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Abstract

This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series
Moving through a multiplex holographic scene
To cite this article: Martina Mrongovius 2013 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 415 012022
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Moving through a multiplex holographic scene
Martina Mrongovius
Center for the Holographic Arts, 39-31 29th Street, Long Island City, NY 11101, USA
Academy of Media Arts (KHM), Peter-Welter-Platz 2, Cologne 50676, Germany
martina@holographics.com.au
Abstract. This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in
installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of
hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually
complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process such as the appearance
of the photographer’s shadow to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene.
Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene.
A perception of motion then results from the viewer’s bodily awareness of physical motion and
the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual
suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the
visual animation, the viewer’s bodily awareness including proprioception, balance and
orientation play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool
for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is
demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I
expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be
conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was
developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed
doctoral thesis: ‘The Emergent Holographic Scene compositions of movement and affect
using multiplex holographic images’.
1. Introduction
A culture of viewing holograms is not well developed. Viewing a hologram is a different activity
from that of looking at sculptures, screen images and surface pictures. With a hologram what is seen
depends on from where the viewer looks, the hologram being a kind of virtual window through which
a scene is recorded. As the viewer’s movement is coupled to the recorded visual perspective the
viewer’s sense of space and motion extends into the perception of the holographic scene, giving the
scene spatial and/or animate qualities
With a multiplex hologram the virtual window through which the viewer can look around is
fragmented, allowing for different perspectives to be mapped into a single scene. I began creating
multiplex holograms by hand, using stencils to record stop-motion animations of physical scenes and
objects. This work developed into a practice of using sequences of digital images to produce
holographic scenes from 200 to 1800 related views. The multiplex holographic recordings were used
to explore perceptual dynamics within urban experiences, by mapping the relationships that shaped my
sense of place. Each hologram was a composition of re-arrangements and superimpositions of
different related perspectives to create a spatially dynamic holographic scene.
9th International Symposium on Display Holography (ISDH 2012) IOP Publishing
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 415 (2013) 012022 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/415/1/012022
Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd
1
With the installations of these holograms I experiment with how the imagery could be unfolded into
physical spaces and how viewers tended to move through that space. The main design question
revolved around how to establish and utilise relationships between the viewing experience and the
spatially-dynamic visual perspective mapped into the scene. To produce an affective relationship or
augmentation of motion the holograms would have ideally been larger than the viewer’s body so that
the viewer ‘looks around’ the scene by moving with their whole body. As the cost of producing
large-scale1 holograms was outside my research budget, I explored ways to amplify the viewers
bodily awareness with my installations. The techniques I developed induced a bodily awareness by
limiting some aspects of movement while provoking others a kind of choreography aimed at
intensifying the virtual movement in the scene. These techniques involved:
- Confinement to guide the viewer into the viewing field of the hologram and amplify their
sense of movement when exploring the scene.
- Heightening an awareness of gravity, to intensify a sense of balance and proprioception.
- Employing armatures to elicit a particular action.
- Playing on the inherent movement through architectural spaces.
These techniques also informed the type of places I chose to capture as well as the way I moved and
directed the camera while making the recordings.
2. The holographic scene
The continuity of visual perception experienced when looking at a trompe l'oeil painting from its
encoded perspective point or when looking around a classic holographic scene of a singular virtual
volume allows a sense of space to extend through the image surface. The holographic image however
has an additional sense of presence that is physically felt as the visual scene is intrinsically linked to
the viewer’s movement. Artist Paula Dawson describes laser-viewable transmission holograms2 as
‘concrete’[1] holographic images because of the way they appear to have a physical presence. An
example of this kind of holographic image is Dawson’s triptych installation of large-format
holograms, ‘To Absent Friends’ (1989), which captures a bar at three times during a New Year’s Eve
party. The holograms form a crystallized memory, three frozen moments of a scene that the viewer
can peer around.
Such a visually realistic virtual volume can also be created with multiplex and digital holograms by
capturing the scene with a matching camera perspective to that adopted by the viewer. Jacques
Desbiens describes such holograms as synthetic holograms as they produce an “illusion of volumes
and presence”[2]. As David Pizzanelli outlines in his PhD thesis ‘Aspects of Spatial and Temporal
Parallax in Multiplex Holograms’[3] the multiplex hologram allows for the recording and perception
of motion as well as volume. The holograms that accompanied Pizzanelli’s thesis follow the tradition
of chronophotography, using the hologram to bring together a sequence of frames to represent
continuous movement and space. By contrast I draw together different perspectives to produce non-
linear structures and virtual movements that never existed physically.
I am interested in how virtual motions can be established by the holographic scene how a
dynamic perspective can be captured with a holographic image. To do this, my compositions often
trace the perspective from a mobile body such as the urban photographer; or are assembled from
multiple different yet related perspectives such as a collective view through multiple cameras.
3. Crossing into the holographic scene
The hologram allows a ‘peering into and around’ another space. This is like looking through a
keyhole or from an aeroplane because the viewing window is much smaller than both the space in
1 A number of installations were produced with multiple holograms or by tiling multiple pieces of film together. However
for the most part the compositions were single 30 x 40 cm panels.
2 Such holograms are also know as ‘masters’ as their image can be reconstructed by laser-light and transferred into a
‘holographic print’.
9th International Symposium on Display Holography (ISDH 2012) IOP Publishing
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 415 (2013) 012022 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/415/1/012022
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which the body is situated and the space beyond the window. The extension of spatial perception
through the holographic window is particularly apparent when looking into a laser-viewable
transmission hologram as the holographic image can be very deep. As such, these images encourage a
sense of an ‘over there’ that is distinct from ‘here’, where the viewer’s body is.
Holographer Dan Schweitzer, whose background was in theatre and film, made an analogy
between the hologram and stage, describing both as spaces where there is a border a ‘space barrier
between the observer and scene. Thisspace barrier’ delimits the accessible and the inaccessible,
perceived ‘virtual’ space. Working in a small scale, Schweitzer and his studio partner Sam Moree
incorporated miniature figurines into their compositions. In the catalogue of ‘Mehr Licht’ Achim Lipp
describes Schweitzer’s figurines:
“At the same time they draw attention to themselves and prepare the observer for the appearance of
the holographic image”[4].
The figures are a kind of visual protagonist, establishing the scene, and an avatar that suggests a
perspective within the holographic scene. By adopting the suggested act of viewing within the scene
the viewer imaginatively crosses the ‘space barrier’.
For the exhibition ‘Explorations of the holographic gaze’ at Gallery 175 in Seoul (2010), I brought
together 16 holograms that visually depict the photographic act to emphasise the construction of the
multiple-perspective scene. The photographer who appears in these holographic images is a
protagonist and an avatar who simultaneously acts as the subject and director of the image. The
shared activity of looking between the construction and viewing shapes and animates the scene.
In several of the holographic images, including Shadow-waves at Safety Beach, the photographer is
implied by their shadow. The shadow’s movement and view is adopted by the viewer.
Shadow-waves at Safety Beach, 2008/9 200-farme multiplex hologram laminated to laser-etched mirror 40 x 50 cm
Exhibited ‘Explorations of the holographic gaze’ (L eft) and ‘The E mergent Holographic S cene (Right)
The sequence of views in Museum Reflection (2006/9)
3 are also anchored to a shadow of the
photographer, who in this case is looking into the Melbourne Museum through its glass façade. There
are two references that establish the holographic scene Museum Reflection: the animated act of
photographing as shown by the photographer’s silhouette on the reflective glass surface; and a spatial
depth resulting from the parallax between the regularly spaced sequence of seated positions along a
concrete block in front of the Museum. Each photographic view optically combines the silhouetted
reflection of a building with the view through the glass into a courtyard and reflected again. With the
second reflection the building’s spatial form shifts about because of the differences in orientation
between the glass panels to produce a gentle cubism. Various readings of space and dynamics emerge
as the viewer moves past the hologram. The photographer’s shadow is anchored to the image frame,
which causes it to puncture the virtual image-volume established by the parallax yet the figure is
linked to the rhythm of this animate spatiality. The viewer’s movement then creates a connection into
the animate scene.
3 The image sequence was photographed and compiled in 2006 but not printed into a hologram until 2009.
9th International Symposium on Display Holography (ISDH 2012) IOP Publishing
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 415 (2013) 012022 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/415/1/012022
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Museum Reflection, 2006/9 Three-colour transmission 200-frame multiplex hologram 48 x 32 cm (laminated)
Source photograph (Left). ‘Explora tions o f the holographic gaze’ (Centre and Right)
4. Movement as a material
The viewer’s agency of movement around my holograms is key to establishing an active engagement
with perception. Artist David Hockney considers a sharing of time as crucial for linking the
experiences of capturing and viewing:
“And the reason you can’t look at a photograph for a long time is because there’s virtually no time in
itthe imbalance between the two experiences, the first and second lookings, is too extreme”[5].
While initially this lead Hockney to disregard photography, he then used the temporal quality of
photography to explore an assembled perception through collages of photographs, which he called
‘joiners’. In making the ‘joiners’, Hockney had a rule to never crop the photographic prints,
observing that “the evenness of time seems to be tied up with a regularity in the print size”[6]. The
visual rhythm of the prints is used to establish a dimension that is temporally reconstituted by the
viewer. In making compositions that both encoded movement and require movement to be seen I
attempt to educe a sensational reading of the scene, an experience constructed by cross-referencing the
felt and the observed.
The concept that holograms encode a movement through space was compared to a projected
diagram of dance steps by Bob de Marrais in 1981:
“A hologram properly viewed is an excuse for TaiChi, requiring you to bob up and down, weave left
and right, each artwork having its own implicit set (or sets) of ‘Arthur Murray footprints’4[7].
With my compositions and their installation the implicit choreography of the viewer’s movement was
developed into a poetic aspect of experiencing the holographic scenes. However getting viewers to
actively move when engaging with a hologram is not always easy.
The installation Jumping Jellyfish comprised five jellyfish holograms hung around a trampoline.
When the viewer jumped on the trampoline they moved through the hologramsvertical animation.
Not only did one movement more-or-less correspond to the other, the jumping movement was an
integral part of ‘playing’ the holographic animation. Participants felt their own ‘squishy’ parts as they
watched a similar ‘blobbing’ in the jellyfish. The proprioception of elongating and squishing with
each jump was projected onto the jellyfish by the viewer. While the spatial animation is recorded
vertically, it is the animate horizontal expansion and contraction that creates a ‘shared’ sense of
squishiness. The aim was for the visual to feed the physical (and vice versa) to evoke an animated
vitality5 that is ascribed to the jellyfish, whose action is mimetically associated to the viewer’s
proprioception. Thus a physical-visual feedback loop is shaped by a sense of blobbing.
4 The Arthur Murray School taught dance steps through mail-order diagrams of footprints.
5 Vitality affects are described by Susan Langer in ‘Feeling and Form’ [8] and Daniel Stern inForms of Vitality’ [9].
9th International Symposium on Display Holography (ISDH 2012) IOP Publishing
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 415 (2013) 012022 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/415/1/012022
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Jumping Jellyfish installations. Bushwick Boat, New York Harbour, 2009 (Left)
ZKM| Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe, 2011 (Left of centre). ‘The Emergent Holographic Scene’ (Right sequence)
5. Disjunctions, amplifications and transformations
The holographic compositions and installations attempt to extend, dislocate and reveal the viewer’s
perspective so that they can obtain a sense of both the overall structure of multiple viewpoints and a
sense of the virtual dynamics and shaping of moving between them. The structural relations generated
by using the photographer as a protagonist of looking allowed for scenes that mimetically referenced
the viewer’s own looking at the holographic scene.
The viewer knows that they are looking into an image (as the photographer knows they are looking
into a camera) yet this external perspective is incorporated into an expressive spatial experience.
During my image capture for On the Roof the visual distortion of looking into the camera created a
vertigo and sense of my feet stretching into a visual void in search of solid ground. I layered multiple
copies of the video footage with a vanishing zoom to visually exaggerate these sensations.
On the Roof, 2010 Two-colour transmission multiplex hologram laminated to laser etched plexiglass, 38 x 49 cm
Video still from recording (Right). Photograph of hologram (Centre). Viewers looking up into the image (Left)
The installation of these holograms on the ceiling was designed to evoke a similar vertiginous feeling
in the viewing to that experienced during the image capture. When looking up and leaning around to
animate a holographic image there is a heightened awareness of proprioception and balance. As one
viewer described, “you lean backwards and realise there is gravity6 an awareness that I am using to
show how activity of looking can shape a sense of place.
6. A multiplex of movement
The multiplex process of producing the holograms is a hidden operation of recording7, but one which I
have used to reveal how the activity of photography shapes the perceived scene by structuring camera
views into movement. By setting up a viewing structure tied to a recording of that view, there is both
a looking at and looking with the holographic image. This situates the viewing act within separate but
6 A Korean National University of Arts student visiting th e exhibition ‘Explo rations of the holographic gaze’ described her
vertiginous sense of looking up at the holograms.
7 Prior to this work, my projects including ‘Hover…’ (2004) were aimed at revealing technical aspects of holographic
recording.
9th International Symposium on Display Holography (ISDH 2012) IOP Publishing
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 415 (2013) 012022 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/415/1/012022
5
linked processes the act of recording is accessed through its relationships to the activity of
reconstruction. While the differences between these processes highlights the activity of each.
While experimenting with the process of multiplexing I came to think of the pattern of captured
perspectives as a kind of reference structure that enabled an encoding of spatial dynamics. As the
scene is assembled through multiple related perspectives, the viewer becomes dislocated from a single
position to inhabit a structure or action of looking.
For the series we’re all looking’ the holographic view is composed from the combined
photographic act of a group of photographers positioned in formations that related to the surrounding
architecture. The group photographic capture through which the images are constructed is reinforced
by the appearance of the photographers in the holograms.
‘we’re all looking’ Exhibition Circle, 1800-frame multiplex (Left). Figure8 on Drummond Street, reflection print (Centre)
Photograph of Figure8 on Drummond Street by Wouter Cox at ‘The Emergent Holographic Scene’(Right)
In Figure8 on Drummond Street the act of photographing a shared action hinges the viewer to the
scene. As the viewer of the hologram moves past the image their perspective seems to hop through
each of the photographers, seeing them, seeing the next photographer through their camera and then
seeing through this photographer’s camera. The jumps of visual perspective encode a change of
position that fuses into a virtual movement. As the viewer moves from side to side the visual
perspective moves through a figure loop, while the effect of seeing through the sequence of
perspectives is that of zooming into and out of the image.
At the centre of the image, the visual movement changes direction while the viewer continues to
move. This flip is like a momentary feeling of ‘weightlessness’ or a micro sensation of realising you
are lost in that direction loses its vectorial structuring. The viewer feels forces shift within and
around them as the expected result of action inverts. The sense of zooming in and out and the
inversion of direction in this virtual perspective creates a complex experience of motion.
7. Resonating an experience of traversing stairs
My experiments to accentuate and amplify bodily awareness led me to realise that provoking vertical
movement produces a more acute proprioception than horizontal motion due to a vectorial structuring
of space by the experience of gravity. I made a number of installations in stairwells, utilising the
vertical delimitation of physical space and the rhythm of viewing in moving between steps. The act of
stepping is encoded in a staircase, an action that is drawn into the reading the holographic scene.
Stairwell installations. Ex tempore’, Melbourne, 2006 (Left and Centre). Housebroken’, New York, 2010 (Right)
9th International Symposium on Display Holography (ISDH 2012) IOP Publishing
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 415 (2013) 012022 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/415/1/012022
6
For a stairwell installation as part of ‘Sommerloch’ in Wuppertal (2010), I decided to record my
traversing of different staircases and create a vertically animated series of holograms ‘Up the Stairs’.
The initial recordings were made using a Bloggie HD video camera with 360-degree lens attachment
that gave a ‘donut-panorama’ view. Each situation was different but all were captured as a single
piece of video footage, which was then cut and layered. The layers of video fuse together through the
shared rhythm of action a stepping activated by the viewer’s own stepping. In the first hologram
the pace of the various layers was quite different, while in the later compositions each layer had the
same pace.
‘Up the Stairs’ Installation in Wuppertal (Left) up and down the spiral stairs (Centre)
Installation at ‘The Emergent Holographic Scene’ (Right images)
When installed parallel to the stairs the animate action of the holographic scene unfolds into a
suspended act of stepping. While the visual-protagonist climbs through a virtual staircase, the viewer
is poised in the action of stepping. A potential act that becomes fulfilled through the image.
The recording for up and down the spiral stairs was made going down and then up an outdoor
spiral staircase, my movement guided by both the physical staircase and my view through the lens. In
one direction of movement, the footage was reversed for the hologram so the virtual movement always
matches the perspective of a moving viewer. Using the Bloggie camera to record the action of
traversing the spiral staircase there was both a physical circulation and optical circling due to the lens
distortion. In the holographic scene the photographer’s shadow anchors the view so with each step the
stairs seem to rotate underfoot. While only a few steps are captured, there is a distinct sense of spiral
circulation from the combined moving perspectives, which one viewer described as an Escher-like
infinity that seemed to fold in on itself.
8. Conclusion
My holographic scenes are inspired by the activity of moving through and the conceptualisation of
urban spaces. The recorded movements along paths and through patterns become entangled with the
physical sense of moving around the hologram. This extends embodied cognition to produce an
awareness of virtual movement while the dynamics of the holographic scene fold back into the
viewer’s sense of a located body.
The appearance of the photographer and camera links a point within the scene to the place from
which the scene is viewed hinging these locations into a structure of looking. As such, there is a
simultaneous sense of being at the core of a dynamic scene and standing outside it, reading its diagram
of structural shaping. The activities of exploring and recording multiple perspectives coalescence into
a dynamic structure of viewing relationships allowing for a complex impression of place and action.
The installations enhance the body’s role in this dynamic structuring of a visual impression an
experiential mapping of the scene occurs.
As the viewer moves around the animate scene, dynamics are coupled to their proprioception. This
produces an awareness of different bodily sensations that shape the holographic scene. With the
Jumping Jellyfish installation there is an internal sense of organs shifting, and the jellyness of what is
under the skin. This is quite different from the sense of balance and vertigo that is an important part of
9th International Symposium on Display Holography (ISDH 2012) IOP Publishing
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 415 (2013) 012022 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/415/1/012022
7
On the Roof and This morning of the balcony reminded me of a dream, different again is the ‘lost’
sensation within a directional inversion of the relationship between physical and virtual movement.
Various activities of looking, ‘The Emergent Holographic Scene’. Photographs by Anna Baróthy
The physical negotiation of the installation space by amplifying, mirroring or contrasting the virtual
movements and forces of the image becomes part of how the scene is experienced. The encoded
movement between the visual perspectives amplifies and transforms the viewer’s action, establishing
virtual forces that are drawn from and affect a bodily sensibility. In using a visually-depicted
protagonist who is at the core of spatial warping, I aim to assist the viewer of the hologram to navigate
through the structure of folds and forces, to sense a different spatiality. The distortions of the image
are virtual, yet are felt as an extension of movement pulling, pushing, causing little jumps and folds
in the perception of continuity. What emerges from the activity of viewing is a system of
relationships, a kind of perceptual physics that is inscribed by the arrangement of relations.
In physically negotiating the virtual movement, an embodied sensibility is brought forward into
conscious awareness and contributes to perceptual activity. I am interested in the way that a ‘shaping’
by perception can be carried through the image composition from the act of capturing to the viewer’s
experience of looking. My holographic image installations attempt to draw-out and amplify
relationships and forces to express a perceptual construction of experience.
References
[1] DAWSON, P. 2000. The Concrete Holographic Image: an Examination of Spatial and
Temporal Properties and their Application in a Religious Art Work. PhD, College of Fine
Arts, University of New South Wales, p335.
[2] DESBIENS, J. 2006. 'Nomadic Perspectives: Spatial representation in oriental scroll painting
and holographic panoramagrams'. The International Conference on Virtual Systems and
Multimedia (VSMM), October 2006, Xi'an, China. [source: http://www.i-
jacques.com/brokenwindow_en.html], p7.
[3] PIZZANELLI, D. 1994. Aspects of Spatial and Temporal Parallax in Multiplex Holograms: a
study based on appropriated images. PhD, Royal College of Art, London.
[4] LIPP, A. & ZEC, P. 1985. Mehr Licht : Künstlerhologramme und Lichtobjekte = More light.
Hamburger Kunsthalle. (Translated by KABEL, E). Hamburg : Fielmann, p144.
[5] WESCHLER, L. & HOCKNEY, D. 2008. True to life: twenty-five years of conversations with
David Hockney, University of Californina Press, p7
[6] ibid, p29
[7] Bob de Marrais. 1981. Quoted in the catalogue of Sam Moree’s exhibition Flux’, 12 February
9 May 1982, Museum of Holography, New York, p7.
[8] LANGER, S. K. 1953 (Fourth Impression 1967). Feeling and Form : A theory of art developed
from philpsophy in a new key, Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.
[9] STERN, D. 2010. Forms of Vitality: Exploring Dynamic Experience in Psychology, the Arts,
Psychotherapy and Development, Oxford University Press.
Further documentation of the holographic image installations is at www.holographics.com.au
9th International Symposium on Display Holography (ISDH 2012) IOP Publishing
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 415 (2013) 012022 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/415/1/012022
8
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Conference Paper
Experiments in composition and effects of holographic panoramagrams (computer generated holography), demonstrate an analogy between this three-dimensional imaging process and Oriental horizontal scroll painting. These two ways of representing space share a similar conception of spatial representation in which multiple points of view are spread horizontally, parallel to the scene. The similarities are not only geometrical and conceptual, they also reveal a direction in the development of new spatial representation technologies in which the observer isn’t only a passive receiver of visual information from a fixed position, but an active observer. This paper is based on analysis of the holograms structure as well as on artistic experiments in composition and art history researches.
True to life: twenty-five years of conversations with David Hockney
  • L Weschler
  • D Hockney
WESCHLER, L. & HOCKNEY, D. 2008. True to life: twenty-five years of conversations with David Hockney, University of Californina Press, p7
Forms of Vitality: Exploring Dynamic Experience in Psychology, the Arts
STERN, D. 2010. Forms of Vitality: Exploring Dynamic Experience in Psychology, the Arts, Psychotherapy and Development, Oxford University Press.
Mehr Licht : Künstlerhologramme und Lichtobjekte = More light
  • A Zec
  • P Kabel
LIPP, A. & ZEC, P. 1985. Mehr Licht : Künstlerhologramme und Lichtobjekte = More light. Hamburger Kunsthalle. (Translated by KABEL, E). Hamburg : Fielmann, p144.
Quoted in the catalogue of Sam Moree's exhibition 'Flux
  • Marrais Bob De
Bob de Marrais. 1981. Quoted in the catalogue of Sam Moree's exhibition 'Flux', 12 February -9 May 1982, Museum of Holography, New York, p7.
Aspects of Spatial and Temporal Parallax in Multiplex Holograms: a study based on appropriated images
  • D Pizzanelli
PIZZANELLI, D. 1994. Aspects of Spatial and Temporal Parallax in Multiplex Holograms: a study based on appropriated images. PhD, Royal College of Art, London.
Mehr Licht : Künstlerhologramme und Lichtobjekte = More light. Hamburger Kunsthalle. (Translated by KABEL, E)
  • A Lipp
  • P Zec
LIPP, A. & ZEC, P. 1985. Mehr Licht : Künstlerhologramme und Lichtobjekte = More light. Hamburger Kunsthalle. (Translated by KABEL, E). Hamburg : Fielmann, p144.
The Concrete Holographic Image: an Examination of Spatial and Temporal Properties and their Application in a Religious Art Work. PhD, College of Fine Arts
  • P Dawson
DAWSON, P. 2000. The Concrete Holographic Image: an Examination of Spatial and Temporal Properties and their Application in a Religious Art Work. PhD, College of Fine Arts, University of New South Wales, p335.
Forms of Vitality: Exploring Dynamic Experience in Psychology, the Arts, Psychotherapy and Development
  • D Stern
STERN, D. 2010. Forms of Vitality: Exploring Dynamic Experience in Psychology, the Arts, Psychotherapy and Development, Oxford University Press.