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Information overload, navigation and the geography of mediated markets

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Information overload, navigation and the geography of mediated markets

Abstract

This article integrates arguments from the perspectives of the economics of information and of the economy of qualities to analyze the spatial consequences of digital technology and information overload on two exemplary product markets: quality wine and stock photography. It demonstrates how digital technology enhances information overload in product markets and how the geography of market relations is transformed along new intermediaries and new practices of navigation that account for two different geographical paradoxes.
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... It is not possible to provide objective parameters for culturally-based services as the judgement depends on consumers' experience (Vargo & Lusch, 2008). This means that the enjoyment of culturally-based digital services are somewhat subjective and consumers examine extrinsic attributes such as the actors/authors/ producers (brand), or the location of production such as USA or UK etc. (CoO) to make their purchase decision (Fandos & Flavián, 2006;Glückler & Sanchez-Hernandez, 2014;Srinivasan, Jain, & Sikand, 2004). The third differential characteristic of digital services is that the replicability of the service is effectively free since marginal and transport costs are close to zero, reducing costs involved with the management of stocks and logistics (Blum & Goldfarb, 2006). ...
... Consequently the purchasing decision is made based on symbolic factors (Fandos & Flavián, 2006). Glückler and Sanchez-Hernandez (2014) and Srinivasan et al. (2004) assert that although consumers' perceptions tend to be more influenced by intrinsic elements, in circumstances where intrinsic characteristics are difficult to observe, consumers resort to extrinsic attributes such as CoO to make a decision to purchase. Therefore this work examines if extrinsic attributes are used to assess culturally-based digital services and enhance the purchasing propensity of foreign consumers. ...
... This context is particularly relevant because, unlike physical products and non-digital services, digital services are characterized by free-replicability and nonexcludability and therefore its path to internationalisation is not affected by production and transportation costs (Blum & Goldfarb, 2006) or temporal barriers (Rifkin, 2014). In addition, due to its intangible nature the intrinsic characteristics of digital services are subjective and experiential (Fandos & Flavián, 2006;Glückler & Sanchez-Hernandez, 2014;Srinivasan et al., 2004). When making a decision to purchase culturally-based digital services consumers resort to extrinsic cues. ...
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This article investigates, through the country-of-origin effect and value-in-use lenses, how the implementation of digital services creates opportunities for cultural industries to expand internationally. We argue that intrinsic attributes of cultural content such as the capacity to entertain are difficult to parameterize because they are somewhat experiential and subjective. This means that extrinsic cues are essential to foreign consumers when making a decision to purchase digital services. We specifically evaluate the influence of Britishness, cultural distance, exoticness, brand image, and flag-brand congruence on the purchase intentions of consumers in foreign markets. This study employs a unique consumer dataset with information on the internationalization of British cultural digital services. The depth and breadth of the survey data collected through collaboration with a UK media industry partner with a globally recognised brand is significantly richer than data used in previous studies. In particular, the study exploits a survey with 5,200 usable data points from consumers residing in fourteen geographically dispersed countries. Findings support theoretical predictions that Britishness, cultural distance, exoticness, brand image and flag-brand congruence are positively linked to the purchasing decisions. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
... Intermediation constitutes important processes in culture and economy, and intermediary actors such as gatekeepers and taste-makers, are said to perform crucial roles in-between producers and consumers. Through digitization, access to products and related information have increased significantly, and while consumers need help to filter 'information overload', intermediaries are recognized as having increasingly vital positions in these value creating processes (Glückler and Sanchez-Hernandez, 2014;Turkle, 2015). Consequently, the role of intermediation is changing as well as the spaces where these powers are executed. ...
... Beyond mere buying advice, these 'curators' offer valuable knowledge about how to evaluate, interpret, translate, understand and use specific products (Shultz, 2015;Hracs and Jansson, 2017;Jansson and Hracs, 2018). Bhaskar (2016) emphasize that curators cut down complexity by overcoming 'information overload' (Glückler and Sanchez-Hernandez, 2014). ...
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This paper focus on the concept of curation that emphasizes intermediary processes sorting and filtering the information overload that characterize contemporary digitalized society. The paper has two overall aims. The first aim is theoretical and the ambition is to identify practices and processes distinctive to curation in digital spaces. From this literature the paper argues that contemporary digital curation is characterized by a) digitally produced and mediated processes b) de-professionalization c) a combination of productive and consumptive modes d) space as a ‘quality stamp’, and e) an increasingly underlying and/or everyday practice. The second aim is empirical and, through a case study of an online forum dedicated to hi-fi and high-end audio equipment, the ambition is to identify curatorial practices and processes taking place at the forum and to understand how the online forum functions as a curatorial space. More specifically, in the analysis of the empirical material three themes are highlighted. First, personal consumer experiences are expressed through narrated purchases in which the constant pursuit of the ‘perfect audio reproduction system’ is materialized as these narratives involve with the explanations and motivations behind personal reflections and experiences of purchase decisions. Second, the online forum has clear power structures. Third, the online forum deals with geographical dimensions in several ways, e.g. by functioning as a space for legitimization where the lack of distance and the use of (partially) anonymous profiles generate both advantageous and disadvantageous dimensions.
... Yet, increasing possibilities for physical mobility and new technologically mediated communication technologies, such as video conferencing and social media, provide new channels which enhance interactions and knowledge flows across time and space (Grabher and Ibert, 2014;Lange and Bu¨rkner, 2013). As a result, Glu¨ckler and Sanchez-Hernandez (2014) argue that rich information can be transferred across much greater distances. But as the distinct trade-offs are reduced or even eliminated, there is a need to investigate the subtleties of specific channels, formats and spaces and how they are being matched strategically, based on their strengths, with specific activities such as searching for or displaying content. ...
... The persistent importance of proximity and trust in the digital age Beyond facilitating different forms of interaction, how do these understudied spatial and temporal dynamics influence the levels of trust and value that are created? Based on existing literature within economic geography, we might expect that face-to-face interactions between human curators and consumers will generate more trust, richness and valuable forms of information or curation (Aspers and Darr, 2011;Glu¨ckler and Sanchez-Hernandez, 2014;Storper and Venables, 2004). ...
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The contemporary marketplace for cultural products, such as music, fashion and film, features an abundance of goods, services and experiences. While producers struggle to differentiate and monetize their offerings, some consumers are overwhelmed by the amount of choice and information available to them. As a result, many consumers are turning to a range of intermediaries who help them make sense of the marketplace. While intermediation is nothing new, its value is increasing and there has been a shift in relative importance from those who create products to those who curate products. As curation remains a ‘fuzzy concept’ – with definitions and connotations that vary by industry and occupation – this paper aims to contribute to existing conceptualisations by focussing on the case of recorded music. Based on interviews and observation with a subset of curators, including record shops and music writers, the paper provides a typology of curation-related activities and highlights the range of economic and non-economic rewards that motivate different actors to perform curation. It also interrogates the importance and role of space by identifying physical, temporary and virtual spaces where curation is performed and relationships between specific spatial dynamics and curation-related processes.
... We begin by reconstructing the historical stages of the division of labor in the stock photo trade, and we identify an emergent alliance boom among photo agencies as the specific phenomenon in need of explanation. Based on the deep-cutting transformations in photography (Benner, 2008;Munir, 2005), but particularly in the stock photo industry (Frosh, 2001(Frosh, , 2003Glückler, 2005;Glückler and Sánchez Hernández, 2014), we investigate this alliance boom as a process of creating a new social and geographical division of labor. In Section 3, we distinguish vertical and horizontal divisions of labor and hypothesize distinct roles within a structure of divisions of labor in contemporary stock photography. ...
... In addition, shipping and shipping insurance no longer have any bearing either. This change in interaction parameters has produced what seems to be a 'proximity paradox' (Glückler and Sánchez Hernández, 2014): Despite the empirically observed dissociation and even anonymization of the relationship between agencies and their clients, the main part of the picture business has continued to be concentrated in large metropolitan regions (CEPIC, 2008). Digital technology has led to cost reductions in modern transport, communication, and distribution in historically unprecedented ways (World Bank, 2005). ...
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During the advent of digital technology, the market for stock photography has undergone radical transformations that have disrupted incumbent businesses and produced new divisions of labor. Picture agencies have responded to this challenge with a veritable proliferation of inter-firm alliances. In the attempt to understand this network boom, this paper develops a theoretical link between the concept of regular equivalence and its capacity to detect intra-industry divisions of labor. Based on a network survey of picture agencies in Germany, a prespecified generalized blockmodel yields a valid representation of an increasing functional specialization of new value stages that translates into an extended social and spatial division of labor in ways that challenge a dualist theory of the division of creative labor.
... Analog's simplicity also limits the information overload associated with digital technologies by presenting consumers with fewer decisions (Glückler and Sánchez-Hernández, 2014;Levitin, 2014;Sax, 2016). In contrast, a purported benefit of digital products, which is increasingly cast as a disadvantage by analog proponents, is that digital products often confront users with seemingly infinite options, resulting in a "paradox of choice" in which individuals are less likely to make decisions when they face extensive choice sets (Kida et al., 2010;Schwartz, 2004). ...
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Research has focused on the ecosystems of forces that influence how organizations pursue opportunities in new industries, nascent markets, and novel technologies. However, there is an emerging, but unstudied, ecosystem supporting entrepreneurial activities in legacy industries, mature markets, and based on (seemingly) obsolete technologies - the analog entrepreneurial ecosystem. To develop a framework to explain this phenomenon and guide entrepreneurs and managers operating in this ecosystem, a theory of the analog entrepreneurial ecosystem is proposed. The theory explains the ecosystem's main components and delineates the forces driving its emergence. The model contributes to research on ecosystems, technology reemergence, and management in mature markets and has implications for organizations pursuing opportunities outside the digital ecosystem and based on legacy products.
... Glückler and Sánchez-Hernández [30] suggested that in order to analyze the spatial consequences of digital technologies and IO for two of the best products markets: quality wine and photography of stock, the paper incorporated arguments from the perspective of the economics of information and the economy of qualities. This illustrates that digital technology enhances IO on consumer markets and how the geographic position of customer relations turns into new intermediaries and new communication activities, which reflect two different geographical paradoxes. ...
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In the modern society, Internet provides massive amounts of heterogeneous information, hence Information overload has become an ubiquitous issue. In this paper, we conduct a large scale quantitative study for articles dealing with (1) information overloading; (2) faceted search; and (3) filtering the data in three major databases, namely, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and IEEE Explore. These three databases have presented 172 articles, which can be classified into four categories. The first category contains review and survey papers related to information overload. The second category includes papers that concentrate on developing theoretical frameworks to reduce information overloading. The third category contains papers dealing with improving structure or architectural of software for filtering the huge data. The fourth category includes papers that provide criteria to evaluate filtering techniques. Finally, our contribution provides further understanding of information overload, and gives an important basis for future research. Moreover, we illustrate that the dynamic faceted filters are more efficient to reduce the information overload.
... Im Gegensatz zu Produkten, die der Käufer erst nach dem Kauf erhält und sich dann von der Qualität überzeugen kann, wie das etwa beim Kauf von Wein oder bei der Beauftragung eines Fotografen der Fall ist, weiß der Käufer von digitalen Archivbildern genauestens, welche Ware er zu erwarten hat. Dabei waren Archiv­ bilder vor der Digitalisierung selber reine "Erfahrungsware" (Glückler & Sánchez­ Hernández, 2014, S. 5). Bauernschmitt beschreibt die neuen Suchmöglichkeiten als "schöne neue Welt" für den Bildeinkäufer, der sich nicht mehr mit dem Inhalt einer "Wundertüte" zufrieden geben muss (Bauernschmitt & Ebert, 2015, S. 34). ...
... Many of the leading economic geographers in both countries also publish in top English speaking journals (e.g. Glückler & Sánchez-Hernández, 2014, Vale & Carvalho, 2013. ...
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Over the last fifteen years, we have been observing an increasing fragmentation of economic geography, concerning both schools of thought, perspectives, paradigms, themes and the educational background of researchers. The poly-vocal character of economic geography includes a variety of language areas, a phenomenon so far unknown to a large part of Anglo-American economic geographers. Particularly in the literature about theories, perspectives and paradigms, the non-English speaking world is largely ignored as a basis for debate. Even worse, leading scholars in the field increasingly use the term Anglo-American economic geography to refer to the whole field, although they describe trends and theories in both general and authoritative terms. The aim of this paper is to move beyond Anglo-American economic geography by introducing and reviewing economic geography literature in some other main languages, namely Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese. The purpose of doing so is not merely to show that there is more than Anglo-American economic geography, but also to derive from these non-English voices insights in how to move to an integrative paradigm of a truly international economic geography. 5-6 keywords: Anglo-American economic geography, Anglo-American human geography, integrative paradigm of economic geography, Chinese, Spanish, Portuguese
... Du fait des limites de leur marché, les caves de la région de Castille-et-León n'ont jamais atteint les dimensions de celles de la Rioja, l'Andalousie, la Catalogne ou la Manche (Sánchez-Hernández, 2014), si bien qu'elles ont pu s'adapter aux exigences d'une nouvelle logique productive tout en jouant -avec succès -sur une image familière et artisanale, en rupture avec la mauvaise réputation des vins industriels et la monotonie de quelques grandes marques produites par des entreprises plus importantes. Plus tard, quand les populations urbaines ont découvert l'oenotourisme, (Glückler, Sánchez-Hernández, 2014) Cette déduction ne doit pas nous faire croire qu'il s'agit d'une stratégie où la quantité primerait sur la qualité. La taille industrielle des caves de la région est inférieure à la moyenne nationale, ce qui laisse supposer qu'elles ont plutôt parié sur les séries courtes et les élaborations plus soignées. ...
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This article takes a geographical interest in the upgrading of countries by adopting a micro-perspective of firms and inter-firm networks. We propose the concept of relational upgrading as complementary to the traditional upgrading of activities such as products, processes or functions. Based on a core–periphery model, we argue that countries may reap additional benefits when moving from peripheral to more central market positions. Drawing on methods of generalized blockmodeling, we demonstrate how formerly peripheral countries in the trade of stock photography have successfully upgraded their market positions over a period of 12 years through increasing integration of their firms in the global value network. The analysis contributes to a relational and comprehensive understanding of upgrading, which suggests combining the upgrading of both, activities and relational positions in global networks to reap additional benefits.
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Hall, C.M., Sharples, E., Cambourne, B. & Macionis, N. (eds.) 2000, Wine Tourism Around the World: Development, Management and Markets, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. 348pp, ISBN 0 7506 4530 X (Hbk) – paperback edition 2002 ISBN 0 7506 5466 X For copies of the book please order via a library or purchase online
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