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Nutriose® Soluble Fiber

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... These products are termed resistant maltodextrins, indigestible dextrins, and soluble fiber dextrins and are produced when a starch source is treated with heat and acid. This treatment causes the starch molecules to undergo hydrolysis and produce short-chain oligosaccharides that randomly rearrange during cooling, forming a highly branched structure (5,6). During this treatment, the formation of random linkages occurs including the digestible linkages of R 1-4 and R 1-6, and nondigestible linkages such as β 1-4, β 1-6, and R and β 1-3 and 1-2 (6,7). ...
... This treatment causes the starch molecules to undergo hydrolysis and produce short-chain oligosaccharides that randomly rearrange during cooling, forming a highly branched structure (5,6). During this treatment, the formation of random linkages occurs including the digestible linkages of R 1-4 and R 1-6, and nondigestible linkages such as β 1-4, β 1-6, and R and β 1-3 and 1-2 (6,7). Due to their structural characteristics, SFDs are only partially hydrolyzed by human digestive enzymes and absorbed in the small intestine (8). ...
... Soluble fiber dextrins possess characteristics that allow them to be easily incorporated into a wide variety of foods (6, 10) such as solubility, low viscosity, stability under numerous processing steps, and neutral taste (6,10). Soluble fiber dextrins also have been shown to have a high digestive tolerance allowing them to be incorporated into foodstuffs at sufficient concentrations to induce beneficial health outcomes (11). ...
... In this sense, Nutriose®FB, which is a dextrin obtained from wheat starch, represents a good alternative. In contrast to maltodextrin, Nutriose®FB is partially hydrolyzed and is not absorbed due to many α-1-6 linkages as well as the presence of non-digestible glucoside linkages (e. g. α-1.2 and α-1.3) and is a predilect substrate to Bifidobacteria strains (Lefranc-Millot et al., 2009). ...
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The objective of this research was to obtain a ripened gouda-type cheese added with probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium lactis) and a prebiotic ingredient (Nutriose®FB), evaluating its potential as a functional food. The probiotic bacteria were encapsulated by spray drying using reconstituted skim milk (RSM) and a mixture of β-cyclodextrin-arabic gum (BC-AG) like encapsulant agents. Latterly, these ingredients were added during the production of gouda-type cheeses and microbiological as well as physicochemical evolution were assessed during ripening. At the end of this process, cheeses were subjected to gastrointestinal simulated conditions to evaluate probiotic survival. Results showed that the survival of microencapsulated cells was above 10¹⁰ CFU.g⁻¹ in the probiotic powder and it is maintained above 10⁸ CFU.g⁻¹ in the cheese, during all the ripening process (40 days). Furthermore, tests carried out on the final product indicate that the probiotic bacteria resist the gastrointestinal conditions, remaining viable at a high concentration (> 10⁷ CFU.g⁻¹). An important aspect is that probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium lactis) and soluble fiber (Nutriose®FB) do not affected the physicochemical parameters of the goudatype cheese. In conclusion, symbiotic gouda-type cheese obtained guarantees a beneficial effect to consumer, while keeps intrinsic physicochemical properties of the original cheese. © 2018, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. All rights reserved.
... NUTRIOSE® (NUTRIOSE® FB06, Roquette, France) is a non-viscous WD with a total fibre content of ~ 85% and a mono- and disaccharide content of ≤ 0.5% [27]. NUTRIOSE® has a structure of linear and branched glucosidic linkages that make it resistant to hydrolysis in the small intestine and consequently available for bacterial fermentation in the human large gut [28]. NUTRIOSE® induces a low glycaemic response and is well tolerated by the human digestive system, even at high doses [29,30]. ...
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Wheat dextrin soluble fibre may have metabolic and health benefits, potentially acting via mechanisms governed by the selective modulation of the human gut microbiota. Our aim was to examine the impact of wheat dextrin on the composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota. We used a validated in vitro three-stage continuous culture human colonic model (gut model) system comprised of vessels simulating anatomical regions of the human colon. To mimic human ingestion, 7 g of wheat dextrin (NUTRIOSE(®) FB06) was administered to three gut models, twice daily at 10.00 and 15.00, for a total of 18 days. Samples were collected and analysed for microbial composition and organic acid concentrations by 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridisation and gas chromatography approaches, respectively. Wheat dextrin mediated a significant increase in total bacteria in vessels simulating the transverse and distal colon, and a significant increase in key butyrate-producing bacteria Clostridium cluster XIVa and Roseburia genus in all vessels of the gut model. The production of principal short-chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate and butyrate, which have been purported to have protective, trophic and metabolic host benefits, were increased. Specifically, wheat dextrin fermentation had a significant butyrogenic effect in all vessels of the gut model and significantly increased production of acetate (vessels 2 and 3) and propionate (vessel 3), simulating the transverse and distal regions of the human colon, respectively. In conclusion, wheat dextrin NUTRIOSE(®) FB06 is selectively fermented in vitro by Clostridium cluster XIVa and Roseburia genus and beneficially alters the metabolic profile of the human gut microbiota.
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Reduced-fat products can help to fight obesity and its associated health risks. To develop appealing products, both product-specific fat replacers and suitable analytical methods for the characterization of fat-associated properties are important. The rheology, tribology, texture, and spreadability of a reduced-fat mayonnaise with different concentrations of corn dextrin were analyzed to determine properties such as flow behavior, viscosity, lubricity, firmness, and stickiness. Additionally, a sensory panel analyzed the samples for their mouthfeel (creaminess, firmness, and stickiness). Correlations between the results of the instrumental methods suggested that the analytical effort for the future development of appealing reduced-fat food products can be reduced. In addition, several correlations were identified between the instrumental and the sensory data. Results from tribological measurements correlated with the sensory attribute of stickiness, suggesting that tribometry can complement or constitute an alternative to complex and expensive human sensory tests. Additionally, the use of Stevens’ power law showed a high correlation between the Kokini oral shear stress and the sensory attribute of creaminess. The instrumental texture properties (firmness, stickiness) also correlated with the sensory sensation. The identified correlations obtained from comparing different methods may help to estimate the possible applications of new fat replacers and facilitate innovative product development.
Article
In-depth molecular structure and properties of cassava-derived resistant maltodextrins (RMDs) were determined. Cassava starch was dextrinized with 0.04% or 0.06% HCl at 120°C for 60–180 min to obtain resistant dextrins (RDs), which were further hydrolyzed by α-amylase to produce RMDs. Prolonging dextrinization duration decreased proportion of α-1,4 linkages and α-/β-reducing ends but increased fraction of indigestible α-/β-1,6, β-1,4, β-1,2 linkages, degree of branching (DB), degree of polymerization, relative molecular weight, and total dietary fiber (TDF) content of the RMDs. Moreover, RMDs had greater proportion of β-glycosidic linkages, α-/β-reducing end, DB, TDF, and low molecular weight dietary fiber (LMWDF) content than their RD counterparts. Potential prebiotic activity score was higher in RMDs with abundant LMWDF fraction but low DB. Slight difference in the glass transition temperature of maximally freeze-concentrated unfrozen phase (Tg’) and unfrozen water content was found among RMDs. However, RMDs had lower Tg’ than their RD counterparts.
Article
Pyrodextrins were prepared from acidified waxy and normal tapioca starches (pH∼3) at 3 temperatures (130, 150 and 170 °C) and 3 times (1, 2 and 4 h) to determine their in vitro digestibility and molecular structure. Pyrodextrin from waxy tapioca starch produced at 170 °C/4 h had 5% higher total indigestible carbohydrate than pyrodextrin from normal tapioca starch (45.2 % and 40.4 %, respectively) as determined by a modified AOAC Method 2011.25. The low-molecular weight indigestible carbohydrate content at this condition was also higher for waxy tapioca starch than normal tapioca starch (40.6 % and 34.9 %, respectively). Gel permeation chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to study changes in molecular structure and correlate with digestibility of the pyrodextrins. Molecular size distribution indicated that waxy tapioca starch underwent thermal modification more readily than normal tapioca starch. Non α-1,4/α-1,6 glucosidic linkages were increased in the pyrodextrins with increasing in indigestible carbohydrate content.
Article
Reduced-fat food products can help to prevent obesity and other diet-related diseases. However, the removal of fat often impairs the sensory and textural properties of foods, leading to low consumer acceptance. In this study, we tested various concentrations of fat replacers (inulin, corn dextrin, polydextrose, and microparticulated whey protein) combined with rennet casein to investigate their effects on the melting behavior, dynamic rheological properties, and hardness of reduced-fat processed cheese. We found that increasing concentrations of inulin and corn dextrin reduced the flowability of cheese in the melting test and can thus be used to inhibit flow during heating. Microparticulated whey protein did not affect flowability but caused an increase in the storage and loss moduli as well as the temperature at gel-sol transition. A similar effect was also shown for rennet casein, whereas inulin and polydextrose had little or no effect on these rheological parameters. Corn dextrin had no effect on the storage and loss moduli, but affected the gel-sol transition temperature. No changes in hardness were detected for any concentration of the fat replacers, but increasing the rennet casein content also increased the hardness of the samples, regardless of the fat replacer used. Our results indicate the different concentrations and combinations of fat replacers and rennet casein that can be included in reduced-fat processed cheese to develop products with specific rheological properties, thus meeting future demand for reduced-fat products with attractive sensory attributes.
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Glycosidic linkage structure, physical-chemical properties and in vitro digestibility of pyrodextrins prepared using different reaction conditions were characterized. Intensification of reaction condition promoted starch hydrolysis and transglucosidation until the solubility of pyrodextrin reached 100%. New branch points were formed including α-1,2, β-1,2, β-1,4 and α-1,6 linkages. Majority of the branch points was α-1,6 and β-1,6 linkages which in together accounted for more than 70% of the total branches. The degree of branching increased at intensified reaction conditions and plateaued at approximately 24%. Exhaustively hydrolyzing pyrodextrin by α-amylase and amyloglucosidase significantly decreased the degree of α-1,4 but not α-1,6 linkages. The retained α-1,4 and α-1,6 linkages were probably protected from enzyme hydrolysis by the non-starch linkages due to steric hindrance. The resistant starch content was positively correlated with the degree of branching of pyrodextrin. The decreased in vitro digestibility of pyrodextrin was attributed to the formation of new glycosidic linkages.
Article
Physical, chemical and thermal properties, as well as molecular structure of cassava-based resistant dextrins prepared under different dextrinization conditions (0.04-0.10% HCl, 100-120ºC, 60-180 min) were determined. Increasing acid concentration, temperature and heating time resulted in the products with darker color, higher solubility, reducing sugar content, total dietary fiber and proportion of high molecular weight fiber fraction. An endothermic peak at 45-70C, having enthalpy of 1.66-2.14 J/g, was found from the samples processed under mild conditions (0.04-0.08% HCl, 100C, 60 min). However, harsher dextrinization conditions eliminated this endotherm. Dextrinization led to 1000-fold decrease in weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of the products, comparing to the native starch. Stronger processing conditions yielded the resistant dextrins with slightly higher Mw but composing of shorter branched chains. During dextrinization, hydrolysis was a predominant step, while transglucosidation and repolymerization played key roles in modifying molecular structure and properties, especially dietary fiber content, of resistant dextrins. Keywords: Resistant dextrin, Pyrodextrin; Manihot esculenta; Dextrinization; Properties; Dietary fiber; Molecular structure Free access to this article before August 06, 2019 can be achieved through the link below: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1ZEuq16Ds1htk6
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Pyrodextrins were prepared by heating waxy maize starch at 170 °C and pH 3.0 for 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. Structural changes of pyrodextrins were determined by gel permeation chromatography and ¹H NMR. Gelatinization and retrogradation of pyrodextrins were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The water solubility of pyrodextrins increased from 48.9 to 99.4% as heating time increased from 0.5 to 4 h. The molecular size, melting enthalpy of pyrodextrin, and the degree of retrogradation decreased as pyrodextrin solubility increased. The level of 1,6-anhydro-β-d-glucopyranose increased from 2.6 to 4.0% as the heating time increased from 0.5 to 4 h. The degree of branching (DB) of pyrodextrins was increased from 8.8 to 14.4%, and the average chain length (CL) reduced from 7.2 to 4.6. The increased level of new bonds and DB combined with reduced CL during the dextrinization explained the reduced extent of retrogradation of the pyrodextrin.
Article
Glycosidic linkages in a pyrodextrin were identified by NMR spectroscopy for the first time. Pyrodextrin was prepared by slurring waxy maize starch at pH 3, filtering and drying at 40 °C to 10-15% moisture content, then heating at 170 °C for 4 h. 1H and 13C NMR resonances of the pyrodextrin were assigned with the assistance of 2D techniques including COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, and HMBC, all measured on a 500 MHz instrument. During dextrinization, native waxy maize starch was hydrolyzed and extensively branched with new glycosidic linkages. The resulting pyrodextrin became 100% soluble in water and produced lower viscosity solutions at 30% solids. There were only 1.2% reducing ends (α-form) detected in the pyrodextrin, but 1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranosyl units accounted for 5.2% of repeating units and they were thought to be at the potential reducing end. New glycosyl linkages including α-1,6, β-1,6, α-1,2, and β-1,2 were identified. The total non-α-1,4 linkages in the pyrodextrin were about 17.8% compared to 5.8% in a maltodextrin prepared by α-amylase digestion. Transglycosidation and depolymerization occurred during dextrinization, and the resulting pyrodextrin was highly branched.
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The prebiotic potential of NUTRIOSE®--a sugar-free, digestion-resistant dextrin--was evaluated in two randomized, placebo-controlled trials that included 48 and 40 healthy volunteers, respectively. In study 1, the effect on colonic bacteria of NUTRIOSE® 10, 15 or 20 g/day administered for 14 days was examined; in study 2, gut microbial changes in response to NUTRIOSE® 8 g/day for 14 days were monitored using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. NUTRIOSE® increased proliferation of Bacteroides and inhibited Clostridum perfringens in both studies, increased β-glucosidase activity (at 10 and 15 g/day) and decreased colonic pH (at 20 g/day). The increase in short-chain fatty acid production with NUTRIOSE® consumption was not statistically significant. There were no indications of gastrointestinal intolerance at any dose. According to commonly accepted definitions, NUTRIOSE® is a prebiotic soluble fibre that provides a beneficial effect on colonic ecology while preserving digestive comfort.
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The objective of this research was to measure in vitro hydrolytic digestion characteristics, glycemic and insulinemic responses, and true metabolizable energy (TME(n)) content of select soluble fiber dextrins (SFDs) and pullulans. The SFDs were derived either from tapioca starch or from corn starch. The pullulans were of low, intermediate, and high molecular weight. Soluble fiber dextrins varied in digestibility, with all substrates resulting in low to intermediate in vitro monosaccharide digestion. Pullulans were nearly completely hydrolyzed after simulated hydrolytic digestion. The glycemic response with dogs varied widely among SFDs, with all but one SFD substrate having lower glycemic response than maltodextrin (Malt). The pullulans all resulted in low glycemic values. Lower relative insulinemic responses (RIR) compared to the Malt control were noted for all SFDs and pullulans. True metabolizable energy (TME(n)) values for SFDs obtained using roosters were lower than for Malt, with tapioca-based SFDs having numerically higher values than corn-based SFDs. Pullulans resulted in higher TME(n) values than did SFDs. Soluble fiber dextrins and pullulans may be suitable candidates for reduced calorie and glycemic foodstuffs.
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Nine healthy volunteers were studied before, during, and after ingesting a fermented dairy product containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and mesophilic cultures (Streptococcus lactis and S cremoris) for 3 wk. Hydrogen and methane productions and fecal beta-galactosidase and beta-glucosidase activities were measured as indicators of fermentation capacity of the colonic flora. Fecal concentrations of nitroreductase, azoreductase, and beta-glucuronidase, which may be implicated in colonic carcinogenesis, were also assessed. Hydrogen and methane productions, fecal beta-galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and azoreductase activities did not change over three 3-wk periods whereas fecal beta-glucosidase activity increased (42 +/- 6, 91 +/- 12, and 40 +/- 6 IU/g N, P less than 0.01) and nitroreductase decreased (0.87 +/- 0.13, 0.54 +/- 0.11, and 0.57 +/- 0.08 IU/g N, P less than 0.05).
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The metabolizable energy content of low-digestible carbohydrates does not correspond with their true energy value. The aim of the present study was to determine the tolerance and effects of two polyols on digestion and energy expenditure in healthy men, as well as their digestible, metabolizable and net energy values. Nine healthy men were fed for 32 d periods a maintenance diet supplemented either with dextrose, Lycasin HBC (Roquette Frères, Lestrem, France), or the hydrogenated polysaccharide fraction of Lycasin HBC, at a level of 100 g DM/d in six equal doses per d according to a 3 x 3 Latin square design with three repetitions. After a 20 d progressive adaptation period, food intake was determined for 12d using the duplicate meal method and faeces and urine were collected for 10 d for further analyses. Subjects spent 36 h in one of two open-circuit whole-body calorimeters with measurements during the last 24h. Ingestion of the polyols did not cause severe digestive disorders, except excessive gas emission, and flatulence and gurgling in some subjects. The polyols induced significant increases in wet (+45 and +66% respectively, P<0.01) and dry (+53 and +75 % respectively, P<0.002) stool weight, resulting in a 2% decrease in dietary energy digestibility (P<0.001). They resulted also in significant increases in sleeping (+4.1%, P<0.03) and daily energy expenditure (+2.7 and +2.9% respectively, P<0.02) compared with dextrose ingestion. The apparent energy digestibility of the two polyols was 0.82 and 0.79 respectively, their metabolizable energy value averaged 14.1 kJ/g DM, and their net energy value averaged 10.8 kJ/g DM, that is, 35 % less than those of sucrose and starch.
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To determine the tolerance of increasing dosages of an incompletely hydrolysed and/or incompletely absorbed food dextrin coming from wheat starch, NUTRIOSE FB, at daily levels of 10 and 15 g up to 60 and 80 g, respectively. A randomized, double-blind, multiple dose, placebo-controlled, combined crossover and parallel trial. The metabolic ward of TNO Nutrition and Food Research. A total of 20 healthy men (age 31.7 +/- 9.1 y; BMI 24.5 +/- 2.9 kg/m2). One group of 10 subjects consumed on top of their diet 10, 30 and 60 g of NUTRIOSE FB or maltodextrin (placebo) daily. The other group of 10 subjects consumed 15, 45 and 80 g daily. Each dose was consumed for 7 days. Compared with placebo, flatulence occurred more frequently over the last 6 days on 30, 60 or 80 g/day of NUTRIOSE FB (P < 0.05). During the last 24 h, that is, days 6-7, of 60 and 80 g/day of NUTRIOSE FB, the frequency of flatulence was even higher (P < 0.05). During the last 24 h on a daily dose of 60 g NUTRIOSE FB, the frequency of defecation decreased (P < 0.05). Bloating occurred more often during the last 24 h on 80 g/day of NUTRIOSE FB (P < 0.05). None of the doses of NUTRIOSE FB resulted in diarrhoea. Compared to baseline levels, breath H2 excretion, which was only measured after a week with 10 and 15 g of NUTRIOSE FB daily, increased (P < 0.05). However, no difference in area under the curve was found. NUTRIOSE FB is a fermentable carbohydrate and is well tolerated up to a dose of 45 g daily. Higher daily dosages (60 and 80 g) may result in flatulence, but does not result in diarrhoea. TNO Nutrition and Food Research was assigned by Roquette Frères to perform the study.
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It is well documented that fermentation of carbohydrates that escape digestion exert several effects supposed to be beneficial for (colonic) health, including an increase in stool volume, a shorter intestinal transit time, production of short chain fatty acids and a decrease of colonic pH (Kritchevsky 1988). NUTRIOSE FB is a dextrin that is not completely hydrolysed and absorbed in the small intestine, due to many alpha-1.6 linkages and the presence of non-digestible glucoside linkages (e. g. alpha-1.2 and alpha-1.3). To be beneficial for 'colonic' health effective NUTRIOSE FB must reach the cecum in some form. To estimate how much non digested NUTRIOSE FB is fermented and to determine the fibre-like effect of the wheat dextrin NUTRIOSE((R))FB by analysing enzymatic activity in faeces. In a randomized, double-blind,multiple dose, placebo-controlled, combined cross-over and parallel trial, 20 healthy men (age 31.7 +/- 9.1 yrs; BMI 24.5 +/- 2.9 kg.m(-2) received different treatments. One group of ten subjects consumed on top of their diet 10, 30 and 60 g daily of NUTRIOSE FB or maltodextrin (placebo). The other group of 10 subjects consumed 15, 45 and 80 g daily. Each dose was consumed for 7 days. On the last two days of each of the 7-day period, faeces were collected in which the enzymatic activity and NUTRIOSE FB residue were analysed. As expected, the faecal residue of NUTRIOSE FB non-linearly increased with the dose of NUTRIOSE FB to approximately 13% of 80 g/d. Compared with the placebo, 30, 45, 60 and 80 g/d of NUTRIOSE FB increased the concentration of alpha-glucosidase significantly. All daily doses of NUTRIOSE FB (10 g/d to 80 g/d) led to significant changes in concentration of beta-glucosidase. The small amount of the residue of NUTRIOSE FB in the faeces suggests that approximately 87% or more of NUTRIOSE FB is digested or fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermentation of NUTRIOSE FB led to an increased faecal concentration of alpha- and beta-glucosidase.
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The present review considers the background to terminology that relates foods, glycaemia and health, including 'available carbohydrate', 'glycaemic index' (GI), 'glycaemic glucose equivalent', 'glycaemic response index' and 'net carbohydrate', and concludes that central to each of these terms is 'glycaemic load' (GL). GL represents the acute increase in exposure of tissue to glucose determined by foods; it is expressed in ingested glucose equivalents (per 100 g fresh weight or per serving), and is regarded as independent of the state of glucose metabolism from normal to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ad libitum studies in overweight or obese adults and children show that low-GL diets are associated with marked weight benefits, loss of adiposity and reduced food intake. Weight benefits appear on low-glycaemic v. high-glycaemic available carbohydrates, unavailable v. available carbohydrates and protein v. available carbohydrate. Energy intake immediately after lowering of meal GL via carbohydrate exchanges is apparent only after a threshold cumulative intake of >2000 MJ. Various epidemiological and interventional studies are discussed. A relationship between GL and the development of T2DM and CHD is evident. Studies that at first seem conflicting are actually consistent when data are overlaid, such that diets with a GL of >120 glucose equivalents/d would appear to be inadvisable. Whereas certain studies might place GI as being slightly stronger than GL in relation to T2DM risk, this situation appears to be associated with observations in a lower range of GL or when the range of GI is too narrow for accuracy; nevertheless, authors emphasise the importance of GL. Among the studies reviewed, GL offers a better or stronger explanation than GI in various observations including body weight, T2DM in nurses, CHD, plasma triacylglycerols, HDL-cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and protein glycation. Where information is available, the associations between risk factors and GL are either similar or stronger in the overweight or obese, as judged by BMI, and apply to both body weight and blood risk factors. The implications tend to favour a long-term benefit of reducing GL, for which further study is necessary to eliminate any possibility of publication bias and to establish results in clinical trials with overweight and obese patients.
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To determine the gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance of NUTRIOSE FB in men. A randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel, double-blind study. The metabolic ward of TNO Quality of Life.Subjects:Forty-eight subjects started the study: 16 men participated in one of the three treatments. Subjects consumed either 22.5 g of pure maltodextrin (Glucidex 6), or 30 or 45 g of the dextrin NUTRIOSE FB daily for 4-5 weeks. Forty-three subjects completed the study (age: 34.7 +/- 8.2 years; BMI 24.9 +/- 3.3 kg m2). Tolerance of NUTRIOSE FB was examined with a GI complaints questionnaire; effectiveness on colonic flora was examined by faecal analysis; fermentation by breath hydrogen excretion measurement. Furthermore, the effect on body weight (BW), energy intake and blood parameters were examined in the study.Results:Both doses of NUTRIOSE FB were very well tolerated and GI complaints hardly differed from the placebo treatment. No diarrhoea was reported due to NUTRIOSE FB supplementation. In the course of the study, some habituation and adaptation of GI symptoms were found. Fermentation and faecal characteristics (pH and enzyme activity) were significantly positively affected with NUTRIOSE FB treatment. Body weight in both NUTRIOSE FB groups remained stable over time, although the placebo-treated group showed a small increase in BW (Deltaday35-1 0.8 +/- 1.0 kg) (P = 0.07). However, total food intake and macronutrient composition of the diet remained the same throughout the study. No significant differences were found between the three treatment groups in hunger and satiety scores and food preferences. Long-term supplementation of 30 or 45 g of the dextrin NUTRIOSE FB per day was well tolerated, and may act as a pre-biotic supplement. TNO Quality of Life was assigned by Roquette Frères to perform the study.
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The worldwide obesity epidemic is stimulating efforts to identify host and environmental factors that affect energy balance. Comparisons of the distal gut microbiota of genetically obese mice and their lean littermates, as well as those of obese and lean human volunteers have revealed that obesity is associated with changes in the relative abundance of the two dominant bacterial divisions, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes. Here we demonstrate through metagenomic and biochemical analyses that these changes affect the metabolic potential of the mouse gut microbiota. Our results indicate that the obese microbiome has an increased capacity to harvest energy from the diet. Furthermore, this trait is transmissible: colonization of germ-free mice with an 'obese microbiota' results in a significantly greater increase in total body fat than colonization with a 'lean microbiota'. These results identify the gut microbiota as an additional contributing factor to the pathophysiology of obesity.
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Two groups of beneficial bacteria are dominant in the human gut, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes. Here we show that the relative proportion of Bacteroidetes is decreased in obese people by comparison with lean people, and that this proportion increases with weight loss on two types of low-calorie diet. Our findings indicate that obesity has a microbial component, which might have potential therapeutic implications.
Article
A method was developed for determination of total dietary fiber (TDF) in foods containing resistant maltodextrin (RMD) which includes nondigestible carbohydrates that are not fully recovered as dietary fiber by conventional TDF methods such as AOAC 985.29 or 991.43. Because the average molecular weight (MW) of RMD is 2000 daltons, lower MW soluble dietary fiber components do not precipitate in 78% ethanol; therefore, RMD is not completely quantitated as dietary fiber by current AOAC methods. The accuracy and precision of the method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Ten laboratories participated and assayed 12 test portions (6 blind duplicates) containing RMD. The 6 test pairs ranged from 1.5 to 100% RMD. The method consisted of the following steps: (1) The insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and high MW soluble dietary fiber (HMWSDF) were determined by AOAC 985.29. (2) Ion exchange resins were used to remove salts and proteins contained in the AOAC 985.29 filtrates (including ethanol and acetone). (3) The amount of low MWRMD (LMWRMD) in the filtrates were determined by liquid chromatography. (4) The TDF was calculated by summation of the IDF, HMWSDF, and LMWRMD fractions having nondigestible carbohydrates with a degree of polymerization of 3 and higher. Repeatability standard deviations (RSDr) were 1.33–7.46%, calculated by including outliers, and 1.33–6.10%, calculated by not including outliers. Reproducibility standard deviations (RSDR) were 2.48–9.39%, calculated by including outliers, and 1.79–9.39%, calculated by not including outliers. This method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.
Chapter
A variety of environmental and physiological conditions are known to influence microbial composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microflora. Among the recognized factors within the bowel lumen are 1. Diet, substrata, and nutrient availability 2. Redox potential 3. Gas composition 4. Acidity or pH 5. Osmotic and ionic effects 6. Surface tension and liquid flow 7. Endogenous and exogenous substances that may inhibit bacterial growth (bile salts, volatile and nonvolatile fatty acids, bacteriocides, intestinal antibodies, and drugs) 8. Bacterial interactions and competition 9. Intestinal motility Individual microbial species vary in their sensitivity to changes in these parameters. The composition of the flora itself can affect many of these factors. Fiber has the potential to influence most of the factors listed above. This complex interactive system is only now being explored, and only partial data are available in humans.
Chapter
The decline in plant fiber consumption by humans over tens of thousands of years is shown in Figure 1.1.1. According to Kliks, the author of this figure, over the past 20,000 years the human diet has changed from one based on a coarse, plant-based regimen of greens, seeds, stalks, roots, flowers, pollen, and small amounts of animal products to a more limited, often monotypic diet in which the plant foods are primarily a few cereal grains, tubers, and legumes. Even though the study of specimens of coprolite from lower Pleistocene humans has proved difficult, this coprolite has been extremely valuable in the study of human diets of civilization dating back about 10,000 years. These specimens of coprolite showed a high consumption of fibrous plant food. In more recent history, the concept that coarse foods of plant origin help to combat constipation goes back to Hippocrates in the 4th century.
Chapter
As explained in other parts of this Handbook, dietary fiber is a complex mixture of polysaccharides with many different functions and activities as it passes through the gastrointestinal tract. Many of these functions and activities depend on its physical chemistry.
Article
1.1. A procedure is described for assay of disaccharidase activities in extracts of intestinal mucosa, using a Tris-glucose oxidase reagent for assay of the glucose liberated from the substrate. The incubation conditions are discussed.2.2. A unit for disaccharidase activity is defined that is in accord with recommendations made by the Joint Sub-Commission on Clinical Enzyme Units of the International Unions of Biochemistry and of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
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Corn starch has been dextrinized at a bath temperature of 125°–213°C. In certain cases, the moisture content of the starch was reduced to 2% before it was subjected to dextrinization. Under the various conditions of dextrinization, the changes that take place in the properties of starch such as solubility, reducing power, alkali lability, intrinsic viscosity and β-amylolysis have been recorded. These results show that at lower temperatures of 125° and 150°C hardly any reaction is perceptible, the dextrinization reaction taking place at 200°C or thereabouts. Decreasing the moisture content of starch increases the rate of dextrinization reaction. Various theories of pyrodextrinization of starch are discussed.
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The EU Nutrition Labelling DirectiveNational VariationsCarbohydrates, Polyols and Dietary FibreThe 1994 Attempt to come to a DefinitionCaloric ValueOfficial Methods Nutrient Content Claims on FibreThe FutureReferences
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Two experimental methods for use in kinetic studies on a compartment model for intestinal metabolism and absorption were evaluated. The in vitro cannulated everted intestinal sac and the in vivo intestinal loop with complete mesenteric venous collection were compared in the same region of rabbit intestine. These experimental methods were used to study the effects of metabolism, tissue accumulation, and blood flow on the transport of sali-cylamide across the basal barrier and provide experimental evidence to support the cell compartment model. At lower initial mucosal concentration (10−3M), over 60% of the drug appearing in mesenteric blood is conjugated with glucuronic acid. At higher initial mucosal fluid concentrations, glucuronide conjugation appears to be capacity limited and the disappearance from the lumen-curve shows a distinct distributive phase characteristic of a cell compartment model. The rate of transport of free drug across the basal barrier is blood flow rate-limited while the transport of glucuronide is essentially independent of blood flow. Appearance of free salicyl-amide into mesenteric blood, in vivo, shows a lag time of 4 min. compared to a lag time of about 10 min. for the appearance of free drug into serosal fluid in vitro. The steady state rate of appearance of free drug into the plasma (in vivo) is five to ten times greater than the rate of appearance of free drug into the serosal fluid (in vitro) at similar mucosal concentrations. The in vivo intestinal loop with complete venous collection was found to have many advantages in studying physiological factors of intestinal drug absorption.
Article
Dietary carbohydrates, which are absorbed as hexose, (glucose, fructose) have a caloric value of 3.9 kcal/g (16.3 kJ/g), and their cellular metabolism produces approximately 38 mol ATP/mol. However, chicory inulin and oligofructose resist digestion and they are not absorbed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. After oral ingestion, they reach the colon intact where they become hydrolyzed and extensively fermented by saccharolytic bacteria, which produce short-chain carboxylic and lactic acids as electron sinks. Depending on both the degree of their colonic fermentation and the assumptions of the model used, the caloric value of such nondigested but fermented carbohydrates varies between 0 and 2.5 kcal/g. Through the catabolism of the absorbed short-chain carboxylic and lactic acids, they may produce up to 17 mol ATP/mol of fermented sugar moiety. Because the daily intake of these dietary carbohydrates is likely to remain relatively small (<10% and probably often not >5% of total daily calorie intake), it is of low relevance nutritionally to give them a precise caloric value. On the basis of biochemical balance charts for carbon atoms, metabolic pathways and energy yields to the host, the caloric value of a fructosyl residue in chicory inulin and oligofructose has been calculated to be approximately 25-35% that of a fully digested and absorbed fructose molecule. For the purpose of food labeling, it is recommended that chicory inulin and oligofructose, like all the other carbohydrates that are more or less completely fermented in the human colon, should be given a caloric value of 1.5 kcal/g (6.3 kJ/g).
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Dietary carbohydrates range in molecular size from simple sugars to complex polymers with a degree of polymerization (DP) of up to 100,000 or more. Oligosaccharides are generally defined as carbohydrates from 2 to 20 monomeric units long. Oligosaccharides have been dietary staples since antiquity but have received much less attention than other carbohydrates such as simple sugars or dietary fiber. Recently, interest in oligosaccharides has increased not only because of properties that include sweetening ability and fat replacement, but also because of resistance to digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and fermentation in the large bowel. Thus, some oligosaccharides have functional effects similar to soluble dietary fiber such as enhancement of a healthy gastrointestinal tract, improvement of glucose control, and modulation of the metabolism of triglycerides. These oligosaccharides are the nondigestible oligosaccharides. These compounds are easily incorporated into processed foods and hold much promise as functional ingredients in nutraceutical products.
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Low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) are incompletely or not absorbed in the small bowel and fermented in the colon. They are usually well tolerated but may also have some dose-related undesirable effects due to their natural osmotic potential and/or excessive fermentation: borborygmi, excessive flatus, bloating, abdominal cramps and eventually diarrhoea. There is an important intersubject variability in the tolerance to LDCs because of differences in absorption capacity, motility pattern, colonic response and intestinal sensitivity. There is also a great intrasubject variability, depending on the type of LDC, dosage and type of consumption. Absorption of LDC in the small intestine can be assessed using hydrogen breath test or intubation techniques or analysis of ileostomy effluents. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are required to assess the subjective symptoms of intolerance, and the experimental conditions may influence the results.
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Starch-modifying processes, such as pyrodextrinization, are potential ways to alter the nutritional features of this polysaccharide. A widely used method for pyrodextrinizing maize starch was also applied to lentil, sorghum, cocoyam, sagu, and cassava starches, and the in vitro digestibility of the products was evaluated. Pyrodextrins were produced by heating starch at 140 degrees C for 3 h, with catalytic amounts of HCl. The enzymatically available starch content of all preparations decreased by 55-65% after modification. Thus, pyrodextrinization seems to be an effective way to produce indigestible glucans from different starches. Pyrodextrins obtained were complex mixtures of starch derivatives with a wide range of molecular weight as estimated by gel filtration chromatography. Both their molecular weight profiles and contents of indigestible fractions varied with starch source. Experiments with lentil and cassava starches showed that changing dextrinization conditions also affects the susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of the product.
Article
Long-term consumption of imbalanced diets, poor in dietary fibres, resulted in the prevalence of several nutritional pathologies. However, low digestible carbohydrates (LDC) have many beneficial effects, especially on energy intake, digestive physiology, and mineral absorption. To determine the digestive effects of a LDC, called NUTRIOSE FB, its metabolisable energy (ME) value, and its effects on mineral absorption in humans. Ten healthy young men were fed for 31 d periods a maintenance diet supplemented with either dextrose or the LDC at a level of 100 g DM/d, in six equal doses per d according to a cross-over design. After a 20 d adaptation period, food intake was determined for 11 days using the duplicate meal method, and faeces and urine were collected for 10 d for further analyses. Ingestion of the LDC did not cause severe digestive disorders, except excessive gas emission, and flatulence and slight abdominal pain in some subjects for intakes above 50 g DM/d. Wet and dry stool outputs increased by 45 and 70%, respectively (P<0.02). In vitro enzymatic digestibility of the LDC was 15 (SD 1.5) %, and 9.2 (SD 8.3) % of the LDC was excreted in faeces (P<0.001). The ME value of the LDC was 14.1 (SD 2.3) kJ/g DM, that is 14 % less than the tabulated values of sucrose and starch. Its net energy value (NEV), estimated using three prediction equations, was 8.7, 8.9, and 11.4 kJ/g DM. Ingestion of the LDC significantly increased the relative apparent absorption of Mg, and Mg retention by 67% and 31 mg/d, respectively, tended to increase Ca apparent absorption (P=0.110) and Ca retention (P=0.059), but did not significantly alter Zn parameters. NUTRIOSE FB can be used as a "bulking" agent, and substituted up to 50 g/d for usual maltodextrins without causing digestive disorders in healthy subjects. It would reduce intestinal transit disorders and energy intake, and improve magnesium and calcium absorption and retention.
Article
Inulin is a generic term to cover all beta(2-->1) linear fructans. Chicory inulin is a linear beta(2-->1) fructan (degree of polymerisation (DP) 2 to 60; DPav=12), its partial enzymatic hydrolysis product is oligofructose (DP 2 to 8; DPav=4), and by applying specific separation technologies a long-chain inulin known as inulin HP (DP 10 to 60; DPav=25) can be produced. Finally, a specific product known as oligofructose-enriched inulin is obtained by combining chicory long-chain inulin and oligofructose. Because of the beta-configuration of the anomeric C2 in their fructose monomers, inulin-type fructans resist hydrolysis by intestinal digestive enzymes, they classify as 'non-digestible' carbohydrates, and they are dietary fibres. By increasing faecal biomass and water content of the stools, they improve bowel habits, but they have characteristic features different from other fibres. They affect gastrointestinal functions not because of their physico-chemical properties but rather because of their biochemical and physiological attributes. In the colon, they are rapidly fermented to produce SCFA that are good candidates to explain some of the systemic effects of inulin-type fructans. Fermentation of inulin-type fructans in the large bowel is a selective process; bifidobacteria (and possibly a few other genera) are preferentially stimulated to grow, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora by increasing the number of potentially health-promoting bacteria and reducing the number of potentially harmful species. Both oligofructose and inulin are prebiotic. They also induce changes in colonic epithelium stimulating proliferation in the crypts, increasing the concentration of polyamines, changing the profile of mucins, and modulating endocrine as well as immune functions. From a nutrition labelling perspective, inulin-type fructans are not only prebiotic dietary fibres; they are also low-calorie carbohydrates [6.3 kJ/g (1.5 kcal/g)]. Supported by the results of a large number of animal studies and human nutrition intervention trials, the claim 'inulin-type fructans enhance calcium and magnesium absorption' is scientifically substantiated, but different inulin-type fructans have probably a different efficacy (in terms of effective daily dose), the most active product being the oligofructose-enriched inulin. A series of animal studies demonstrate that inulin-type fructans affect the metabolism of lipids primarily by decreasing triglyceridaemia because of a reduction in the number of plasma VLDL particles. The human data largely confirm the animal experiments. They demonstrate mainly a reduction in triglyceridaemia and only a relatively slight decrease in cholesterolaemia mostly in (slightly) hypertriglyceridaemic conditions. Inulin appears thus eligible for an enhanced function claim related to normalization of blood triacylglycerols. A large number of animal data convincingly show that inulin-type fructans reduce the risk of colon carcinogenesis and nutrition intervention trials are now performed to test that hypothesis in human subjects known to be at risk for polyps and cancer development in the large bowel.
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Starch is one of the most important but flexible food ingredients possessing value added attributes for innumerable industrial applications. Its various chemically modified derivatives offer a great scope of high technological value in both food and non-food industries. Modified starches are designed to overcome one or more of the shortcomings, such as loss of viscosity and thickening power upon cooking and storage, particularly at low pH, retrogradation characteristics, syneresis, etc., of native starches. Oxidation, esterification, hydroxyalkylation, dextrinization, and cross-linking are some of the modifications commonly employed to prepare starch derivatives. In a way, starch modification provides desirable functional attributes as well as offering economic alternative to other hydrocolloid ingredients, such as gums and mucilages, which are unreliable in quality and availability. Resistant starch, a highly retrograded starch fractionformed upon food processing, is another useful starch derivative. It exhibits the beneficial physiological effects of therapeutic and nutritional values akin to dietary fiber. There awaits considerable opportunity for future developments, especially for tailor-made starch derivatives with multiple modifications and with the desired functional and nutritional properties, although the problem of obtaining legislative approval for the use of novel starch derivatives in processed food formulations is still under debate. Nevertheless, it can be predicted that new ventures in starch modifications and their diverse applications will continue to be of great interest in applied research.
Development and validation of a dynamic model of the gastrointestinal tract
  • M Minekus