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BEENISH: Balanced Energy Efficient Network Integrated Super Heterogeneous Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors:
  • COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Wah Cantt.

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In past years there has been increasing interest in field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). One of the major issue of WSNs is development of energy efficient routing protocols. Clustering is an effective way to increase energy efficiency. Mostly, heterogenous protocols consider two or three energy level of nodes. In reality, heterogonous WSNs contain large range of energy levels. By analyzing communication energy consumption of the clusters and large range of energy levels in heterogenous WSN, we propose BEENISH (Balanced Energy Efficient Network Integrated Super Heterogenous) Protocol. It assumes WSN containing four energy levels of nodes. Here, Cluster Heads (CHs) are elected on the bases of residual energy level of nodes. Simulation results show that it performs better than existing clustering protocols in heterogeneous WSNs. Our protocol achieve longer stability, lifetime and more effective messages than Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC), Developed DEEC (DDEEC) and Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC).
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arXiv:1303.5285v1 [cs.NI] 21 Mar 2013
Procedia Computer Science 00 (2013) 1–6
Procedia
Computer
Science
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
International Workshop on Body Area Sensor Networks (BASNet-2013)
BEENISH: Balanced Energy Ecient Network Integrated
Super Heterogenous Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
T. N. Qureshi£, N. Javaid£, A. H. Khan£, A. Iqbal£, E. Akhtar, M. Ishfaq§
£COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
University of Bedfordshire, Luton, UK.
§King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh, Saudi Arabia.
Abstract
In past years there has been increasing interest in field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). One of the major issue of
WSNs is development of energy ecient routing protocols. Clustering is an eective way to increase energy eciency.
Mostly, heterogenous protocols consider two or three energy level of nodes. In reality, heterogonous WSNs contain large
range of energy levels. By analyzing communication energy consumption of the clustersand large range of energy levels
in heterogenous WSN, we propose BEENISH (Balanced Energy Ecient Network Integrated Super Heterogenous)
Protocol. It assumes WSN containing four energy levels of nodes. Here, Cluster Heads (CHs) are elected on the bases
of residual energy level of nodes. Simulation results show that it performs better than existing clustering protocols
in heterogeneous WSNs. Our protocol achieve longer stability, lifetime and more eective messages than Distributed
Energy Ecient Clustering (DEEC), Developed DEEC (DDEEC) and Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC).
c
2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: CH, residual energy, heterogeneity, ecient, WSNs.
1. Introduction
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) [1, 2, 3] have become popular in variety of applications such as
military surveillance, environmental, transportation trac, temperature, pressure and vibration monitoring.
To achieve fault tolerance, WSNs consist of hundreds or even thousands of sensor randomly distributed with
in the region [4, 5, 6]. All the nodes report sensed data to Base Station (BS) often called sink. Nodes in
WSNs are power constrained due to limited battery resource, and they might be placed where they can not
be accessed, so,impossible to recharge or replace. To save energy, regular and long distance communication
should be avoided to prolong network lifetime [1]. Sensor nodes take self decisions to accomplish sensing
tasks, constructing network topology and routing policy. Therefore, it become important to design energy
ecient algorithm for enhancing robustness against node failures and extending lifetime of WSNs.
Eciently Grouping sensor nodes in form of clusters is beneficial in minimizing the energy utilization.
Numerous energy ecient protocols are made based on clustering structure[1, 7, 8]. In clustering, nodes
assemble themselves in form of clusters with one node acting as the Cluster Head (CH). All cluster member
nodes transmit sensed data to their CH, while the CH aggregate data received and forward it to the remote
2/Procedia Computer Science 00 (2013) 1–6
BS [9, 10]. Clustering can be formed in two kind of networks i.e., homogenous and heterogeneous. WSNs
having nodes of same energy level are called homogenous WSNs. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierar-
chy (LEACH) [11], Power Ecient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems (PEGASIS) [12] and Hybrid
Energy-Ecient Distributed Clustering (HEED) [13] are examples of cluster based protocols which are
designed for homogenous WSNs. These algorithms poorly perform in heterogeneous regions. Nodes have
less energy will expire faster than high energy nodes because these homogenous clustering based algorithms
are incapable to treat every node with respect to energy. In heterogeneous WSNs, nodes are deployed with
dierent initial energy levels. Heterogeneity in WSN may be the result of re-energizing of WSN in order to
extend the network lifetime [14, 15, 16]. Stable Election Protocol (SEP) [14], Distributed Energy Ecient
Clustering (DEEC) [17], Developed DEEC (DDEEC) [18], Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC) [19] are protocols
for heterogenous WSNs.
2. Radio Dissipation Model
The radio energy model describes that l-bit message is transmitted over a distance das in [10, 11] as
shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Radio Energy Dissipation Model
ETx(l,d)=
lEelec +lεf s d2,d<d0
lEelec +lεmpd4,dd0(1)
Where Eelec is energy used per bit to run transmitter or receiver circuit. Free space (f s) model is used
if distance is in less than threshold otherwise multi path (mp) model. Now, total energy dissipated in the
network during a round is given below, as supossed [10, 11].
Eround =L(2NEelec +NEDA +kεmpd4
toBS +Nεf s d2
toCH) (2)
Where, k=number of clusters,
EDA=Data aggregation cost expended in CH
dtoBS =Average distance between CH and BS
dtoCH=Average distance between cluster members and CH
Assuming all nodes are uniformly distributed over network so, dtoBS and dtoCH can be calculated as
following as in [10, 11]:
dtoCH =M
2πk,dtoBS =0.765 M
2(3)
By finding the derivative of ERound with respect to kto zero, we get the kopt optimal number clusters as
in [10, 11, 17].
kopt =N
2πrεf s
εmp
M
d2
toBS (4)
/Procedia Computer Science 00 (2013) 1–6 3
3. The BEENISH Protocol
In this section, we present details of our BEENISH protocol. BEENISH implements the same concept
as in DEEC, in terms of selecting CH which is based on residual energy level of the nodes with respect to
average energy of network. However, DEEC is based on two types of nodes; normal and advance nodes.
BEENISH uses the concept of four types of nodes; normal, advance, super and ultra-super nodes.
Let nishows the rounds for a node sito become CH, we refer it as rotating epoch. CH has to consume
more energy as compare to member nodes. In homogeneous networks, to ensure average poptNCHs in
each round, LEACH let every node si(i=1,2, ....N) to become CH once in every ni=1
popt rounds. During
operation of WSN all the nodes does not own the same remaining energy. So, if the epoch niis kept equal
for all nodes as in LEACH then energy is not eciently distributed and nodes having low energy die before
high energy nodes. BEENISH choose dierent epoch nifor dierent nodes with respect to their remaining
energy Ei(r). High energy nodes are more often elected as CH as compare to low energy nodes. So, high
energy nodes have smaller epoch nias compare to high energy nodes . In BEENISH ultra-super nodes
are largely elected as CH as compare to super, advance and normal nodes, and so, on. In this way energy
consumed by all nodes is equally distributed.
Let pi=1
niis probability of node to become CH during epoch nirounds. When all the nodes have same
every level at each epoch, selecting the average probability pito be popt can ensure that there are poptNCHs
every round and approximately all nodes die at the same time. If nodes are having dierent energy then
nodes with more energy have pilarger than popt.
In BEENISH, average energy of rth round can be obtained as follows and as supposed in DEEC:
¯
E(r)=1
NEtotal(1 r
R) (5)
Ris showing total rounds from the start of network to the all nodes die and can be estimated as in DEEC
and given as under:
R=Etotal
Eround (6)
Eround is the energy dissipated in a network during single round as given in 2.
To achieve the optimal number of CH at start of each round, node sidecides whether to become a CH
or not based on probability threshold calculated by expression in the following equation, and as supposed in
[11, 17].
T(si)=
pi
1pi(rmod 1
Pi)if siǫG
0otherwise (7)
Where Gis the set of nodes eligible to become CH. If a node sihas not been CH in the most recent ni
then it belongs to set G. Random number between 0 and 1 is selected by nodes belonging to set G. If the
number is less than threshold T(si), the node siwill be CH for that current round.
In real scenarios, WSNs have more greater than two or three energy levels of nodes. In WSN due to
random CH selection, large range of energy levels are created. So, as much more energy levels we quantize
and define dierent probability for every energy level will lead to as much better results and lead to energy
eciency. In BEENISH, we first time use concept of four level heterogeneous network having normal,
advance, super and ultra-super nodes. The probabilities for four types of nodes are given below:
pi=
popt Ei(r)
(1+m(a+m0(a+b+m1(b+u)))) ¯
E(r)siis the normal node
popt (1+a)Ei(r)
(1+m(a+m0(a+b+m1(b+u)))) ¯
E(r)siis the advanced node
popt (1+b)Ei(r)
(1+m(a+m0(a+b+m1(b+u)))) ¯
E(r)siis the super node
popt (1+u)Ei(r)
(1+m(a+m0(a+b+m1(b+u)))) ¯
E(r)siis the ultra super node
(8)
4/Procedia Computer Science 00 (2013) 1–6
Threshold is calculated for CH selection of normal, advanced, super and ultra-super nodes by putting
above values in equation below.
T(si)=
pi
1pi(rmod 1
Pi)if siǫG
0otherwise (9)
In the equation of T(si), we find that nodes with greater remaining energy Ei(r) at round rare more
possibly to become CH as compare to low energy nodes. The aim of this mechanism is to eciently divide
the energy consumption in the network and extend the stability period which is defined by first node die and
network lifetime defined by last node die from the start of WSN.
Simulations show that BEENISH is more ecient protocol than DEEC, DDEEC and EDEEC for WSN
containing four and multi level heterogeneity in terms of first node die and last node die.
4. Simulations and Results
This section evaluates the performance of BEENISH protocol using MATLAB. We consider a WSN
containing of N=100 nodes randomly deployed inside 100m×100mfield. For simplicity, we assume that
all nodes are either fixed or micro-mobile and ignore energy loss due to signal collision and interference
between signals of dierent nodes that are due to dynamic random channel conditions. Our simulations
use radio parameters mentioned in Table 1. Protocols compared with BEENISH include DEEC, DDEEC
and EDEEC. We estimated performance for the case of four level and multi-level heterogeneous WSNs. We
observe performance of DEEC, DDEEC, EDEEC and BEENISH for four level and multi-level heterogenous
WSNs. We take the parameters; m=0.5,m0=0.3,m1=0.2,a=1.5,b=2.0and u =2.5, containing
50 normal nodes having E0energy, 35 advanced nodes having 1.5 times more energy than normal nodes,
12 super nodes containing 2 times more energy than normal nodes and 3 ultra-super nodes containing 2.5
times more energy than normal nodes. First node for DEEC, DDEEC, EDEEC and BEENISH dies at 1103,
1367, 1421 and 1661 rounds, respectively. All nodes die at 5191, 3976, 6866 and 6903 rounds, respectively.
Fig. 3 shows BEENISH sends more data to BS than DEEC, DDEEC and EDEEC. BEENISH is ecient as
compare to all protocols in terms of stability period, network life time and packets sent to the BS.
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Number of Rounds
Number of Nodes Alive
DEEC
DDEEC
EDEEC
BEENISH
Fig. 2. Alive Nodes During Network Lifetime
/Procedia Computer Science 00 (2013) 1–6 5
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5 x 10
5
Number of Rounds
Number of Packets sent to BS
DEEC
DDEEC
EDEEC
BEENISH
Fig. 3. Packets sent to BS
5. Conclusion
Our proposed BEENISH is energy-aware clustering protocol for heterogenous WSNs, with the concept
of four types of nodes. Election of CH based on residual and average energy of the network. So, nodes with
high energy have more chances to get selected as CH, as compare to the low energy nodes. BEENISH is
proved to be the most ecient protocols as compared to DEED, DDEEC and EDEEC for all types of WSNs
in terms of stability period, network lifetime and throughput.
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