Copper induces - And copper chelation by tetrathiomolybdate inhibits - Endothelial activation in vitro

Redox report: communications in free radical research (Impact Factor: 1.52). 11/2013; 19(1). DOI: 10.1179/1351000213Y.0000000070
Source: PubMed


Endothelial activation with increased expression of cellular adhesion molecules and chemokines critically contributes to vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. Redox-active transition metal ions play an important role in vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to investigate the role of copper in endothelial activation and the potential anti-inflammatory effects of copper chelation by tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Incubating HAECs with cupric sulfate dose- and time-dependently increased mRNA and protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Copper also activated the redox-sensitive transcription factors, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), which was inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with TTM. Furthermore, TTM dose-dependently inhibited tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced activation of NF-κB and AP-1, as well as mRNA and protein expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and MCP-1, which was abolished by preincubating the cells with 5 µM TTM and 15 µM cupric sulfate. The inhibitory effect of TTM on TNFα-induced NF-κB activation was associated with decreased phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. These data suggest that intracellular copper causes activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and upregulation of inflammatory mediators in endothelial cells. Copper chelation by TTM may attenuate TNFα-induced endothelial activation and, hence, inhibit vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis.

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Available from: Hao Wei, Nov 14, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is characterized by an increase in the number of fibroblasts and an accumulation of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The members of the copper-dependent lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme family regulate the collagen accumulation in the ECM. Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) is a copper chelator. The present study reported the effect of TM on the expression of LOX proteins (LOX, LOXL1, and LOXL2), collagen digestion enzymes (MMP2 and MMP8), and TIMP1 (a collagenase inhibitor) in PF. The PF in mice was induced by intratracheal bleomycin instillation. Adult mice were divided into four groups: mice dissected after 21 days of the first bleomycin (0.08 mg/kg, single dose) treatment (I) and their controls (II), and mice treated with TM for 1 week (1.2 mg/day/mice for the first 4 days and 0.9 mg/day/mice for the last 3 days) after 14 days of the first bleomycin instillation and dissected in the 21st day of the experiment (III) and their controls (IV). Mice in groups III and IV were fed a low-copper (2 mg/kg) diet during the last 7 days of the experiment. The fibrosis score in the lung was determined under a microscope. The expressions of collagen-I, LOX, MMP, and TIMP1 proteins were analyzed by Western blotting in the lung. Mice lungs with fibrosis were characterized by an overexpression of collagen-I, LOX, MMP, and TIMP1 proteins in addition to an accumulation of collagen fibers. TM treatments significantly regressed the overexpression of these proteins in the fibrotic mice lung. In conclusion, TM treatments can be used for the regression of PF, by decreasing collagen-I protein expression and accumulation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Biological Trace Element Research