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Investigating Quality Routing Link Metrics in Wireless Multi-hop Networks

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Investigating Quality Routing Link Metrics in Wireless Multi-hop Networks

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Abstract

In this paper, we propose a new Quality Link Metric (QLM), ``Inverse Expected Transmission Count (InvETX)'' in Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol. Then we compare performance of three existing QLMs which are based on loss probability measurements; Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Minimum Delay (MD), Minimum Loss (ML) in Static Wireless Multi-hop Networks (SWMhNs). A novel contribution of this paper is enhancement in conventional OLSR to achieve high efficiency in terms of optimized routing load and routing latency. For this purpose, first we present a mathematical framework, and then to validate this frame work, we select three performance parameters to simulate default and enhanced versions of OLSR. Three chosen performance parameters are; throughput, Normalized Routing Load and End-to-End Delay. From simulation results, we conclude that adjusting the frequencies of topological information exchange results in high efficiency.

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... Performance of the selected protocols are then analysed and compared using the proposed model. In [15], a new routing link metric is designed, and in [16], a new quality link metric called inverse expected transmission count (InvETX) is proposed. The main contribution of [16] is improvement of the optimized link state routing (OLSR) protocol in terms of optimized routing load and routing latency. ...
... In [15], a new routing link metric is designed, and in [16], a new quality link metric called inverse expected transmission count (InvETX) is proposed. The main contribution of [16] is improvement of the optimized link state routing (OLSR) protocol in terms of optimized routing load and routing latency. ...
Article
One of the most important issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is to reduce energy consumption and increase the network lifetime. Proper election of cluster head is one of the approaches to reduce energy consumption in the network. Among existing methods, low-energy adaptive cluster hierarchy (LEACH) is the most prevalent routing algorithm, in which the cluster head is elected based on a given threshold. In LEACH algorithm, only the cluster heads are allowed to send information to the base station (BS). In this paper, a novel routing protocol based on super cluster head election using fuzzy logic in three levels (SCHFTL) is proposed, in which a super cluster head is elected among the cluster heads. The super cluster head election is performed based on a fuzzy description in three levels using Mamdani inference engine. Effectiveness of the proposed SCHFTL routing protocol is verified through MATLAB simulations in terms of death, time of the first node and network lifetime compared with LEACH, cluster head election mechanism using fuzzy logic (CHEF) and fuzzy-based master cluster head election leach (F-MCHEL) protocols.
... Energy consumption equation during second backoff period is given below. (18) Similarly, energy consumption during 3 rd time busy channel can be calculated by this equation. However, third time the size of backoff slot increases three time. ...
... During data transmission, an important parameter is that how to find the proper rout having minimum energy consumption and delay. Authors in [18] present an analysis of different routing link metric and gateway selection methods based on different parameters; Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Minimum Delay (MD), and Minimum Loss (ML) in Static Wireless Multi-hop Networks (SWMhNs). In future work, we are interested to incorporate these link metrics. ...
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Due to low power consumption and low duty cycle, IEEE 802.15.4 standard is widely used for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR − W P AN s). It works in Beacon Enabled (BEn) and Non Beacon Enabled (N BEn) mode. In BEn mode, it has Contention Access Period (CAP) and an optional Contention Free Period (CFP). During CAP, nodes contend to access the medium for communication while CFP period provides Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) for low latency and applications requiring specific bandwidth. In this paper, we evaluate the comprehensive energy consumption of slotted CSMA/CA algorithm of IEEE 802.15.4 standard during idle and backoff periods. Simulation results with acknowledgment frame are given at the end of the paper. Index Terms—Slotted CSMA/CA; GTS; IEEE 802.15.4 ; MAC Layer; LR-WPANs.
... However, we focus on the modeling of overhead for reactive routing protocols at NL and LL. In [18], authors focus on quality routing link metrics for wireless multihop networks. Authors in [19] address performance evaluation of two on-demand routing protocols in WMhNs, DSR, and AODV. ...
... if upstream node detects Link Breakage ( ) then (5) start LLR (6) if successful repair through LLR then (7) repairing node sends data to repaired route (8) else (9) broadcast RERR message (10) receiver of RERR deletes faulty route from (11) starts route re-discovery based on (12) end if (13) else (14) repeat (15) end if (16) end for (17) else (18) The cost paid for RREQ packets and for RREPs, produced during RD, is computed as ...
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To keep information recent between two nodes, two types of link sensing feed-back mechanisms are used: link layer (LL) and network layer (NL). In this paper, we model and evaluate these link sensing mechanisms in three widely used reactive routing protocols: ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV), dynamic source routing (DSR), and dynamic MANET on-demand (DYMO). Total cost paid by a routing protocol is the sum of cost paid in the form of energy consumed (in terms of packet reception/transmission) and time spent (in terms of processing route information). Routing operations are divided into two phases: route discovery (RD) and route maintenance (RM). These protocols majorly focus on broadcast cost optimization performed by expanding ring search (ERS) algorithm to control blind flooding. Hence, our model relates link sensing mechanisms in RD and RM for the selected routing protocols to compute consumed energy and processing time. The proposed framework is evaluated via NS-2, where the selected protocols are tested with different nodes' mobilities and densities.
... In future, Routing Link Matrices can also be applied on this proposed technique. Routing can be done by adapting many different approaches as done in [14], [15] and [16]. Application of Routing Link Matrices on the proposed scheme can be useful in achieving efficient consumption of energy in the network. ...
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In this paper, we propose Regional Energy Efficient Cluster Heads based on Maximum Energy (REECH-ME) Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) . The main purpose of this protocol is to improve the network lifetime and particularly the stability period of the network. In REECH-ME, the node with the maximum energy in a region becomes Cluster Head (CH) of that region for that particular round and the number of the cluster heads in each round remains the same. Our technique outperforms LEACH which uses probabilistic approach for the selection of CHs. We also implement the Uniform Random Distribution Model to find the packet drop to make this protocol more practical. We also calculate the confidence interval of all our results which helps us to visualize the possible deviation of our graphs from the mean value.
... The work in [13] investigates quality routing link metrics in ad hoc networks. Besides the investigation, the authors propose a new quality routing link metric; Inverse ETX (InvETX), for OLSR protocol. ...
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paper presents mathematical framework for calculating transmission probability in IEEE 802.11p based networks at Medium access control (MAC) layer, mathematical framework for calculating energy costs of the chosen routing protocols at network layer, and enhancements in optimized link state routing (OLSR), dynamic source routing, (DSR) and fish-eye state routing (FSR) to tackle delay in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Besides the enhancements, we analyze ad hoc ondemand distance vector (AODV) along with OLSR, DSR, and FSR as well. To evaluate the effect of our proposed transmission probabilities in the selected routing protocols, we choose network throughput, end-to-end delay (E2ED), and normalized routing load (NRL) as performance metrics. We also investigate the effect of different mobilities as well as scalabilities on the overall efficiency of the enhanced and default versions of the selected protocols. Simulations results which are conducted in NS-2 show that overall DSR-mod outperforms rest of the protocols.
... In [11], the authors compare the performance of three existing quality link metrics in Static Wireless Multihop Networks (SWMhNs): Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Minimum Delay (MD), and Minimum Loss (ML). A novel contribution of this work is the proposition of a new quality link metric, Inverse ETX (InvETX). ...
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Modern health care system is one of the most popular Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) applications and a hot area of research subject to present work. In this paper, we present Reliability Enhanced-Adaptive Threshold based Thermal-unaware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (RE-ATTEMPT) for WBASNs. The proposed routing protocol uses fixed deployment of wireless sensors (nodes) such that these are placed according to energy levels. Moreover, we use direct communication for the delivery of emergency data and multihop communication for the delivery of normal data. RE-ATTEMPT selects route with minimum hop count to deliver data which downplays the delay factor. Furthermore, we conduct a comprehensive analysis supported by MATLAB simulations to provide an estimation of path loss, and problem formulation with its solution via linear programming model for network lifetime maximization is also provided. In simulations, we analyze our protocol in terms of network lifetime, packet drops, and throughput. Results show better performance for the proposed protocol as compared to the existing one.
... Courier nodes are nodes with mechanical module, which manage their vertical and horizontal movement to collect data from the other nodes. ILQR [4] proposes routing metrics such as Expected Transmission Count (ETX) and Minimium Delay (MD), which are also used in localization-free routing protocols. Another efficient scheme, Reliable and Energy-efficient Routing Protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (RERP2R) [5] employs the routing metric based on the physical distances between the sensor nodes and exercises it to achieve higher throughput in UWSNs. ...
Conference Paper
Depth-based routing protocols play a key role in assuming realistic approach by considering the continuous node movement in aqueous environment. The performance attributes of depth-based routing protocols highly depend upon the depth information of sensor nodes. Although this information is not prioritized by all acoustic models to estimate channel conditions, however, some notable models consider depth information of nodes. In this paper, we discuss the analysis of two major acoustic propagation models of Thorp and Monterey-Miami Parabolic Equation (MMPE) in predicting transmission losses with four notable depth-based routing techniques of Depth-Based Routing (DBR), Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing (EEDBR), Adaptive Mobility of Courier nodes in Threshold-optimized Dbr (AMCTD) and Improved Adaptive Mobility of Courier nodes in Threshold-optimized Dbr (IAMCTD). We highlight the complexity and accuracy of these models in estimating the performance of higher layer protocols. Simulations show that physical layer parameters highly affect the performance of routing layer protocols as predicted by later propagation models. Results also prove that distant transmissions cause high propagation losses which are overcome by latest depth-based routing protocols. These protocols analyze the results of MMPE model to enhance upper channel limits and network lifetime.
... These three protocols perform better in VANETs as compared to MANETs. Application of Routing Link Matrices on the proposed scheme can be useful in achieving efficient consumption of energy in the network [39]. In future, we aim to introduce multiple QoS path parameters [38], energy efficient MAC protocols [34], sink mobility [32] and heterogeneity [40] in our work. ...
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Mobility constraints and speed cause the radio link to break frequently, the main issue in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) is how to select the path which is more reliable. In this paper, we propose a model to calculate the reliable link between the nodes and reliable path for the purpose of communication. This paper also evaluates and compares the performance of routing protocols with different number of nodes, mobilities and speeds in MANETs and VANETs using Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Normalized Routing Overhead (NRO), End-to-End Delay (E2ED), Average Link Duration (ALD) and Average Path Duration (APD). We select three routing protocols namely Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). We perform these simulations with NS-2 using Two Ray Ground propagation model. The Vanet MobiSim simulator is used to generate a random mobility pattern for VANETs. From the extensive simulations, we observe that AODV is more efficient than both FSR and OLSR at the cost of delay but the ALD and APD of FSR and OLSR are greater as compared to AODV. Moreover these protocols perform better in MANETs as compared to VANETs.
... In future, Routing Link Matrices can also be applied on this proposed technique. Routing can be done by adapting many different approaches as done in[14],[15]and[16]. Application of Routing Link Matrices on the proposed scheme can be useful in achieving efficient consumption of energy in the network. ...
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In this paper, we propose Regional Energy Efficient Cluster Heads based on Maximum Energy (REECH-ME) Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The main purpose of this protocol is to improve the network lifetime and particularly the stability period of the network. In REECH-ME, the node with the maximum energy in a region becomes Cluster Head (CH) of that region for that particular round and the number of the cluster heads in each round remains the same. Our technique outperforms LEACH [1] which uses probabilistic approach for the selection of CHs. We also implement the Uniform Random Distribution Model to find the packet drop to make this protocol more practical. We also calculate the confidence interval of all our results which helps us to visualize the possible deviation of our graphs from the mean value.
... These three protocols perform better in VANETs as compared to MANETs. Application of Routing Link Matrices on the proposed scheme can be useful in achieving efficient consumption of energy in the network [39]. In future, we aim to introduce multiple QoS path parameters [38], energy efficient MAC protocols [34], sink mobility [32] and heterogeneity [40] in our work. ...
... In this paper, the scenario we have presented is through the motivation of [24] and [25]. In [26], they have done evaluation of protocols through radio propagation model Nakagami which is well suited for all these models. ...
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In this paper, a novel framework is presented through link and path duration for link availability of paths. Further, we evaluate and analyze our work by varying the number of nodes, pause time and speed in VANETs. We select three routing protocols namely Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Fish-eye State Routing (FSR). Performance of these protocols is analyzed using Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Normalized Routing Overhead (NRO), End-to-End Delay (E2ED), Average Link Duration (ALD) and Average Path Duration (APD) against varying scalability, pause time and speed as performance metrices. We perform these simulations with NS-2 implementing Nakagami radio propagation model. The SUMO simulator is used to generate a random mobility pattern for VANETs. To find link duration and path duration we also use MATLAB. From the extensive simulations, we observe that AODV and DSR outperform better among all three routing protocols.
... They perform a variety of simulations for VANETs, characterized by networks' mobility, load and size. From simulations, the authors conclude that Swarm Intelligence based protocols show more promising results than AODV and DSR in terms of latency, throughput, data delivery cost and data delivery ratio.[13] investigates quality routing link metrics in ad hoc networks. ...
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This paper presents mathematical framework for calculating transmission probability in IEEE 802.11p based networks at Medium Access Control (MAC) layer, mathematical framework for calculating energy costs of the chosen routing protocols at network layer, and enhancements in Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) to tackle delay in Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs). Besides the enhancements, we analyze Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) along with OLSR, DSR and FSR as well. To evaluate the effect of our proposed transmission probabilities in the selected routing protocols, we choose network throughput, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) as performance metrics. We also investigate the effect of different mobilities as well as scalabilities on the overall efficiency of the enhanced and default versions of the selected protocols. Simulations results which are conducted in NS-2 show that overall, DSR-mod outperforms rest of the protocols.
... Moreover, we enhance the default RDP and RMP of chosen protocols. We evaluate the performance of selected protocols in different mobilities, varying scalabilities as well as different network loads by selecting throughput, E2ED and NRL as performance metrics (Javaid et al., 2013) and measure their efficiencies using NS-2. ...
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In this paper, we select three most widely used reactive protocols; ad-hoc ondemand distance vector (AODV), dynamic source routing (DSR) and dynamic manet on-demand (DYMO), and model their energy and time consumption costs of expanding ring search (ERS) algorithm in wireless multi-hop networks (WMhNs). A novel contribution of this work is tuning the route discovery and route maintenance parameters of the chosen protocols to minimise routing overhead. For analytical comparison, we simulate default and enhanced versions of these protocols using NS-2. From modeling and analytical comparison, we deduce that adjusting time-to-live (TTL) values in search sets of ERS algorithm with respective waiting time is more useful for reducing bandwidth and locating time in chosen protocols. Moreover, for reliable transmission and efficient performance, reactive protocols need immediate detection of link breakage along with quick repairement strategies for re-establishment of routes such as local link repair (LLR) and packet salvaging (PS).
... The work in [13] investigates quality routing link metrics in ad hoc networks. Besides the investigation, the authors propose a new quality routing link metric; Inverse ETX (InvETX), for OLSR protocol. ...
... The work in [13] investigates quality routing link metrics in ad hoc networks. Besides the investigation, the authors propose a new quality routing link metric; Inverse ETX (InvETX), for OLSR protocol. ...
... Thus, packet loss must be considered in Watchdog in order to prevent nodes from wrong accusations. In [25], the authors proposed a new quality link metric (QLM) to improve the OLSR routing taking into consideration the packet loss rate on the wireless links before selecting a route to a destination. ...
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Most trust and reputation solutions in wireless mesh networks (WMNs) rely on the intrusion detection system (IDS) Watchdog. Nevertheless, Watchdog does not consider packet loss on wireless links and may generate false positives. Consequently, a node that suffers from packet loss on one of its links may be accused wrongly, by Watchdog, of misbehaving. To deal with this issue, we propose in this paper a novel trust system which considers packet loss of links. Our trust system is based on a statistical detection method (SDM) implemented on each node of the network. Firstly, the SDM, via CUSUM test, analyzes the behavior of the packets loss in order to detect a dropping attack. Secondly, the SDM, through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, compares the behavior of the total packets loss with that of the control packets in order to identify the attack type. Our system allows every WMN’s node to assign to each of its neighbors, a trust value which reflects its real behavior. We have validated the proposed SDM method via extensive simulations on ns2 and have compared our trust system with an existing solution. The results display that our SDM solution offers better performance.
... However, we focus on the modeling of overhead for reactive routing protocols at NL and LL. In [18], authors focus on quality routing link metrics for wireless multi hop networks. Authors in [19] address performance evaluation of two on-demand routing protocols in WMhNs; DSR and AODV. ...
Article
To keep information recent between two nodes, two types of link sensing feed-back mechanisms are used; Link Layer (LL) and Network Layer (NL). In this paper, we model and evaluate these link sensing mechanisms in three widely used reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-demand (DYMO). Total cost paid by a routing protocol is the sum of cost paid in the form of energy consumed (in terms of packet reception/transmission) and time spent (in terms of processing route information). Routing operations are divided into two phases; Route Discovery (RD) and Route Maintenance (RM). These protocols majorly focuss on broadcast cost optimization performed by Expanding Ring Search (ERS) algorithm to control blind flooding. Hence, our model relates link sensing mechanisms in RD and RM for the September 10, 2014 DRAFT 2 selected routing protocols to compute consumed energy and processing time. The proposed framework is evaluated via NS-2, where the selected protocols are tested with different nodes' mobilities and densities.
... ETX [37] is the first metric considering M-C by using the retransmission number. Two latest metrics, LamETx [47] and InvETx [48] aimed to improve ETX with some small changes but they did not consider interference factor. Building upon the ETX, ETT [3] adds a P-C factor which improves the estimate of capacity in a routing metric. ...
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Wireless mesh networks provide cost-effective coverage and high network performance by utilising advanced radio frequency technology such as multiple channel multiple radio (MCMR). In spite of the advantages in MCMR wireless mesh networks, some wireless mesh networks still suffer from performance issues such as throughput degradation and unacceptable latency when network size increases. Existing studies focused on solving the performance issues from a single aspect such as routing or channel assignment. A major limitation of these studies is its failure to consider the interaction between routing and channel assignment which is a key factor influencing network performance.
... In future, we are interested to exploit the work in Sun et al. 29 for the selection of CHs along with quality routing link metrics in Javaid et al. 30 Moreover, realtime experimental test bed development is also under consideration. ...
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In this paper, we propose two new routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). First one is Angular Multi-hop Distance based Clustering Network Transmission (AM-DisCNT) protocol which uses circular deployment of sensors (nodes) for uniform energy consumption in the network. The protocol operates in such a way that nodes with maximum residual energy are selected as Cluster Heads (CHs) for each round. Second one is improved AM-DisCNT (iAM-DisCNT) protocol which exploits both mobile and static Base Stations (BSs) for throughput maximization. Besides the proposition of routing protocols, iAM-DisCNT is provided with three mathematical models; two linear programming based models for information flow maximization and packet drop rate minimization, and one model for calculating energy consumption of nodes. Graphical analysis for linear programming based mathematical formulation is also part of this work. Simulation results show that AM-DisCNT has 32%, and iAM- DisCNT has 48% improved stability period as compared to LEACH and DEEC routing protocols. Similarly, throughput of AM-DisCNT and iAM-DisCNT are improved 16% and 80%, respectively, in comparison to the counterpart schemes.
... In future, Routing Link Matrices can also be applied on this proposed technique. Routing can be done by adapting many different approaches as done in [14], [15] and [16]. Application of Routing Link Matrices on the proposed scheme can be useful in achieving efficient consumption of energy in the network. ...
... In future, we aim to introduce multiple QoS path parameters [27], energy efficient MAC protocols [37], sink mobility [34] and heterogeneity [32] in our work. Application of Routing Link Matrices on the proposed scheme can be useful in achieving efficient consumption of energy in the network [25]. Mobility constraints also help to achieve better network lifetime [29]. ...
Thesis
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Wireless distributed sensor network consists of randomly deployed wireless sensors having low energy assets. These networks can be used for monitoring a variety of environments. Major problem of these networks is energy constraint and lifetime, so, to overcome these problems different routing protocols and clustering techniques have been introduced. We propose Distributed Regional Energy Efficient Multi-hop Routing Protocol based on Maximum Energy in WSNs (DREEM-ME), which uses a unique technique for clustering to cover these two problems efficiently. Clustering technique of LEACH does not assure a fix number of Cluster Heads (CHs) in each round. Therefore, its behavior is not so appreciable in case of network lifetime. DREEM-ME elects fix number of CHs in each round instead of probabilistic selection of CHs. We also implement the Packet Drop technique in our protocol which makes it more comprehensive and practical. Our simulations and results show that DREEM-ME competes all of its identical protocols.
... In future, Routing Link Matrices can also be applied on this proposed technique. Routing can be done by adapting many different approaches as done in [14], [15] and [16]. Application of Routing Link Matrices on the proposed scheme can be useful in achieving efficient consumption of energy in the network. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
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... On the other hand, when the goal is to enable a VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) content, the network needs to keep under control the Endto-End Delay (E2ED) [8,9]. Therefore, distinct applications can demand different Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees [6,[10][11][12]. ...
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This document describes the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. The protocol is an optimization of the classical link state algorithm tailored to the requirements of a mobile wireless LAN. The key concept used in the protocol is that of multipoint relays (MPRs). MPRs are selected nodes which forward broadcast messages during the flooding process. This technique substantially reduces the message overhead as compared to a classical flooding mechanism, where every node retransmits each message when it receives the first copy of the message. In OLSR, link state information is generated only by nodes elected as MPRs. Thus, a second optimization is achieved by minimizing the number of control messages flooded in the network. As a third optimization, an MPR node may chose to report only links between itself and its MPR selectors. Hence, as contrary to the classic link state algorithm, partial link state information is distributed in the network. This information is then used for route calculation. OLSR provides optimal routes (in terms of number of hops). The protocol is particularly suitable for large and dense networks as the technique of MPRs works well in this context.
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This document describes the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. The protocol is an optimization of the classical link state algorithm tailored to the requirements of a mobile wireless LAN. The key concept used in the protocol is that of multipoint relays (MPRs). MPRs are selected nodes which forward broadcast messages during the flooding process. This technique substantially reduces the message overhead as compared to a classical flooding mechanism, where every node retransmits each message when it receives the first copy of the message. In OLSR, link state information is generated only by nodes elected as MPRs. Thus, a second optimization is achieved by minimizing the number of control messages flooded in the network. As a third optimization, an MPR node may chose to report only links between itself and its MPR selectors. Hence, as contrary to the classic link state algorithm, partial link state information is distributed in the network. This information is then used for route calculation. OLSR provides optimal routes (in terms of number of hops). The protocol is particularly suitable for large and dense networks as the technique of MPRs works well in this context.
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This paper presents the expected transmission count metric (ETX), which finds high-throughput paths on multi-hop wireless networks. ETX minimizes the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet to the ultimate destination. The ETX metric incorporates the effects of link loss ratios, asymmetry in the loss ratios between the two directions of each link, and interference among the successive links of a path. In contrast, the minimum hop-count metric chooses arbitrarily among the different paths of the same minimum length, regardless of the often large differences in throughput among those paths, and ignoring the possibility that a longer path might offer higher throughput. This paper describes the design and implementation of ETX as a metric for the DSDV and DSR routing protocols, as well as modifications to DSDV and DSR which allow them to use ETX. Measurements taken from a 29-node 802.11b test-bed demonstrate the poor performance of minimum hop-count, illustrate the causes of that poor performance, and confirm that ETX improves performance. For long paths the throughput improvement is often a factor of two or more, suggesting that ETX will become more useful as networks grow larger and paths become longer.
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In this paper, we simulate the three routing protocols Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Link state Routing (OLSR), DYnamic MANET On Demand (DYMO) in NS-2 to evaluate and compare their performance using two Mac-layer protocols 802.11 and 802.lip. Comprehensive stimulation work is done for each routing protocol and the performance metrics Throughput, End to End Delay (E2ED), Normalized Routing load (NRL) is analyze in the scenarios of varying the mobilities and scalabilities. After extensive simulations, we observe that DSDV outperforms with 802.1 lp while DYMO gives best performance with 802.11.
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Wireless technologies, such as IEEE 802.11a, that are used in ad hoc networks provide for multiple non-overlapping channels. Most ad hoc network protocols that are currently available are designed to use a single channel. However, the available network capacity can be increased by using multiple channels. This paper presents new protocols specifically designed to exploit multiple channels. Our protocols simplify the use of multiple channels by using multiple interfaces, although the number of interfaces per host is typically smaller than the number of channels. We propose a link layer protocol to manage multiple channels, and it can be implemented over existing IEEE 802.11 hardware. We also propose a new routing metric for multi-channel multi-interface networks, and the metric is incorporated into an on-demand routing protocol that operates over the link layer protocol. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in significantly increasing network capacity, by utilizing all the available channels, even when the number of interfaces per host is smaller than the number of channels.
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Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are a type of radio basednetwork systems which require minimal configurationand infrastructure. One of the factors that influencethe performance of WMNs is the underlying routing protocolused. Here, we propose one such routing protocol,called M-OLSR, which is a variant of OLSR, a traditionallink-state protocol developed to meet the requirements ofMobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs). Our approach improvesthe throughput and packet delivery ratio, while minimizingrouting overhead and delay, by choosing a stable pathfor packet forwarding through static routers. Simulationresults demonstrate that, for WMNs, the M-OLSR outperformsOLSR in terms of throughput, packet delivery ratio,and routing overhead.
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Being most popular and IETF standard metric, minimum hop count is appropriately used by ad hoc networks, as new paths must rapidly be found in the situations where quality paths could not be found in due time due to high node mobility. There always has been a tradeoff between throughput and energy consumption, but stationary topology of WMNs and high node density of WSN's benefit the algorithms to consider quality-aware routing to choose the best routes. In this paper, we analytically review ongoing research on wireless routing metrics which are based on ETX (expected transmission count) as it performs better than minimum hop count under link availability. Performances over ETX, target platforms and design requirements of these ETX based metrics are high-lighted. Consequences of the criteria being adopted (in addition to expected link layer transmissions & retransmissions) in the form of incremental: (1) performance overheads and computational complexity causing inefficient use of network resources and instability of the routing algorithm, (2) throughput gains achieved with better utilization of wireless medium resources have been elaborated.
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The use of Fish eye scoping has been introduced to reduce the overhead of the OLSR routing protocol. This simple method is based on reducing the scope (TTL) of some topology updates, thus giving routers a precise view of their close neighborhood and a more and more approximate view of farther nodes. Fish Eye OLSR (OFLSR) has been showed to have excellent scaling properties and low network overhead. However, if deployed in relatively sparse networks, this scoping limitation of topology updates can result in long living routing loops, thus limiting the potential applications of such mechanisms in some practical wireless mesh networks. In this paper, we address the transient mini-loop problem due to fisheye scoping. We first analyze the occurrence of mini-loops. We discuss potential solutions and propose a pragmatic and distributed off-line heuristic, which allows each router to compute ldquosaferdquo scope for topology updates. With our method, every mesh router calculates in advance the minimum TTL value that avoids mini-loops at the ldquoscoperdquo boundary - optimal scope that will be set for generating topology update message whenever a neighbor link lost is detected. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm drastically improves safety of Fish Eye OLSR while still retaining its scaling and performance properties.
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Most ad-hoc routing protocols such as AODV and DSR do not try to search for new routes if the network topology does not change. Hence, with low node mobility, traffic may be concentrated on several nodes, which results in long end-to-end delay due to congestion at the nodes. Furthermore, since some specific nodes are continuously used for long duration, their battery power may be rapidly exhausted. Expiration of nodes causes connections traversing the nodes to be disrupted and makes many routing requests be generated at the same time. Therefore, we propose a load balancing approach called Simple Load-balancing Approach (SLA), which resolves the traffic concentration problem by allowing each node to drop RREQ or to give up packet forwarding depending on its own traffic load. Meanwhile, mobile nodes may deliberately give up forwarding packets to save their own energy. To make nodes volunteer in packet forwarding we also suggest a payment scheme called Protocol-Independent Fairness Algorithm (PIFA) for packet forwarding. To evaluate the performance of SLA we compare two cases where AODV employs SLA or not. Simulation results show that SLA can distribute traffic load well and improve performance of entire ad-hoc networks.
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Finding a path with enough throughput in multihop wireless ad hoc networks is a critical task of QoS Routing. Previous studies on routing algorithms focused on networks with a single channel rate. The capability of supporting multiple channel rates, which is common in wireless systems, has not been carefully studied in routing algorithms. In this paper, we first carry out a comprehensive study on the impacts of multiple rates, interference and packet loss rate on the maximum end-to-end throughput or path capacity. A linear programming problem is formulated to determine the path capacity of any given path. This problem is also extended to a joint routing and link scheduling optimization problem to find a path with the largest path capacity. We show that interference clique transmission time is inversely proportional to the upper bound of the path capacity, and hence we propose to use it as a new routing metric. Moreover, we evaluate the capability of various routing metrics such as hop count, expected transmission times, end-to-end transmission delay or medium time, link rate, bandwidth distance product, and interference clique transmission time to discover a high throughput path. The results show that different routing metrics lead to paths with significantly different path capacity, and the interference clique transmission time tends to discover paths with higher throughput than other metrics.
Conference Paper
Routing protocols in multi-hop networks typically find low cost paths by modeling the cost of a path as the sum of the costs on the constituting links. However, the insufficiency of this approach becomes more apparent as new lower layer technologies are incorporated. For instance, to maximize the benefit of multiple radios, ideally we should use routes that contain low interference among the constituting links. Similarly, to maximize the benefit of network coding, we should ideally use routes that create more coding opportunities. Both of these are difficult to accomplish within the conventional routing framework because therein the links are examined in isolation of each other, whereas the nature of the problem involves interdependencies among the links. This paper aims at revealing a unifying framework for routing in the presence of inherent link interdependencies, which we call "context-based routing". Through the case studies of two concrete application scenarios in wireless networks, network coding-aware routing and self-interference aware routing in multi-radio systems, we highlight the common key pillars for context-based routing and their interplay: a context-based path metric and a route selection method. We implement context-based routing protocols in Windows XP and Linux and evaluate them in detail. Experiments conducted on 2 testbeds demonstrate significant throughput gains.
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In this paper, we evaluate, analyze, and compare the impact of mobility on the behavior of three reactive protocols (AODV, DSR, DYMO) and three proactive protocols (DSDV, FSR, OLSR) in multi-hop wireless networks. We take into account throughput, end-to-end delay, and normalized routing load as performance parameters. Based upon the extensive simulation results in NS-2, we rank all of six protocols according to the performance parameters. Besides providing the interesting facts regarding the response of each protocol on varying mobilities and speeds, we also study the trade-offs, the routing protocols have to make. Such as, to achieve throughput, a protocol has to pay some cost in the form of increased end-to-end delay or routing overhead.
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In this paper, we present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis of implementing different routing strategies, how neighbor estimation errors affect broadcast of route requests, how reduction of broadcast overhead achieves bandwidth, how to cope with the problem of mobility and density, etc, are attempted to respond. In all of the above mentioned situations, routing overhead and delay generated by the chosen protocols can exactly be calculated from our modeled equations. Finally, we analyze the performance of selected routing protocols using our proposed framework in NS-2 by considering different performance parameters; Route REQuest (RREQ) packet generation, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) with respect to varying rates of mobility and density of nodes in the underlying wireless network.
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In this paper, we identify and analyze the requirements to design a new routing link metric for wireless multihop networks. Considering these requirements, when a link metric is proposed, then both the design and implementation of the link metric with a routing protocol become easy. Secondly, the underlying network issues can easily be tackled. Thirdly, an appreciable performance of the network is guaranteed. Along with the existing implementation of three link metrics Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Minimum Delay (MD), and Minimum Loss (ML), we implement inverse ETX; invETX with Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) using NS-2.34. The simulation results show that how the computational burden of a metric degrades the performance of the respective protocol and how a metric has to trade-off between different performance parameters.
Article
In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient routing is sum of the cost paid in the form of energy consumed and time spent. These protocols majorly focus on the optimization performed by expanding ring search algorithm to control the flooding generated by the mechanism of blind flooding. So, we have modeled the energy consumed and time spent per packet both for route discovery and route maintenance. The proposed framework is evaluated in NS-2 to compare performance of the chosen routing protocols.
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In this paper, we propose a new quality link metric, interference and bandwidth adjusted ETX (IBETX) for wireless multi-hop networks. As MAC layer affects the link performance and consequently the route quality, the metric therefore, tackles the issue by achieving twofold MAC-awareness. Firstly, interference is calculated using cross-layered approach by sending probes to MAC layer. Secondly, the nominal bit rate information is provided to all nodes in the same contention domain by considering the bandwidth sharing mechanism of 802.11. Like ETX, our metric also calculates link delivery ratios that directly affect throughput and selects those routes that bypass dense regions in the network. Simulation results by NS-2 show that IBETX gives 19% higher throughput than ETX and 10% higher than Expected Throughput (ETP). Our metric also succeeds to reduce average end-to-end delay up to 16% less than Expected Link Performance (ELP) and 24% less than ETX.
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2004. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 111-118). This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections. The expected transmission count (ETX) metric is a new route metric for finding high-throughput paths in multi-hop wireless networks. The ETX of a path is the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet along that path. For practical networks, paths with the minimum ETX have the highest throughput. The ETX metric incorporates the effects of link loss ratios, asymmetry in the loss ratios between the two directions of each link, and interference among the successive links of a path. Busy networks that use the ETX route metric will also maximize total network throughput. We describe the design and implementation of ETX as a metric for the DSDV and DSR routing protocols, as well as modifications to DSDV and DSR which make them work well with ETX. Measurements taken from a 29-node 802.11b test-bed show that using ETX improves performance significantly over the widely-used minimum hop-count metric. For long paths the throughput increase is often a factor of two or more, suggesting that ETX will become more useful as networks grow larger and paths become longer. We also present a simple model for predicting how packet delivery ratio varies with packet size, and detailed measurements which characterize the test-bed's distribution of link delivery ratios and route throughputs. by Douglas S.J. Couto. Ph.D.
Article
This paper presents the expected transmission count metric (ETX), which finds high-throughput paths on multi-hop wireless networks. ETX minimizes the expected total number of packet transmissions (including retransmissions) required to successfully deliver a packet to the ultimate destination. The ETX metric incorporates the effects of link loss ratios, asymmetry in the loss ratios between the two directions of each link, and interference among the successive links of a path. In contrast, the minimum hop-count metric chooses arbitrarily among the different paths of the same minimum length, regardless of the often large differences in throughput among those paths, and ignoring the possibility that a longer path might offer higher throughput.
Article
This paper presents a novel routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks -- Fisheye State Routing (FSR). FSR introduces the notion of multi-level fisheye scope to reduce routing update overhead in large networks. Nodes exchange link state entries with their neighbors with a frequency which depends on distance to destination. From link state entries, nodes construct the topology map of the entire network and compute optimal routes. Simulation experiments show that FSR is a simple, efficient and scalable routing solution in a mobile, ad hoc environment. I. INTRODUCTION AND RELATED WORK Ad hoc wireless networks are self-organizing, selfconfiguring and instantly deployable in response to application needs without a fixed infrastructure existence. Therefore, ad hoc networks are very attractive for tactical communication in military and law enforcement. They are also expected to play an important role in civilian forums such as convention centers, conferences, and electronic classrooms. M...
Real-time power-aware routing in sensor net-works A new routing metric for satisfy-ing both energy and delay constraints in wireless sensor networks
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Modified Optimized Link State Rout-ing (M-OLSR) for wireless mesh networks
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Fisheye state routing: a routing scheme for ad hoc wireless networks
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Pei G, Gerla M, Chen TW (2000) Fisheye state routing: a routing scheme for ad hoc wireless networks. In: 2000 IEEE international conference on communications, ICC 2000, vol 1. IEEE, pp 70–74
Using multiple metrics with the optimized link state routing protocol for wireless mesh networks. Simpsio Brasileiro de Redes de Computadorese Sistemas Distribudos
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Optimized link state routing (OLSR) RFC 3626
  • T Clausen
  • P Jaqcquet
Clausen, T., and P. Jaqcquet. "Optimized link state routing (OLSR) RFC 3626." IETF Networking Group (October 2003) (2003).
Identifying Design Requirements for Wireless Routing Link Metrics
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Javaid, N.; Ullah, M.; Djouani, K.;, "Identifying Design Requirements for Wireless Routing Link Metrics", Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011), 2011