Freeze/Thaw Durability of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete

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An increasing trend towards the demand for resisting to Freeze/thaw exposure has led to fibers being incorporated into concrete. This paper addresses the freeze/thaw durability of carbon fiber reinforced concrete by using a paired comparison test based upon relative dynamic elastic modulus and the rate of loss mass. The carbon fiber reinforced concrete was found to be more durable than plain concrete probably due to the high elastic modulus of carbon fiber. Durability is an important material property and carbon fiber reinforced concrete needs to be widely tested to gain confidence for use within the industry and this work shows future possibilities.

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... El Sharnouby and El Naggar [26] found that the composite sheet piles, subjected to axial one-way cyclic and monotonic loads, maintained or increased their stiffness and bearing capacity. Yuan et al. and Dutta and Vaidya [27,28] investigated the impact of long-term freeze-thaw cycles on FRP composite sheet piles. e results show that low temperature usually enhances the stiffness and shear strength properties, whereas the impact strength decreases slightly. ...
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Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite sheet piles are usually favored for slope and river-retaining structures due to their construction and environmental efficiency. Their applications, however, have been hindered by the lack of understanding of the bearing capacity. This paper studies the vertical and lateral bearing capacity of FRP composite sheet piles through three full-scale tests conducted in Haiyan, a soft soil site in the Yangtze River Delta of China. In the three tests, we measured the vertical bearing capacity of the FRP composite sheet piles, the bearing capacity of the composite foundation, and the lateral capacity of the FRP composite sheet piles, respectively. The test results show that the Q-S (load on the top of the pile versus settlement) curve of the FRP composite sheet piles exhibits a steep fall while that of the composite foundation is relatively flat. Moreover, the ultimate bearing capacity of the FRP composite sheet piles is measured to reach 23.8 kN while that of the composite foundation increases by 47.1 %, reaching 35.0 kN. It shows that the FRP composite sheet piles under the composite foundation have a favorable bearing performance. Finally, the final horizontal displacement of the FRP composite sheet pile in the reinforced area with anchoring the sheet pile is smaller than the final horizontal displacement in the nonreinforced area, indicating that the horizontal bearing capacity can be significantly improved by anchoring the sheet pile.
Restrained shrinkage is a major source of damage to buildings. By the combination of different construction materials, or through different conditions of exposure of different structural elements, differential dimensional change occurs. Thereby, stresses arise, which can cause cracking. In recent combined experimental and numerical research projects, this source of damage to masonry walls has been confirmed. The ability has been developed to predict the level of damage computationally. This paper addresses a method to reduce the width of cracks in masonry walls subjected to restrained shrinkage, to acceptable levels. Crack control by externally applied carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforcement is studied. Although structural strengthening by CFRP reinforcement is actively researched, its application here to preserve structural serviceability is novel. An experiment was designed and performed to study the response of an unreinforced masonry wall to restrained shrinkage. Subsequently, the wall was repaired and reinforced on one face with CFRP strips. The required CFRP reinforcement was designed by finite element analysis, which also served as prediction of the response of the reinforced wall to restrained shrinkage.
A two dimensional, parametric, micromechanical finite element study of the stress conditions near a crack tip in a fiber reinforced isotropic material was performed. The variables considered include the mechanical properties of the isotropic matrix material, fibers, and interface between the fibers and matrix material and the geometry of the composite. Experimental studies, using methyl methacrylate matrix material reinforced with carefully placed steel fibers were conducted. The close agreement between finite element and experimental values for the loading required for both the initiation of crack growth in the matrix material and crack arrest by the fibers show that micromechanical finite element studies are applicable for the development of engineering models for the fracture toughness of fiber reinforced material.From the parametric finite element studies it was concluded that: 1.(1) A small percentage by volume of higher modulus fibers can result in a significant reduction in opening mode stresses in the matrix material near a crack tip. Thus the presence of the fibers can result in crack arrest and an increase in the effective fracture toughness.2.(2) In general, shear stresses in the matrix material adjacent to the fiber and bond stresses between the fibers and matrix material are larger for a shear mode loading than for an opening mode loading. Although these stresses may not directly result in crack growth, they may cause fiber delamination which in turn may result in unstable crack growth. Thus for studies of effective fracture toughness, mixed mode loadings must be considered.