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Effects of Lixiviant (H2SO4 and C6H8O7) and Reductant (H2O2) with an Application of Acid Leaching in Production of High Quality Quartz

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Abstract

Purification of quartz with chemical processes is extremely important for many industries including optical quality glass, electronic and advanced technological products. Iron as the most significant impurity present in quartz ores can be substantially removed by aqueous chemical processes using organic and inorganic acids. In this study to investigate the removal of iron as impurity from quartz ores, sulfuric acid and citric acid leaching tests with hydrogen peroxide were conducted. Chemical leaching tests were performed to evaluate the performances of different acids and effects of the parameters including pulp density, temperature, leaching duration and reagent concentration on Fe2O3 removal using full factorial design method. The results were evaluated by ANOVA (analysis of variance) method and empirical regression models were established. Under optimum condition (5% pulp ratio, 3M sulfuric acid concentration, 1M hydrogen peroxide concentration, 90°C temperature and 120 minutes of leaching (reaction) time), a Fe2O3 removal of 98,9% and 1 ppm Fe2O3 content high quality quartz product were obtained when sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was tested.
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ÇÖZh&h (H2SO4 YH &6H8O7) YH øNR*EYø&ø (H2O2) ETKøSø
Effects of Lixiviant (H2SO4 and C6H8O7) and Reductant (H2O2) with an
Application of Acid Leaching in Production of High Quality Quartz
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\HULQL GHPLU LOH NRPSOHNV ROXúWXUDUDN GHPLULQ
o|NHOPHVLQLHQJHOOH\HQ YH JHQLúS+ DUDOÕ÷ÕQGD
OLo LúOHPLQLQ JHUoHNOHúPHVLQL VD÷OD\DQ RUJDQLN
DVLWOHUDOPDNWDGÕU3DQLDVYG$PELNDGH-
YLYH/DOLWKDPELND$NFLOYH7XQFXN
$NFLOYG
%LUoRNDUDúWÕUPDFÕNXYDUVYHVLOLNDNXPXQGDVDI-
VÕ]OÕN RODUDN EXOXQDQ )H223¶LQ X]DNODúWÕUÕOPDVÕ
DPDFÕ\OD |]HOOLNOH VOIULN DVLW 7RUR YG 
9HJOLR YG  %DQ]D YG  7XQFXN YH
$NFLOYHRNVDOLNDVLW%RQQH\8EDO-
GLQLYG7D[LDUFKRXYG9HJOLRYG
9HJOLRYG$UVODQ YH%D\DW
'XYGUHDNWLÀHULLOHIDUNOÕoDOÕúPDNRúXOOD-
UÕQGDOLoLúOHPOHULJHUoHNOHúWLUPLúWLU
&HYKHUGHNL )H223 JLEL VDIVÕ]OÕNODUÕQ X]DNODú-
WÕUÕOPDVÕ LoLQ KHU ]DPDQ DVLW OLoL WHN EDúÕQD \H-
WHUOL JHOPHPHNWHGLU )H+2¶QLQ o|]QUO÷QQ
)H+3¶WHQ GDKD \NVHN ROGX÷X GúQOHUHN DVLW
OLoL LúOHPOHULQGH RNVDOLN DVLW VLWULN DVLW JOLNR]
KLGURMHQ SHURNVLW JLEL IDUNOÕ LQGLUJH\LFL UHDNWLÀHU
NXOODQÕODELOLU2NVDODWVLWUDWJLELRUJDQLNDQ\RQODU
\]H\H WXWXQDUDN )H+3 ± 2 ED÷ÕQÕ ]D\ÕÀDWPDN-
WD YH E|\OHFH LQGLUJH\LFL o|]QPH DUWPDNWDGÕU
6FKZHUWPDQQ
+LGURMHQSHURNVLW+222KHP\NVHOWJH\LFLKHP
GH LQGLUJH\LFL UHDNWLI RODUDN NXOODQÕOPDNWDGÕU
H222 JoO ELU \NVHOWJHQ YH oHYUHVHO DoÕGDQ
JYHQOLELUUHDNWLIWLU+LGURMHQSHURNVLWDVLGLNo|-
11
]HOWLOHUGH%D÷ÕQWÕ¶HJ|UHLQGLUJHQLU
H222 + 2H+Ɲĺ+22(0 9 
+LGURMHQ SHURNVLW D\QÕ ]DPDQGD %D÷ÕQWÕ ¶GHNL
\NVHOWJHQPHWHSNLPHVLQHJ|UHLQGLUJH\LFLUHDN-
WLIRODUDNGDYUDQPDNWDGÕU
H222ĺ22 + 2H+Ɲ 
7RSODPWHSNLPHLVH%D÷ÕQWÕ¶WHYHULOPHNWHGLU
2H222ĺ22 + 2H22 
+LGURMHQSHURNVLWLQER]XQPDVÕLOHo|]HOWLGHJHU-
oHNOHúHQ HOHNWURQ WUDQVIHUL YDVÕWDVÕ\OD RNVLMHQ
PLQHUDO \]H\LQGHQ DGVRUSODQPDNWDGÕU  9
SRWDQVL\HOGH÷HULPHWDOVO¿WOHUL RNVLWOH\HELOPH-
VL LoLQ \HWHUOLGLU $\GR÷DQ  $\GR÷DQ YG
 $\QÕ ]DPDQGD KLGURMHQ SHURNVLW DVLGLN
o|]HOWLOHUGHNL ELUoRN PHWDO RNVLW ELOHúL÷LQH NDU-
úÕ GD LQGLUJH\LFL UHDNWLI RODUDN GDYUDQPDNWDGÕU
(O+D]HNYG/LYG%D÷ÕQWÕYH
¶WHNL\NVHOWJHQPHYHLQGLUJHQPHWHSNLPHOHULQH
J|UHQHWWHSNLPH\DQL)H223¶LQLQGLUJH\LFLUHDN-
WLIRODUDN+222¶LQNXOODQÕOGÕ÷ÕDVLGLNo|]HOWLOHUGHNL
NLP\DVDOo|]QPHVL%D÷ÕQWÕ¶WHYHULOPHNWHGLU
)H223++Ɲĺ)H+2 + 3H22 
)H223 + H222 + 4H+ĺ)H+2 + 3H2222 
%X oDOÕúPD NDSVDPÕQGD VDÀDúWÕUÕOPÕú NXYDUV
UQHOGHVLLoLQNXYDUVÕQLQGLUJH\LFLUHDNWLIKLG-
URMHQSHURNVLWYDUOÕ÷ÕQGDLQRUJDQLNVOIULNDVLW
YH RUJDQLN VLWULN DVLW DVLWOHU LOH ELU OLo \|QWHPL
JHOLúWLULOPHVL DPDoODQPÕúWÕU )DUNOÕ IDNW|UOHULQ
NDWÕVÕYÕ RUDQÕ UHDNWLI GHULúLPL VÕFDNOÕN OLo V-
UHVLOLoSHUIRUPDQVÕ]HULQHHWNLOHULEHOLUOHQHUHN
HWNLOHU$129$9DU\DQV$QDOL]L\|QWHPL LOH GH-
÷HUOHQGLULOPLúWLU
2. 'ENEYSEL ÇAL,ù0ALAR
2.1. KXYDUV NXPXQHVL
.XYDUVQXPXQHVL.DOWXQ0DGHQFLOLN6DQYH7LF
$ù dLQH $\GÕQ¶GHQ %DUPDF NÕUÕFÕ oÕNÕúÕ 
FP RODUDN WHPLQ HGLOPLúWLU .XYDUV FHYKHUL |Q-
FHOLNOHoHQHOLNÕUÕFÕ)ULWVFKPDUNDLOHNDGHPHOL
RODUDN PP ER\XWXQD NÕUÕOPÕúDUGÕQGDQPHU-
GDQHOL NÕUÕFÕ ODERUDWXDU WLS hQDO 0KHQGLVOLN
NXOODQÕODUDNQXPXQHQLQWDPDPÕPPER\XWXQD
NÕUÕOPÕúWÕU'DKDVRQUDNXYDUVQXPXQHVLP
ER\XWXQGD DOPLQD ELO\HOL GH÷LUPHQGH |÷WO-
PúYHOLoWHVWOHULQHX\JXQKDOHJHWLULOPLúWLU
.XYDUV FHYKHULQLQ PLQHUDORMLN \DSÕVÕQÕ EHOLU-
OHPHN DPDFÕ\OD RSWLNFHYKHU PLNURVNREX LOH
PDNURVNRELN YH PLNURVNRELN LQFHOHPHOHU \DSÕO-
PÕúWÕU$\UÕFD07$YH ùLúHFDP$U*HODERUDWX-
DUODUÕQGDQDOÕQDQPLQHUDORMLNDQDOL] UDSRUODUÕ LOH
NDUúÕODúWÕUÕODUDNNXYDUVEQ\HVLQGHEXOXQDQVDI-
VÕ]OÕNODUÕLoHUHQPLQHUDOOHUEHOLUOHQPLúWLU
<DSÕODQPDNURVNRELN YH PLNURVNRELN LQFHOHPH-
OHUGH÷HUOHQGLULOGL÷LQGHNXYDUV|UQH÷LQGH)H223
WDúÕ\ÕFÕ PLQHUDOOHU RODUDN KHPDWLW NXYDUVODUÕQ
]HULQGH VÕYDPDODU YH NXYDUV oDWODNODUÕQÕQ
DUDVÕQÕGROGXUPXúúHNLOGHYHPLNDQÕQoR÷XQ-
OXNODPXVNRYLWEL\RWLWYHD]PLNWDUGDIORJRSLW
PLQHUDOL RODUDN EXOXQGX÷X EHOLUOHQPLúWLU ùHNLO
dLIWQLNROLQFHNHVLW|UQH÷LJ|UQWVQGHoLIW
RSWLNHNVHQOLPLQHUDORODQPLNDJ|]OHQLUNHQWHN
QLNROLQFHNHVLW|UQH÷LJ|UQWVQGHLVHRSDNPL-
QHUDORODQKHPDWLWYHWHNRSWLNHNVHQOLPLQHUDOOHU
VLOLVPLQHUDOOHULJ|]OHQPLúWLU
.XYDUV FHYKHULQLQ NLP\DVDO NDUDNWHUL]DV\R-
QXQGD ;ÕúÕQÕ ÀRUHVDQV ;5) 6SHFWUR ;H-
SRV \|QWHPL NXOODQÕOPÕú YH DQDOL]OHU .DOWXQ
0DGHQFLOLN 6DQ YH 7LF $ù¶\H DLW DNUHGLWH RO-
PXú ,62  VHUWL¿NDOÕ $U*H YH .DOL-
WH .RQWURO /DERUDWXDUODUÕQGD \DSÕOPÕúWÕU ;5)
DQDOL]OHULQGH )H223 LoHUL÷L  KDVVDVL\HWOH
RNXQPDNWDGÕU 1XPXQHOHULQ LoHUL÷LQGHNL WP
PHWDORNVLWOHULQGD÷ÕOÕPÕ WDPNLP\DVDODQDOL]LOH
HOGHHGLOPLúYHVRQXoODUÕdL]HOJH¶GHYHULOPLúWLU
;5)DQDOL]LQGHQHOGHHGLOHQVRQXoODUDdL]HOJH
J|UHNXYDUVFHYKHULQLQ)H223LoHUL÷LSSP
7L22LoHUL÷LLVHSSPRODUDNEHOLUOHQPLúWLU.X-
YDUVFHYKHULQLQ EH\D]OÕN ³/´ GH÷HULEH\D]OÕNLQ-
GHNVLWHVWLLOHRODUDNEHOLUOHQPLúWLU
dL]HOJH  .XYDUV &HYKHULQLQ .LP\DVDO $QDOL]
6RQXoODUÕ;5)
%LOHúLP 
6L22
$O223
)H223
7L22
&D2 
0J2 
1D22
K22
..a
7RSODP 
a.Õ]GÕUPDND\EÕ
12
2.2. Y|QWHP
$OPLQD ELO\HOL |÷WPH LúOHPL VRQUDVÕ NXYDUV
QXPXQHVL
PHOHNVHULOHULNXOODQÕODUDNVÕQÕÀDQGÕUÕODUDN
NXYDUV QXPXQHOHULQLQ NLP\DVDO DQDOL]OHULQGHNL
)H223 LoHULNOHUL LQFHOHQGL÷LQGH  P¶GHQ LWL-
EDUHQ\NVHN)H223 LoHUL÷LJ|UOPúWU%XGX-
UXPGD |÷WOPú NXYDUV QXPXQHVLQGH WDQH
ER\XWXQD J|UH ]HQJLQOHúWLUPH \DSÕODUDN 
P¶GHQ LWLEDUHQ DOW IUDNVL\RQODU D\UÕOPÕúWÕU YH
NLP\DVDOOLoWHVWOHULQGHPER\XWDUD-
OÕ÷ÕQGDNL QXPXQHQLQ NXOODQÕOPDVÕ DPDFÕ\OD |Q
]HQJLQOHúWLUPHLúOHPL\DSÕOPÕúWÕU
%|\OHFHNXYDUVQXPXQHVLQGHNL)H223LoHUL÷L
SSPYH7L22LoHUL÷LSSPLNHQWDQHER\XWXQD
J|UH|Q]HQJLQOHúWLUPHLúOHPLLOH)H223LoHUL÷L
SSP¶H7L22LoHUL÷LGH SSP¶HGúUOPúWU
(OGHHGLOHQPYHPNXYDUVQX-
PXQHOHULQLQ NLP\DVDO DQDOL]L dL]HOJH ¶GH YHULO-
PLúWLU /Lo LúOHPOHULQH NDWÕOPD\DQ  P IUDN-
VL\RQXLoLQ DQDOL]GH÷HUOHULJ|]|QQGHEXOXQGX-
UXOGX÷XQGDNLP\DVDOLoHUL÷LQHX\JXQVHNW|UOHUGH
NXOODQÕPÕPPNQGU
dL]HOJH7DQH%R\XWXQD*|UH=HQJLQOHúWLUPHøúOHPL
6RQUDVÕ.XYDUV1XPXQHVLQLQ.LP\DVDO$QDOL]L
%LOHúLP P

P
6L22 
$O223 
)H223 
7L22 
&D2  
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DE      $%     
F      &     
DF      $&     
EF      %&     
DEF      $%&     
G      '     
DG      $'     
EG      %'     
DEG      $%'     
FG      &'     
DFG      $&'     
EFG      %&'     
DEFG      $%&'     
aGHQH\VHO)H223X]DNODúWÕUPDYHULPL
EKHVDSODQDQ)H223X]DNODúWÕUPDYHULPL
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-     -
a     $     
E      %     
DE      $%     
F      &     
DF      $&     
EF      %&     
DEF      $%&     
G      '     
DG      $'     
EG      %'     
DEG      $%'     
FG      &'     
DFG      $&'     
EFG      %&'     
DEFG      $%&'     
aGHQH\VHO)H223X]DNODúWÕUPDYHULPL
EKHVDSODQDQ)H223X]DNODúWÕUPDYHULPL
17
H222 LODYHVL\OH +2624 OLoL GHQH\OHUL VRQXFXQGD
)H223 X]DNODúWÕUPD YHULPL '89¶QL HWNLOH\HQ
DQDIDNW|UYHJLULúLPHWNLOHULdL]HOJH¶WHYHULOHQ
HWNLGH÷HUOHULGLNNDWHDOÕQDUDNùHNLO¶GHJ|VWH-
ULOPLúWLU
ùHNLO+222LODYHVL\OH+2624OLoLGHQH\OHULQGHQHOGH
HGLOHQ)H223X]DNODúWÕUPDYHULPOHULQH HWNL HGHQ DQD
IDNW|UOHUYHJLULúLPOHU
.6 RUDQÕ $ +2624 GHULúLPL % YH VÕFDNOÕN
' DQD IDNW|UOHULQLQ '89 ]HULQGH SR]LWLI \|Q-
GHHWNLOL ROGX÷X J|]OHQPLúDQFDN+222 GHULúLPL
& DQD IDNW|U HWNLVLQLQ ROPDGÕ÷Õ VDSWDQPÕúWÕU
H222 GHULúLPL LOH VÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ ELUOLNWH &' JLULúLP
HWNLVLQLQ SR]LWLI \|QGH HWNLOL ROGX÷X J|UOPú-
WU EX GXUXPGD \NVHN VÕFDNOÕN GH÷HUOHULQGH
H222¶LQ LQGLUJH\LFL HWNLVL\OH )H223 o|]QPHVL
JHUoHNOHúPHNWHGLU
H222LODYHVL\OH+2624OLoLLOH'89LoLQ0LQLWDE
øVWDWLNVHO<D]ÕOÕPÕNXOODQÕODUDNHOGHHGLOHQGHQN-
OHP DúD÷ÕGD YHULOPLúWLU %D÷ÕQWÕ  'HQH\VHO
'89 LOH UHJUHV\RQ PRGHOOHULQGHQ KHVDSODQDQ
'89 DUDVÕQGDNL LOLúNL GD÷ÕOÕPÕ ùHNLO ¶WH J|VWH-
ULOPLúWLU
ùHNLO+222LODYHVL\OH+2624OLoLQGHGHQH\VHO)H223
X]DNODúWÕUPDYHULPLLOHKHVDSODQDQ)H223X]DNODúWÕUPD
YHULPLQLQGD÷ÕOÕPÕ
<)H2 ;;;
 ;;  ;;  ;; 
;;
52 
ùHNLO ¶WH GHQH\VHO YH KHVDSODQDQ '89 DUDVÕQGDNL
GD÷ÕOÕPÕQNÕVPHQX\XPOXROGX÷XJ|UOPHNWHGLU
øNLQFL DúDPDGD +2624 \HULQH RUJDQLN ELU DVLW
RODQ VLWULN DVLW NXOODQÕODUDN \NVHN YHULP HOGH
HGLOPH\H oDOÕúÕOPÕúWÕU DQFDN HOGH HGLOHQ YHULOHU
H222LODYHVL\OH+2624OLoL YHULOHUL\OH dL]HOJH 
NÕ\DVODQGÕ÷ÕQGD'89¶QLQGDKDGúNROGX÷XJ|-
UOPHNWHGLU 'HQH\VHO VRQXoODU $129$ \|QWH-
PL\OHGH÷HUOHQGLULOLS dL]HOJH¶GDNLHWNLQGH÷HU-
OHUGLNNDWH DOÕQDUDNDQDIDNW|UYHJLULúLPHWNLOHUL
ùHNLO¶WHJ|VWHULOPLúWLU
ùHNLO  +222 LODYHVL\OH VLWULN DVLW OLoL GHQH\OHULQGHQ
HOGHHGLOHQ )H223X]DNODúWÕUPDYHULPOHULQHHWNL HGHQ
DQDIDNW|UOHUYHJLULúLPOHU
H222LODYHVL\OHVLWULNDVLWOLoLGHQH\OHULQGHVÕFDN-
OÕN'DQDIDNW|UQQ'89]HULQGHHWNLQROGX-
÷X J|UOPHNWHGLU <NVHN VÕFDNOÕN GH÷HUOHULQGH
\NVHNOLoYHULPOHULHOGHHGLOPHNWHGLU'L÷HUDQD
IDNW|UOHULQOLoYHULPL ]HULQGHHWNLOLROPDGÕ÷ÕEH-
OLUOHQPLúWLU7PIDNW|UOHULQELUELUOHULLOHJLULúLPHW-
NLVLQLQ$%&'\NVHNYHHWNLQROPDVÕQÕQQHGH-
QLRODUDNVÕFDNOÕNDQDIDNW|UQQ GL÷HU IDNW|UOHU
]HULQGHEDVNÕQROPDVÕV|\OHQHELOLU
H222LODYHVL\OHVLWULNDVLWOLoLLOH'89LoLQ0LQLWDE
øVWDWLNVHO <D]ÕOÕPÕ NXOODQÕODUDN HOGH HGLOHQ GHQN-
OHPDúD÷ÕGDYHULOPLúWLU%D÷ÕQWÕ'HQH\VHO'89
LOHUHJUHV\RQPRGHOOHULQGHQKHVDSODQDQ'89DUD-
VÕQGDNLLOLúNLGD÷ÕOÕPÕùHNLO¶WHJ|VWHULOPLúWLU
ùHNLO  +222 LODYHVL\OH VLWULN DVLW OLoLQGH GHQH\VHO
)H223 X]DNODúWÕUPD YHULPL LOH KHVDSODQDQ )H223
X]DNODúWÕUPDYHULPLQLQGD÷ÕOÕPÕ
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High-purity quartz (SiO2) is an important material widely used in many industries, including semiconductor technology, telecommunication, and optics. The content and distribution of impurities in quartz significantly affect the processing methods. This paper provides an insightful review on the processing of high-purity quartz, covering the analytical techniques, separation methods, and the critical procedures used to assess the quality of quartz ore. More importantly, the critical review of the thermal phase transition separation method for fine-grained mineral inclusions, micron-grade fluid inclusions, and lattice-bound trace elements is notably opened for the first time. It is proposed that the research field as a monopolized industry would benefit by expounding the critical problems that occur during the preparation of high-purity quartz.
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The primary advantage of using oxalic acid is in the formation during leaching of soluble complexes that are both photochemically and microbiologically degradable. In this study, chemical leaching and bioleaching methods were used for quartz sand. Using the ANOVA-Yates test technique, the effects of solids rate, temperature and oxalic acid rate were investigated using chemical leaching experiments. Solids rate and temperature were effective parameters on the chemical leaching. After the tests, the removal of Fe 2O3 increased to 97.02%. Finally, the iron content decreased from 0.315% Fe2O3 to 0.0094% Fe 2O3 in the leached quartz sand. The effect of pulp density was investigated on the bioleaching experiments. The bioleaching of iron oxides by Aspergillus niger resulted in removal of 47.70% of the total iron in the quartz sand, and suggested that this strain has not a good ability to remove iron impurities from quartz sand in comparison with chemical leaching. The iron content decreased from 0.315% Fe2O3 to 0.164% Fe 2O3 in the bioleached quartz sand.
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Purification of quartz (iron in particular) with chemical prosesses is extremely important for many industries including glass, electronic, detergent, ceramics, paint, refractory and metallurgy. The iron content of quartz is required to be in the range of 0.01-0.1% for its industrial use. Turkish quartz reserves have not been exploited effectively in the glass and electronical industries mainly due to the limitations in the quality and quantity of these resources. There appears to be different physical and chemical methods in industrial scale available for the beneficiation of quartz to reduce its iron content down to the desired levels. Although the physical methods including conventional magnetic separation, new and more expensive super conductive magnetic separation and flotation are commonly employed, the chemical methods have been gaining importance particularly due to the low efficiency of physical methods for iron removal. Iron as the most significant impurity present in quartz ores can be substantially removed by aqueous chemical processes using organic and inorganic acids. In this respect, oxalic acid appears to be one of the most significant leaching reagents for the removal of iron. In this article, the industrial use of quartz, area specific requirements for product quality and chemical methods (with particular reference to oxalic acid systems) used in the purification of quartz are critically reviewed.
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The kinetics of leaching lead from galena in acetic (ethanoic) acid solutions with hydrogen peroxide are investigated with regard to stirring speed, temperature and concentration of HAc and H2O2 concentration. Oxidation of galena with H2O2 to produce lead sulphate which dissolves by complexing Pb2+ with acetate anion (PbCH3COO+ and Pb(CH3COO)2). Results indicate that the rate of galena dissolution is controlled by a surface chemical reaction with an apparent activation energy is 65.6 kJ mol−1 in the temperature range 30–70 °C. Both HAc and H2O2 affect the rate of extraction of lead as an acetate complex. The order of reaction was 0.79 and 0.31 for H2O2 and HAc concentrations, respectively.
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The mechanism of dissolution of pure iron oxides by means of organic acids comprises two different chemical pathways: (a) non-reductive dissolution and (b) reductive dissolution. In this paper, the thermodynamic analysis of these pathways for the iron oxides-oxalic acid system is presented. In low acid solutions (pH higher than 3) the only thermodynamically stable complex ions of bivalent and trivalent iron are [Fe2+(C204)2]2- and [Fe3+(C204)3]3-. Uncomplexed Fe2+ ion can be identified only in high acid solutions, while uncomplexed Fe3+ ion is not likely to build-up in oxalic acid solutions. In the pH range1-2 the [Fe3+(C204)2]- and [Fe3+(C204)]+ ions are stable, while at pH less than 1, the [Fe3+HC204]2+ is the only ion existing.
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Granitic pegmatites are mined for feldspar, quartz, mica, lithium aluminosilicate minerals, and kaolin. These industrial minerals have a myriad of uses, some as mundane as glasses, porcelains, and bulk fillers, and others that are critical to the most advanced electronic devices. The chemical fractionation that produces pegmatites refines these industrial minerals to a purity that is not achieved in other geologic environments. The high chemical purity of their constituents and the fact that they contain nearly 100% of minable rock make large granitic pegmatites some of the most valuable sources of industrial minerals.
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The effect of various organic acids viz. acetic, formic, citric, ascorbic, succinic, tartaric and oxalic acids, on the iron removal and the resulting brightness improvement of an iron-stained kaolinitic clay from Kalliyur, Thiruvananthapuram, South India, has been investigated. Oxalic acid was found to give the best results both at room temperature as well as at high temperatures because of its high acid strength, good complexing capacity and reducing power. The reaction parameters such as time, temperature and reagent concentration were optimised. The optimum conditions required for achieving brightness ≥80% were: temperature — 100°C, oxalic acid concentration — 0.1 M and reaction time — 90 min. The leaching tests at room temperature for 30 days improved the brightness from 66.3 to 83.5% ISO. The corresponding iron oxide removal was of the order of ∼80%. The addition of ferrous ions and protons improved the reaction kinetics. The leaching tests carried out on previously beneficiated samples using magnetic separation showed only a slight improvement in brightness indicating that brightness depended more on the surface coated iron oxides rather than on the discrete particles. The effect of acid leaching on the physical properties of the clay such as brightness, plasticity, viscosity, specific surface area and pore volume were compared. The slight increase in the specific surface area and the pore volume are suggestive of removal of the cementing non-crystalline alumina, silica and iron oxides from the clay surface and also due to the resulting delamination to a limited extent. No marked change was observed in the viscous as well as the plastic properties due to the deferration treatments.
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The raw sands from Hohenbocka (Germany) containing iron essentially in pyrite form is used for glass grade sands processing by dump leaching for several weeks followed by attrition and two-stage classification. The analysis of the sands by means of X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (RFA) showed an average of about 420 ppm Fe. The objective of this investigation was to reduce the processing time and the total iron content below 105 ppm in the sand product for special glass applications. Due to the presence of sulfide and oxide iron at different ratios in raw sands, a combination of chemical and physical methods was investigated. Leaching was carried out at different acid concentrations, followed by surface cleaning by neutral and alkaline attrition, and gravity separation. Additionally, the effect of continuous addition of H2O2 during leaching to remove iron from sands was investigated. Only two days of leaching was required at the initial acid concentration to 25 g/L. After attrition and tabling of leached sands, a product with 84 ppm of iron was achieved. The continuous removal of dissolved metals by adsorption with active carbon could make it possible to reuse the regenerated sulphuric acid for leaching. With recirculation, the quantity of fresh sulphuric acid required was 0.4 kg/t of quartz sand.
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The aim of the work was to decrease the iron content of ferrous quartz sands by fixed-bed column leaching with recycling of the leaching solutions in order to attain a product suitable for industrial use. Dissolution of iron was achieved by treating the sands in an acid medium with a reducing agent (oxalic acid) to convert FeIII into FeII.The factors assumed to affect dissolution of iron, such as temperature, oxalic acid concentration, pH and flow-rate, were studied with a 24 full factorial design in order to assess the main effects and the interactions among the factors.Removal of 46.1% iron gives a product containing 0.0163% Fe2O3 which is fit for industrial applications.
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The purification of quartz using chemical processes is extremely important for many industries, including the glass, electronic, detergent, ceramics, paint, refractory, and metallurgy industries, as well as for advanced technology products. The purpose of this work was to investigate the removal of iron as an impurity from quartz ores using a chemical leaching method with different reagents.The iron content of the quartz ore sample was 310 ppm, and the iron was in the form of Fe2O3. In the first step, pre-enrichment studies were conducted based on the particle size, and the Fe2O3 content of the quartz ore was decreased to 88 ppm. A statistical design of the experiments and an ANOVA (analysis of variance) were performed in the second step to determine the main effects and interactions of the researched factors, which were the concentration of the leaching reagent (H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, HClO4, and NTA [Nitrilotriacetic acid]), solid/liquid ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time. The highest Fe2O3 removal was 86.6%, and a 11.8 ppm Fe2O3 content quartz product with a whiteness index (WI) value of 90.6 was obtained after 120 min of treatment at 90°C with a 10% S/L ratio and 1 M H2SO4.
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A study has been made of a leaching process to remove iron from quartziferous industrial minerals using oxalic and sulphuric acid in a drum reactor. The experimental work was necessary because of the paucity of literature on the use of oxalic acid in the treatment of industrial minerals containing iron as an impurity. The positive effect of oxalic acid on the iron extraction yield is clearly observed during leaching in a drum reactor. Iron extraction yields of 35–45% are obtained on treating the quartz with 3 kg/t oxalic acid and 2 kg/t sulphuric acid at 90°C for 4–5 h. Under the same conditions but without oxalic acid the iron extraction yield ranges from 3 to 9%, depending on the sulphuric acid content. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were run on the ore to ascertain where the iron compounds occur on the different mineral components. These analyses were carried out on an as-is sample and on three other samples obtained by magnetic separation. The experimental results indicate that 52% of the iron is found in the mica fraction. These results explain why the maximum iron extraction yield is only 35–45%. A flow-sheet of the process is proposed together with a rough material balance in order to estimate oxalic acid, sulphuric acid and water consumption.