Effect of Prehospital Induction of Mild Hypothermia on Survival and Neurological Status Among Adults With Cardiac Arrest A Randomized Clinical Trial

ArticleinJAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 311(1) · November 2013with55 Reads
DOI: 10.1001/jama.2013.282173 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
IMPORTANCE Hospital cooling improves outcome after cardiac arrest, but prehospital cooling immediately after return of spontaneous circulation may result in better outcomes. OBJECTIVE To determine whether prehospital cooling improves outcomes after resuscitation from cardiac arrest in patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF) and without VF. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial that assigned adults with prehospital cardiac arrest to standard care with or without prehospital cooling, accomplished by infusing up to 2 L of 4°C normal saline as soon as possible following return of spontaneous circulation. Adults in King County, Washington, with prehospital cardiac arrest and resuscitated by paramedics were eligible and 1359 patients (583 with VF and 776 without VF) were randomized between December 15, 2007, and December 7, 2012. Patient follow-up was completed by May 1, 2013. Nearly all of the patients resuscitated from VF and admitted to the hospital received hospital cooling regardless of their randomization. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcomes were survival to hospital discharge and neurological status at discharge. RESULTS The intervention decreased mean core temperature by 1.20°C (95% CI, -1.33°C to -1.07°C) in patients with VF and by 1.30°C (95% CI, -1.40°C to -1.20°C) in patients without VF by hospital arrival and reduced the time to achieve a temperature of less than 34°C by about 1 hour compared with the control group. However, survival to hospital discharge was similar among the intervention and control groups among patients with VF (62.7% [95% CI, 57.0%-68.0%] vs 64.3% [95% CI, 58.6%-69.5%], respectively; P = .69) and among patients without VF (19.2% [95% CI, 15.6%-23.4%] vs 16.3% [95% CI, 12.9%-20.4%], respectively; P = .30). The intervention was also not associated with improved neurological status of full recovery or mild impairment at discharge for either patients with VF (57.5% [95% CI, 51.8%-63.1%] of cases had full recovery or mild impairment vs 61.9% [95% CI, 56.2%-67.2%] of controls; P = .69) or those without VF (14.4% [95% CI, 11.3%-18.2%] of cases vs 13.4% [95% CI,10.4%-17.2%] of controls; P = .30). Overall, the intervention group experienced rearrest in the field more than the control group (26% [95% CI, 22%-29%] vs 21% [95% CI, 18%-24%], respectively; P = .008), as well as increased diuretic use and pulmonary edema on first chest x-ray, which resolved within 24 hours after admission. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE Although use of prehospital cooling reduced core temperature by hospital arrival and reduced the time to reach a temperature of 34°C, it did not improve survival or neurological status among patients resuscitated from prehospital VF or those without VF. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00391469.
    • "A recent study [11] showed that PCAS patients with a resuscitation interval of <30 min may be candidates for TH using a target temperature of <34 °C. Regardless of the target temperature , temperature control remains a key aspect in the management of post-cardiac arrest patients [12]. If a temperature of 36 °C is selected, shivering is likely to be more pronounced because the patients' thermoregulatory defenses, which are partly suppressed at 32–33 °C, will be much more active at 36 °C [13]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the complicated pathophysiology of the condition. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring is an essential tool for detecting nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the intensive care unit (ICU). Neurocritical care, including advanced hemodynamic monitoring, is a fundamental approach for delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We must be mindful of the high percentage of ICU patients who may develop sepsis-associated brain dysfunction.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016
    • "It seems to be ideal to start both TH and CAG in patients with OHCA immediately after arrival. However, there are doctors who concerned that there is an increase in pulmonary edema with the use of low-temperature infusion [7]. It is difficult for such doctors to start both TH and CAG at the same time. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many emergency physicians struggle with the clinical question of whether to perform therapeutic hypothermia (TH) or coronary angiography (CAG) first after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We analyzed the results of the SOS-KANTO 2012 study, which is a prospective, multicenter (67 emergency hospitals), observational study about OHCA conducted between January 2012 and March 2013 (n = 16,452). We compared two groups: the group in which TH was first performed (TH group), and the group in which CAG was performed first (CAG group) within 24 h after arrival. Two hundred and twenty-one patients were treated TH and CAG (TH group, 76 patients; CAG group, 145 patients). In addition, we selected patients who underwent coronary treatment. 164 patients underwent coronary treatment after CAG (TH group, 52 patients; CAG group, 112 patients). In patients in whom TH and CAG and coronary artery treatment were done, 42 patients (55.3 %) in the TH group and 86 patients (59.3 %) in the CAG group survived at 90 days. The cerebral performance category (CPC) 1 and 2 were 26.3 % (20 patients) in TH group, and 31.0 % (45 patients) in CAG group. In patients in whom TH and CAG with coronary artery treatment were performed, 29 patients (55.8 %) in the TH group and 64 patients (57.1 %) in the CAG group survived at 90 days. The rates of CPC 1 and 2 were 26.9 % (14 patients) in TH group, and 23.2 % (26 patients) in CAG group. There was no significant difference in 90-day survival between the two groups although it tended to be better in the CAG group than in the TH group. Whether TH or CAG was performed first did not affect the 90-day survival and 30-day neurological situation among patients with ROSC after OHCA.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016
    • "Nielsen et al. [6] showed no benefit of TTM at 33 °C over TTM at 36 °C in the treatment of comatose survivors after cardiac arrest. More recently, Kim et al. reported no benefit of pre-hospital induction of TTM with cold fluids but significantly more serious adverse events in the group receiving cold fluids [9]. Second questionnaire [see online questionnaire, Additional file 2] regarding changes in clinical practices – specifically concerning TTM and PCI -during the last two years was sent to same respondents in October 2014 and a reminder one week later. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Aim of this study was to compare post resuscitation care of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in Nordic (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden) intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to Nordic ICUs in 2012 and was complemented by an additional one in 2014. Results: The first questionnaire was sent to 188 and the second one to 184 ICUs. Response rates were 51 % and 46 %. In 2012, 37 % of the ICUs treated all patients resuscitated from OHCA with targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33 °C. All OHCA patients admitted to the ICU were treated with TTM at 33 °C more often in Norway (69 %) compared to Finland (20 %) and Sweden (25 %), p 0.02 and 0.014. In 2014, 63 % of the ICUs still use TTM at 33 °C, but 33 % use TTM at 36 °C. Early coronary angiography (CAG) and possible percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was routinely provided for all survivors of OHCA in 39 % of the hospitals in 2012 and in 28 % of the hospitals in 2014. Routine CAG for all actively treated victims of OHCA was performed more frequently in Sweden (51 %) and in Norway (54 %) compared to Finland (13 %), p 0.014 and 0.042. Conclusions: Since 2012, TTM at 36 °C has been implemented in some ICUs, but TTM at 33 °C is used in majority of the ICUs. TTM at 33 or 36 °C and primary CAG are not routinely provided for all OHCA survivors and the criteria for these and ICU admission are variable. Best practices as a uniform approach to the optimal care of the resuscitated patient should be sought in the Nordic Countries.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
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