arXiv:1303.5285v1 [cs.NI] 21 Mar 2013
Procedia Computer Science 00 (2013) 1–6
International Workshop on Body Area Sensor Networks (BASNet-2013)
BEENISH: Balanced Energy Eﬃcient Network Integrated
Super Heterogenous Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
T. N. Qureshi£, N. Javaid£, A. H. Khan£, A. Iqbal£, E. Akhtar♯, M. Ishfaq§
£COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
♯University of Bedfordshire, Luton, UK.
§King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh, Saudi Arabia.
In past years there has been increasing interest in ﬁeld of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). One of the major issue of
WSNs is development of energy eﬃcient routing protocols. Clustering is an eﬀective way to increase energy eﬃciency.
Mostly, heterogenous protocols consider two or three energy level of nodes. In reality, heterogonous WSNs contain large
range of energy levels. By analyzing communication energy consumption of the clustersand large range of energy levels
in heterogenous WSN, we propose BEENISH (Balanced Energy Eﬃcient Network Integrated Super Heterogenous)
Protocol. It assumes WSN containing four energy levels of nodes. Here, Cluster Heads (CHs) are elected on the bases
of residual energy level of nodes. Simulation results show that it performs better than existing clustering protocols
in heterogeneous WSNs. Our protocol achieve longer stability, lifetime and more eﬀective messages than Distributed
Energy Eﬃcient Clustering (DEEC), Developed DEEC (DDEEC) and Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC).
2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: CH, residual energy, heterogeneity, eﬃcient, WSNs.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) [1, 2, 3] have become popular in variety of applications such as
military surveillance, environmental, transportation traﬃc, temperature, pressure and vibration monitoring.
To achieve fault tolerance, WSNs consist of hundreds or even thousands of sensor randomly distributed with
in the region [4, 5, 6]. All the nodes report sensed data to Base Station (BS) often called sink. Nodes in
WSNs are power constrained due to limited battery resource, and they might be placed where they can not
be accessed, so,impossible to recharge or replace. To save energy, regular and long distance communication
should be avoided to prolong network lifetime . Sensor nodes take self decisions to accomplish sensing
tasks, constructing network topology and routing policy. Therefore, it become important to design energy
eﬃcient algorithm for enhancing robustness against node failures and extending lifetime of WSNs.
Eﬃciently Grouping sensor nodes in form of clusters is beneﬁcial in minimizing the energy utilization.
Numerous energy eﬃcient protocols are made based on clustering structure[1, 7, 8]. In clustering, nodes
assemble themselves in form of clusters with one node acting as the Cluster Head (CH). All cluster member
nodes transmit sensed data to their CH, while the CH aggregate data received and forward it to the remote
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BS [9, 10]. Clustering can be formed in two kind of networks i.e., homogenous and heterogeneous. WSNs
having nodes of same energy level are called homogenous WSNs. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierar-
chy (LEACH) , Power Eﬃcient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems (PEGASIS)  and Hybrid
Energy-Eﬃcient Distributed Clustering (HEED)  are examples of cluster based protocols which are
designed for homogenous WSNs. These algorithms poorly perform in heterogeneous regions. Nodes have
less energy will expire faster than high energy nodes because these homogenous clustering based algorithms
are incapable to treat every node with respect to energy. In heterogeneous WSNs, nodes are deployed with
diﬀerent initial energy levels. Heterogeneity in WSN may be the result of re-energizing of WSN in order to
extend the network lifetime [14, 15, 16]. Stable Election Protocol (SEP) , Distributed Energy Eﬃcient
Clustering (DEEC) , Developed DEEC (DDEEC) , Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC)  are protocols
for heterogenous WSNs.
2. Radio Dissipation Model
The radio energy model describes that l-bit message is transmitted over a distance das in [10, 11] as
shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Radio Energy Dissipation Model
lEelec +lεf s d2,d<d0
Where Eelec is energy used per bit to run transmitter or receiver circuit. Free space (f s) model is used
if distance is in less than threshold otherwise multi path (mp) model. Now, total energy dissipated in the
network during a round is given below, as supossed [10, 11].
Eround =L(2NEelec +NEDA +kεmpd4
toBS +Nεf s d2
Where, k=number of clusters,
EDA=Data aggregation cost expended in CH
dtoBS =Average distance between CH and BS
dtoCH=Average distance between cluster members and CH
Assuming all nodes are uniformly distributed over network so, dtoBS and dtoCH can be calculated as
following as in [10, 11]:
√2πk,dtoBS =0.765 M
By ﬁnding the derivative of ERound with respect to kto zero, we get the kopt optimal number clusters as
in [10, 11, 17].
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3. The BEENISH Protocol
In this section, we present details of our BEENISH protocol. BEENISH implements the same concept
as in DEEC, in terms of selecting CH which is based on residual energy level of the nodes with respect to
average energy of network. However, DEEC is based on two types of nodes; normal and advance nodes.
BEENISH uses the concept of four types of nodes; normal, advance, super and ultra-super nodes.
Let nishows the rounds for a node sito become CH, we refer it as rotating epoch. CH has to consume
more energy as compare to member nodes. In homogeneous networks, to ensure average poptNCHs in
each round, LEACH let every node si(i=1,2, ....N) to become CH once in every ni=1
popt rounds. During
operation of WSN all the nodes does not own the same remaining energy. So, if the epoch niis kept equal
for all nodes as in LEACH then energy is not eﬃciently distributed and nodes having low energy die before
high energy nodes. BEENISH choose diﬀerent epoch nifor diﬀerent nodes with respect to their remaining
energy Ei(r). High energy nodes are more often elected as CH as compare to low energy nodes. So, high
energy nodes have smaller epoch nias compare to high energy nodes . In BEENISH ultra-super nodes
are largely elected as CH as compare to super, advance and normal nodes, and so, on. In this way energy
consumed by all nodes is equally distributed.
niis probability of node to become CH during epoch nirounds. When all the nodes have same
every level at each epoch, selecting the average probability pito be popt can ensure that there are poptNCHs
every round and approximately all nodes die at the same time. If nodes are having diﬀerent energy then
nodes with more energy have pilarger than popt.
In BEENISH, average energy of rth round can be obtained as follows and as supposed in DEEC:
Ris showing total rounds from the start of network to the all nodes die and can be estimated as in DEEC
and given as under:
Eround is the energy dissipated in a network during single round as given in 2.
To achieve the optimal number of CH at start of each round, node sidecides whether to become a CH
or not based on probability threshold calculated by expression in the following equation, and as supposed in
Where Gis the set of nodes eligible to become CH. If a node sihas not been CH in the most recent ni
then it belongs to set G. Random number between 0 and 1 is selected by nodes belonging to set G. If the
number is less than threshold T(si), the node siwill be CH for that current round.
In real scenarios, WSNs have more greater than two or three energy levels of nodes. In WSN due to
random CH selection, large range of energy levels are created. So, as much more energy levels we quantize
and deﬁne diﬀerent probability for every energy level will lead to as much better results and lead to energy
eﬃciency. In BEENISH, we ﬁrst time use concept of four level heterogeneous network having normal,
advance, super and ultra-super nodes. The probabilities for four types of nodes are given below:
E(r)siis the normal node
E(r)siis the advanced node
E(r)siis the super node
E(r)siis the ultra −super node
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Threshold is calculated for CH selection of normal, advanced, super and ultra-super nodes by putting
above values in equation below.
In the equation of T(si), we ﬁnd that nodes with greater remaining energy Ei(r) at round rare more
possibly to become CH as compare to low energy nodes. The aim of this mechanism is to eﬃciently divide
the energy consumption in the network and extend the stability period which is deﬁned by ﬁrst node die and
network lifetime deﬁned by last node die from the start of WSN.
Simulations show that BEENISH is more eﬃcient protocol than DEEC, DDEEC and EDEEC for WSN
containing four and multi level heterogeneity in terms of ﬁrst node die and last node die.
4. Simulations and Results
This section evaluates the performance of BEENISH protocol using MATLAB. We consider a WSN
containing of N=100 nodes randomly deployed inside 100m×100mﬁeld. For simplicity, we assume that
all nodes are either ﬁxed or micro-mobile and ignore energy loss due to signal collision and interference
between signals of diﬀerent nodes that are due to dynamic random channel conditions. Our simulations
use radio parameters mentioned in Table 1. Protocols compared with BEENISH include DEEC, DDEEC
and EDEEC. We estimated performance for the case of four level and multi-level heterogeneous WSNs. We
observe performance of DEEC, DDEEC, EDEEC and BEENISH for four level and multi-level heterogenous
WSNs. We take the parameters; m=0.5,m0=0.3,m1=0.2,a=1.5,b=2.0and u =2.5, containing
50 normal nodes having E0energy, 35 advanced nodes having 1.5 times more energy than normal nodes,
12 super nodes containing 2 times more energy than normal nodes and 3 ultra-super nodes containing 2.5
times more energy than normal nodes. First node for DEEC, DDEEC, EDEEC and BEENISH dies at 1103,
1367, 1421 and 1661 rounds, respectively. All nodes die at 5191, 3976, 6866 and 6903 rounds, respectively.
Fig. 3 shows BEENISH sends more data to BS than DEEC, DDEEC and EDEEC. BEENISH is eﬃcient as
compare to all protocols in terms of stability period, network life time and packets sent to the BS.
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
Number of Rounds
Number of Nodes Alive
Fig. 2. Alive Nodes During Network Lifetime
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0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
4.5 x 10
Number of Rounds
Number of Packets sent to BS
Fig. 3. Packets sent to BS
Our proposed BEENISH is energy-aware clustering protocol for heterogenous WSNs, with the concept
of four types of nodes. Election of CH based on residual and average energy of the network. So, nodes with
high energy have more chances to get selected as CH, as compare to the low energy nodes. BEENISH is
proved to be the most eﬃcient protocols as compared to DEED, DDEEC and EDEEC for all types of WSNs
in terms of stability period, network lifetime and throughput.
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