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The relationship between gambling and video-game playing behavior in children and adolescents

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Abstract

It is suggested that commercial video-games (e.g.Nintendo &Sega) and gambling activities have similar attractive features and intermittent reinforcement schedules. This research seeks to examine the nature of this relationship amongst children. One hundred and four children aged 9 to 14, from grades 4, 6, and 8, participated. A questionnaire exploring issues related to video-game playing and gambling behavior in children and adolescents was completed and a computerized blackjack game was individually administered. High frequency video-game players were compared to low frequency video-game players with respect to their gambling performance on the blackjack gambling task as well as on information gathered from the questionnaire. Of particular concern is the risk-taking strategies used by avid video-game players, whether or not children perceive gambling and video-games as involving similar amounts of skill or whether they realize that gambling is primarily a game of chance. The findings, in general, suggest that high frequency video-game players gamble more than low frequency video-game players, report that gambling makes them feel more important, and take greater risks on the blackjack gambling task although no overall differences in success were found. Males exhibited greater risk-taking tendencies on the blackjack task than females. The clinical implications of the findings are addressed.

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... Video gaming has been argued to influence a developmental pathway that may result in pathological gambling (Brown 1989;Fisher and Griffiths 1995;Griffiths 1991). Gupta and Derevensky (1996) have suggested that children who regularly play video games often learn to exert control over them though they seem guided mostly by chance at first. During adolescence, this prior experience with video games makes gambling more appealing due to perceived similarities between the two activities. ...
... earlier studies. Ladouceur and Dubé (1995), for example, found that 30 % of frequenters of a video game arcade in Canada gambled at least once per week, while Gupta and Derevensky (1996) reported that high frequency video gamers were three times as likely to be gambling at least once per week relative to low frequency gamers. Instead, the present findings are more consistent with those from more recent studies (King et al. 2012;Walther et al. 2012;Wood et al. 2004), with participants gambling on just two occasions during the 3 months prior to study, and only 26 % reporting having gambled at any stage during that time. ...
... Only a small correlation was found between male gender and frequency of gambling for credits or points online, and no gender effect was found for frequency of gambling for money. The finding that female video gamers gambled at least as frequently as males was intriguing, and in line with previous suggestions that, at least in terms of gambling, extensive involvement with video games may have a greater effect on females than males (Gupta and Derevensky 1996). Furthermore, while male participants played video games more frequently than females, no significant differences were found between genders for problem gaming scores, and gender was not a significant predictor of gambling frequency in either of the regression models. ...
Article
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Research has noted many similarities between video gaming and gambling activities. It has been suggested that video game players may also be attracted to gambling, although there is limited research on this possibility. The present study examined concurrent video gaming and gambling habits in a sample of regular video game players in Australia (N = 485, 84 % male, M age = 25.8). Gambling involvement was found to be a generally unpopular activity among regular video game players. No significant association between frequency of video game play and frequency of gambling was found. Although significant correlations between gaming ‘addiction’ scores and gambling frequency were identified, age was the only significant predictor of gambling when controlling for all remaining variables. These findings are critically discussed in the context of past research, and future research directions concerning the link between video gaming and gambling are proposed.
... While LBs are a relatively new innovation in video gaming, controversies around links between video games and gambling predate the emergence of LBs by several decades (Lain and Brown, 1989). It has been hypothesised that both PVG and PG may be driven by shared cognitive biases or distortion (Fisher, 1993;Gupta and Derevensky, 1996;Lain and Brown, 1989). While there is some debate about classifying problem video gaming (PVG) as a psychological disorder (Aarseth et al., 2017;Kuss et al., 2017), Gaming Disorder is included in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases World Health Organization [WHO], 2018), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) recommends Internet Gaming Disorder as a condition requiring further research. ...
... It has already been suggested that habituation and repeated exposure to video games (i.e. regardless of LBs) could lead adolescents, via gateway effects, to develop later gambling problems (Fisher, 1993;Gupta and Derevensky, 1996;Lain and Brown, 1989). ...
... Early research appeared to support such conclusions (Gupta and Derevensky, 1996;Ladouceur and Dubé, 1995). However, these studies were conducted during the era of 'coin-op [erated]' arcade games, often co-located with similar-looking gambling devices. ...
Article
Loot boxes (LBs) are video game-related purchases with a chance-based outcome. Due to similarities with gambling, they have come under increasing scrutiny from media, academics and policymakers alike. Initial evidence suggested that LB engagement might be associated with both problem gambling (PG) and problem video gaming (PVG). We therefore conducted a systematic review of the evidence for associations between LB purchasing, PG and PVG. For LB/PG, 12 of 13 publications reported a positive relationship, with a moderately sized mean effect of r = .27. For LB/PVG, the mean effect was r = .40, although this finding was drawn from only six surveys in total. For PG/PVG, the mean effect was r = .21, with only 11 of 20 studies reporting significant effects. While further evidence is required to determine the direction of causality, the strength of relationships suggests that policy action on LBs may have benefits for harm minimisation.
... Although on the surface these two activities may seem distinct, researchers have increasingly recognized that gambling and gaming activities share many common features at a structural and aesthetic level (King, Gainsbury, Delfabbro, Hing, & Abarbanel, 2015). For example, psychological and behavioural parallels have been proposed between electronic machine gambling (e.g., slots, video lottery terminals, pokies) and video arcade game playing (Fisher & Griffiths, 1995;Griffiths, 1991Griffiths, , 2005bGriffiths & Wood, 2000, 2004Gupta & Derevensky, 1996;Ladouceur & Dubé, 1995;Wood, Gupta, Derevensky, & Griffiths, 2004). Both activities operate on behavioural principles of variable reinforcement schedules in order to reward and prolong play, use exciting and stimulating sound and light effects within game play to promote physiological arousal, require a response to predictable stimuli, involve eye-hand coordination, and necessitate varying degrees of concentration and focus. ...
... Early exploratory research among video game-playing adolescents suggests higher levels of both gambling and problem gambling in this group (Griffiths, 1991;Gupta & Derevensky, 1996;Ladouceur & Dubé, 1995;Wood, Gupta, et al., 2004). Beyond these early initial studies, more recent research provides evidence for regular video game playing among gamblers and heavier involvement in video game play for adolescents at risk for gambling-related problems (Wood, Gupta, et al., 2004). ...
... Along with reported correlations between problem video game playing and gambling, individuals who self-reportedly excel at video gaming also self-report as being skilled at gambling (Delfabbro et al., 2009;Walther, Morgenstern, & Hanewinkel, 2012). Experimental studies have demonstrated that frequent video game players (N = 104, ages 9-14 years), in addition to reporting weekly gambling, wagered significantly greater amounts of money on an experimental blackjack task compared with those who did not play regularly (Gupta & Derevensky, 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
Gambling and video game playing represent two leisure activities in which adolescents and young adults participate. There are psychological and behavioural parallels between some forms of gambling (e.g., slot machines, video lottery terminals, electronic gambling machines) and some types of video games (e.g., arcade games). Both activities operate on behavioural principles of variable reinforcement schedules in order to reward and prolong play and use exciting and stimulating sound and light effects within game play. Additionally, both activities have similar negative effects associated with excessive play (e.g., poor academic performance, moodiness, loss of interest in activities previously enjoyed, and interpersonal conflict). Thus, there is concern that children and adolescents who are attracted to video games, for both psychological rewards and the challenge, may be at greater risk to gamble. We examined the gambling and video game playing behaviour among 1,229 adolescents and young adults. Results indicate that gamblers, relative to non-gamblers, were more likely to play video games. Video game players were more likely than non-players to gamble. Both social and problem gamblers had higher rates of video game playing than did non-gamblers, and addicted gamers had higher rates of gambling than did social and non-gamers. Results from the current study suggest significant overlap in youth participation in both gambling activities and video game playing. These results have implications for future research and the treatment of problem gambling and video game addiction.Les jeux de hasard et les jeux vidéo sont deux loisirs auxquels s’adonnent les adolescents et les jeunes adultes. Il existe des parallèles psychologiques et comportementaux entre certaines formes des jeux de hasard (p. ex., les appareils à sous, les appareils de loterie vidéo, les machines de jeux électroniques) et certains jeux vidéo (p. ex., les jeux d’arcade). Ces deux types de jeux exploitent les principes comportementaux du programme variable de renforcement pour récompenser le joueur et l’amener à jouer plus longtemps et utilisent des effets lumineux et sonores stimulants et excitants pour accroître l’attrait de l’expérience de jeu. De plus, ces deux activités entraînent des effets négatifs similaires chez les joueurs excessifs (p. ex., mauvais résultats scolaires, instabilité émotive, perte d’intérêt pour des activités qui autrefois procuraient du plaisir, conflits interpersonnels). On craint donc que les enfants et les adolescents qui sont attirés par les jeux vidéo, en raison des défis qu’ils proposent et des récompenses psychologiques qu’ils procurent, soient plus à risque de s’adonner aux jeux de hasard. La présente recherche a examiné les comportements de jeu de 1229 adolescents et jeunes adultes relativement aux jeux de hasard et aux jeux vidéo. Les résultats indiquent que les joueurs de jeux de hasard, par rapport aux non-joueurs, étaient plus susceptibles de jouer à des jeux vidéo, et que les joueurs de jeux vidéo étaient pareillement plus susceptibles de s’adonner aux jeux de hasard que les sujets ne jouant pas aux jeux vidéo. Le groupe des joueurs sociaux et celui des joueurs à problèmes présentaient tous deux un taux plus élevé de pratique des jeux vidéo que celui des non-joueurs, et les sujets ayant une dépendance aux jeux vidéo s’adonnaient également en plus forte proportion aux jeux de hasard que les sujets ne pratiquant par les jeux vidéo ou les pratiquant de manière sociale uniquement. Les résultats de la présente étude donnent à croire qu’il y a un chevauchement important entre la pratique des jeux de hasard et celle des jeux vidéo chez les jeunes. Ces résultats ont des incidences sur les futures recherches et le traitement de la dépendance aux jeux de hasard et aux jeux vidéo.
... Although on the surface these two activities may seem distinct, researchers have increasingly recognized that gambling and gaming activities share many common features at a structural and aesthetic level (King, Gainsbury, Delfabbro, Hing, & Abarbanel, 2015). For example, psychological and behavioural parallels have been proposed between electronic machine gambling (e.g., slots, video lottery terminals, pokies) and video arcade game playing (Fisher & Griffiths, 1995;Griffiths, 1991Griffiths, , 2005bGriffiths & Wood, 2000, 2004Gupta & Derevensky, 1996;Ladouceur & Dubé, 1995;Wood, Gupta, Derevensky, & Griffiths, 2004). Both activities operate on behavioural principles of variable reinforcement schedules in order to reward and prolong play, use exciting and stimulating sound and light effects within game play to promote physiological arousal, require a response to predictable stimuli, involve eye-hand coordination, and necessitate varying degrees of concentration and focus. ...
... Early exploratory research among video game-playing adolescents suggests higher levels of both gambling and problem gambling in this group (Griffiths, 1991;Gupta & Derevensky, 1996;Ladouceur & Dubé, 1995;Wood, Gupta, et al., 2004). Beyond these early initial studies, more recent research provides evidence for regular video game playing among gamblers and heavier involvement in video game play for adolescents at risk for gambling-related problems (Wood, Gupta, et al., 2004). ...
... Along with reported correlations between problem video game playing and gambling, individuals who self-reportedly excel at video gaming also self-report as being skilled at gambling (Delfabbro et al., 2009;Walther, Morgenstern, & Hanewinkel, 2012). Experimental studies have demonstrated that frequent video game players (N = 104, ages 9-14 years), in addition to reporting weekly gambling, wagered significantly greater amounts of money on an experimental blackjack task compared with those who did not play regularly (Gupta & Derevensky, 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
Gambling and video game playing represent two leisure activities in which adolescents and young adults participate. There are psychological and behavioural parallels between some forms of gambling (e.g., slot machines, video lottery terminals, electronic gambling machines) and some types of video games (e.g., arcade games). Both activities operate on behavioural principles of variable reinforcement schedules in order to reward and prolong play and use exciting and stimulating sound and light effects within game play. Additionally, both activities have similar negative effects associated with excessive play (e.g., poor academic performance, moodiness, loss of interest in activities previously enjoyed, and interpersonal conflict). Thus, there is concern that children and adolescents who are attracted to video games, for both psychological rewards and the challenge, may be at greater risk to gamble. We examined the gambling and video game playing behaviour among 1,229 adolescents and young adults. Results indicate that gamblers, relative to non-gamblers, were more likely to play video games. Video game players were more likely than nonplayers to gamble. Both social and problem gamblers had higher rates of video game playing than did non-gamblers, and addicted gamers had higher rates of gambling than did social and non-gamers. Results from the current study suggest significant overlap in youth participation in both gambling activities and video game playing. These results have implications for future research and the treatment of problem gambling and video game addiction. © 2016, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. All rights reserved.
... Estimated prevalence rates of problem gaming range from 2% to 4% among European adolescent samples (Müller et al., 2005). Different studies suggest that adolescents who gamble excessively are also highly likely to play video games excessively (Gupta and Derevensky, 1996;Macey and Hamari, 2018;Van Rooij et al., 2014;Wood et al., 2004a, b). Structural similarities between the two problem behaviours were already recognized three decades ago (Gupta and Derevensky, 1996;Griffiths, 1991) and are still marked today (Derevensky and Griffiths, 2019). ...
... Different studies suggest that adolescents who gamble excessively are also highly likely to play video games excessively (Gupta and Derevensky, 1996;Macey and Hamari, 2018;Van Rooij et al., 2014;Wood et al., 2004a, b). Structural similarities between the two problem behaviours were already recognized three decades ago (Gupta and Derevensky, 1996;Griffiths, 1991) and are still marked today (Derevensky and Griffiths, 2019). Both videogame playing and gambling activities provide intermittent rewards and elements of randomness and can be considered a non-financial form of gambling where players try to gain points rather than money. ...
Article
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Gambling and gaming are not infrequent among adolescents and preventing low-risk youth from becoming at-risk appears to be a priority of public health strategies. Greater scrutiny of the risk and protective factors in the relationships and community of young people appears crucial in steering prevention initiatives adequately. This study aimed to explore the role of the qualities of relational networks (i.e. family functioning, perceived social and class support), family and peer approval and view of the social environment in predicting problem gambling, problem gaming and overall well-being among adolescents. High-school students aged 14-18 years (N: 595; female: 68,7%) completed a survey including the target variables. A multivariate multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the role of socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial predictors on gaming, gambling, and well-being. Multivariate multiple regressions identify a common core underpinning problem gambling, gaming and poor well-being but also the distinct roles of psychosocial variables: being male, with low parental monitoring, and an anomic view of the social environment all predict problem gambling and gaming, which were also found to be associated. Low social support predicts problem gambling but not problem gaming; poor family functioning predicts problem gaming but not problem gambling. All the target psychosocial variables, except approval of gambling, predict poor well-being. On the whole the findings suggest the need to look more closely at the way adolescents, their system of activity and their culture participate in constructing the meaning of gambling and gaming activities and their impact on adolescents’ well-being, so that future studies and strategies can more effectively examine the relational dynamics in which problem gambling and gaming develop.
... The popularity of video arcade machines throughout the 1980s and 1990s led to the identification of a subgroup of adolescent players who appeared to resemble problem gamblers (Griffiths, 1991;Fisher, 1994;Gupta & Derevensky, 1996). The comparison was anchored by the observation that arcade video game machines and slot machines shared a number of distinct structural features. ...
... The researchers also identified the high accessibility of video games and slot machines as being attractive to players. Numerous other authors have linked video game playing to gambling (Griffiths, 1991;Gupta & Derevensky, 1996;Huff & Collinson, 1987;Johansson & Gotestam, 2004;Ladouceur & Dube, 1995;Wood, Gupta, Derevensky, & Griffiths, 2004). However, despite the many theoretical links claimed to exist between gambling machines and video games, these papers contain no empirical evidence that shows that 'problem' video game players, (however this subgroup may be defined) are motivated to play by particular features in games, and non-problem video game players are not. ...
Article
Full-text available
The structural characteristics of video games may play an important role in explaining why some people play video games to excess. This paper provides a review of the literature on structural features of video games and the psychological experience of playing video games. The dominant view of the appeal of video games is based on operant conditioning theory and the notion that video games satisfy various needs for social interaction and belonging. However, there is a lack of experimental and longitudinal data that assesses the importance of specific features in video games in excessive video game playing. Various challenges in studying the structural features of video games are discussed. Potential directions for future research are outlined, notably the need to identify what problem (as opposed to casual) players seek from the video games they play.
... Thus substance use has been viewed as a warning sign for gambling problems and vice versa [29]. Problematic internet use, computer and/or video game playing, especially among male adolescents is also associated with gambling problems [30][31][32][33][34][35]. It has actually been proposed that video game playing shares similar features with gambling, especially with games of chance, both providing intermittent rewards to the participants [36]. ...
... The second aim was to examine gender differences in gambling participation, ARPG and substance use among firstyear junior high school students in Finland, since both gender differences [13,22,44] and substance abuse [24,45] are known vulnerability factors for adolescent problem gambling. The third aim was chosen based on findings of previous studies where video game playing [30][31][32][33][34][35] and family members' and peers' gambling [10][11][12][13] have been positively associated with adolescent problem gambling. Thus, the aim was to investigate the association of gambling and gaming (video game playing) participation, substance use and social variables with ARPG. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Adolescent gambling and substance use are viewed as a public health concern internationally. The early onset age of gambling is a known risk factor for developing gambling problems later in life. The aims of this study are: to evaluate the internal consistency reliability, factorial validity and classification accuracy of the Finnish version of DSM-IV-Multiple Response-Juvenile (DSM-IV-MR-J) criteria measuring at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG); to examine gender differences in gambling participation, ARPG and substance use among first-year junior high school students; and to investigate the association of gambling and gaming (video game playing) participation, substance use and social variables with ARPG. Methods This study examined 988 adolescents (mean age 13.4 years) at 11 public schools in Finland between October-December 2013. The response rate was 91.6%. Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis were used. Results ‘Illegal acts’ was the most endorsed and sensitive, but the least specific criteria identifying ARPG. During the past year, 51.6% of the respondents had gambled, 7.9% were identified as at-risk/problem gamblers (DSM-IV-MR-J score ≥ 2), 8.0% had smoked and 8.9% had been drinking for intoxication, and the first three were significantly more common among boys than girls. The odds ratio of being a male past-year at-risk/problem gambler was 2.27, 5.78 for gambling often or sometimes, 2.42 for video game playing weekly or more often and 6.23 for having peer gamblers. Conclusions Overall, the Finnish version of the DSM-IV-MR-J had acceptable internal consistency reliability and factorial validity. None of the DSM-IV-MR-J criteria were accurate enough to screen ARPG per se. ARPG past-year prevalence was relatively high with males gambling more than females. ARPG was as common as drinking alcohol for intoxication and smoking. Peer gambling was strongly associated with ARPG. Efficient strategies to minimise the risks of gambling problems, tools for prevention and identification of ARPG among the underage are needed.
... In addition, gambling is also regarded by adults as gaming (Calado et al., 2014). For whatever reason, both for adolescents and for adults, there are some similarities, associations and relationships between online gaming (a non-financial form of gambling (Griffiths, 1991a)) and online gambling (Delfabbro, King, Lambos, & Puglies, 2009;Griffiths, 2005b;Gupta & Derevensky, 1996;Johansson & Götestam, 2004;King, Ejova, & Delfabbro, 2012). In addition, as one important difference, the negative outcomes and effects of gambling can be easily reflected in family life as well as in social life since gambling generally requires money. ...
... The reason is that online video games deliver more rewards, points, credits, prizes, money, pleasure and satisfaction and help establish interaction with other users (Ang & Zaphiris, 2010;Beranuy et al., 2013;Kuss & Griffiths, 2012a;Ng & Wiemer-Hastings, 2005;Parks & Floyd, 1996;Peters & Malesky, 2008). When individuals win something via online games (like credits, prizes and money), they may develop online gambling or pathological gambling in future (Griffiths, 1991b;Gupta & Derevensky, 1996). In addition, it is seen that the concepts of ''Presence'' and ''Flow'' have a relationship with online video game addiction (Chou & Ting, 2003;Liu, Chou, & Lin, 2001;Wan & Chiou, 2006a). ...
... The relationship between video gaming and gambling is an aspect which has continuously received a significant amount of attention; the case has been made that gaming may serve as a pathway that increases the likelihood of developing problematic gambling behaviours. This position is one in which the structural similarities between gaming and electronic gambling are cited as a major influence (Fisher & Griffiths, 1995;Johansson & G€ otestam, 2004;Wood, Gupta, Derevensky, & Griffiths, 2004), as are the social benefits accrued for successful players (Griffiths & Wood, 2000), and misperceptions related to a sense of control (Gupta & Derevensky, 1996). ...
... Previous research has linked increased consumption of video games to increased participation in gambling and raised likelihood of developing problematic gambling behaviours (McBride & Derevensky, 2017;Wood et al., 2004). This relationship has been explained in terms of structural similarities between gaming and gambling (Fisher & Griffiths, 1995;Johansson & G€ otestam, 2004), the accrual of social capital (Griffiths & Wood, 2000), and maladapted cognitions such as an overdeveloped sense of control (Gupta & Derevensky, 1996). Therefore, it is hypothesised that Video gaming habits will be positively associated with Offline Gambling Habits (H 1 ), Online Gambling Habits (H 2 ), and Video Game-Related Gambling Habits (H 3 ). ...
Article
An established body of research exists in which playing video games has been associated with potentially problematic behaviours, such as gambling. An issue highlighted by the recent emergence of game-based gambling practices such as loot boxes, social network casinos, free-to-play game mechanics, and gambling using virtual goods and skins. This study investigates relationships between a range of gambling activities and the consumption of video games in general, and the newly emergent phenomenon of esports in particular. In addition, these practices are considered in relation to established measures assessing game addiction and problematic gambling. The study employs Partial Least Squares modelling to investigate data gathered via an international online survey (N = 613). Video game addiction was found to be negatively associated with offline gambling, online gambling, and problem gambling. Video game consumption had only small, positive association with video game-related gambling and problem gambling. Consumption of esports had small to moderate association with video game-related gambling, online gambling, and problem gambling. The primary finding of this study are that contemporary video games are not, in themselves, associated with increased potential for problematic gambling, indeed, the position that problem gaming and problem gambling are fundamentally connected is questioned.
... Băieţii jucau mai regulat decât fetele, fiind clasificaţi ca "dependenţi". Gupta (1996Gupta ( ,1997,considera că jocul este o problemă de şansă, care îi face pe adolescenţi să se simtă mai importanţi şi să-şi asume un risc mai mare, dând exemplul practicării black-jackului de către aceştia. De asemenea, afirma că părinţii şi alţi membrii ai familiei pot reprezenta un model pentru jucător. ...
... As early as the 1990s, virtual reality technology had entered the stage of theoretical improvement and application [37]. In 1994, Japanese game companies SEGA and Nintendo launched Sega VR-1 and Virtual Boy, respectively, for the game industry [38]. However, due to the high cost and low resolution of VR equipment at this time, it has not been widely used in the field of cognitive medicine, but some scholars had proposed to apply virtual technology to the field of cognitive evaluation [17]. ...
Article
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Objectives Non-invasive and low-cost virtual reality (VR) technology is important for early evaluation and intervention in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study aimed to demonstrate the current status of overseas and domestic research as well as the focus and frontier of VR technology among individuals with MCI through a bibliometric analysis. Methods Studies from the core collection of Web of Science™ between 1995 and 2020 were used; furthermore, CiteSpace 5.7 R3 was utilized to analyse information on authors/cited authors, keywords, burst words, and cited references. Results In total, 230 publications were identified. Most studies were published in the USA (45 publications) and Italy (41 publications), where Guiseppe Riva ranks first (14 publications), and Tarnanas I is the author with the highest centrality (0.44). The hot topics in VR applications in the MCI population are ‘physical activity,’ ‘people,’ ‘single-blind,’ ‘disease,’ ‘walking,’ ‘technology,’ ‘working memory,’ and ‘risk’ in recent years. The keyword ‘mild cognitive impairment’ has attracted extensive attention since 2012, showing the strongest citation outbreak (8.28). The clustering results of the literature show the research types and emerging trends, including ‘exergame,’ ‘serious games,’ ‘spatial navigation,’ ‘activities of daily living,’ ‘exercise,’ ‘enriched environment’ and ‘wayfinding.‘ Conclusions Cognitive assessment and nonpharmacological intervention research on patients with MCI have become the focus of dementia prevention in recent years. Virtual technology, combined with traditional methods such as exercise therapy, provides new ideas for innovative cognitive evaluation and cognitive intervention.
... Gambling Activities Questionnaire -Adapted (Gupta & Derevensky, 1996). To determine respondents' frequency of gambling participation, 11 items from a modified version of the Gambling Activities Questionnaire were administered. ...
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The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the concept of negative anticipated emotions (NAE) 2 have attracted research attention in the formulation of effective preventive interventions. This 3 approach has identified several key constructs of the TPB (i.e., intentions, attitudes, subjective 4 norms, perceptions of behavioural control) and NAE as valid predictors of gambling behaviours 5 and problems. However, no empirical investigation has utilized these constructs in the design or 6 evaluation of an adolescent problem gambling preventive intervention. The current research 7 aimed to assess the efficacy of targeting NAE and key TPB constructs in a prevention video for 8 modifying gambling beliefs, intentions and behaviours. A sample of 280 high school students 9 were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control condition. Participants were assessed 10 at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at three-month follow-up. Results reveal that the video 11 was not effective in producing desired changes in NAE, the TPB’s key constructs, or the 12 frequency of gambling behaviour. The findings suggest that the video, delivered as a universal 13 preventive intervention, may be insufficient for modifying NAE and other TPB key constructs, 14 or for changing gambling behaviours.
... Para crianças e adolescentes, jogar é absorvente e inofensivo, exceto se consumir muito tempo, e jogam pela diversão, desafio e pelo fato de amigos jogarem (Griffiths, 1997), e também pelo afastamento de problemas reais e envolvimento na ação (Selnow, 1984). Jogadores interessados e muito frequentes não diferem, em personalidade ou sociabilidade, daqueles pouco frequentes/ pouco interessados, mas relatam mais que jogar dá um senso de importância e tendem a assumir mais riscos em situações de jogo (Barnett, Vitaglione, Harper, Quackenbush, Steadman & Valdez, 1997, Glissov et al. 3 , 1994Gupta, 1994, Gupta & Derevensky, 1996. Quem joga muito vê os jogos como companhia mais fácil de interagir, que dá mais satisfação do que os próprios amigos (Selnow, 1984). ...
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With a questionnaire elaborated by the main author and collectively administered, it was examined the computer game-playing habits among an adolescents' group (40 males and 26 females, 6th to 8th grade, from a private school of Campinas/SP and with middle/middle-high socioeconomic status). Males played more than females but in both sexes, the time dedication decreased from 6th-7th to 8th grade. Among males became evident: the heteronomous control (parents) of time playing and the autonomous control; a predominant preference to sport games among the elders, and to sport or action games among the youngsters; the main causes of predilection were the challenges/strategies demands and the game contents. Among females, predominated the autonomous control and their motivation degree to computer games; there haven't clearly manifested preferences to different game types, but the challenges/strategies demands and the aroused amusement/interest were the major reasons for individuals predilections. Discussions focused the identified gender differences and parent's control.
... Given the many similarities between gambling and video game playing, particularly with regard to the structural characteristics of both activities (Fisher, 1994;Griffiths, 1991a;Gupta & Derevensky, 1996;Johansson & Gotestam, 2004;Ladouceur & Dube, 1995;Wood, Gupta, Derevenksy, & Griffiths, 2004), it is not difficult to apply a gambling model of motivation to problematical levels of video game playing. Problem video game playing may be conceptualized as a maladaptive motivational consequence characterized by low selfdetermination and thus poorer psychological functioning. ...
... color, music, graphics). Gupta and Derevensky (1996) conducted a study to examine the relationship between video game play and gambling behavior among children and adolescents. A large sample of children between the ages of 9 and 14 completed a questionnaire designed to measure video game habits and gambling behavior. ...
... Previous research on this population is very sparse. It has been found that players of video games may find gambling machines appealing due to their structural similarity (Griffiths, 1991) and that young video gamers can develop false beliefs about the amount of control they have in video games (Gupta & Derevensky, 1996). This increased illusory control through childhood may render this gaming population vulnerable to developing disordered gambling if it persists in adulthood. ...
Article
Internet Gaming Disorder and Gambling Disorder: A Comparison of Individual Psychological Factors Véronique O. Bélanger-Lejars Abstract In 2013, Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was added to the DSM-V under the category of disorders needing further research. IGD research is inconsistent in the definition and measure of the disorder but it has been compared to gambling disorder (GD) as the only other behavioural addiction in the DSM. The current review seeks to answer the question of how GD and IGD differ and converge on individual psychological risk factors. Six seminal studies are systematically reviewed and identify comorbid symptoms, personality and temperament traits, beliefs about illusory control, and measures of well-being. Studies presented IGD as a distinct disorder from GD but failed to clarify the psychological profile of IGD individuals. Gaining further insight into the differences between the two disorders can provide clarification in the diagnosis and treatment implementations. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jpbs.v3n2a12
... Gambling Activities Questionnaire -Adapted (GAQ; Gupta & Derevensky 1996) The GAQ is designed to assess four general domains related to gambling behavior, including descriptive information, cognitive perceptions, familial gambling, and comorbidity with other high-risk and delinquent behaviors. For this study, a modified version of the GAQ was administered to collect descriptive information regarding the frequency of participation in 11 common gambling activities for money over the previous 12 months (Bnot at all^, Bless than once a month^, Bat least once a month^, Bat least once a week^, and Bdaily^). ...
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Participation in fantasy sports has become increasingly popular. Typical gambling activities such as poker, sports wagering and, sports lotteries, share many similar characteristics with fantasy sports playing. Research has shown that not only are college students more likely to partake in risky behaviors (gambling, alcohol and drug use), but those who partake in fantasy sports are also more likely to experience gambling-related problems. However, no published studies have examined the relationship between student-athletes and fantasy sports participation. Using data from the 2004, 2008 and 2012 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) studies assessing gambling behaviors and problems among U.S college student-athletes, this study aims to explore the prevalence and growth in fantasy sports among student-athletes. Further, it examines whether, in the 2012 study, student-athletes qualifying as at-risk or having gambling problems participate more often in fantasy sports. Overall a steady increase in fantasy sports participation (for money or fun) in college was found looking at these three cross-sectional studies. Additionally, approximately half of college student-athletes who qualified as at risk or having gambling problems were found to have participated in fantasy sports wagering.
... Given the many similarities between gambling and video game playing, particularly with regard to the structural characteristics of both activities (Fisher, 1994;Griffiths, 1991a;Gupta & Derevensky, 1996;Johansson & Gotestam, 2004;Ladouceur & Dube, 1995;Wood, Gupta, Derevenksy, & Griffiths, 2004), it is not difficult to apply a gambling model of motivation to problematical levels of video game playing. Problem video game playing may be conceptualized as a maladaptive motivational consequence characterized by low selfdetermination and thus poorer psychological functioning. ...
Article
Self-determination theory states that motivation plays an important role in initiating, developing and maintaining involvement within an activity. The present study applied this theory to video game playing and surveyed 399 video game players, 82 percent of which were male with a mean age of 20.3 years old, on measures of video game playing involvement, motivation to play video games and problem video game play. Participants were obtained from various video game retail outlets, Internet cafes, and LAN gaming businesses. The results showed that extrinsic motivations to play video games, such as tension release, social approval and external regulation by in-game rewards, and amotivation, or playing without a sense of purpose about the activity, were significant predictors of problem video game playing. The results were discussed in terms of their application to identifying and assisting young people with potentially problematic levels of video game playing.
... Furthermore, there is a growing number of researchers who suggest that arcade video-games share some common ground with slot (gambling) machines, including the potential for dependency (see, for example, Griffiths, 1991Griffiths, , 1993Griffiths, , 1997aGriffiths, , 2005bBrown and Robertson, 1992;Fisher, 1994;Gupta and Derevensky, 1997;Wood et al., 2004). As Fisher and Griffiths (1995) pointed out, arcade video-games and slot machines share some important structural characteristics, these being: ...
Chapter
Research into video game and Internet addiction is a relatively little studied phenomenon, although there is more research regarding adolescent video-game addiction than there is on adolescent Internet addiction. Video games have a more pronounced addictive effect in young children, but less of an effect once they have reached their adult years. It appears that excessive video game playing can have potentially damaging effects upon a minority of individuals who display compulsive and addictive behavior, and who will do anything possible to “feed their addiction.” Using these individuals in research would help to identify the roots and causes of addictive playing and the impact of such behavior on family and school life. This would help to determine the variables that are salient in the acquisition, development and maintenance of video-game addiction. It may be that video-game addiction is age-related, like other more obviously “deviant” adolescent behaviors. With respect to excessive Internet use, the labels Internet Addiction Disorder, and Compulsive Internet Use have all been used to describe the concept that an individual is so involved in their online use as to neglect other areas of his or her life. There is clearly a need to distinguish between addictions to the Internet and addictions on the Internet. Gambling addicts who choose to engage in online gambling, as well as a computer game addicts who play online, are not Internet addicts; the Internet is just the place where they conduct their chosen addictive behavior. Internet addiction affects only a relatively small percentage of the online population and there is very little evidence that it is problematic among adolescents.
... No conclusive correlation has been established between gambling-like activities within video games and real gambling (King, Ejova & Delfabbro, 2012). With respect to young people, early studies found that those children who played video games for longer periods of time were also more likely to gamble than their peers (Gupta & Derevensky, 1996;Wood, Gupta, Derevensky & Griffiths, 2004) but this finding was contradicted in a subsequent project where the effect of association between the two variables became insignificant once control and other factors such as gender had been applied (Delfabbro, King, Lambos & Puglies, 2009). Nevertheless, a correlation between engagement in online gaming and online gambling with a «particularly high clustering of addicted gamblers in the higher frequency of social networking use» and gaming was identified in a sample of 2,107 students aged between 13 and 19 years old living on the Greek Island of Kos (Floros et al., 2013). ...
Article
Background and aims: Gambling-type games that do not involve the spending of money (e.g., social and (demo) [demonstration] gambling games, gambling-like activities within video games) have been accused in both the legal and psychological literature of increasing minors' propensity towards prohibited forms of gambling thus prompting calls for gambling regulation to capture address such games and subject them to age restrictions. However, there is still a shortage of empirical data that considers how young people experience monetary and non-monetary gambling, and whether they are sufficiently aware of the differences. Methods: Data was collected from 23 qualitative focus groups carried out with 200 young people aged between 14 and 19 years old in schools based in London and Kent. As the study was exploratory in nature, thematic analysis was adopted in order to capture how pupils categorise, construct, and react to gambling-like activities in comparison to monetary forms of gambling without the constrains of a predetermined theoretical framework. Results: Despite many similarities, substantial differences between monetary and non-monetary forms of gambling were revealed in terms of pupils' engagement, motivating factors, strengths, intensity, and associated emotions. Pupils made clear differentiation between non-monetary and monetary forms of gambling and no inherent transition of interest from one to the other was observed among participants. Only limited evidence emerged of (demo) games being used as a practice ground for future gambling. Conclusion: For the present sample, non-monetary forms of gambling presented a different proposition to the real-money gambling with no inherent overlap between the two. For some the «softer» form minimised the temptation to try other forms of gambling that they were not legally allowed to engage in, but (demo) games may attract those who already want to gamble. Policy implications: Regulators must recognise and balance these two conflicting aspects. Jocs d'apostes i el joc d'apostes social: un estudi de les percepcions i el comportament juvenil Resum. Antecedents i objectius: els jocs d'atzar que no impliquin despesa de diners (per exemple, jocs socials i demos, i jocs d'atzar dins de l'àmbit dels videojocs) han estat considerats, tant per la literatura jurídica com per la psicològica, causants d'augmentar la propensió dels menors cap a formes prohibides de joc, per la qual cosa s'han llançat alertes a les entitats reguladores per aprehendre i restringir amb paràmetres d'edat aquest tipus de
... Other studies have noted that delinquency is positively correlated with video game playing, particularly violent video games (Anderson & Dill 2000;Anderson 2004). Furthermore, Gupta and Derevensky (1996) also found that those who played video games more often also gambled more than those who played less video games. Adolescents in the urban region who were problem gamblers were more likely to be problem video gamers compared to adolescents who did not gamble. ...
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The purpose of this paper is to explore the differences in adolescent problem video gaming in a large urban area (Toronto) compared to a non-urban region of Ontario (Northern Ontario). The results of this study showed that 76.6% of adolescents in the urban region and 80.3% of adolescents in the non-urban region played video games in the past year (n = 2175). Adolescents in the urban region were significantly more likely than adolescents in the non-urban region to experience problem video gaming (16.7 and 8.8%, respectively). Males and those reporting poorer mental health were more likely to experience problem video gaming. Those who engaged in delinquent behaviors were more likely to experience problem video gaming in both regions, while problem gamblers were more likely to experience problem gaming in urban regions. Lower scholastic achievement was correlated with problem video gaming in the non-urban region.
... Video games are something of a lightning rod for controversy, since their inception they have been proposed as the cause of a range of societal problems including violent behavior, problematic gambling behavior, obesity, and social isolation (see Bensley and van Eenwyk 2001;Gupta and Derevensky 1996;Vandewater et al. 2004;Colwell and Kato 2003). Given that almost all new technologies and media have at first been received cautiously, if not subject to outright hostility, by mainstream society, such concerns are to be expected. ...
Chapter
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Loot boxes are a common monetization mechanic in the contemporary games industry. However, an increasing number of regulatory bodies have been investigating loot boxes, with several having concluded that they constitute gambling. There is, however, a lack of consensus, with some authorities concentrating on the way loot boxes are obtained, while others consider the value of their contents. Overwatch is particularly affected by this disparity as it remains legal in some jurisdictions but not in others. In order to understand the role and function of loot boxes, an expert analysis must be complemented with consumer voices. This chapter utilizes content analysis to investigate discussions of loot boxes in Overwatch fan communities, identifying several prominent themes: monetization, effects, contents, gambling, regulation, alternatives, and their specifics in Overwatch .
... In line with our observations in IGD, heightened illusion of control has been reported in regular gamblers who prefer skill-based games, such as poker and sports betting, compared with gamblers who prefer games of pure chance [42]. Previous research among gamblers has shown that video game involvement was a significant predictor of gamblingrelated cognitive distortions, possibly reflecting inflated confidence [16,43]. Nevertheless, in the context of gaming, there is an argument that beliefs about control might not necessarily reflect cognitive distortions, since video games involve an element of actual skill that can result in a legitimate sense of expertise and control over the game. ...
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Increased cognitive distortions (i.e. biased processing of chance, probability and skill) are a key psychopathological process in disordered gambling. The present study investigated state and trait aspects of cognitive distortions in 22 individuals with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and 22 healthy controls. Participants completed the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale as a trait measure of cognitive distortions, and played a slot machine task delivering wins, near-misses and full-misses. Ratings of pleasure (“liking”) and motivation to play (“wanting”) were taken following the different outcomes, and gambling persistence was measured after a mandatory phase. IGD was associated with elevated trait cognitive distortions, in particular skill-oriented cognitions. On the slot machine task, the IGD group showed increased “wanting” ratings compared with control participants, while the two groups did not differ regarding their “liking” of the game. The IGD group displayed increased persistence
... While there have been a number of academic studies of gambling and video gaming (i.e., individually or in combination) among adolescents over the past two decades (e.g., Delfabbro et al., 2009;Forrest et al., 2016;Gupta & Derevensky, 1996;Molde et al., 2018;Parker et al., 2008), this research has often considered each activity as a homogenous activity and has not considered specific types of gaming activities that may resemble gambling. Some studies have focussed on the relationship between gaming and gambling, where the guiding framework has been the so-called 'gateway effect' (Hayer, Kalke, Meyer, & Brosowski, 2018;Molde et al., 2018;UK Gambling Commission, 2015;Wohl, Salmon, Hollingshead, & Kim, 2017) or the pathway between gaming and gambling where certain individuals with a video gaming history may demonstrate a greater likelihood of engaging in gambling at adult age. ...
Technical Report
https://responsiblegambling.vic.gov.au/resources/publications/online-gaming-and-gambling-in-children-and-adolescents-normalising-gambling-in-cyber-places-479/ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This literature review examined the available research on children and adolescents' exposure to, and participation in, online gaming and gambling activities. The intended focus of the review was Australian jurisdictions, however international studies were included where local research was limited. The review drew upon both peer reviewed (journal articles) and non-peer reviewed literature (reports). It found that gambling and gambling-like products are highly visible, accessible and promoted to young audiences across a range of digital media channels. However, there are gaps in our current understanding of how gaming–gambling crossover activities and promotions influence young people in Australia, and the potential effect on gambling harm. The review concludes with some areas for consideration, including opportunities for parent education.
... In another Canadian study, a substantial proportion of young participants (12-19 years) reported that gambling advertisements increased their interest in gambling or prompted them to gamble (Derevensky et al. 2010). Video gaming and simulated gambling activities, such as those involving 'loot boxes', have been shown to increase users' risk of problem gambling (Gupta and Derevensky 1996;King et al. 2014;Zendle and Cairns 2018). Young people are particularly vulnerable to gambling harm as they are less likely to fully comprehend the probabilities and risks of winning and losing (Defoe et al. 2015;Monaghan et al. 2008). ...
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Concerns continue to be raised about the ‘normalising’ influence of gambling and its marketing on children. This study sought to determine the nature and extent of children’s everyday exposure to gambling and its marketing. New Zealand children (11–13 years; n = 167) wore wearable cameras, capturing images of their day every seven seconds for four days, June 2014–July 2015. Images (n = 380,000) were assessed for their exposure to gambling and its marketing. On average, children were exposed to gambling products or activities 0.6 (95% CI 0.4, 1.0) times/day and marketing 6.9 (95% CI 4.6, 10.3) times/day. Marketing exposures occurred most frequently in book stores (1.7 (95% CI 0.7, 4.0)/day), convenience stores (1.5 (95% CI 0.7, 3.0)/day), and supermarkets (1.4 (95% CI 0.8, 2.5)/day), via a shop front signage (3.3 (95% CI 1.9, 5.5)/day) and in-store marketing (1.9 (95% CI 1.3, 2.7)/day). The national lottery (4.7 (95% CI 3.2, 7.0)/day) and scratch cards (0.6 (95% CI 0.4, 0.9)/day) were most frequently promoted. Children were frequently exposed to gambling and its marketing, in the everyday places they go. Regulation of gambling and its marketing could contribute to the reduction of gambling-related harm, improving children’s health, and well-being.
... Gambling Activities Questionnaire -Adapted (Gupta & Derevensky, 1996). To determine respondents' frequency of gambling participation, 11 items from a modified version of the Gambling Activities Questionnaire were administered. ...
Article
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The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the concept of negative anticipated emotions (NAEs) have attracted research attention in the formulation of effective preventive interventions. This approach has identified several key constructs of the TPB (i.e., intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceptions of behavioural control) and NAEs as valid predictors of gambling behaviours and problems. However, no empirical investigation has used these constructs in the design or evaluation of a preventive intervention for adolescent problem gambling. The current research aimed to assess the efficacy of targeting NAEs and key TPB constructs in a prevention video for modifying gambling beliefs, intentions, and behaviours. A sample of 280 high school students were randomly assigned to either an intervention or a control condition. Participants were assessed at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results reveal that the video was not effective in producing desired changes in NAEs, the key constructs of the TPB, or the frequency of gambling behaviour. The findings suggest that the video, delivered as a universal preventive intervention, may be insufficient for modifying NAEs and other TPB key constructs, or for changing gambling behaviours.Pour la formulation d’interventions préventives efficaces, l’attention de chercheurs s’est portée sur la théorie du comportement planifié et le concept d’émotions négatives anticipées. Cette approche a permis de relever plusieurs constructions clés de la théorie du comportement planifié (soit, les intentions, attitudes, normes subjectives, perceptions du contrôle comportemental) et des émotions négatives anticipées comme indicateurs valides de comportements et de problèmes liés au jeu. Cependant, aucune étude empirique n’a utilisé ces constructions dans la conception ou l’évaluation d’une intervention préventive pour le jeu des adolescents. La recherche actuelle visait donc à évaluer dans quelle mesure il était efficace de cibler les émotions négatives anticipées et les constructions clés du comportement planifié dans une vidéo de prévention afin de modifier les croyances, les intentions et les comportements du jeu. Un échantillon de 280 élèves du secondaire a été affecté au hasard à une condition d’intervention ou de contrôle. Les participants ont été évalués avant et après l’intervention et au suivi, trois mois plus tard. Les résultats révèlent que la vidéo n’a pas été efficace pour produire les changements souhaités dans le cas des émotions négatives anticipées, les constructions clés du comportement planifié ou la fréquence du comportement du jeu. Les résultats permettent de conclure que la vidéo présentée comme intervention préventive universelle ne suffit pas à modifier les émotions négatives anticipées ni d’autres constructions clés du comportement planifié ou des comportements de jeu.
... All gambling questions referred to student-athletes' behaviours during the past 12 months. Participants were initially categorized as gamblers or non-gamblers based on their responses to the Gambling Activities Questionnaire (GAQ; Gupta & Derevensky, 1996), which asks about frequency of participation in 10 common gambling activities over the past 12 months (''daily,'' ''at least once a week,'' ''at least once a month,'' ''less than once a month,'' and ''not at all''). Individuals reporting no gambling in any form in the past year were categorized as non-gamblers. ...
Article
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Student-athletes represent a vulnerable subgroup of the college student population with regards to engagement in high-risk behaviours. Four large samples of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student-athletes in 2004 (N = 20,587), 2008 (N = 19,942), 2012 (N = 22,935) and 2016 (N = 22,388) were surveyed about their gambling behaviours and attitudes. A cross-sectional study was conducted to gain insight into changing gambling behaviours and attitudes among college student-athletes. Findings revealed gender differences in participation rates of gambling with men consistently engaging in all gambling activities at higher rates than women (55% of men versus 38% women in 2016). Despite gender differences, the results suggest that participation rates for most gambling activities have generally decreased over the twelve-year span. The proportion of student-athletes at-risk or meeting criteria for pathological gambling between 2004 and 2016 has also decreased among men (4% in 2004 versus 2% in 2016) while remaining relatively consistent among women (<1% across all years). Furthermore, attitudes towards various forms of gambling appear to have changed over time, with a greater number of student-athletes in 2016 believing that sports wagering is unacceptable and a potentially harmful activity. Taken together, the results suggest that gambling behaviours among student-athletes may be on a downward trend despite the increased accessibility and availability of gambling opportunities.
... Gambling participation was measured utilizing the Gambling Activities Questionnaire (GAQ; Gupta and Derevensky 1996). The GAQ queries frequency of participation for 11 common gambling activities over the past 12 months ("not at all", "less than once a month", "at least once a month", "at least once a week", "daily"). ...
Article
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Gambling disorder has serious negative consequences for individual health and wellbeing, while being more prevalent among college student-athletes compared to the general college population. While previous research reports that sexual minority (i.e., gay, lesbian and bisexual) populations have higher rates of addictive behaviors such as alcohol and drug abuse, no previous research has explored risk for gambling disorder symptomatology by sexual identity status. The aim of the current study is to identify differences in the severity of gambling disorder symptomatology between sexual minority and heterosexual student-athletes. A stratified random sample of 19,299 National Collegiate Athletic Association college student-athletes participated in an anonymous survey assessing gambling disorder symptomatology. Student-athletes completed measures assessing their past 12-month problem gambling as measured by the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder and provided information on their sexual identity. Gay and bisexual men had disordered gambling scores 3.42 times higher than heterosexual men (p < .01), when adjusting for race/ethnicity, and years in college. Gay/lesbian and bisexual women reported disordered gambling scores 2.57 higher than heterosexual women (p < .01) when adjusting for race/ethnicity and years in college. This is the first study to compare the prevalence of gambling disorder symptomatology across sexual identity status. The higher number of gambling disorder symptoms observed among sexual minorities in the current study underlines the need for more research on this topic, and supports the exploration of intervention efforts designed to better address problem gambling among sexual minority communities.
... These games offer all these benefits but this is true only when playing cards is used solely for a family and social purpose. Addiction in gambling cards can ruin one's social, family and economic life (Gupta & Derevensky, 1996). ...
... Even worse, system design may be steered towards so-called dark patterns. This term loosely describes a set of measures applied to a software to 'trick' users into excessive usage (e.g., variable ratio schedule [39]) or make it harder to stop using it (e.g., infinite scroll [40]). ...
Article
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Contemporary assistance systems support a broad variety of tasks. When they provide information or instruction, the way they do it has an implicit and often not directly graspable impact on the user. System design often forces static roles onto the user, which can have negative side effects when system errors occur or unique and previously unknown situations need to be tackled. We propose an adjustable augmented reality-based assistance infrastructure that adapts to the user’s individual cognitive task proficiency and dynamically reduces its active intervention in a subtle, not consciously noticeable way over time to spare attentional resources and facilitate independent task execution. We also introduce multi-modal mechanisms to provide context-sensitive assistance and argue why system architectures that provide explainability of concealed automated processes can improve user trust and acceptance.
... A few studies have looked at the demographic, behavioural, and mental health similarities and differences among the subset of individuals who are both video gamers and gamblers. Gupta and Derevensky (1996) found that higher frequency video game players were more apt to take greater gambling risks and more likely to perceive chance-based gambling activities as requiring a similar level of skill as video games. Wood et al. (2004) found that problem gambling youth were significantly more likely to spend excessive time on video games, report a dissociative experience while playing video games, and more likely to report video games as both relaxing and arousing. ...
Article
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The relationship between video gaming and gambling was examined in a large cross-sectional sample of 3942 Canadian online panelists who responded to a solicitation recruiting individuals who regularly gambled or played video games. Most past year video gamers reported gambling in the past year (78.5%) and most past year gamblers reported playing video games in the past year (70.7%). However, frequency of involvement in gambling as well as all individual types of gambling was only weakly correlated with frequency of involvement in video games. Problem gamblers and problem gamers were found to have similar demographic features as well as high rates of mental health problems and impulsivity. Some differences did exist, with problem video gamers tending to be younger, somewhat less impulsive, less likely to have a substance use disorder, and more likely to have depression. Despite having similar profiles, overlap between problematic levels of gaming and gambling was modest, with only 10.5% of the 466 problem gamblers also being problem video gamers and 24.1% of the 203 problem video gamers also being problem gamblers. In general, the evidence would suggest that although the risk factors and manifestations of problem gaming and problem gambling are similar, involvement and/or overinvolvement in one is not a strong predictor of involvement and/or overinvolvement in the other.
... Derevensky, 1996;Macey &Hamari, 2018;Van Rooijet al., 2014;.Recognized that a complex set of interrelating factors could play a role both in the associations of gambling and gaming and in shifting the continuum of risk downward, ranging from the intrapersonal to the socio-cultural sphere, in this paper a psychosocial perspective will be adopted, emphasizing that the social norms and the features of the social network can represent key factors in understanding youths' engagement in problem gambling situations and in guiding prevention initiatives (Suissa, 2013).The way adolescents interpret their social experience and the meaning taken by their way of behaving derives from their encounters with other people and from the shared socio-cultural forms of thinking, communicating and acting that shape the traditions of their society (Dressler et al., 2007). From this perspective, gambling and gaming activities can be understood as a meaningful action which conveys points of view not only on the target behaviours but, broadly, on people's social experience and identity (Crossley, 2001). ...
... Another issue of IGD worth noting is the approach and method to assess IGD. Traditionally, researchers rely heavily on the DSM-IV's diagnosis of "pathological gambling" and "substance dependence" to assess IGD (Ahmadi, Amiri, Ghanizadeh et al., 2014;Festl, Scharkow & Quandt, 2013;Fisher, 1994;Gupta & Derevensky, 1996). Indeed, there are studies which merely substitute the term "gambling" for "gaming" to assess IGD. ...
Article
The inclusion of “Internet gaming disorder (IGD)” in the fifth edition of Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM‐5) creates a possible line of research. Despite the fact that adolescents are vulnerable to IGD, studies had reported wide array of prevalence estimates in this population. The aim of this paper is to review the published studies on prevalence of IGD among adolescents. Relevant studies prior to March 2017 were identified through databases. A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of IGD among adolescents was 4.6% (95% CI = 3.4%–6.0%). Male adolescents generally reported higher prevalence rate (6.8%, 95% CI = 4.3%–9.7%) than female adolescents (1.3%, 95% CI = 0.6%–2.2%). Subgroup analyses revealed that prevalence estimates were highest when studies were conducted in: (i) 1990s; (ii) use DSM criteria for pathological gambling; (iii) examine gaming disorder; (iv) Asia; and (v) small samples (<1,000). This study confirms the alarming prevalence of IGD among adolescents, especially among males. Given the methodological deficits in past decades (such as reliance on DSM criteria for “pathological gambling,” inclusion of the word “Internet,” and small sample sizes), it is critical for researchers to apply a common methodology for assess this disorder.
... For example, the frequency of visits to a nongambling video game arcade was found to be positively associated with the frequency of disordered gambling (Ladouceur and Dubé 1995). A study of children found a positive association between time spent playing video games and the likelihood to partake in risk-taking gambling (Gupta and Derevensky 1996). A study of German students aged 12-25 (Walther et al. 2012) reported a significant correlation between problematic video gaming and gambling. ...
Article
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The scope and variety of video games and monetary gambling opportunities are expanding rapidly. In many ways, these forms of entertainment are converging on digital and online video games and gambling sites. However, little is known about the relationship between video gaming and gambling. The present study explored the possibility of a directional relationship between measures of problem gaming and problem gambling, while also controlling for the influence of sex and age. In contrast to most previous investigations which are based on cross-sectional designs and non-representative samples, the present study utilized a longitudinal design conducted over 2 years (2013, 2015) and comprising 4601 participants (males 47.2%, age range 16–74) drawn from a random sample from the general population. Video gaming and gambling were assessed using the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents and the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, respectively. Using an autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation model, we found a positive relationship between scores on problematic gaming and later scores on problematic gambling, whereas we found no evidence of the reverse relationship. Hence, video gaming problems appear to be a gateway behavior to problematic gambling behavior. In future research, one should continue to monitor the possible reciprocal behavioral influences between gambling and video gaming.
... Les jeux vidéo comme les JAH sont basés sur des programmes de renforcements au travers d'un système de gain et de perte (Gupta, 1994). ...
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Abstract: Video game playing is constantly evolving. The expansion of Internet has allowed gamers to exchange and compete with others players around the world. Internet has also brought the possibility of complex financial transactions concerning video games. This paper suggests addressing the main types of financial expenses involved in video game playing: gaming equipment, video games, subscriptions, downloadable content, free-to-play, e-sport, crowdfunding and the shadow economy. We address the close relationship between gaming and gambling, including through the scientific literature. Research has been conducted to investigate this relationship for a long time but payment modes in video games have recently changed dramatically. The luck in video game expenses is becoming increasingly more important. It therefore seems relevant to consider the impact of the link between gambling and gaming in clinical practice of addiction treatment. Clinical cases drawn from a center of addiction have been selected to illustrate our reasoning. Clinical research on addiction is still in its infancy when it involves the association between gaming and gambling. The legislation around these practices must also progress. Keywords: video game, gambling, Internet, convergence, addiction, pathological, money
... Moreover, in the example of slot-machines, both involve pressing buttons and attending to onscreen stimuli to earn rewards or credits. Participants are also presented with bonuses or incentives as well as various graphical and sound effects to maintain their interest (Delfabbro et al., 2009;Griffiths & Hunt, 1995;Gupta & Derevensky, 1996;Griffiths, 1991). In some regions, video-games and gambling have also often been co-located in land-based amusement arcades (e.g. ...
Article
Similarities between video-games and gambling have led to the proposition that video-gaming could act as a ‘gateway’ activity for gambling. In this paper, we review the major lines of evidence advanced to support this idea, including evidence for the co-occurrence of the two activities; the relationship between problem gambling and problem gaming; and, studies of gambling and loot boxes. Our review suggests that, at best, only a small correlation exists between overall gambling and video-game engagement and this may often be accounted for by underlying demographic and personality variables. We find even less evidence to support a direct relationship between problem gaming and problem gambling. However, problem gambling symptoms appear to be positively related to loot-box purchases. Gamblers who play video-games may be attracted to features that enable them to engage in risk-taking via familiar systems of variable reinforcement. Less evidence supports the view that loot-boxes encourage gambling or facilitate an entry point into other types of gambling, including those associated with gaming (e.g. esports betting). Overall, this review found little convincing evidence in support of the ‘gateway hypothesis’ and suggests that further longitudinal research is necessary to strengthen our understanding of the links between video-gaming and gambling.
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Purpose of the Review Given recent changes in cannabis legalization across North America, understanding cannabis-gambling relationships is of increasing interest. This review examines the current state of the research literature on the co-occurrence of cannabis and gambling. Specifically, the relationship between cannabis and gambling is examined in youth, adults, treatment-seeking individuals, as well as in specific populations. Recent Findings Literature search findings show that the majority of studies to date examining gambling and cannabis are epidemiological investigations conducted in youth. Overall, studies suggest a link between cannabis and gambling, whereby engaging in any form of gambling is linked with cannabis use; moreover, increasing problem gambling severity is associated with cannabis use. The literature search revealed no studies that systematically investigate simultaneous cannabis use during gambling in gambling populations. Summary Findings from the current review demonstrate high rates of co-occurrence between cannabis use and gambling, albeit less information on simultaneous use exists. An important research priority for informing policy, therefore, is a better understanding of cannabis’ effects on decision-making and risky behaviours. Findings from the current review highlight that these behaviours begin in youth even before reaching high school. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the epidemiology of gambling-cannabis relationships, nevertheless, initial findings suggest that early gambling behaviour may serve as an important behavioural marker. Altogether, the findings demonstrate that regulatory frameworks should not only consider cannabis co-use with other substances but also a need to include other addictive behaviours, such as gambling.
Article
The application of cognitive therapy in treating gambling disorder pivots on the assumption that maladaptive gambling behavior is to a certain degree governed by flawed information processing. However, if gambling disorder is more predicted by factors other than distortions in thinking, then cognitive therapy might not be the most suitable approach to problem gambling. This study investigated the extent to which the illusion of control can predict disordered gambling among Chinese youth. Some key correlates of pathological gambling were considered, including sex, preferences for the type of games, substance use while playing online or offline gambling games, amount of monetary reward, and Internet gaming addiction. An inventory made up of five main sections - such as the Illusion of Control Beliefs scale - was administered to 700 Hong Kong Chinese students to assess their beliefs about gambling, online and offline gambling behaviors, and tendencies to disordered gambling and Internet gaming addiction. The results indicated that the perceived intention to obtain desired outcomes, false attribution of chance-determined outcomes to the self’s effort and ability, and perceived loss of control over gambling behaviors can serve as effective predictors of disordered gambling in the Chinese youth population. This held true even with other important parameters being controlled. Accordingly, intervention tactics that zero in on dysfunctional cognitive processes can form a pertinent approach to working with Chinese pathological gamblers.
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El presente artículo revisa la literatura sobre la adicción a los videojuegos e investigaciones relacionadas sobre las consecuencias negativas de la dedicación excesiva a los videojuegos. Gran parte de la investigación se ha llevado a cabo con niños y adolescentes, aunque investigaciones recientes sobre juegos a través de Internet indican que una minoría de personas adultas juegan de forma muy excesiva. Este artículo muestra que la investigación sobre la adicción a los vide- ojuegos es un fenómeno poco estudiado y que se necesitan más investigaciones antes de que se pueda debatir y decidir si la adicción a los videojuegos constituye una entidad clínica diferenciada. Las pruebas de la investigación indican que los videojuegos parecen ser cuando menos potencialmente adictivos y que la excesiva dedicación a los videojuegos puede tener efectos potencialmente dañinos sobre un pequeño número de individuos que parecen manifestar elementos de un com- portamiento compulsivo y adictivo.
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Despite the fact that minors in Canada are prohibited from legalized gambling, adolescents commonly engage in both legalized (lottery products, casino, video lottery terminals) and self-organized (cards, sports betting, dice) gambling activities both at home and in school. Lifetime prevalence rates of pathological gambling for adults range from 1% to 2%, and existing data suggest that the prevalence among adolescents may be two to four times higher. Very little is known about risk factors in the development and perpetuation of problematic and pathological gambling. This statement is intended to educate paediatricians, family physicians and other health care providers about the emerging knowledge around gambling in childhood and adolescence and the potential serious consequences of this activity. It also urges federal, provincial and territorial governments to include this specific issue in their agendas and to address the socio-political factors associated with gambling.
Technical Report
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There are various legalized gambling games in North America that are skillbased. For example, card games like poker allow players to exercise objective skill in order to maximize their winnings. Slot machines, by contrast, legally operate as games of “pure chance”, in that players cannot influence their outcomes by any means. However, a recently emerging trend in the design of gambling games is to incorporate a component of objective skill into slot machine type games in the form of arcade-style bonus rounds. Take, for example, the recent development of a “Space Invaders” themed slot machine that is now available to players on casino floors in Nevada (Stutz, 2015). This particular game triggers a bonus round where a playerʼs skill (i.e. how well a player can perform in this game) actually determines the amount of credits they can gain. Such slot machine bonus rounds allow for the highly skilled to win more money than those who are less skilled, resulting in a payback percentage that varies with player performance. Gambling Research Exchange Ontario issued an Evidence Exchange request for the purpose of examining these newly developed skill-based slot machines. We present two forms of research addressing this issue. First, we conducted a jurisdictional scan to investigate the legal status of these skill-based games, including details about their definitions found in legislation and how they are currently regulated. Next, we conducted a scoping review (a type of systematic review) of the current academic literature highlighting the potential risks and harms such games may present, as well as responsible gambling initiatives that can potentially remedy or lessen such ramifications. Below we have summarize the main findings documented in this final report.
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Despite the fact that video games have a reputation "as mindless pursuits used strictly for entertainment" (Rice, 2005), numerous researchers believe that playing them may have positive impacts on students' learning (e.g., Aldrich, 2004; Elliot, Adams, & Bruckman, 2002; Gee, 2003, 2006; Mohamed & Jaafar, 2010) and cognitive development (Green & Bavelier, 2006; Sherry, 2006). Consequently, the potential value that video games have on students' overall well being deserves special attention. This paper explores what makes a video game so appealing to players, along with what one can learn by playing video games prior to proposing them as excellent complementary tools for instruction. Specifically, this paper focuses on: 1) how video games may enhance students' learning when incorporated in educational settings; 2) how playing video games may have a positive effect on students' cognitive development; and 3) the implications of designing and implementing educational video games within the school.
Conference Paper
The main aim of this research is to assess the condition, and to what extent do the digital games influence everyday life of children attending primary school. Another aim of the research is to find out how children are familiarised with digital games and if there is any interest in the application of the games in the educational process. Twelve primary schools from Brno (6) and Brno-Country District (6) participated in the research. The on-line survey was carried out in the period from September to October 2014, and 599 respondents from 5th and 9th grade participated in the survey. The results of the survey disproved the hypothesis that digital games influence everyday life of children attending primary school. Factor analysis proved that students do perceive possible risks following excessive or imprudent gaming and are able to determine them dependably. However, less than 13% of them are aware that gambling can be a problem. The survey results further show that, primary school students are interested in using digital games in the educational process. Nonetheless, this software is not structured towards school curricula in the Czech Republic, and there is no responsible social policy implemented.
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Objectives Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. Methods A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12–15 years (mean age = 13.6 years) were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young’s (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998) criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gaming addiction. Results Internet cafes were described as a safe and ideal rendezvous for gamers. The benefits of gaming included fun and satisfaction, fostering social support and teamwork, meeting new friends and becoming sociable, boosting cognitive techniques and intellectual agility, improved responsiveness and quick thinking. Perceived harms of gaming addiction were reduced time and interest in other important activities, poor academic performance, physical harms and emotional distress, disrupted friendship with non-gaming peers, risked family relationship and financial problems. Five interviewees (38.5 %) could be categorized as pathological gamers and two were problem gamers (15.4 %). The psychological factors associated with gaming addiction include low self-esteem, a strong desire for aggressive and exciting experiences, reliance on gaming to kill time and to obtain satisfaction, coping with problems and negative emotions, and obsession with achieving higher rankings in games. The social and environmental risk factors are accessibility to the Internet cafés, aggressive promotional activities at the Internet cafes, peer pressure, family influence and early gaming experiences, perceived parental approval, lack of parental supervision, and poor family relationship. Conclusions The study results throw light on prevention programs.
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For street children in Mumbai, gambling is mostly a social and recreational activity. This study is based on data gathered from a survey of 70 youths aged 12 to 24, two focus groups, and participant observation. It offers glimpses into various facets of their gambling, including age patterns, games played, venues, and how group and street subculture strongly influence participation. Street children perceive gambling as a “game of chance,” implying it is a form of recreation, not to be taken seriously. Given the pervasiveness of gambling and the absence of other recreational and money-saving opportunities, there is a need to design educational and preventive interventions for street children.
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This mixed-methods, exploratory study investigates the gambling activities of street youth in Mumbai, India. Data from surveys and brief interviews of 70 youth aged 12–24, two focus groups, and ethnographic observations offer descriptive snapshots of the gambling behavior of participants. The article includes details about games played, popular venues, initiation patterns, time spent gambling, and interactions with the police. Street youth gamble for social benefits, such as group membership and fun; it is also a leisure activity enabling time to go by quickly. Individual benefits include intermittent rewards and a high after winning or being referred to as a gambler. The inability to save, the lack of recreation options, living in groups, and the environment of the streets structure and sustain gambling. This study discusses the group and social dimension of gambling among street youth, and how this dimension makes their participation different from adolescent gambling in general and General Addictions Theory. It contributes to the literature by emphasizing that for street youth the social/group aspects of gambling predominate the psychological. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for practice, highlighting the need to develop recreational, income-saving, and educational awareness programs.
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In the U.K., the major commercial gambling activity in adolescents is the playing of slot machines (commonly known as “fruit machines”). Over the past few years, the negative effects of “fruit machine addiction” have been reported by various helping organizations (e.g. Gamblers Anonymous) and the national press, including allegations of attempted murder, suicide and prostitution as well as a wider incidence of petty crime. Fifty adolescent fruit machine players from a ‘user population’ participated in a face-to-face interview and questionnaire study examining factors in the acquisition, development and maintenance of gambling behaviour. Nine adolescent males were deemed to be pathological gamblers as measured by the American Psychiatric Association DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria, and a number of serious consequences were reported including gambling debts, truancy and stealing.
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Although it has been determined that gambling is a popular activity amongst the young, there seems to be a lack of studies examining developmental differences in children's gambling behavior. This study examines developmental differences in children's blackjack gambling behavior. One hundred and four students (51 males; 53 females) from grades 4, 6, and 8 completed a questionnaire examining their gambling behavior in general and individually played a computerized blackjack game with the following data being recorded: percentage of accuracy, amounts of money bet, gross winnings, percentage of wins, number of hands played, and end balance. Findings revealed few developmental differences in prevalence and frequency of gambling behavior and performance on a blackjack task. Males were found to wager greater amounts of money and have larger gross winnings than females on the blackjack task. Furthermore, males were more likely to view gambling as involving both large amounts of skill and luck, thus suggesting an illusion of control for gambling activities. The results are discussed from a cognitive developmental perspective.
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Surveyed 332 Atlantic City high school students to explore the incidence of casino gambling. 1,120 high school students were also surveyed on the incidence of casino gambling by the school newspaper. It was found that 64% of the Ss had gambled at the casinos. The dangers of shaping compulsive gambling behavior through societal acceptance of legalized gambling are discussed. (3 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A questionnaire was used to investigate gambling in British adolescents. Responses from fifty 13- to 14-year-olds were analyzed. Gambling was found to be very pervasive (90% of subjects reported at least some gambling activity). Males gambled more than females, both in absolute terms and as a proportion of income. Income was found to have some influence on gambling behavior, but the effects of intelligence and social class were nonsignificant. Slot machines were the commonest form of gambling in both sexes.
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Eight hundred and ninety-two high school students from four New Jersey high schools were given a questionnaire concerning their gambling behavior. Ninety-one percent of the students had gambled at least once in their lifetime, 86% gambled in the last year and 32% gambled at least once a week. Using an index which was validated in other research (Lesieur, Blume, & Zoppa, 1986) 5.7% of the students showed clear signs of pathological gambling. The pathological gambling signs index was found to be correlated with sex, parental gambling problems, grade average, and the extent of gambling by the student.
Chapter
Links and interactions between gaming, gambling and risk taking were explored and discussed. In particular the phenomenon of excitement or arousal experienced by the participants of all these activities was examined and a demonstration of it was given in the workshop by recording the heart rate of participants as they played well-known games. The phenomena of addictions in general and gambling addictions in particular were described and discussed. A study on videogame addictions among adolescents was then reported and discussed and compared with studies of adolescent machine gamblers in the US and the UK. A developmental model was proposed outlining one possible path along which the development of machine gambling addictions could stem from an early pathology of man-machine relationships.
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This article explores the applicability of video arcade game formats to educational microcomputer software. Four variables are discussed as being potentially important to the motivational appeal of video arcade games and several established educational practices are examined in relation to the motivational features of arcade games. Also, guidelines for educational curriculum based on arcade game formats are proposed and the term Arc-Ed Curriculum is offered to describe such software. The content for this article is based on established learning theory and the author's experience in the development and field testing of six math games based on video game formats.
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The topic of adolescent gambling is attracting growing interest, but there has still been little controlled or systematic research into the area, and much of what has been written would best be described as “armchair theorizing.” The literature concerning pre-adult gambling behavior falls into three general categories: (a) direct and indirect studies concerning adolescent gambling; (b) studies of the economic socialization of children, and (c) consideration of gambling as play and games as precursors to gambling. This paper presents an overview of the literature examining each of these three categories. Special emphasis is placed upon the playing of fruit machines, as it is this activity which is currently regarded as the biggest problem concerning young gamblers, particularly in the U.K. Recommendations for future research are discussed, particularly for work using a functional/behavioral analysis model to determine the variables which influence how adolescents “learn” to gamble.
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Fruit machine gambling among children and young people in the United Kingdom has attracted increasing interest. Since 1985 a number of questionnaire surveys have been conducted attempting to assess the incidence of adolescent fruit machine use and to explore its relationship with delinquency. Data yielded by these surveys have been somewhat inconsistent. Estimates of the prevalence of fruit machine gambling have varied considerably and there is disagreement over its association with deviant behaviour. Researchers have drawn divergent conclusions with different implications for legislation. In the present study, questionnaires were administered to 1,395 11-12 year old and 14-15 year old school children in the Birmingham area. Although for the majority, fruit machine gambling was found to be an infrequent activity involving fairly small amounts of money, a small but significant proportion were found to be gambling often and spending in excess of their income. There was also evidence to suggest that arcades may serve as venues for undesirable activities.
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This study identifies the gambling behavior of 1,320 primary school students aged 8 to 12 of the 4th, 5th and 6th grades. Eighty-six percent admitted to having, at some time or another, bet money. Lotteries are the most popular form of gambling for this age group. Sixty-one percent of these students gamble with lotteries. In descending order of popularity, other games played by students were: bingo, card-playing for money, bets on sports, wagering on specific events, video gambling (video poker and slot machines), and finally betting on games of skill. Gambling behaviors differed according to gender. More than 40% of respondents reported gambling once a week or more for at least one game. Because of the early development of gambling behavior in children, prevention programs for pathological gambling should be implemented as early as the fourth grade.
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This paper introduces a special issue of theJournal of Gambling Studies on slot machine gambling, and overviews some current trends concentrating on research and policy issues. It is demonstrated that throughout the world, research findings have linked slot machines with pathological gambling. Indeed slot machines are now the predominant form of gambling activity by pathological gamblers treated in self help groups and professional treatment centres in numerous countries. This paper briefly examines the research on slot machines and pathological gambling and then goes on more specifically to examine four areas. These are (i) slot machine gambling and youth, (ii) slot machines and arcade video game playing, (iii) the possible developmental link between slot machines and video games and (iv) pathological video game playing.
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The alleged incidence of addiction to fruit machine gambling among children in the U.K. has highlighted the need for a measure to define and count pathological gambling in children. The DSM-IV criteria, which are being refined to diagnose pathological gambling in adults, was adapted for use with pre-adult gamblers. The resulting DSM-IV-J criteria were tested using a questionnaire survey on a sample of 467 schoolchildren aged between 11 and 16 years. Those children who were defined as “probable pathological” gamblers by the DSM-IV-J index were significantly more likely to be involved in behaviours hitherto associated with dependency, than were the control group. DSM-IV-J appears to be a major advance in the discrimination of pathological gambling in children.
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151 10–20 yr olds seen in 3 video game arcades were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward video game playing and its role in their lives. Concerns have been expressed in the public media that video game playing is addictive for youngsters and leads to excessive expenditures of time and money, poorer school performance, reduced involvement in sports, and less opportunity to develop social skills. Data do not support these contentions. Although approximately 10% of the Ss appeared to show some compulsive aspects in their play, no identifiable problems were correlated with the amount of time spent playing. For most Ss, video game playing was an enjoyable activity held in perspective with other aspects of their lives. (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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presents some new and provocative information about teenage gambling and about the vulnerabilities revealed by children of problem gamblers review of the extent, types, and consequences associated with gambling among underage high school students from several locales across the United States offers the first published estimates of the prevalence of both adult and juvenile children of problem gamblers in the United States how parental excesses in alcohol and other potentially addictive substances and activities have affected their children (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MMCI) and a questionnaire for the elicitation of demographic information were administered to 35 male compulsive gamblers, all members of Gamblers Anonymous (GA). In Comparison with Millon's normative sample, the GA members scored significantly higher on the Gregarious, Narcissistic, Aggressive, and Drug Abuse Scales, and significantly lower on the Conforming and Neurotic Depression Scales. The discussion centers around the implications of these results and the information obtained from the demographic questionnaires.
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The present investigation focused on the spouses of compulsive gamblers and attempted to obtain baseline information on their personal characteristics, family backgrounds, as well as information about their awareness of gambling as a behavioral disorder, their reactions to the problems they encountered as a result of living with a compulsive gambler, and how they attempted to cope with those problems. The results indicate that the spouse of the compulsive gambler is affected by significant social, psychological, and economic stresses that can be directly related to the partner's gambling activities. The impact of such stresses can be observed in a variety of dysfunctional coping responses. The participants in this investigation eventually obtained assistance in dealing with their problems from Gam-Anon, the family counterpart of Gamblers Anonymous. But, prior to their contact with Gam-Anon, they sought assistance from members of the medical, religious, financial, legal, and mental health fields. For the most part such individuals were perceived as being unable to assist the survey participants in dealing with their problems. Recent advances in our understanding of the psychological bases of compulsive gambling and its treatement have led to the development of community-based treatment services for the gambler. The results of this investigation point out the need for the provision of services to those affected by the gambler as well.
Article
Recent studies completed at the Australian National University focussing on poker machine players are reviewed and a speculative discussion attempts to link the various psychological processes that may contribute to the development of impaired control in regular poker machine players. On the assumption that there is some overlap between regular players and problem players in terms of their level of involvement in gambling, the theorising was extended to include problem players for whom an established habit was argued to be a necessary condition leading to impaired control. Two additional factors may be required for impaired control to be consistently present, negative emotions such as dysphoria and frustration, and indebtedness. Finally by drawing some limited contrasts with another popular, legal form of gambling, off-course betting, if was suggested that there may be different psychological processes causing impaired control in different forms of gambling.
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A survey of U.K. secondary school children (aged 11–16 years) was undertaken to enquire into the prevalence of adolescent gambling and pathological gambling on fruit machines, and related behaviours. Sixty-two percent of the children gambled on fruit machines, 17.3% at least weekly and 5.7% pathologically. Pathological fruit machine gambling was correlated with gambling for money on other games, cigarette and alcohol use, video playing, parental gambling, playing alone and an early start (8 years or younger). It was not correlated with age, gender or religion, and only weakly with parental occupation. The implications of the findings for future research and social policy are discussed.
Article
A sample of 1,612 adolescents from nine different high schools in the region of Qubec city completed a questionnaire developed by Lesieur and Klein (1987) concerning their gambling behavior. Seventy-six percent had gambled once in their lifetime, 65% placed a bet in the last year and 24% gambled at least once a week. Of those who had gambled, 5.6% wanted to stop playing but reported they were unable to do so, while 1.7% were considered to be pathological gamblers. Practical and social implications of these results are discussed.
Article
Students from six colleges and universities in five states in the U.S. (New York, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Texas, and Nevada) were surveyed concerning their gambling behavior and the rate of pathological gambling. Type of gambling varied by state, with students in the northeast and Nevada gambling more than students in Oklahoma and Texas. Over 90% of males and 82% of females had gambled. One third of the males and 15% of females gambled once a week or more. Rates of pathological gambling ranged from 8% in New York to 4% in Nevada. The incidence of pathological gambling was high among males, Hispanics, Asians, and Italian-Americans (compared with among other whites), students with non-traffic arrests, those with parents who have gambling problems, and those who abuse alcohol and other drugs. Pathological gambling was only weakly correlated with age, religion, lower grade point average in school, overeating, living in neighborhoods that are "poorer than most," family income, and parental drug use. It was not correlated with academic year in college, marital status, parental occupation, parental alcohol, and bulimic behavior. The implications of the findings for further research and social policy are discussed.
Article
The introduction of video games has met with mixed reviews. In the US, an ongoing debate focusing on the potential problems of video game playing has been taken up by parents, politicians and social scientists. A number of the concerns that have been raised about the playing of video games in the US are very similar to the concerns raised about the playing of fruit machines (slot machines) in the UK. This paper attempts to put the on-going US and UK amusement machine debates into an empirical perspective and attempts a comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines by examining: incidence of play, sex differences and psychological characteristics of machine players, observational findings in arcade setting, the alleged negative consequences of amusement machine playing (i.e. increased aggression and addiction), and an appraisal of amusement machines' positive aspects. Future directions and an expanded version of Brown's (1989) developmental model of a pathology of man-machine relationships are also discussed.
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By contrasting the addicted with the professional gambler it is hoped that a greater insight into the character of each will be gained. An attempt is made to compare the two types in terms of emotional, interpersonal, behavioral, and attitudinal factors.
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The existence and importance of excitement in gambling, the effects of runs of wins and losses on gambling behaviour and the relationships of both with sensation-seeking were investigated using samples of students and experienced gamblers in real and artificial gambling situations. Heart-rate increases, gambling behaviour and events such as ‘stake decision time’ were recorded as subjects played blackjack. Significant differences between real and artificial casinos were found for mean heart-rate increases over base-lines, for gambling behaviour and in the relationships between sensation-seeking, arousal and gambling in the two conditions. Doubt is cast on laboratory gambling as a valid analogue of the real gambling situation. Sensation-seeking and arousal are discussed briefly in relation to explanations of gambling.
Article
The prevalence of pathological gambling and problems associated with it were measured among 1,471 students of three colleges in the Quebec city metropolitan area. Almost 90% of the students had gambled and 21.7% of the students engage in this behaviour once a week or more. The prevalence of pathological gamblers was found to be 2.8% for the entire sample. The percentage of pathological gamblers was much higher among males (5.7%) than females (0.6%). The results indicate that pathological gambling is associated with economic, professional and interpersonal problems. The discussion addresses the implications of the present findings and suggests avenues for future research.
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