFEEs using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire in 303 normal young subjects (168 men and 135 women). Better EFEEs were associated with a smaller rGMV in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) spread across Brodmann areas (BA) 25, 11, and 12 and larger rWMV in the WM area of OFC adjacent to BA 11. Furthermore, individual EFEEs were positively associated with rWMV in the temporal areas, primarily the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the latter of which connects OFC and posterior regions. Thus, our findings suggest that brain structures involving OFC, together with other regions, contribute to the maintenance of effective EFEEs among non-clinical subjects.
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Empathy is a multi-faceted concept consisting of our ability not only to share emotions but also to exert cognitive control and perspective taking in our interactions with others. Here we examined whether inter-individual variability in different components of empathy was related to differences in brain structure assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Following a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, participants completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Multiple regression was then used to assess the relationship between individual differences in grey matter volume and individual differences in empathy traits. We found that individual differences in affective empathic abilities oriented towards another person were negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate. Differences in self-oriented affective empathy were negatively correlated with grey matter volume of the somatosensory cortex, but positively correlated with volume in the insula; cognitive perspective taking abilities were positively correlated with grey matter volume of the anterior cingulate; and the ability to empathise with fictional characters was positively related to grey matter changes in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings are discussed in relation to neurocognitive models of empathy.
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It is unclear whether brain mechanisms underlying human intelligence are distributed throughout the brain or mainly concentrated in the frontal lobes. Data are inconsistent possibly due, at least in part, to the different ways the construct of intelligence is measured. Here we apply the method of correlated vectors to determine how the general factor of intelligence (g) is related to regional gray matter and white matter volumes. This is a re-analysis of an earlier study showing regional gray matter and white matter volume is correlated to Full Scale IQ (FSIQ). However, it is well-known that FSIQ taps several cognitive abilities and skills in addition to g. The results now show that the g factor accounts for several but not all FSIQ/gray matter correlations distributed throughout the brain and these areas may differ for young and older adults.
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Human brain lesion studies first investigated the biological roots of cognitive functions including language in the late 1800s. Neuroimaging studies have reported correlation findings with general intelligence predominantly in fronto-parietal cortical areas. However, there is still little evidence about the relationship between verbal intelligence and structural properties of the brain. We predicted that verbal performance is related to language regions of Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Verbal intelligence quotient (vIQ) was assessed in 30 healthy young subjects. T1-weighted MRI and diffusion tensor imaging data sets were acquired. Voxel-wise regression analyses were used to correlate fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity values with vIQ. Moreover, regression analyses of regional brain volume with vIQ were performed adopting voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and ROI methodology. Our analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between vIQ and FA and a significant positive correlation between vIQ and mean diffusivity in the left-hemispheric Broca's area. VBM regression analyses did not show significant results, whereas a subsequent ROI analysis of Broca's area FA peak cluster demonstrated a positive correlation of gray matter volume and vIQ. These findings suggest that cortical thickness in Broca's area contributes to verbal intelligence. Diffusion parameters predicted gray matter ratio in Broca's area more sensitive than VBM methodology.
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Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a standardized measure of human intellectual capacity that takes into account a wide range of cognitive skills. IQ is generally considered to be stable across the lifespan, with scores at one time point used to predict educational achievement and employment prospects in later years. Neuroimaging allows us to test whether unexpected longitudinal fluctuations in measured IQ are related to brain development. Here we show that verbal and non-verbal IQ can rise or fall in the teenage years, with these changes in performance validated by their close correlation with changes in local brain structure. A combination of structural and functional imaging showed that verbal IQ changed with grey matter in a region that was activated by speech, whereas non-verbal IQ changed with grey matter in a region that was activated by finger movements. By using longitudinal assessments of the same individuals, we obviated the many sources of variation in brain structure that confound cross-sectional studies. This allowed us to dissociate neural markers for the two types of IQ and to show that general verbal and non-verbal abilities are closely linked to the sensorimotor skills involved in learning. More generally, our results emphasize the possibility that an individual's intellectual capacity relative to their peers can decrease or increase in the teenage years. This would be encouraging to those whose intellectual potential may improve, and would be a warning that early achievers may not maintain their potential.
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Training working memory (WM) improves performance on untrained cognitive tasks and alters functional activity. However, WM training's effects on gray matter morphology and a wide range of cognitive tasks are still unknown. We investigated this issue using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), various psychological measures, such as non-trained WM tasks and a creativity task, and intensive adaptive training of WM using mental calculations (IATWMMC), all of which are typical WM tasks. IATWMMC was associated with reduced regional gray matter volume in the bilateral fronto-parietal regions and the left superior temporal gyrus. It improved verbal letter span and complex arithmetic ability, but deteriorated creativity. These results confirm the training-induced plasticity in psychological mechanisms and the plasticity of gray matter structures in regions that have been assumed to be under strong genetic control.
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Physical inactivity contributes to weight gain in adults, but whether this relationship is true for children of different ethnic groups is not well established. To assess participation in vigorous activity and television watching habits and their relationship to body weight and fatness in US children. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey with an in-person interview and medical examination. SETTING and Between 1988 and 1994, 4063 children aged 8 through 16 years were examined as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks were oversampled to produce reliable estimates for these groups. Episodes of weekly vigorous activity and daily hours of television watched, and their relationship to body mass index and body fatness. Eighty percent of US children reported performing 3 or more bouts of vigorous activity each week. This rate was lower in non-Hispanic black and Mexican American girls (69% and 73%, respectively). Twenty percent of US children participated in 2 or fewer bouts of vigorous activity perweek, and the rate was higher in girls (26%) than in boys (17%). Overall, 26% of US children watched 4 or more hours of television per day and 67% watched at least 2 hours per day. Non-Hispanic black children had the highest rates of watching 4 or more hours of television per day (42%). Boys and girls who watch 4 or more hours of television each day had greater body fat (P<.001) and had a greater body mass index (P<.001) than those who watched less than 2 hours per day. Many US children watch a great deal of television and are inadequately vigorously active. Vigorous activity levels are lowest among girls, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans. Intervention strategies to promote lifelong physical activity among US children are needed to stem the adverse health consequences of inactivity.
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Inter-individual variability in perception, thought and action is frequently treated as a source of 'noise' in scientific investigations of the neural mechanisms that underlie these processes, and discarded by averaging data from a group of participants. However, recent MRI studies in the human brain show that inter-individual variability in a wide range of basic and higher cognitive functions - including perception, motor control, memory, aspects of consciousness and the ability to introspect - can be predicted from the local structure of grey and white matter as assessed by voxel-based morphometry or diffusion tensor imaging. We propose that inter-individual differences can be used as a source of information to link human behaviour and cognition to brain anatomy.
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