ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Abstract

There is limited knowledge on epidemiological injury data in judo. To systematically review scientific literature on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. The available literature up to June 2013 was searched for prospective as well as retrospective studies on injuries in judo. Data extraction and presentation focused on the incidence rate, injury risk, types, location and causes of injuries. During the Olympic Games in 2008 and 2012, an average injury risk of about 11-12% has been observed. Sprains, strains and contusions, usually of the knee, shoulder and fingers, were the most frequently reported injuries, whereas being thrown was the most common injury mechanism. Severe injuries were quite rare and usually affected the brain and spine, whereas chronic injuries typically affected the finger joints, lower back and ears. The most common types of injuries in young judo athletes were contusions/abrasions, fractures and sprains/strains. Sex-differences data on judo injuries were mostly inconsistent. Some studies suggested a relationship between nutrition, hydration and/or weight cycling and judo injuries. Also, psychological factors may increase the risk of judo injuries. The present review provides the latest knowledge on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. Comprehensive knowledge about the risk of injury during sport activity and related risk factors represents an essential basis to develop effective strategies for injury prevention. Thus, the introduction of an ongoing injury surveillance system in judo is of utmost importance.
Injuries in judo: a systematic literature review
including suggestions for prevention
Elena Pocecco,
1
Gerhard Ruedl,
1
Nemanja Stankovic,
2
Stanislaw Sterkowicz,
3
Fabricio Boscolo Del Vecchio,
4,5
Carlos Gutiérrez-García,
6
Romain Rousseau,
7,8
Mirjam Wolf,
1
Martin Kopp,
1
Bianca Miarka,
5
Verena Menz,
1
Philipp Krüsmann,
1
Michel Calmet,
9
Nikolaos Malliaropoulos,
10,11
Martin Burtscher
1
Additional material is
published online only. To view
please visit the journal online
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/
bjsports-2013-092886).
For numbered afliations see
end of article.
Correspondence to
Elena Pocecco,
Department of Sport Science,
Medical Section, University of
Innsbruck, Fürstenweg 185,
6020 Innsbruck, Austria;
elenapocecco@yahoo.it
Accepted 13 October 2013
To cite: Pocecco E,
Ruedl G, Stankovic N, et al.
Br J Sports Med
2013;47:11391143.
ABSTRACT
Background There is limited knowledge on
epidemiological injury data in judo.
Objective To systematically review scientic literature
on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo.
Methods The available literature up to June 2013 was
searched for prospective as well as retrospective studies
on injuries in judo. Data extraction and presentation
focused on the incidence rate, injury risk, types, location
and causes of injuries.
Results During the Olympic Games in 2008 and 2012,
an average injury risk of about 1112% has been
observed. Sprains, strains and contusions, usually of the
knee, shoulder and ngers, were the most frequently
reported injuries, whereas being thrown was the most
common injury mechanism. Severe injuries were quite
rare and usually affected the brain and spine, whereas
chronic injuries typically affected the nger joints, lower
back and ears. The most common types of injuries in
young judo athletes were contusions/abrasions, fractures
and sprains/strains. Sex-differences data on judo injuries
were mostly inconsistent. Some studies suggested a
relationship between nutrition, hydration and/or weight
cycling and judo injuries. Also, psychological factors may
increase the risk of judo injuries.
Conclusions The present review provides the latest
knowledge on the frequency and characteristics of
injuries in judo. Comprehensive knowledge about the
risk of injury during sport activity and related risk factors
represents an essential basis to develop effective
strategies for injury prevention. Thus, the introduction of
an ongoing injury surveillance system in judo is of
utmost importance.
INTRODUCTION
Judo is a martial art and an Olympic sport compris-
ing standing and ground ghting.
12
It entered the
Olympic Programme for men in 1964 as a demon-
stration sport and ofcially in 1972 for men and in
1992 for women.
3
During competitions, contest-
ants are divided by sex, sometimes by grade or
judo experience, and organised in age classes and
weight divisions.
4
Nowadays, judo ranks among the most popular
Asian martial arts in the world.
5
The International
Judo Federation comprises more than 200 afliated
countries spread over all ve continents, counting
an estimated 20 million individuals.
6
Considering
such a high participation rate in a combat sport and
the suggested relatively high injury risk,
7
the safety
of practitioners is of the highest priority. Therefore,
research on judo injuries would be essential in iden-
tifying risk factors and suggesting potentially pre-
ventive strategies.
To protect the health of its athletes, the
International Olympic Committee initiated and
developed the injury and illness surveillance system
during the 2008 Beijing and 2012 London
Olympics.
89
With this systematic injury registration,
the most common and severe injuries, for example,
in judo athletes, are identied to ensure new knowl-
edge on injury trends over time, to form the basis for
further research on injury risk factors and mechan-
isms, and nally to develop injury prevention pro-
grammes.
10
However, the collection of
epidemiological data is just the rst step in the direc-
tion of injury prevention, which should be followed
by more deepening studies on judo peculiarities.
In the literature, a few prospective and retro-
spective studies as well as case reports dealing with
judo injuries are available.
1113
However, to our
knowledge, no systematic overview on this import-
ant topic is available. Therefore, the aim of this
paper was to perform a systematic review of injur-
ies sustained by judo athletes.
METHODS
Literature search: A comprehensive search of the
literature was performed electronically in different
databases from their inception up to June 2013.
The use of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
terms martial artsand judoand injuriespro-
duced 40 publications from PubMed/Medline.
Twelve of these were deemed relevant to the
present work because of the useful information on
judo injuries. Further searches using the same terms
were carried out in the ISI Web of Knowledge,
Scopus and The Cochrane Library, and injury
reports from recent Olympic Games have been
investigated. Of 61 publications, 13 were found to
be relevant for the present review. The exclusion
criteria adopted for all search strategies were cases
or case series reports dealing with less than eight
participants or Japanese language. Furthermore,
two book chapters on judo comprising injury data
have been included. Finally, to complement the
present review, selected references cited in the
aforementioned literature have been considered in
the case of limited information on specic topics.
Denitions of injury
According to MeSH, injuries are primarily dened
as damage inicted on the body as the direct or
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indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption
of structural continuity. However, as a result of different designs
of the reviewed literature, including prospective
8 9 12 14
as well
as retrospective studies,
13 15 16
it was not possible to adopt a
standardised denition, neither of injury, nor of the severity
grade of injuries. During the Summer Olympic Games (SOG),
an injury was dened when an athlete received medical atten-
tion for a newly incurred injury or reinjury after full participa-
tion following the previous injury, including in-competition as
well as training injuries during the SOG.
89
Similarly, Green
et al
12
dened an injury as a situation in which the judoka
either requested medical treatment or was unable to continue a
contest. On the other hand, James and Pieter
14
indicated an
injury as any circumstance for which assistance was sought from
the medical personnel, including time-loss injuries, which kept
the athlete from completing the actual bout and/or subsequent
bouts and from participating in judo for a minimum of 1 day
thereafter. Regarding retrospective studies, an injury was dened
as any physical complaint sustained by a competitor irrespective
of the need for medical attention or time-loss from activ-
ities,
13 15
or which caused an exclusion from sports-related
activities for at least 4 days.
16
Presentation of data
Data extraction and presentation focused on the frequency,
types, location and causes of injuries. Judo injuries were
expressed as absolute as well as relative frequencies. The
number of injured athletes divided by the number of athletes at
risk is used as an estimator of the average injury risk.
17
The inci-
dence rate is the number of injuries divided by the number of
athlete-exposures, for example, the number of ghts, and is
based on the epidemiological concept of person-time at
risk.
12 14 17 18
It has to be noted that comparisons can only be
made between data using the same denominator.
RESULTS
Frequency of injuries
Online supplementary table S1 presents data on the injury risk
and incidence rate in judo practice reported in the available
literature.
The most recent injury data from the 2008 SOG in Beijing
and 2012 in London revealed an average injury risk of 11.2
12.3% for the more than 380 participating judo athletes per
SOG.
89
Also, James and Pieter
14
and Green et al
12
found that
1314% of the athletes studied sustained an injury while other
studies showed clearly higher injury risks of 2329%.
13 19
The
highest value was identied by Souza et al
11
with an incidence
rate of 1.18 injuries/athlete-year. The differences might be due
to the different skill levels of participating athletes, involved age
groups, study designs as well as injury denitions.
With regard to the potential sex differences, the reported
ndings were inconsistent.
12 14 19
Some studies found no sex
difference
12
while other studies showed a higher injury risk
among men
14
and women,
19
respectively. Again, these differ-
ences might be due in part to different skill levels and age
groups.
The importance of age as a risk factor is also uncertain, espe-
cially as it may interact with experience as a causal factor.
3
Recent studies on elite judokas reported a higher injury risk
(4988%) during competition compared with training.
891120
In contrast, other authors
15 21 22
showed an about 70% higher
injury risk during training compared with competition, particu-
larly in women (94%;
21
see online supplementary tables S1S3).
An unequal proportion of time spent in training and competition
during the different studies could have led to the discrepancies
in the results, which may even have been inuenced by memory
bias.
23
Frey et al
24
reported a higher frequency of injuries during
lower level competitions compared with higher level ones.
Moreover, competitions with a high difference in the perform-
ance level of the contestants showed a higher frequency of
injuries.
24
Injury types
The distribution of injury types seems to be strongly inuenced
by the study design (see online supplementary tables S2 and
S3). Regardless of the study design and sex, the most frequent
injuries were sprains (5.659.8%), strains (733.8%) and contu-
sions (5.656%; see online supplementary tables S2 and S3).
The frequency of fractures demonstrated in retrospective studies
based on institutional documentation (RD)
21 22 25
was consider-
ably higher than in retrospective studies utilising questionnaires
(RQ)
11 26
and in prospective studies.
12 19 27 28
Prospective
studies recorded a higher variety in the classication of sus-
tained injuries, but the percentage of serious injuries was
lower
19 27 28
when compared with RD studies.
21 22 25
Besides a somewhat higher percentage of sprains among
female judo athletes and of strains among male judo athletes, no
relevant differences have been shown between sexes (see online
supplementary tables S2 and S3).
In adult as well as top-class competitors, dislocations and
sprains prevailed, whereas in younger as well as lower ranked
judokas upper body fractures were more frequent.
2830
Injury location
Judo injuries mostly affect body extremities, especially the knee
(up to 28%),
20
shoulder (up to 22%) and hand/ngers (up to
30%), as shown in online supplementary table S4. Depending
on the denition of injury used, ngers were sometimes indi-
cated as the most common injury locations during competi-
tion
12 13
as a consequence of grip ghting,
13 31 32
which indeed
has the biggest time share during the ght.
33
However, these
injuries were usually classied as soft.
13
On the other hand,
RQ studies identied the knee and shoulder as the most fre-
quent injury locations as a consequence of throwing or being
thrown.
11 15 20
No difference in the localisation of injuries has been reported
between male and female judokas.
15 22
In children (12.6±2.8 years, range 517 years), the shoulder/
upper arm (19%), foot/ankle (16%) and elbow/lower arm (15%)
were the most common injury locations.
25
Injury causes
Data on injury causes in judo are presented in online supple-
mentary table S5. Nearly 85% of judo injuries occurred during
standing ght compared with ground ght, probably because
more time is spent in standing ght, where athletes must grip
their opponent before attacking.
12 13
Indeed, as already pre-
sented, grip ghting constitutes a cause of injury to hands and
ngers.
13 31 32
Being thrown seems to be the most frequent situ-
ation leading to judo injuries, comprising about 70% (range 42
90%) of cases,
325
including also a few severe and catastrophic
injuries
34 35
(see online supplementary table S5). Additionally, it
was indicated that the lack in falling skills is also associated with
injuries,
36
including acute as well as chronic ones.
334
No age-related or sex-related causes could be found in the lit-
erature.
19
Indeed, a biomechanical analysis of judo techniques
revealed that both men and women use similar techniques in
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contemporary Olympic tournaments.
37
However, women seem
to be more exposed during ground ght,
14
where their injuries
are frequently derived from arm lock techniques.
14
Moreover,
the loss of balance in women was the main cause of injuries
when performing throws and break falls.
21
Among men, these
causes were predominant in younger age classes, that is, from
10 to 19 years (about 48%), whereas being pressed against the
mat by the opponent or a fall on the opponent occurred most
often from the age of 20 years (33%).
21 28
Furthermore, Seoi Nage techniques, that is, the throws with
lever applied with variable arm,
37
were supposed to be high-
risk techniques for shoulder injuries being thrown,
15
and for
knee injuries performing the throw
26
in all age categories and
for both genders.
19
However, results on the frequency of knee
injuries while performing this technique are discordant.
38
Moreover, there is a high risk of repeated injuries after the rst
lesion sustained during these shoulder throws, mostly caused by
the too quick resumption of physical activity after the sustained
trauma.
26
Also, improper technique is supposed to be involved
in the injury mechanism of delivering throws.
39
Mechanisms of the most frequent judo injuries
The mechanisms of judo injuries are varied. A study by the
French Judo Federation
24
on 150 067 ghts showed that injuries
affected the shoulder in 28.7% of cases, the elbow in 13.5%,
the knee in 12.2% and the ankle and ngers less frequently.
Glenohumeral dislocations are mostly caused by the resistance
to fall from the defender who, in an attempt to not fall on the
back (which would mean losing the ght), nally falls with an
outstretched arm.
40 41
A fall on the top of the shoulder, instead,
causes acromioclavicular or sternoclavicular disjunctions
42
or
rather clavicle fractures mainly among children and adolescents
with immature bones.
42 43
Elbow dislocations are mainly caused by a wrong
defence,
14 44
when the defender leans with a bent arm on the
mat.
45
The armlocks can lead to medial collateral ligament
(MCL) lesions.
46
Considering sport practice, a judo trauma seems to be the
injury cause of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture in
5.6% of the cases.
7
Knee sprains, which mainly affect the MCL
and ACL in the judo population,
47
are often caused by leg tech-
niques, for example, O Soto Gari.
38 48
Also, having a different
grip style from the opponent seems to be a risk factor for ACL
injuries.
38
Lesions of the collateral ligament vary according to
the violence of the trauma.
38
Isolated MCL injuries can be
caused by a trauma in the exion and valgus.
49
Ankle injuries are usually sprains of the collateral lateral liga-
ment occurring during torsion in varus.
50
A violent external
rotation can lead to a rupture of the anterior inferior tibiobu-
lar ligament.
51
The nger injuries are commonly dislocations or sprains of
the interphalangeal joints, mostly due to a wrong grip with the
nger/s blocked in the swell of the judogi (kimono).
48
Choking techniques are based on a push on the larynx or
carotid associated with a support behind the neck.
52
A loss of
consciousness may occur if the defender does not give up the
ght in time.
Severity of injuries and time loss
Online supplementary table S6 shows that judo is not at high
risk for sustaining time-loss injuries during the Olympic Games:
an average injury risk of 6.48.9% has been shown during the
last two SOGs.
89
As highlighted in online supplementary table S7, mean
absence from training and competition ranged from 1 to 7 days
(sustained by 5.7% of competitors) after injuries sustained
during the SOG
9
to 2129 days after injuries sustained during
lower level competitions.
12
No differences concerning the frequency and/or duration of
time loss after judo injuries could be found comparing competi-
tors of different prociency levels
12
or sex.
8912
Retrospective studies reported 6570% of time-loss injuries
happening during training.
15 22
The highest risk for time loss
was found at the age between 20 and 24 years, probably
because it is the most intensive training and competition
period.
22
In adult athletes, the knee was the most common loca-
tion of time-loss injuries
91215202226
followed by the shoul-
der,
22
while in children (12.6±2.8 years) there were more
shoulder/upper arm, lower leg/foot/ankle and elbow/lower arm
injuries.
25
Severe injuries
The main locations of catastrophic injuries in judo are the brain
and the cervical spine.
34 35
Kamitani et al
35
reported being thrown as the leading injury
mechanism of severe head injuries (70%) among judo practi-
tioners,
35
who were mainly younger than 20 years (90%) and
practicing judo for less than 3 years (60%).
35
The authors
assumed lack of falling skills as the prominent cause for severe
head injuries among inexperienced judokas.
35
Generally, choking in judo induces only subclinical electroen-
cephalographic perturbations,
53
but could also lead to brain
damage when the chokermaintains the pressure on the oppo-
nents neck, with blood ow interruption lasting a sufcient
time to be harmful to the central nervous system
54
; in the worst
case, this could lead to death.
34
In Japan, 26 judokas sustained a spinal cord injury during a
3-year period
55
and 19 a neck injury in 8 years.
35
Sixty-three
per cent of neck injuries occurred while performing a throwing
technique, for example, Uchi Mata.
35
Chronic injuries
Practicing judo can cause chronic injuries, especially those
affecting the nger joints, the lower back and the ears.
32 56 57
Repetitive injuries to the nger joints due to extensive judo
training are a risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis.
32
Okada et al
56
reported a prevalence of non-speciclower
back pain (nsLBP) and lumbar radiological abnormalities (LRA)
in elite Japanese judokas of 35.4% and 81.7%, respectively.
The prevalence of LRA in the lightweight categories was lower
than among middleweights and heavyweights and there was a
higher coprevalence of LRA and nsLBP in the middleweight
categories.
56
Rodriguez et al
58
found competitive active judokas having no
chronic brain damage induced by the repetitive application of
judo-specic throwing and choking techniques.
The so-called judo ear, or cauliower deformation of the ear,
which derives from a traumatic auricular haematoma caused by
repeated direct traumas, hitting and/or rubbing to the external
ear,
59 60
is typical in judo and some other combat sports.
57
Judo injuries in children and juveniles
The most common types of injuries in young judo athletes (517
years old) are contusions/abrasions (2545%), fractures (28
31%) and sprains/strains (1924%).
25 61
Studies on competition
injuries in young age classes found similar results but for frac-
tures.
19 62
Probably most of the reported fractures occurred
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during the learning process of throwing and falling techniques,
or during practice with heavier opponents.
15
Although there is
no consensus in the literature on age classes at risk,
3
Frey et al
24
found higher competition injury rates in judo athletes between
16 and 20 years of age, in which the judo athletes are very com-
bative but whose technical and tactical skills are still immature.
DISCUSSION
During the Olympic Games in 2008 and 2012, an average
injury risk of about 1112% has been observed. Sprains, strains
and contusions, usually of the knee, shoulder and ngers, were
the most frequently reported injuries, whereas being thrown
was the most common injury mechanism.
The injury risk during the two most recent SOG of about 11
12% is well in accordance with the average injury risk of 11%
for all sport disciplines together in the 2012 SOG.
89
In com-
parison, taekwondo had the highest injury risk with 39.1%
during the London Games while in archery, canoe slalom and
sprint, track cycling, rowing, shooting and equestrian sport less
than 5% of athletes were injured.
9
Compared with other Olympic combat sports, judo time-loss
injury risk of 69% during the last two SOGs was clearly lower
than in taekwondo (1618%) but slightly higher than in boxing
(48%) and wrestling (56%), respectively.
89
It is notable that diverging results were inuenced by different
study designs and denitions of injury: retrospective studies
showed a higher percentage of injuries as they usually cover
entire careers of judokas until the moment of the questionnaire,
while prospective studies are generally oriented to shorter and
well-dened periods.
Inuence of nutrition, hydration and weight cycling on judo
injuries
Although nutrition, hydration and weight cycling are considered
important injury risk factors in combat sports,
6367
specic
research on judo is still very scarce.
67
A higher frequency of
injuries and impairment of muscular function have been found
in weight cycling judokas and among those undergoing rapid
weight reduction before a competition compared with control
groups of judo athletes.
12 68 69
Moreover, even if bone injuries
were not higher in judokas displaying disordered eating beha-
viours,
70
the higher risk of bone injuries due to changes in bone
metabolism has been referred as a consequence of weight
cycling in judo.
71 72
Nevertheless, the strength requirements
and technical characteristics of judo practice may also be pre-
ventive factors for bone loss and bone-related injuries.
73
Furthermore, it has been reported
74
that the uid restriction
practiced by many judo athletes when involved in weight loss
processes,
75
in conjunction with intense judo training in hot
environments, resulted in serious dehydration, which might
provoke heat-related injuries. Death has rarely been reported as
a consequence of dehydration in judo
67
and wrestling.
76
Despite the described risks, most judo athletes reduce their
weight a short time before competition.
75 77 78
The methods
used include uid restriction, sauna or plastic clothing, diuretics
or laxatives, or food restriction, among others.
78 79
In line with
Artioli et al,
66
it can be concluded that athletes, especially pre-
pubescent ones, must avoid harmful weight loss procedures in
terms of sports injury prevention and further actions, including
specic programmes, must be promoted to dissuade judo ath-
letes from these methods. Judo should follow the example of
wrestling, where these programmes started to be implemented
since the late 1990s.
76
To create a daily energy decit of 500
1000 kcal, a long-term soft diet and aerobic exercise have been
recommended for losing weight without harming the athletes
health.
80
More importantly, strict regulations would be the best
way to avoid dangerous weight loss practices in judo, as has
been the case for wrestling.
66 80
Psychological factors associated with judo injuries
The research results of recent years reinforce the assumption
that psychological factors are involved in the development of
sports injuries.
8183
The perceived similarity and control seem
to directly contribute to the perceived risk of injury.
82
The per-
ceived similarity of an athlete with the typical judoka who gets
injured while practicing judomight especially be a pathway to
the time and effort spent in analysing the risk information critic-
ally, which might lead to developing preventive actions.
82
Some
studies in non-judokas refer to the three central elements of self-
determination theory (autonomy, competence and relatedness)
fostering intrinsic motivation and seem to be related to the
return to sport following injury.
84
Accordingly, there is prelimin-
ary evidence that positive psychological responses (motivation,
condence and low fear) are associated with a higher rate of
returning to sport.
84
Future research on judokas should aim at reducing injuries by
testing cognitive behavioural strategies, which have shown ef-
cacy in other sport settings, by performing randomised clinical
trials based on the extended theoretical framework of
stress-injury models.
81 85
Injury prevention measures during training and competition
The knowledge on judo injuries is indispensable for the devel-
opment of preventive measurements.
Considering the relatively high frequency of upper body injur-
ies being thrown in judo, to improve falling skills,
25 35 36 86
by
means of good and frequent break fall training, avoiding to fall
on the top of the shoulder or on the palm of the hand,
87
should
be the highest priority of judo coaches, especially when teaching
beginners and young practitioners. Also, balance training as well
as testing the training effects in young judokas might be useful
in the evaluation and reduction of the risk of falls.
88
As throw-
ing could also be dangerous, throwing techniques should like-
wise be carefully and correctly apprehended from the very
beginning.
25 35 36 86
Furthermore, it is important to have good
physical preparation, especially by stimulating long-term resist-
ance training practice,
2 4 89 90
mainly focusing on womens
upper body strength, as a high level of strength and exibility
showed a signicantly lower injury rate.
9194
A specic programme for ACL injury prevention with pro-
prioceptive exercises and knowledge of the risk situations, in
addition to a higher emphasis on bilateral grips during training,
would be useful in reducing knee injuries. Changing the rules,
including the prohibition of direct attacks with the hand on the
pants, seems to reduce knee sprains.
6
However, this should be
assessed more extensively in future studies. Yamamoto et al
95
showed elastic taping to have a preventive function on ankle
instability. Additionally, the quality of the mat is also important:
even if collisions, that is, head impacts, would be attenuated on
relatively soft mats, the feet would penetrate into the mat,
which could lead to knee ligament injuries.
48
A soft protective
headgear could be an option to decrease head injuries as well as
cauliower ear.
14 57
The frequency of nger injuries has to be
assessed in future follow-up studies to determine if the recent
changes in the international judo rules from 2013 concerning
grip ght will have a positive inuence.
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Educational programmes
Injury prevention can be improved by providing education for
athletes, coaches, referees and tournament directors
24 25 61 96 97
and establishing minimum standards of qualication and
experience for trainers and referees.
35 61 96 97
They should also be
instructed in the mechanisms, prevention and treatment of injur-
ies.
96
Furthermore, judokas need to be aware of the importance of
entering competition fully recovered from past injuries.
16 26
In
addition, one decisive criterion of the ability to compete could be
the scores in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT).
98
During the
rehabilitation process, judo coaches can compare individual pro-
gress in SJFT, aiming at the achievement of the scores athletes had
before sustaining the injury.
26
Moreover, athletes should be
encouraged to give up on time in case of armlocks and choking
techniques
14
as well as to interrupt the ght in case of moderate
injuries. On the other hand, the role of the referee is also relevant,
especially during armlocks and choking techniques, stopping the
ght if the athlete is unable to give up.
6
It is also necessary to reect on the re-evaluation of the current
competition rules.
399
Specic rules should keep on developing
for the young categories having safe practice as a main concern.
Hard or uncontrolled throwing, holding, joint locking or choking
techniques and dangerous falling techniques, for example, trying
to avoid falling on the back, can cause injuries and even serious
damage,
15 19 35 62
and should be strictly penalised for the preser-
vation of young athleteshealth. Moreover, children and juveniles
or inexperienced judokas should be prevented from entering
competition prematurely.
96 99
Competitions for athletes of differ-
ent levels of experience, as those organised by the French Judo
Federation, should be encouraged.
A correct pedagogical approach should not be forgotten. Studies
on sports traumas indicate that the injury risk is lower if goals of
achievement are proposed to players: sport exercise for health,
physical maintenance or pleasure causes 9% fewer accidents than
practice driven by aspiration of good performance, success in com-
petition or desire of taking risks.
100
Therefore, a reorientation of
performance goals to goals of achievement, especially for young
judo practitioners, would probably reduce the injury risk.
CONCLUSIONS
The present review provides the latest knowledge on the fre-
quency and characteristics of injuries in judo. Comprehensive
knowledge about the risk of injury during sport activity and
related risk factors represents an essential basis to develop
effective strategies for injury prevention. Thus, the introduction
of an ongoing injury surveillance system in judo is of the utmost
importance.
What are the new ndings?
The present review provides the latest knowledge on the
frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo.
Injuries of extremities, especially of the knee, shoulder and
ngers, are the most frequently affected body parts in judo
practitioners.
Sprains, strains and contusions are the most common injury
types.
Being thrown during standing ght is the predominant
situation where injuries occur.
How might it impact clinical practice in the near future?
Introduction of an ongoing injury surveillance system in
judo.
Awareness about the risk situations, with particular
emphasis on the correct learning of judo techniques,
bilateral grips during training and avoiding weight cycling.
Preventive measures will focus on improving protective
equipment, which could be useful especially during training.
Author afliations
1
Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
2
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
3
Combat Sports Unit, Department of Theory of Sport and Kinesiology, Institute of
Sport, University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland
4
Sports Training and Physical Performance Research Group, Federal University of
Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil
5
Martial Arts and Combat Sports Research Group, Sport Department, School of
Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
6
Department of Physical and Sport Education, University of León, León, Spain
7
Unit of Orthopaedic and Sport Surgery, CHU La Pitié-Salpétrière, Paris, France
8
Nollet Institute of Locomotor System, Paris, France
9
Faculty of Sport Science, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France
10
National Track & Field Centre, Sports Injury Clinic, Sports Medicine Clinic of S.E.G.
A.S., Thessaloniki, Greece
11
Thessaloniki SPORTS Medicine Clinic, Thessaloniki, Greece
Contributors EP contributed to the conception and design, acquisition, analyses
and interpretation of the data, drafting, accurate and critical revision, and nal
approval of the version of the paper to be submitted. She is the guarantor. GR, NS,
SS, FBDV, CG-G and RR contributed to the analyses and interpretation of the data,
drafting, critical revision and approval of the nal version of the paper. MW, VM, PK
and MC contributed to the acquisition of the data, drafting and approval of the nal
version of the paper. MK contributed to the analyses and interpretation of the data,
accurate and critical revision of the paper as well as approval of the nal version.
BM contributed to the acquisition of the data, accurate and critical revision of the
paper as well as approval of the nal version. NM contributed to the conception as
well as revision and approval of the nal version of the draft paper. MB contributed
to the conception and design, accurate and critical revision as well as nal approval
of the version of the paper to be submitted.
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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2013 47: 1139-1143Br J Sports Med
Elena Pocecco, Gerhard Ruedl, Nemanja Stankovic, et al.
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... Core values of the sport include discipline, humility, and respect [1]. In practice, players attempt to either throw opponents directly onto their back from a standing position (nage-waza) or display control in groundwork via pinfall or submission (ne-waza) [2]. ...
... Epidemiological research continues to highlight the considerable risk of injury in judo [2][3][4]. The shoulder is consistently recognised as a frequently injured site, and a recent publication found that almost 16% of injuries in elite judo competition over a 15-year period were to the shoulder [2][3][4][5][6]. ...
... Epidemiological research continues to highlight the considerable risk of injury in judo [2][3][4]. The shoulder is consistently recognised as a frequently injured site, and a recent publication found that almost 16% of injuries in elite judo competition over a 15-year period were to the shoulder [2][3][4][5][6]. Injuries during judo training are no less common; in fact, it is 2 of 9 thought that more injuries occur in training (58%) than in competition (42%) [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Shoulder injuries in judo are common as the falling player (uke) lands. Two throws implicated in shoulder injury are tai-otoshi and morote-seoi-nage. Kinematic investigation can provide insight into possible shoulder injury mechanisms and allow for appropriate preventative measures to be suggested. We used two-dimensional (2D) video analysis to measure and compare: (a) the peak acceleration and (b) the peak velocity of uke’s shoulder when tai-otoshi and moroteseoi- nage were performed by elite adult judoka. Methods: Eight male participants were recruited from the Budokwai Judo Club in London, UK. The mean age, height, and weight of participants were 25.4 � 5.2 years (18–34), 1.7 � 0.0 m (1.7–1.8), and 75.0 � 5.2 kg (66–80), respectively. Throws were recorded using an iPhone 6S camera and uploaded onto Kinovea for subsequent processing. Results: The peak acceleration (m/s2) was greater in tai-otoshi (71.6 � 12.4) compared to morote-seoi-nage (67.9 � 9.9), although this was statistically insignificant. The peak velocity (m/s) was significantly greater (p = 0.030) in tai-otoshi (5.1 � 0.8) than in morote-seoi-nage (4.5 � 0.6). Conclusions: A greater peak velocity in tai-otoshi suggests that the shoulder is subjected to increased loads upon impact. This may indicate that tai-otoshi carries a greater risk of shoulder injury. Nage-komi (repetitive throwing) practices in training should follow gradual loading principles—beginning with morote-seoi-nage, before moving to tai-otoshi, for example. We must be aware of any assumptions made in estimations of impact force, and future in vivo research is required to provide more definitive values. Meanwhile, coaches must continue to ensure that correct ukemi (breakfall) technique is displayed by athletes before performing throws.
... Epidemiological studies on judo injuries have revealed that the shoulder joint is one of the most injured body regions in judo athletes regardless of sex, (Błach et al., 2021;Akoto et al., 2018;Čierna, Štefanovský, Matejová, & Lystad, 2019;Pocecco et al., 2013) with an increased occurrence in young adults (Pocecco et al., 2013) and at high levels of practice. (Barsottini, Guimarães, & Renato de Morais, 2006) Furthermore, more than 25% of serious injuries requiring hospitalization involve the shoulder joint, (Błach et al., 2021) which can result in time loss of up to six months (Akoto et al., 2018) and jeopardize the judo athlete's ability to return to judo at the same level before the injury. ...
... Epidemiological studies on judo injuries have revealed that the shoulder joint is one of the most injured body regions in judo athletes regardless of sex, (Błach et al., 2021;Akoto et al., 2018;Čierna, Štefanovský, Matejová, & Lystad, 2019;Pocecco et al., 2013) with an increased occurrence in young adults (Pocecco et al., 2013) and at high levels of practice. (Barsottini, Guimarães, & Renato de Morais, 2006) Furthermore, more than 25% of serious injuries requiring hospitalization involve the shoulder joint, (Błach et al., 2021) which can result in time loss of up to six months (Akoto et al., 2018) and jeopardize the judo athlete's ability to return to judo at the same level before the injury. ...
... (Mihata et al., 2004) Acromioclavicular sprain or glenohumeral dislocation can also occur by falling on the shoulder, elbow, or hand. (Pocecco et al., 2013;Frey et al., 2019) Therefore, having a high level of shoulder muscular strength, power, and endurance can help judo athletes perform (Detanico, Pupo, Franchini, & dos Santos, 2015) and maintain shoulder stability while avoiding overuse and traumatic injuries. ...
Article
The aim was to investigate the effects of sex, age, preferred judo technique, dominance, and injury history on the shoulder functional status of elite judo athletes. Sixty-one elite judo athletes (38 males, age: 18.1 ± 1.2 years, body mass: 69.3 ± 13.3 kg, body height: 172.2 ± 9.8 cm, brown belt to second-degree black belt) completed three questionnaires: Western Ontario Shoulder Instability, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff, and Shoulder Instability-Return to Sport after Injury. They performed four physical tests: the glenohumeral rotator isometric strength test, upper quarter Y-balance test, unilateral seated shot put test, and modified Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test. The results showed that the female athletes had less shoulder functional abilities than the male athletes (p < 0.001 to p = 0.02). The younger athletes had poorer shoulder stability and upper extremity power than the older athletes (p < 0.001 to p = 0.02), but their glenohumeral muscles were stronger in both internal (p = 0.03) and external (p = 0.005) rotations. All the judo athletes had similar bilateral differences in shoulder functional status, except for judokas who preferred throwing techniques (p = 0.01). Injury history affected self-perceived functional status (p < 0.001), as well as upper extremity muscle capacity and neuromuscular control (p = 0.01 to p = 0.05). This study provides new insight into the shoulder functional status of elite judo athletes, which may aid in the development of sports-specific injury prevention and return-to-sport programs to reduce the risk of shoulder injury occurrence and recurrence.
... Thus, performing these actions in succession during high-intensity judo matches or other judo situations (eg, training sessions) can be potential risk factors for injuries. [6][7][8] Injury prevalence in judo athletes has been widely studied over the years. 6,7,9,10 An important study by Pocecco et al 6 identified that extremities, especially the knees, shoulders, and fingers, are the body parts most frequently affected by injuries Q5 in judo competitors. ...
... [6][7][8] Injury prevalence in judo athletes has been widely studied over the years. 6,7,9,10 An important study by Pocecco et al 6 identified that extremities, especially the knees, shoulders, and fingers, are the body parts most frequently affected by injuries Q5 in judo competitors. In addition, sprains, strains, and contusions are the most common injuries and predominantly occur during throws and standing fights. ...
... [6][7][8] Injury prevalence in judo athletes has been widely studied over the years. 6,7,9,10 An important study by Pocecco et al 6 identified that extremities, especially the knees, shoulders, and fingers, are the body parts most frequently affected by injuries Q5 in judo competitors. In addition, sprains, strains, and contusions are the most common injuries and predominantly occur during throws and standing fights. ...
Article
Context: The participation of judo athletes with disabilities in competitions has increased over the years as well as the burden of sports-related injuries and illnesses in this population. However, there is limited knowledge about sports-related injuries in judo athletes with different disabilities. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of injuries in judo athletes with disabilities, considering the different impairment groups, magnitude of injury (ie, mechanism, nature, and severity of injury), and specific body parts. Design: Cross-sectional study (level of evidence, 3). Setting: Brazilian Judo athletes with disabilities. Patients: Fifty-one judo athletes with disabilities (15 men and 36 women) participated in this study. Main outcome measures: Data were obtained from an adapted injury report form. The prevalence of injuries was assessed, considering type of impairment, body parts, mechanisms, and severity as well as differences between male and female athletes, with the significance level set at P < .05. Results: The results demonstrated a high prevalence of injuries in female athletes with visual impairment (n = 11, 73.3%) and male athletes with amputations (n = 14, 38.8%). A high prevalence was found in the national group, especially for male athletes (n = 29, 80.5%). Among athletes who had injuries, 69.4% (n = 12) of male and 80.0% (n = 25) of female athletes' injuries occurred due to direct contact with other athletes, and 72.2% (n = 26) of male and 86.6% (n = 13) of female athletes' injuries were in the training environment. The magnitude of injuries ranged from moderate to severe for male and female athletes. The knee (n = 25, 49.0%) and shoulder (n = 12, 23.5%) were the body parts most affected by injuries in both male and female athletes. Conclusion: A large percentage of judo athletes with disabilities reported experiencing an injury during the previous 2 years; percentages were greater in athletes with visual and physical impairment. Moreover, most injuries occurred in the knee or shoulder, during training, and in direct contact with other athletes and were of severe magnitude.
... The aim of judo is to pin your opponent to the ground using grappling and throwing techniques [1,3]. Despite this more defensive style, an observational study from 2008 to 2016 recorded injury incidence rates in judo of 9.6 per 1000 min of exposure. ...
Article
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Objectives: To investigate the biomechanics of Ukemi in relation to head and neck injury in adult judokas with varying skill sets. Design: Narrative systematic review. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, Science direct and EMBASE from inception to April 2021. Studies were included if they: (1) reported biomechanical analysis of judo throws and Ukemi; (2) were on adult judoka populations; (3) discussed injury related to judo technique. The included studies were assessed for risk of bias using a five-part modified STROBE checklist. A narrative synthesis was performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results: 173 titles and abstracts were screened with 16 studies (158 judokas, 9 of which were female) included. All studies used 3D biomechanical analysis to assess Ukemi. Ukemi implementation produced reduced kinematic data in comparison to direct occipital contact, which was always below the injury threshold. Analysis of lower limb and trunk kinematics revealed variances in Ukemi between novice and experienced judoka. Whilst no significant differences were seen in neck flexion angles, hip, knee and trunk angle time plots revealed greater extension angles in experienced judokas. Conclusions: Ukemi is essential in preventing head and neck injuries; however, technique differs between experienced and novice judoka. Larger flexion angles of the hip, knee and trunk are seen in novice judoka, which correlate with increased kinematic data. The association of greater neck muscle strength with improved Ukemi is weak. However, a negative correlation was established between fatigue and breakfall skill by one study.
... These reports usually examine the frequencies of sports injuries based on different participants such as location, severity, types, causes, and so on. [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26] wrestling. In this study, the incident rate of death per sport was calculated; rugby had the incident rate of death per athlete number. ...
Article
Aim: The aim of this study is to study the frequency of sudden death in sports from the year 2004–2020 in the city of Kashan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This case series research included fatal sports injuries from the years 2004 to year 2020. Anecdotal data were collected by interviewing different sports organizations and close relatives of the victims. Result: The result of descriptive analysis of collected data showed that 17 cases of sudden sports death occurred during the years 2004 until 2020. The highest frequency of the cases occurred in mountain claiming with 9 (52.9%), followed by swimming with 3 (17.6%), and handball with 2 (11.8%), horse riding 1 (5.9%), basketball 1 (5.9%), and martial arts 1 (5.9%). All the analysis was performed using the SPSS: pc version 21. Conclusion: Fatal sports injuries are rare; however, they occur incidentally due to poor knowledge and education of the sport participants. It was concluded that nearly all fatal incidents were preventable.
Article
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This study analyzed the acute effect of Brazilian jiujitsu (BJJ) combat on muscle injury and oxidative stress. For this, eight highly-trained male athletes (23.7±3.3 yrs.) were analyzed before and after a 10 min bout. Blood Lactate (LAC) was measured as an indicator of combat intensity. Muscle damage markers were measured creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The levels of Total Antioxidant Capacity (CAOT), catalase activity, and protein carbonylation were measured as oxidative stress markers, p≤0.05. The main results indicated that there was a difference between pre and post values for the concentration of LAC (0.5±0.2 vs. 1.9±0.9 mmol/L; p=0.002) e CK (66.5±48.1 vs. 80.3±53.1 IU/L; p=0.027). There was no difference for the other measures (p>0.05). Catalase pre-BJJ and LDH post-BJJ had a strong and negative correlation (r=-0.751; p=0.03). CAOT and protein carbonylation post-BJJ had a positive and strong correlation (r=0.806; p=0.02). In conclusion, Brazilian jiujitsu tends to increase cell damage, especially when related to low pre-combat levels of protective enzymes, such as Catalase.
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Although osteochondral lesions are well-described in previous literature, lesions located at the proximal phalangeal base of the hallux are extremely rare. Here, the authors report the case of a 21-year-old male who presented with chronic right great toe pain, which was eventually diagnosed as an osteochondral lesion at the proximal phalangeal base of the hallux. The diagnosis presented herein should be kept in mind and included in the differential diagnosis when patients complain of chronic pain in the great toe.
Article
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Background: Judo, as a high-intensity contact sport, may lead to the occurrence of injuries, especially in competitions. This work aims to assess the likelihood of soft and hard tissue injuries in top-level judokas during competition with defining factors that determine the probability of injury occurrence. Methods: The injuries that occurred in 123 official international competitions from 2005–2019 were recorded by the European Judo Union (EJU) Medical Commission as a survey that was a part of the EJU Injury Registration form with internal consistency shown by a Crombach Alpha of 0.69. This survey data identified factors such as: sex, anatomical localisation of injury, type of injury, tissue involved and mechanisms of the injury. A total of 650 tissue injuries were reported correctly in terms of tissue injury definition. Results: The most frequent soft tissue injury (STI) reported was a ligament STI (48.15%), closely followed by skin STI (12.15%) and muscles STI (11.38%). In turn, the most frequent hard tissue injury occurred in bones (8.56%). The highest rates of injuries occurred during the fight in the standing position (78%). Injuries in the standing position mainly occurred while executing a throw (25.85%) and followed by the attempt to throw, i.e., the action of reaching the throwing position (22.30%), grip fighting (15.07%), and during falls (14.77%). Opposite to this, fight in groundwork reached only 18.30% soft and hard tissue injuries combined. The ongoing registration of injuries during judo combat and training and the early diagnosis of risk factors for injuries are the basis for the development of effective strategies for injury prevention and further treatment.
Article
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Background: Loss of balance, fall and collision with the ground or vertical obstacle can be the cause of personal injury and even death. The aim of this study is veri. cation the following hypothesis: if methodical and educational standards are met, gender, age, and body build are not factors limiting the effectiveness of learning safe falling. Material/Methods: The researches covered 688 people between 19 and 55 year old, who made four different in structure (but not in content) programs of combat sports propaedeutics - basic of judo (CSP-BJ). It used a specific test of making safe falls. Results: The structure of the CSP-BJ had no influence on the educational effects. At average similar safe falling motor competence level, the oldest students follow activities the most slowly. Weak but statistically significant correlation is between age and a test of making safe falls and between Rohrer index and the test result only in a group of students where was the greatest diversity of age (spread 32 years). Conclusions: Empirical data authorize to the general conclusion that verified the hypothesis is true. Monitoring the phenomenon in so-called virtual research group can accelerate implementation of a system of universal teaching of safe falls and increase the effectiveness of prevention of physical injury in a macro scale.
Book
A significant body of scientific knowledge has been published in sports medicine in the past few decades, but there is huge demand for practical references that address different types of sport. This demand is highest in combat sports which are both highly physical and mentally demanding, and cause challenging issues such as risk of blood borne infections, weight reduction, head injuries, and stress management. Combat Sports Medicine has two parts, the first dealing with common topics in many combat sports: nutrition and psychology; ethical and social issues, including doping; injuries and infections; and combat sports in specific groups. The second part of the book covers aspects of sports science and injuries in selected popular combat sports are discussed. An international team of contributors have developed this book to meet the needs of practitioners who work with combat sports athletes. Based on the best available research evidence, this represents a key reference for neurologists, psychologists, orthopedic surgeons and sports injury specialists involved in the management of patients who practice contact sports.
Chapter
IntroductionWho Is Affected by Injury?Where Does Injury Occur?When Does Injury Occur?When Does Injury Occur?What Are the Risk Factors?What Are the Inciting Events?Injury PreventionFurther ResearchReferences
Article
Background: Practising sport is bringing the risk of the age behind himself to injury. The most movement organs of the move are exposed. Competition is a being of martial arts and combat sports. The cause of damage is usually main mechanical energy. At present it is estimated that the number of sportsmen of high professionality with serious disfunctions falls within 30-70% and in the Olympic years it usually reaches higher limits. Aim of Study: Determining of the study of frequency and causes of injuries in individual martial arts and combat sports (boxing and kick-boxing, judo, jujutsu, karate). Material/Methods: The research has been conducted on a target group of 282 practitioners of various martial arts and combat sports. As it happens in the environment of people doing sports, the majority of respondents were males - 257 compared to 25 women. (However, in statements by only two women there is information about injuries.) Those are contestants being at the top in the world, very successful in their sports. Among them there are Olympic, world and European champions. Among the practitioners of far eastern martial arts there are many holders of high and the highest master's degrees of 'dan'. The survey has been conducted with contestants at various ages among whom some finished their professional careers. There are also data concerning deceased people which had been collected earlier. The tool used here has been the 'budo questionnaire' consisting of five open questions. It is very important to note that some practitioners have done more than one martial art or combat sport. Results: Among all combat sports and martial arts the most frequent injuries have been broken bones (21%) and damages of knee ligaments (16%). On the other hand, the least frequent have been eyebrow ridge cuts, elbow injuries, knocked out teeth (all consist 1%) and tensioned muscles, strained muscles, fractured bones, strained Achilles' tendon, hand injuries, bruises, hurts and injuries of an eye (all consist 2%). Respondents skipped information about minor injuries like bruises and abrasions. Particular types of injuries were typical for particular forms of competition.
Article
The French Federation of Judo (FFJDA), the third leading sports federation in France, includes a certain number of competition athletes, from juniors to high-level international seniors.Judo is a combat sport which can lead to a certain number of injuries related to the combat itself. In competitions, a physician provides medical surveillance and optimal first aid for all injuries. The participating physicians fill out a medical chart where the number of athletes, the number of combats, the number of call-ins, and the number of combat interruptions are noted as well as the number of injured athletes. Major injuries are also noted with the following parameters: age, sex, grade, pathology). The present analysis was conducted on data from nine seasons from 1993 to 2002. There were a total of 1957 injuries, involving 1.34% of the participants and 1% of the combats. Upper limb injuries predominated, followed by shoulder and elbow injuries. Sprains were the predominant pathology, followed by fractures, then dislocations (all joints). Age ranged from the youngest participants to seniors. Injuries were less frequent among athletes well prepared for high-level competition. Several types of prevention measures were deduced from this analysis with the objective of reducing the incidence of injuries during competition: correct warm-up before all combats (several combats during a given day of competition), adequate dietary preparation adapted to the weight class, systematic stretching exercises after each effort, muscle reinforcement adapted to judo competition, propositions for modifications of competition practices and refereeing to avoid certain accidents.judo, statistics, competition, musculoskeletal system.
Article
Background and Study Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the kind and causes of the injury profile of senior male judoka competing at the international level during ippon-seoi-nage throw. Material/Methods: Subjects consisted of 52 competitors participating in the Olympic Games, World and European Championships and Polish National Individual Judo Championships. The so-called epidemiological standardized medical historywas used in this study. Simple check-off forms were used to collect the injury data, including injury type, location, and mechanism.Results: Competitors sustained 448 injuries in total. Sixty-five injuries happened during the ippon-seoi-nage throw. It was found that: 1) mostly appeared to be sprains of the knee joint during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage throw, 2) the most frequent cause of injuries was during sports contests, 3) injuries mostly occurred in a competitor who was attacking on ippon-seoi-nage, 4) there is a high risk of repeated injuries during the ippon-seoi-nage throw mostly caused by too quick a resumption of physical activities after the sustained trauma.Conclusions: Possible applications of this work are preventive actions against injuries. Coaches should use this more to exactly identify the mechanisms of injuries. We would like emphasize that routine post-trauma treatment and rehabilitation procedures restore judoka to fitness only to some degree. From the trainer's perspective, it has been suggested that it is necessary and indispensable to individualize and modify the training course process of the judoka who had accidents.
Article
Background & Study Aim: Literature deals barely with sex-related differences of young judokas concerning physiological data from laboratory tests. Therefore, the aim of this study was to acquire knowledge about potential similarities and differences of juvenile male and female judo athletes, derived from all-out arm and leg ergometric tests of combat duration. Material & Methods: Maximum power output (Pmax) and physiological indicators, i.e., peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), peak ventilation (VEpeak), peak heart rate, post-exercise lactate (LA), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE), of 17 male (14.0±1.4 years) and 6 female (13.8±1.3 years) juvenile Austrian judokas were assessed during incremental tests of combat duration (~ 3-4 min) on an arm crank and a cycle ergometer. Results: Juvenile men had about half of women's %fat (10.6±3.3% vs. 20.2±3.8%, p≤0.01), higher values of relative Pmax (2.5±0.3 W·kg-1 vs. 2.0±0.2 W·kg-1, p≤0.01), absolute and relative VO2 peak (2201.9±559.0 ml·min-1 vs. 1667.2±341.5 ml·min-1, p≤0.05 and 38.4±4.9 ml·kg-1·min-1 vs. 29.8±4.6 ml·kg-1·min-1, p≤0.01), relative VEpeak (1.6±0.3 l·kg-1·min-1 vs. 1.2±0.3 l·kg-1·min-1, p≤0.01), and LA (9.3±2.5 mmol·l-1 vs. 6.5±1.2 mmol·l-1, p≤0.05) during cranking and higher values of relative VO2 peak (51.8±6.0 ml·kg-1·min-1 vs. 45.3±4.5 ml·kg-1·min-1, p≤0.05) and RPE concerning breathing effort (16.4±1.6 vs. 14.6±1.5, p≤0.05) during cycling. Conclusions: The present results demonstrate sex-specific differences performance indicators assessed during arm and leg ergometry of combat duration in juvenile judo athletes. These findings may have practical importance and should be considered in evaluating the results from ergometric testing as well as in planning the training for young male and female judo athletes.