Copper induces - And copper chelation by tetrathiomolybdate inhibits - Endothelial activation in vitro

Article (PDF Available)inRedox report: communications in free radical research 19(1) · November 2013with58 Reads
DOI: 10.1179/1351000213Y.0000000070 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Endothelial activation with increased expression of cellular adhesion molecules and chemokines critically contributes to vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. Redox-active transition metal ions play an important role in vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to investigate the role of copper in endothelial activation and the potential anti-inflammatory effects of copper chelation by tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Incubating HAECs with cupric sulfate dose- and time-dependently increased mRNA and protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Copper also activated the redox-sensitive transcription factors, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), which was inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with TTM. Furthermore, TTM dose-dependently inhibited tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced activation of NF-κB and AP-1, as well as mRNA and protein expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and MCP-1, which was abolished by preincubating the cells with 5 µM TTM and 15 µM cupric sulfate. The inhibitory effect of TTM on TNFα-induced NF-κB activation was associated with decreased phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. These data suggest that intracellular copper causes activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and upregulation of inflammatory mediators in endothelial cells. Copper chelation by TTM may attenuate TNFα-induced endothelial activation and, hence, inhibit vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis.

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    • "Tetrathiomolybdate, a copper chelator, has been reported to attenuate vascular inflammation and angiogenesis. This has been reported in mice (Wei et al. 2012) as well as in human aortic endothelial cells (Wei et al. 2014). But there is a limitation that copper chelation therapy may at times induce angiogenesis through decreased thrombospondin 1, which in turn increases VEGF-VEGFR2 complexes, thereby increasing Matrix metallo proteases MMP9 levels (Antoniades et al. 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copper, although known as a micronutrient, has a pivotal role in modulating the cellular metabolism. Many studies have reported the role of copper in angiogenesis. Copper chaperones are intracellular proteins that mediate copper trafficking to various cell organelles. However, the role and function of copper chaperones in relation to angiogenesis has to be further explored. The intracellular copper levels when in excess are deleterious and certain mutations of copper chaperones have been shown to induce cell death and influence various cellular metabolisms. The study of these chaperones will be helpful in understanding the players in the cascade of events in angiogenesis and their role in cellular metabolic pathways. In this review we have briefly listed the copper chaperones associated with angiogenic and metabolic signalling and their function.
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    • "The other copper chelator, TM, was a faster and more powerful copper chelator than D-penicillamine [14, 15] . Also, it exhibits low cytotoxic- ity [16]. Experimental studies performed on mice given BLM showed that TM therapy was effective in reducing fibrosis [8, 14]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is characterized by an increase in the number of fibroblasts and an accumulation of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The members of the copper-dependent lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme family regulate the collagen accumulation in the ECM. Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) is a copper chelator. The present study reported the effect of TM on the expression of LOX proteins (LOX, LOXL1, and LOXL2), collagen digestion enzymes (MMP2 and MMP8), and TIMP1 (a collagenase inhibitor) in PF. The PF in mice was induced by intratracheal bleomycin instillation. Adult mice were divided into four groups: mice dissected after 21 days of the first bleomycin (0.08 mg/kg, single dose) treatment (I) and their controls (II), and mice treated with TM for 1 week (1.2 mg/day/mice for the first 4 days and 0.9 mg/day/mice for the last 3 days) after 14 days of the first bleomycin instillation and dissected in the 21st day of the experiment (III) and their controls (IV). Mice in groups III and IV were fed a low-copper (2 mg/kg) diet during the last 7 days of the experiment. The fibrosis score in the lung was determined under a microscope. The expressions of collagen-I, LOX, MMP, and TIMP1 proteins were analyzed by Western blotting in the lung. Mice lungs with fibrosis were characterized by an overexpression of collagen-I, LOX, MMP, and TIMP1 proteins in addition to an accumulation of collagen fibers. TM treatments significantly regressed the overexpression of these proteins in the fibrotic mice lung. In conclusion, TM treatments can be used for the regression of PF, by decreasing collagen-I protein expression and accumulation.
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis critically sustains the progression of both physiological and pathological processes. Copper behaves as an obligatory co-factor throughout the angiogenic signalling cascades, so much so that a deficiency causes neovascularization to abate. Moreover, the progress of several angiogenic pathologies (e.g. diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy and ischaemia) can be tracked by measuring serum copper levels, which are being increasingly investigated as a useful prognostic marker. Accordingly, the therapeutic modulation of body copper has been proven effective in rescuing the pathological angiogenic dysfunctions underlying several disease states. Vascular copper transport systems profoundly influence the activation and execution of angiogenesis, acting as multi-functional regulators of apparently discrete pro-angiogenic pathways. This review concerns the complex relationship among copper-dependent angiogenic factors, copper transporters and common pathological conditions, with an unusual accent on the multi-faceted involvement of the proteins handling vascular copper. Functions regulated by the major copper transport proteins (CTR1 importer, ATP7A efflux pump and metallo-chaperones) include the modulation of endothelial migration and vascular superoxide, known to activate angiogenesis within a narrow concentration range. The potential contribution of prion protein, a controversial regulator of copper homeostasis, is discussed, even though its angiogenic involvement seems to be mainly associated with the modulation of endothelial motility and permeability.
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