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Surf travel behavior and destination preferences: An application of the Serious Leisure Inventory and Measure

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... There are currently many surfing-related companies, schools, shops, equipment, and events. An important surfing-related business is tourism, which involves thousands of accommodation units (resorts and homestays), channel distributors (tour operators, wholesalers, and travel agents) as well as vertically integrated services (Barbieri and Sotomayor, 2013;Ratten, 2018). Although there is no commonly accepted official definition for surf tourism (Barbieri and Sotomayor, 2013;Porter and Usher, 2019), Fluker (2003, p.7) notes some elements of this activity as follows: ...
... An important surfing-related business is tourism, which involves thousands of accommodation units (resorts and homestays), channel distributors (tour operators, wholesalers, and travel agents) as well as vertically integrated services (Barbieri and Sotomayor, 2013;Ratten, 2018). Although there is no commonly accepted official definition for surf tourism (Barbieri and Sotomayor, 2013;Porter and Usher, 2019), Fluker (2003, p.7) notes some elements of this activity as follows: ...
... Surfers and nonsurfers learn and research the latest spots and camps through films, TV, literature, magazines, CDs, and DVDs (Ponting and McDonald, 2013). Despite recognizing that the factors the surf tourists consider when selecting surf camps are likely to be similar to those found in regular tourism, it is important to understand that the overall surfing appeal is the most relevant factor when selecting a destination (Barbieri and Sotomayor, 2013). ...
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This study applies the germane principles of service-dominant logic by investigating how different dimensions of service value impact customers’ satisfaction and related behavioral intentions in the surf camps context. An empirical model was developed and tested via survey responses from 300 Portuguese surf camps tourists who profiled their experience. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling, specifically Partial Least Squares (PLS-PM). Results highlight the respective impact the numerous value dimensions (functional, emotional, social, epistemic, experiential, and contextual) have on the overall level of perceived value as well as its resultant impact on satisfaction and repurchase intentions.
... The concepts of SL and CL were proposed by Stebbins (1982) and were often taken to classify tourism and leisure activities (Green & Jones, 2005;Stebbins, 1996;Worthington, 2005). However, recent studies have considered SL and CL as an individual's psychological characteristics toward activity participation, and discussed tourists' serious or casual participation issues for wildlife-watching, culture, sport, and nature-based tourism (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013;Cole & Scott, 1999;Curtin, 2009;Curtin, 2010a;McKercher, 2002;Prebensen & Lee, 2013;Tsaur & Liang, 2008;Wu et al., 2017). Based on Stebbins's (1982) SL theory, Gould, Moore, McGuire, and Stebbins (2008) first developed the Serious Leisure Inventory and Measure (SLIM) scale and suggested this scale could effectively distinguish between serious and casual participation. ...
... The second approach involves taking SL as a concept of tourist participation (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013;Cheng & Tsaur, 2012;Gould et al., 2008;Tsaur & Liang, 2008). For instance, Barbieri and Sotomayor (2013) investigated surfing tourists and discovered that their serious leisure characteristics predict destination preferences especially related to the overall surfing appeal of the destination, the variety of waves, and the quality of the natural environment. ...
... The second approach involves taking SL as a concept of tourist participation (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013;Cheng & Tsaur, 2012;Gould et al., 2008;Tsaur & Liang, 2008). For instance, Barbieri and Sotomayor (2013) investigated surfing tourists and discovered that their serious leisure characteristics predict destination preferences especially related to the overall surfing appeal of the destination, the variety of waves, and the quality of the natural environment. Heo et al. (2013) clustered respondents according to their serious leisure characteristics, and found that the level of serious participation has a positive correlation with their life satisfaction and health. ...
Article
Past research indicated that understanding tourist participation could assist in predicting tourists' psychological and behavioural outcomes. However, few studies have explored tourist participation from the perspectives of serious and casual participation. By extending theories of serious and casual leisure, this research confirmed that tourist participation in tourism activities varies along double independent continuous scales including serious and casual participation, and developed a serious/casual participation scale (SCPS) to assess tourist participation. Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches, two tourist samples were collected to validate a hierarchical model of the SCPS, with two overarching second-order factors including both serious and casual participation items. The results showed that the SCPS had good fit, reliability, and validity. The findings provide ways to segment tourist markets based on tourist participation, and further expand academically the current knowledge of serious and casual participation. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Therefore, this study contributes to understanding this serious leisure activity (Stebbins, 1992) as a positive and beneficial human experience rather than an unhealthy and deviant practice. Furthermore, the benefits of surfing identified in the study can be utilized by surf destinations attempting to attract more surfers by incorporating these benefits into their travel and tourism promotional campaigns (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013). For instance, a city such as Stavanger in Norway can include the findings of the study to its marketing strategies to market the city as a new, exotic 'cold water' surf destination. ...
... By the end of the 19th century surfing suffered a decline in practice in Hawaii. However, it was rediscovered early in the 20th century (Booth, 2001(Booth, , 2004Levinson & Christensen, 1999;Young & McGregor, 1983) and became popular once again by mid 1950s (Booth, 2004) mostly due to the role of mass media in exhibiting the image of a surfing culture, the production of lighter surfboards (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013;Butts, 2001) and the introduction of cheap air travel (Booth, 1995). After the sport's resurgence, it flourished in California and quickly diffused to the Pacific Rim (Booth, 1995(Booth, , 2001(Booth, , 2004. ...
... Reynolds and Hritz (2012) studied surfers' motivations and lifestyles as adventure travellers. BENEFITS FROM COLD WATER SURFING IN JAEREN,NORWAY 5 Other studies focused on identifying surf tourists' demographic characteristics, travel behaviour and destination choices (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013;Dolnicar & Fluker, 2003a, 2003b. Furthermore, a number of studies focused on surf tourists and sustainable surf tourism (Buckley, 2002a(Buckley, , 2002bO'Brien & Ponting, 2013). ...
Thesis
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Norway is steadily progressing towards being a popular cold-water surf destination. The long Norwegian coastline is attracting an increasing number of surfers who surf year round in extreme weather conditions. The aim of this research is to identify the benefits acquired by Norwegian surfers surfing in cold water along the Jæren coast, south the city of Stavanger in Norway. This research adopted a phenomenological approach and qualitative research techniques were implemented. The applied qualitative methods were semi-structured in-depth individual interviews and group interviews with thirteen veteran surfers, observations, and secondary data material, which consisted of written material from online surfing blogs and video material. The interpretation and analysis of qualitative materials showed that participants gain a wide range of benefits by surfing actively year round. Surfers reported advanced skills development and experiencing feelings of freedom, playfulness, inclusion and strong social cohesion with other members in the surfing subculture, a deep connection to nature, physical and mental health benefits, and an overall enhanced quality of life. Keywords: Surfing, benefits, lifestyle sports, extreme sports, serious leisure, Jæren, Norway
... The sport suffered a decline in practice by the end of the 19th century but was revived in the early 20th century (Booth, 2001(Booth, , 2004Levinson & Christensen, 1999). Surfing became prevalent once more during the 1950s and 1960s (Booth, 2004;Lazarow et al., 2008) mainly due to the introduction of cheap air travel (Booth, 1995), the manufacturing of lighter surfboards, and the media's role in demonstrating the surfing culture (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013). Since then, surfing thrived in California, rapidly diffused to the Pacific Rim (Booth, 1995(Booth, , 2001(Booth, , 2004, and lately it spread in Northern Europe and the Arctic as well (Langseth, 2012). ...
... More affordable travel opportunities have facilitated a swift rise in surf tourism (Dolnicar & Fluker, 2003b;O'Brien & Ponting, 2013), which is a growing multibillion dollar global business niche (Buckley, 2002;Sotomayor & Barbieri, 2016) within the broader sport tourism industry (Martin & Assenov, 2012). Today, about 35 million people pursue surfing worldwide (Mach & Ponting, 2018;O'Brien & Eddie, 2013;Porter & Usher, 2019), searching for the waves that provide high-quality surfing (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013) and are willing to travel to different destinations in search of these experiences (Dolnicar & Fluker, 2003a). ...
... A number of studies have shown that the majority of surf tourists are males with relatively high incomes, aged about 30 years on average, and very 102 ELMAHDY, ORAMS, AND MYKLETUN mobile in their search for surf (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013;Dolnicar & Fluker, 2003a, 2003bKruger & Saayman, 2017). Gender differences apply; according to Reynolds and Hritz (2012), female surf travelers are found to be more keen on socializing, while males focus more on displaying their skills. ...
Article
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More affordable travel opportunities have facilitated a swift rise in surf tourism, which is a growing multi-billion dollar global business niche within the broader sport tourism industry. It is argued that a growing number of surfers who are searching for the perfect wave without the crowds found in well-established surfing destinations are shifting to cold-water surfing. Previous research on surf tourism has largely focused on warm-and temperate-water surfing and related travel. However, an exploration of and an attempt to comprehend cold-water surf tourism and how it compares to similar activities in warm-water has been overlooked. This study focuses on understanding the travel behaviour and related experiences of Norwegian surf tourists domestically and internationally, to cold-and warm-water destinations. Data were collected using a phenomenological approach and semi-structured in-depth interviews with 18 experienced Norwegian surfers. Results show that these surfers are highly mobile, visiting warm-water surf destinations such as Morocco, Bali, Australia and Hawaii and also cold-water surf destinations such as Norway, Iceland, Scotland and Canada. They travel to surf at least once a year, staying between 10days to three months, preferably in cheap accommodation. The longer the travel distance, the longer the stay. Their experiences of “localism”, where local surfers behave aggressively toward visiting surfers, were more common in crowded warm-water destinations. In addition to the enjoyment of surfing, these Norwegian surf tourists valued opportunities to create new social relationships, experience new and different cultures and expand their “world-view” via their surf travel. They appreciated unique natural environments and experienced a deep connection to nature. This research presents the first empirical data on the travel behaviour and related-experiences of surf tourists from a non-traditional surfing nation in Scandinavia.
... Motivations and outcomes of customer engagement are also of interest of researchers. Engagement can be influenced by multiple motivations (Brodie, Ilic, Juric, & Hollebeek, 2013;Pansari & Kumar, 2017;Taheri et al., 2014), levels of knowledge (Hollebeek, 2012), or serious leisure (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013;Bryce et al., 2015Bryce et al., , 2015Stebbins, 1992;Taheri et al., 2014). However, the literature is not conclusive regarding what can motivate individuals to a certain task, product/brand or social media. ...
... However, it has rarely been considered in the tourism context (Black, 2005;Brodie et al., 2011;Falk & Dierking, 1992;Falk & Storksdieck, 2005;Prentice, 2001;Sheng & Chen, 2012). The multiple motivation benefits of serious leisure can help to predict engagement (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013;Taheri et al., 2014). ...
... The characteristics with the strongest agreement were: Perseverance and Career. This was consistent with surfing and surf travel behaviours (see Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013). In terms of the 12 factors that made up the characteristic of Benefits, the strongest agreement was with Self-gratification (enjoyment) and Re-creation, but very low agreement with Financial return. ...
... In terms of the 12 factors that made up the characteristic of Benefits, the strongest agreement was with Self-gratification (enjoyment) and Re-creation, but very low agreement with Financial return. Barbieri and Sotomayor (2013) also found that surfers had the strongest agreement with Self-gratification (enjoyment) and did not receive Benefits in terms of Financial return. In contrast, Fairer-Wessels (2013) found the strongest agreement with Identity, as well as with Unique ethos (related to the subculture influence in social identity) in her study of Comrades Marathon runners. ...
Article
A health-conscious mindset has grown rapidly among South African middle-class consumers. This can be seen by their embrace of sports watches, reward-based programmes, and participation in organised leisure activities such as cycling and running. Within this context, trail running is becoming increasingly popular; however, research on the nature of trail running in South Africa is limited. A theoretical understanding of the relationship that participants have with trail running, specifically the applicability of the serious leisure framework, could provide valuable insights into this emerging market. This study incorporated an exploratory case-study design. Quantitative data was collected using purposive sampling and an online survey to determine if trail runners undertook the activity as leisure careerists or not. The level of seriousness of respondents was measured using the six characteristics of serious leisure as defined in the Serious Leisure Inventory Measure (SLIM). The main findings were that many trail runners meet all six of the characteristics of serious leisure. ‘Perseverance’ and ‘Career’ followed by ‘Effort’ and ‘Identity’ were the most important factors to the trail runners. Motives of ‘Fun’ and ‘Sense of achievement’ were more important than ‘Fitness’ or ‘Social factors’, however. ‘Sense of achievement’ and ‘Social’ correlated the most strongly with respondents’ overall level of seriousness in the sport. Income impacted on motivations, however, with wealthier people more likely to report that they participated for Fun. In terms of gender, women were more likely to report that trail running boosted their self-image. In addition, trail running forms part of the serious leisure economy, as participants are prepared to spend substantial sums of money on related equipment and participation in events. This study provides valuable insights for marketing and design of trail-running events and contributes to the gap in the literature on serious leisure in South Africa.
... Faktanya, peselancar mewakili populasi yang sangat mobile, memulai perjalanan internasional untuk berselancar dengan tingkat yang jauh lebih tinggi daripada populasi lainnya untuk tujuan rekreasi secara keseluruhan (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013). ...
... Wisata surfing adalah, '' memiliki dampak ekonomi signifikan, sosial dan lingkungan yang cukup untuk membenarkan perhatian '' (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013 ...
Thesis
This study aims to identify the extent to which the economic impact of the Sport Tourism Surfing activity on the income of local communities in Tanjung Setia Beach, Pesisir Barat Regency. This study uses mixed research methods and the results of distributing questionnaires to tourists, business units and labor. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling of 100 tourists, 30 business units and 30 workers. The analysis used is the Multiplier Impact. The findings of this study are that the monthly expenditure of tourists at Tanjung Setia Beach is Rp. 2.276.030.410, -, the multiplier effect value shows that Tanjung Setia Beach has a Keynesian Income Multiplier value, which is 1.15. The Ratio Cash Flow Multiplication Ratio Type I is 1.29, and the Ratio Cash Flow Multiplication Type II is 1.45. The Keynesian Income Multiplier value obtained is more than one, namely 1.15, which means that surfing sports tourism activity has an economic impact on local communities.
... There are other studies proving that FTs rarely fish in the same place twice, but instead move among a variety of expensive, remote, and specialised fisheries for unusual fish (Golden et al., 2019). This suggests low levels of destination loyalty within the segment, which could be explained by the fact that anglers (as is the case for surfers) tend to be loyal to those marine environments that offer the best experience (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013). ...
... ATRIB 3 Peaceful and exotic fishing experience Fishing tourism: exoticism and wilderness, and the possibility to catch diverse species in a peaceful fishing environment influence an angler's satisfaction (Beardmore et al.,2015) ATRIB 4 Outstanding cultural value and activities Cruise tourism, marine tourism: the perceived value of the cultural environment influences tourists' satisfaction (Chang et al., 2016;Gržetić et al., 2013b, p. 50). ATRIB 5 Good weather, beaches and tourist services Nautical tourism: the climatic conditions, beaches and tourist services influence overall destination image and satisfaction (Bafaluy et al., 2014;Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013;Gržetić et al., 2013b, p. 75) Following guidance from previous research, exoticism and wilderness, and the possibility to catch diverse species in a peaceful fishing environment (Beardmore et al., 2015) are considered factors that influence an angler's satisfaction, leading to H3: ...
Article
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The importance of fishing tourism for destinations is often analysed through the expenditure levels of tourists, with image, satisfaction and loyalty being under-researched areas. This article empirically tests a structural equation model to assess the relationship between the satisfaction, expenditure and loyalty of fishing tourists. Two dimensions were considered in each case: 1) overall and catch-related satisfaction, 2) expenditure on tourist and fishery products and services, and 3) behavioural and attitudinal loyalty. The study also examines destination attributes that are relevant in explaining the overall satisfaction of fishing tourists. By using data collected from 482 anglers visiting the Canary Islands (Spain) and Cape Verde, the study finds that overall satisfaction increases with the perception of a healthier and less polluted environment at destinations. This was found to be a dominant factor in the context of other attributes that also impact anglers’ satisfaction. Besides, satisfaction was found to be an antecedent of spending, but only on the components of the destination’s nautical offer. Finally, satisfaction with the catch was the only factor with a direct and positive relationship to loyalty. The study provides recommendations aimed at being useful in planning the sustainable development of fishing tourism at several destinations.
... Serious leisure activities are thus usually highly involving activities, and the leisure benefits to the participants are higher than from casual leisure activities. Barbieri and Sotomayor (2013) summarize the differences in benefits between the two types of leisure, including social difficulties that are span difficulties, self-growth, engaging in leisure activities as a career, achieving certain long-term benefits, constructing a self-image, and creating leisure activities. ...
... Later, the concept of involvement was adopted in tourism and leisurerelated fields (Lu et al., 2015) and termed activity involvement, meaning a person's level of immersion in the activity experience (Prayag and Ryan, 2012), while the introduction of activity involvement are considered to be one of the important variables for predicting tourism or leisure behavior (Prebensen et al., 2012) and attitudes toward a place or activity (Shen et al., 2012). The elements involved in the activity contain three different originals, namely attraction, self-expression, and life center (Funk et al., 2004;Fotiadis and Vassiliadis, 2016); attraction means the attraction of the activity to the person, self-expression means whether people define their own values through the activity, and finally, centrality of life is the impact of the activity on people and their social circles, which coincides with the leisure benefits mentioned by Barbieri and Sotomayor (2013). In other words, as the level of involvement in the activity increases, the leisure benefits that individuals receive from the activity increase, and they are more willing to continue to engage in the activity. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to explore the members of golf clubs in the central region of Taiwan and find out whether their involvement in activities affects the degree of place attachment and to add the two factors of activity experience and experience value so as to develop a theoretical framework. A questionnaire survey was used to collect 534 samples from golf clubs in central Taiwan for analysis using the following research tools: the Activity Involvement scale, Place Attachment scale, and Likert psychological scale. The results of the study show that (1) activity involvement has a significant positive impact on place attachment, activity experience, and experience value; (2) activity experience has a significant positive impact on experience value; (3) experience value has a significant positive impact on place attachment. This result verifies the theory that activity involvement impacts place attachment. It is suggested that the relevant bodies should strengthen the incentives given in the activities and strengthen the value of the leisure experience so as to facilitate the development of related industries in the future.
... Beach tourism is an important economic contributor for coastal regions and drives developments to facilitate recreational involvement (i.e. hotels, surf tourism) (Alexandrakis et al., 2015;Barbieri & Sotomayor 2013;Papageorgiou, 2016;Pérez-Maqueo et al., 2017). ...
... The variation in recreational use among beach suggests there is value in local management arrangements and service provision. Understanding beach-specific drivers of use provides an opportunity to enhance the beach-going experience by tailoring management actions to promote popular activities in places where high participation already exists(Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013;Gray & Gray, 2017;Morgan, 2019;White & Hyde, 2010). Similarly, this information provides the opportunity to ensure local protection of sensitive species from human disturbance(Maslo et al., 2018). ...
... They assigned the hierarchy of each resource based on the attractiveness of the demand (1 for international tourism, 5 for local). Here, we will assign weights following a sustainable criterion based on a balanced importance (economic 33%, social 33%, and environmental 34%) and keeping the same hierarchy levels based on the attractiveness of the demand, considering at the same time the results obtained in the previous work of Barbieri and Sotomayor [99] regarding surf tourists' behavior and destination preferences, as well as our expertise and previous experience in the field of study as academics, researchers, and active participants in surfing, all of which were also considered in setting the value of the multipliers. ...
... Regarding the latter, they obtained 'high to very high' weights for environmental parameters, 'and so differences in unweighted and weighted scores are very sensitive to small differences' ( [23], p.15). In order to avoid that limitation, this study employed a different perspective, using previous research about what concerns surf tourists (e.g., the work of Barbieri and Sotomayor [99]). On the other hand, the work of Cerezo and Galacho [67] found certain correlations between the number of natural resources and a higher eco-tourism potentiality in the studied area (municipalities within and around the borders of the Sierra de las Nieves natural park), as they assigned higher weights and multipliers to tourism resources and natural resources, respectively. ...
Article
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Sport tourism has experienced considerable growth in the last decades, either from the sport events perspective or considering an active sport tourism approach. Therefore, some emergent market niches like surf tourism have been developed in numerous coastal destinations to attract sustainability-sensitive tourists due to the ongoing environmental challenges and the socio-economic crisis. Cape Town is positioned in a prominent place in terms of competitiveness, with a considerable variety of beaches and surf spots facing multiple issues. The aim of this study is to try to identify the most competitive beaches and subdistricts in terms of sustainability and to suggest criteria for surf-tourism-related indicators to obtain an overview about this space, using weighting indicators, and applying geography and political economy lenses. The results reveal that Strand, Table View, and Surfers’ Corner are the most competitive beaches. Additionally, beaches located in some underprivileged areas such as Mitchells Plain and Khayelitsha are potentially interesting from a socio-economic development point of view, although they show a lack of accommodation infrastructures. These results seem to indicate that those areas should be closely monitored, and destination managers should focus their attention and finance there to obtain a more sustainable surf tourism development.
... SLQs were measured by the Serious Leisure Inventory and Measure (SLIM) developed by Gould et al. (2011). Some studies have confirmed its good reliability and validity in the field of leisure sports, such as surfing (Barbieri and Sotomayor 2013) and climbing (Lee, Bentley, and Hsu 2017). The SLIM includes 18 items: perseverance (1 item), personal effort (1 item), unique ethos (1 item), identity (1 item), career (2 items), and durable benefits (12 items). ...
... Runners in these groups learn and share knowledge, skills and experiences that are beneficial for strengthening participation behaviour and developing a strong identity (Shipway and Jones 2007). However, there were no significant differences for SLQs based on age, marriage status or income, and this result is basically consistent with the results of Barbieri and Sotomayor (2013). ...
Article
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Accumulating studies suggested that serious leisure qualities (SLQs) had an important correlate to leisure motivation (LM). However, the role of SLQs on LM remains ambiguous. This study aims to explore the relationship between SLQs and LM among long distance runners. A multiple regression analysis was conducted using data from participants (N = 300) recruited from a distance-running event (Hangzhou Marathon) held in China. The study results showed that marathon runners had high scores for the six SLQs and for the dimensions of LM with high levels of self-­determination. Significant differences were found for the SLQs and LM based on sociodemographic variables. LM was related to marathon runners’ SLQs, and motivation factors with higher self-­determination were positively associated with SLQs. These study findings extend the literatures of the relationship between SLQs and LM, and contribute to understand why do people commit to long distance running. The limitations and implications of this study are also discussed.
... People who have more education have more leisure involvement and satisfaction, as "high school or less" and "college" differ significantly, as do "high school or less" and "master's degree" (Bauman et al., 2011;Li et al., 2020). Barbieri and Sotomayor (2013) suggested that extra work responsibilities of participants with higher education may weaken the leisure effect, such as time constraints, so that they may have a relatively lower running frequency. As a result, practitioners with lower education may have lower leisure involvement and satisfaction. ...
... Hence, the conciliation with the working day is mandatory for leisure practice and, consequently, its involvement. People who have extra jobs can create leisure restrictions, weakening their involvement and frequency (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013). We note that voluntary simplicity may be a way of living that drives leisure involvement as a lifestyle and provides more free time for leisure. ...
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This study aims to analyze leisure involvement and voluntary simplicity as antecedents of leisure satisfaction and the relationship with experiential consumption. To this end, we conducted a survey with 815 Brazilian runners and cyclists, and the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Age, education, and income were also investigated as moderators in the relationship between leisure involvement and leisure satisfaction. The main results showed that leisure involvement positively influenced leisure satisfaction and voluntary simplicity of its practitioners. Voluntary simplicity positively influenced leisure satisfaction and experiential consumption. The moderation test showed that the relationship between leisure involvement and leisure satisfaction is stronger for higher age, education, and income. We concluded that leisure involvement could be a path to a simple living choice, one source for a more sustainable world. The findings provide theoretical and practical implications for practitioners, policymakers, and society.
... When it comes to millenials' attitude toward visiting cultural heritage sites, a research gap was identified. Much research has focused on serious leisure and cultural motivation (Barbieri and Sotomayor 2013;Bryce, 2015;Nicolaides, 2018) , but has overlooked how social eWOM could influence attitudes for millennial travellers. Indonesia has a cultural and economic environment that is much different from countries where previous research has been conducted. ...
... Serious leisure requires time and practice to add knowledge, skills, and experience. Barbieri and Sotomayor (2013) found how serious leisure increases surf travel behaviour and destination preferences. Cheng and Tsaur (2011) assert that serious leisure time involves selfexpression such as hanging out with people who have the same interests. ...
Article
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To research the determinants of intention to travel, this paper employs the technology acceptance model (TAM) to investigate Indonesian millennials’ behavioural process of post-adoption by considering their attitudes toward visiting cultural heritage sites. No previous research has investigated whether there is a link between cultural motivation, serious leisure, and electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). Structural equation modelling technology was used to assess the responses from 442 questionnaires. The results show that social eWOM is the strongest predictor of attitude towards visiting heritage sites, followed by serious leisure and culture motivation.
... Other studies examined empirical linkages between recreation specialization in general and other aspects that may have a relevant role in assessing participation in birdwatching. In particular, Barbieri and Sotomayor (2013), Cheng and Tsaur (2012), S. Lee and Scott (2013), Needham et al. (2013), and Tsaur and Liang (2008) investigated the relationships between recreation specialization and serious leisure dimensions. Cheung et al. (2017) explored the influence of recreation specialization on birdwatchers' pro-environmental attitudes and ecologically responsible behavior. ...
Article
Using data from a survey of Italian birdwatchers, we examined whether recreation specialization affects birders’ travel intention through a two-dimensional framework based on the “behavior” and “skills, knowledge, and commitment” constructs. The model was estimated through a partial least squares structural equation “spread” model. We implemented a second-stage analysis, using a seemingly unrelated regression (SURE) model to identify which birder characteristics, attitudes, and preferences significantly affected the path scores. The findings demonstrated a significant and positive relationship between recreation specialization and birders’ travel intention, and offer evidence that birders’ behavior and skills, knowledge, and commitment were statistically significant lower hierarchical order constructs of recreation specialization. The intensity of these connections varied according to the birder’s profile, the source of information used to choose the destination site and the reasons behind the choice of site for birdwatching.
... Para intentar recoger la variabilidad de estos fenómenos se ha desarrollado una herramienta de medida, el Serious Leisure Inventory Measure (Gould et al., 2008), que intenta reflejar cada una de estas seis características. En una reformulación más reciente (Gould et al., 2011) esta herramienta se ha rediseñado para poderse utilizar como medida de en qué grado una persona está comprometida en una determinada actividad de ocio, y se ha aplicado al deporte del surf (Barbieri y Sotomayor, 2013;Sotomayor y Barbieri, 2016), jugadores de béisbol y voleibol (Liu et al., 2013) y a una muestra variada de deportistas federados (Romero, Iraurgi y Madariaga, 2017). ...
Article
El objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar una perspectiva para el análisis del crecimiento en la participación popular en pruebas deportivas de fondo. Para comprender este fenómeno se parte de la perspectiva del ocio serio, que combinada con la teoría de la identidad social permite plantear como hipótesis que el crecimiento de estas pruebas se explica porque permite, a quienes participan en ellas, construir su identidad social en positivo, mediante dos mecanismos. Por un lado, permite alcanzar una posición elevada en al menos una jerarquía social, la propia de las subculturas asociadas a determinadas prácticas deportivas. Por otro lado, en la medida en que el ethos de estas prácticas resulta coherente con el de las sociedades contemporáneas, permite mejorar, en un sentido más genérico, la propia identidad social. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach to analyze the growth in the participation of amateur athletes in endurance sports events. Following the serious leisure perspective, combined with social identity theory, an approach is proposed based in the hypothesis that the growth of these events can be explained because taking part in them allow participants to build a positive social identity through two mechanisms. On the one hand, it allow participants to gain a high ranking in at least one social hierarchy, that of the subculture of certain sports. On the other hand, for as long as the ethos of endurance sports is consistent with that of contemporary societies, it also allows, in a more general sense, to enhance one’s own social identity.
... Para intentar recoger la variabilidad de estos fenómenos se ha desarrollado una herramienta de medida, el Serious Leisure Inventory Measure (Gould et al., 2008), que intenta reflejar cada una de estas seis características. En una reformulación más reciente (Gould et al., 2011) esta herramienta se ha rediseñado para poderse utilizar como medida de en qué grado una persona está comprometida en una determinada actividad de ocio, y se ha aplicado al deporte del surf (Barbieri y Sotomayor, 2013;Sotomayor y Barbieri, 2016), jugadores de béisbol y voleibol (Liu et al., 2013) y a una muestra variada de deportistas federados (Romero, Iraurgi y Madariaga, 2017). ...
Article
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En este artículo, desde una perspectiva de género, se compararon y estudiaron las bases de las competiciones de surf y el reparto de premios en metálico de la Federación Canaria de Surf, la Federación Española de Surf y la World Surf League, donde se pudieron observar grandes disparidades. Además, se desarrolló un breve análisis exploratorio de la mediatización de hombres y mujeres en el surf a través del análisis exploratorio de 180 imágenes de Google Imágenes de los y las tres primeras del ranking mundial de surf y el análisis descriptivo del visionado de 10 vídeos de Vimeo, donde se pudo observar una ausencia general de mujeres surfistas. This article, from a gender perspective, focused on analyzing the bases of surfing competitions and the distribution of cash prizes stablished in the Canary Islands Surf Federation, the Spanish Surf Federation and the World Surf League, where large disparities were observed. In addition, a brief exploratory analysis of the mediation of men and women in surfing was developed through: the exploratory analysis of 180 images of Google Images of the first 3 of the world surfing ranking and the descriptive analysis of the viewing of 10 VIMEO vídeos, where a general absence of female surfers could be observed.
... The rapid expansion of nature sports has been accompanied by a cultural fragmentation that supports a new profile of participation (Wheaton 2013). Initially, nature sports activities were predominantly practiced by young, educated males with highly qualified jobs and, consequently, high income levels (Dolnicar and Fluker 2003a;Barbieri and Sotomayor 2013;Portugal et al. 2017;Melo and Gomes 2017b) and high social capital (Pociello 1981). Today, the nature sports industry has witnessed a demographic shift as participation rates across the generations have grown (Brymer and Schweitzer 2017), thereby creating new and profitable niche markets that include not only teenage boys but also girls, women, men and an aging population, who have a broad range of interests and experiences (Wheaton 2016;Brymer and Schweitzer 2017). ...
... • Furthermore, the benefits of surfing identified in the study can be utilized by surf destinations attempting to attract more surfers by incorporating these benefits into their travel and tourism promotional campaigns (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013). For instance, a city such as Stavanger in Norway can include the findings of the study to its marketing strategies to market the city as a new, exotic 'cold water' surf destination. ...
Poster
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Poster presented at the Master of Science Graduation 2015 held at University of Stavanger (UiS)
... However, Stebbins emphasized that the definition of serious leisure time does not fit into the definition of leisure time, and those who are dealing with wider contextual activities in their spare time are serious leisure participants of those who enjoy a more satisfying leisure activity. In addition, in a different definition, serious leisure time is amateur, hobby or voluntary activities that are very important, interesting and satisfying, and require specific knowledge, skills and experience" Gould, 2005;Gould et al., 2011;Kim et al., 2011;Stebbins, 2007;Barbieri and Sotomayor, 2013). To summarize, serious leisure time has brought a new dimension to today's world, where leisure activities will no longer be considered only leisure activities. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to reveal the relationship between, serious and indifferent leisure time and leisure management of Generation Y and its education in light of different variables. Leisure education was used in the study in terms of participation in activities, especially in terms of serious leisure participation information, and no measurement tool was needed in this respect. The study group consists of a total of 504 participants of Generation Y, including 164 women and 340 men born between 1980 and 1999. In addition to the personal information form, the “Leisure Management Scale” developed by Wang et al. (2011) and adapted to Turkish by Akgul and Karakucuk (2015) and the “Serious and Casual Leisure Scale” developed by Akyildiz (2013). It was determined that the data did not have a normal distribution, and the Mann Whitney-U Test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between two independent groups, and the Kruskal Wallis Test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between more than two independent groups. The Pearson Spearman Correlation Analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the sub-dimensions of the scale. As a result of the study, it was determined that there were significant differences according to the gender, leisure time, and the adequacy of the recreation areas. At the same time, it was observed that there was a significant positive relationship between leisure management and serious and casual leisure sub-dimension.
... In addition, Stebbin also mention 6 quality that participants could gain from serious leisure experience, which are: the occasional need to persevere in the activity to overcome difficulties; the tendency for individuals to create a career of their activities; a significant personal effort which leads to the development of special knowledge, training, or skill; the attainment of some long-lasting benefits; and the formation of a strong Identity with the activity; and a unique ethos that grows around the activity and leads to the development of a special social world. (Stebbin 1982(Stebbin , 1992(Stebbin , 1999 in Barbieri and Sotomayor, 2013). These qualities distinguish serious leisure from casual leisure. ...
... Similarly, Spiers and Walker (2008) noted that people feel happy when they are engaged in activities that promote a sense of satisfaction. For example, Barbieri and Sotomayor (2013) studied surfers' leisure experience and found that self-satisfaction is one of the leisure benefits that surfing experience provided. Other leisure activity participants, such as bikers in Taiwan, also showed that the perceived importance of leisure activity positively affects personal satisfaction (Lin 2008). ...
Article
The purpose of this research was to examine the role of leisure in undergraduate students’ education. In particular, the study investigated the relationships among leisure centrality, self-satisfaction, and academic intrinsic motivation. Using a sample drawn from university students in Singapore, this study examined a hypothesized structural model. The results showed that leisure centrality had positive effects on both self-satisfaction and intrinsic motivation, and leisure centrality had a mediated relationship with academic intrinsic motivation through self-satisfaction. The findings of this study expand the knowledge of the consequential effects of leisure centrality by observing university students.
... For example, the perception of good weather for nautical tourists depend on the maritime activity they realise, their personal experience, mastery and skills, and the area chosen for the activities. While for surfing, the greatest power of the wind from sea to land is crucial for the quality, duration and consistency of the waves (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013;Martin & Assenov, 2012), for sailing or windsurfing, a lower intensity of the wind is required, preferably without gusts and with a low height of the waves. In consequence, if tourists find that the weather conditions at the destination do not meet their expectations, the travel experience will be affected (Bafaluy et al., 2014;Jones, Scott, & Khaled, 2006). ...
Article
Climatic conditions may influence the way in which tourists undertake certain activities at destinations. This article proposes and empirically tests a structural equation model to measure the effects of climate perceived comfort on tourists' demand for nautical activities and expenditure decisions during the visit. Using data collected from 255 tourists visiting Cape Verde for maritime recreation, the study finds that satisfaction with weather conditions is the main determinant of the amount of nautical activities consumed by tourists during their visit to the destination. In addition, nautical activities are found to be a mediator of the impact of climate on tourists' satisfaction and on-site expenditure. The results suggest implications for tourism policy, highlighting the importance of the design of climate-oriented products and services for improving nautical tourism experience, foster technological innovation, and promote economic impact.
... The F-AHPGIS-based hybrid model is now being used in a variety of fields, including travel, tourism, and leisure studies (Mahdi and Esztergár-Kiss 2021;Samira et al. 2018), drought risk mapping (Raha and Gayen 2020;, potential residential plan layout (Mosadeghi et al. 2015), industrial site strategic planning (Hanine et al. 2017;Ghobadi and Ahmadipari 2018), solar plant site detection (Asakereh et al. 2017), landslide susceptibility mapping (Mallick et al. 2018) and forest management . More specifically, the techniques are dedicated explicitly to tourism potential zone recognition (Getz and Page 2016) with the help of geology (Everingham 2015), relief (Rahayuningsih et al. 2016), slope (Mishra 2020), forest area (Bafaluy et al. 2014), coefficient of variation of rainfall, view shade (Panagiotopoulos et al. 2016), human population density (Nor and Shah 2012), human population growth rate (Guerrero-Morales et al. 2020), human literacy rate (Hakim et al. 2021), the average number of places visited/ leisure visitor (Ali 2018), road density (Chen et al. 2021), inventories of outdoor recreation assets (Barbieri and Sotomayor 2013), and attribution of potential locations for exciting activities (Wimmler et al. 2015). However, in many instances, the researchers oversimplify the procedure by not combining essential mathematical illustrations and techniques. ...
Article
Demarcation of tourism potential zones has received significant attention in recent years, as it has a substantial imprint on the sustainable development of a particular region. AlthoughJharkhand State has high tourism potential, the tourism potentiality in this region has not yet been revealed. Therefore, the present research focused on delineating the tourism potential zone ofJharkhand State using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (F-AHP) and Geographical information system (GIS). The whole methodology was implemented here through a ten-step procedure that removed the entanglement and ambiguity of the traditional F-AHP method. At the first step, two parameters and ten representative indicators were designated. In the second step, fuzzy-based weightages were marked for each indicator and parameter, following 30 expert opinions, non-participant extensive field observations and literature reviews. At the third stage, pairwise comparison matrices were prepared and the consistency ratios judged. Next, fuzzy synthetic extent and magnitude of fuzzy synthetic extent were estimated in step-4 and step-5, respectively. Then, in step-6, the final weight vectors for each indicator were computed. Finally, step-7 identified reclassifications using a linear fuzzy membership function (0–1). Then, the weighted linear algorithm (WLA) technique was employed in step-8 to obtain the composite variables. Later, the variables (physical and socio-cultural) were integrated into the GIS platform using WLA to obtain the tourism potential zones (TPZs). TPZs were categorized into low, moderate, high and very high potential zones following the principle of natural breaks at step-9. An area of approximately 43.857% was identified as the high to very high tourism potential zone, and 24.976% marked under the moderate tourism potential zone. The remaining area (31.166%) was marked as a low tourism potential zone. Finally (step-10), TPZs were validated using correlation coefficient ( R2) and area under receiver operating curves (AUC–ROC). Further, the R2 value was 0.717, and the AUC marked as 0.99. The methodology employed in this research will help in creating and nurturing the blueprint of a local tourism plan for- Jharkhand State.
... Since the 1970s, researchers began to gather a body of knowledge that unveils the link between tourist behaviour and the psychological needs of potential tourists. Barbieri and Sotomayor (2013) proved that vacations offer individuals the opportunity to meet their needs. Similarly, Brochado et al. (2018) stated that visitors are motivated by such characteristics as sport, sex, education and income. ...
Article
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Unanimously recognised as a growing sector in today’s world, cultural tourism continues to attract the attention of researchers seeking to exhume the mechanisms and dynamics that govern it. In terms of political and strategic choices, Tunisia is currently giving this sector an increasingly remarkable interest. It is in this perspective that we tried to carry out a survey that would highlight the opinions of Arab-Muslim visitors about cultural tourism in Tunisia. To this end, we relied on the principal component analysis and the probit models that we considered the most appropriate to deal with our problem. Using individual data from a sample of 300 Arab-Muslim tourists who visited Tunisia during the summer vacation of 2014, we tried to interpret the results that seemed very suggestive. Our analysis of the different results led us to deduce that it is difficult for the Tunisian destination to motivate the Arab-Muslim visitors by focusing on the cultural tourism (in its current state) and that it is not the best way to attract this category of tourists. In the light of the obtained results, we have proposed some solutions that could promote this destination and fructify this type of alternative tourism.
... As suggested by Fadda (2019) on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, the concept of 'recreational surf tourism' should be welcomed in a productive way in order to embrace the 'recreational' trends and spirit of the field, as local and domestic surf tourism adapts to opportunity and change in a modern context (Orams & Towner, 2013). Leisure, serious leisure, and recreational involvement in surfing as a touristic activity invite social scientists to the field to explore lifestyle choices of surfers from all ages and backgrounds (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013;Beaumont & Brown, 2015;Cheng & Tsaur, 2012;Kim & Kwon, 2020;Portugal et al., 2017;Ratten, 2018;Sotomayor & Barbieri, 2016;Usher & Gomez, 2018;Wheaton, 2017), including surf camps and schools (Brochado et al., 2018;Fadda, 2019Fadda, , 2020Lopes & Bicudo, 2017). With increased interest in surfing as a physiological and psychological wellness experience, addressing aspects of aging, health and well-being (Cheng & Lu, 2015;Hunt & Harbor, 2019;Wheaton, 2017), individuals, communities, and the tourism industry can benefit greatly from 'recognizing and appreciating coastal surfing resources' (Martin & Assenov, 2015, p. 116). ...
... Arriving at coastlines, waves break in patterns favorable for surfing-the practice of riding breaking waves-at typically nearshore, generally discrete locations called surf breaks (Butt et al., 2004;Scarfe et al., 2009). Surf breaks have natural and cultural endowments with significant value for stakeholders across economic (Nelsen et al., 2007;Lazarow et al., 2008;Buckley et al., 2014;Ponting and O'Brien, 2015;McGregor and Wills, 2016), cultural (Ford and Brown, 2005; Barbieri and Sotomayor, 2013;Mixon, 2014;Usher and Kerstetter, 2015), historical (Warshaw, 2010;Westwick and Neushul, 2013), and other dimensions (Taylor, 2007;Moore, 2011;Reineman and Ardoin, 2018) at local scales to global scales (see, e.g., Butt et al., 2004;Nelsen et al., 2007;Lazarow et al., 2008;Buckley et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services requires diverse models that empower communities to steward and benefit from resources. Here we investigate the potential of surfing resources, a new conservation asset class, and the surfing community, an underutilized conservation constituency, to conserve marine biodiversity. We conducted a spatial analysis of the overlap among Key Biodiversity Areas, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), and 3,755 surf breaks globally. We find that 62.77% of surf breaks are not within MPAs and that 25.81% of all surf breaks are within 5 km of a Key Biodiversity Area, but are not within a MPA, suggesting that strategic conservation opportunities arise from the co-occurrence of surfing resources and biodiversity priorities. Establishing or extending protections to surfing ecosystems could increase protection for biodiversity at one-quarter of surf breaks. Sustainable management of these resources ensures their ability to provide for the character, economy, and development of coastal communities worldwide.
... Adams (2002), a publication on 'injury', has the highest number of citations (n = 114). Other highly cited publications were related to 'tourism' (e.g., Barbieri and Sotomayor, 2013), 'health and well-being' (e.g., Brymer and Oades, 2009) and 'marine pollution' (e.g., Wheaton, 2007) with 80, 77, and 74 citations, respectively. ...
Article
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Marine ecosystems contribute to human well-being, e.g. through the promotion of nature-based recreational activities such as surfing, which is a benefit obtained from Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES). Our research objective is to identify the benefits and impacts associated to surfing, and who are the main affected subjects and/or objects, achieving a better understanding of the sustainability status of this recreational activity. To this end, a bibliometric study and systematic review was carried out for the period 1965–2021. Benefits and impacts were collated and grouped according to their dimensional focus and type of effects in 6 groups (3-dimensional focus × 2 type of effects). The results revealed that since the beginning of 21st century surfing research topics are growing and diversifying. This review shows that implications of surfing go beyond direct users (i.e., surfers) and has consequences in diverse dimensions (environmental, socio cultural and economic), involving many stakeholders (e.g., scientific, and local communities). Most of the pieces of evidence collated in this research were related with the people who practice the activity and its social implications (psychological benefits as main benefit and injuries as main impact). Following an interdisciplinary approach, we obtained a holistic understanding of the surfing activity, not only in terms of the different dimensions addressed but on the sectors of the society that obtain benefits or are impacted by the activity. All of them should be considered and integrated to guarantee the sustainable management of this CES benefit.
... The serious leisure perspective has also been used to examine and explain motivation, participation, travel behaviour and careers in non-professional sport (Hungenberg & Gould, 2015). Notably, studies have been undertaken in surfing (Barbieri & Sotomayor, 2013), whitewater kayaking (Bartram, 2001), ultramarathon running (Fairer-Wessels, 2013, triathletes (Kennelly, Moyle & Lamont, 2013) and cycling (Brown, O'Connor & Barkatsas, 2009;LaChausse, 2006). One example is O'Connor and Brown (2007), who studied a self-organised, non-mainstream group of Australian weekend cyclists. ...
Article
It is estimated that by 2050 as many as five billion bicycles could be in use globally. Reasons for this growth vary, with utility cycling strong in Europe and Asia; while in the United States of America, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand cycling is a sport and leisure activity, with cycling deemed the ‘new golf’. Within this context, there is a rise in community or local bike shops (or LBS) which sell bicycles, related equipment and services. This qualitative study explored LBSs in greater Johannesburg, focusing on who the entrepreneurs are, how they service their clients, and what links the sector has to serious leisure. It was found that the owners demonstrated high levels of serious leisure cycling engagement and passion for the sport. A sense of being part of a bigger cycling community strongly influenced their entrepreneurial practices. This included how they ran their businesses, the employees they hired, as well as how they viewed cycling in general. The research also yielded insights into operational and sectoral realities, trends and challenges. Generally, it was found that the local bike shops in greater Johannesburg are key players in the supply, growth and development of sport and leisure cycling, thereby making a positive contribution to the cycling community. This is important in the light of the COVID-19 challenges experienced by the sport and leisure sector, as a loss of these shops will likely have a negative impact on cycling in Johannesburg.
... Understanding beach-specific drivers of use provides an opportunity to enhance the beach-going experience by promoting popular activities in places where high participation already exists (e.g. facilitating surfing events on popular surfing beaches, Barbieri and Sotomayor, 2013;Gray and Gray, 2017;Morgan, 2019;White and Hyde, 2010). This data also ensures the protection of local sensitive species and habitats from human disturbance, as key activities can be limited to certain sections of coastline and effectively monitored for compliance (Maslo et al., 2018;Desfosses et al., 2019). ...
Article
Understanding the use of sandy beaches underpins strategies for effective management of this valuable ecosystem. In this context, remote-sensing platforms and aerial imagery could, theoretically, provide novel and cost-effective solutions to identify and map beach visitor use. Recreational beach use patterns were examined using data collected via an established drone-based method and from commercial orthomosaic images collected via crewed aircraft to assess the practicality of these methods. Our study encompassed ~780 km of east Australian coastline and assessed 73,021 beach visitors to find similar participation rates in sunbathing (46.3 vs 47.7%), walking (21.8 vs 18.6%), swimming (20.9 vs 19.5%), surfing (10.7 vs 14.0%) and fishing (0.3 vs 0.1%) when measured by drones or crewed aircraft, respectively. The larger spatial coverage of crewed aircraft was a distinct advantage that allowed mapping of geographic patterns in beach use for thirteen sites separated by 100s of kilometres. Beach visitation was significantly influenced by season, weekend/public holidays, temperature, solar radiation, beach area, size of households adjacent to beaches, and time of day. Both drones and crewed aircraft are practicable tools for sandy shore management, providing complementary solutions to generate visitor-use data at multiple scales that can be used to optimise recreational service provisions and better support environmental conservation strategies.
... Maritime and nautical tourism are accepted as synonyms by various authors [2,24,25]. The multifaceted approach of the nautical activity makes it difficult to agree on a single definition [26][27][28]. The most employed concept defines maritime tourism as the group of tourist activities undertaken in marine and coastal environments, where leisure and recreation at sea are the main travel motivations of the tourists [1,29]. ...
Article
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Maritime tourism has become a competitive opportunity for many island destinations in search of sustainable development. This article aims to analyze the hypothesis that tourist satisfaction with nautical destinations depends on the experience of previous visits to competing destinations. This hypothesis is relevant in order to ascertain the extent of potential coopetition between tourist destinations from the point of view of the consumers. This may ask for the need of cooperation within the competitive environment in which tourist destinations manage sustainability. The evidence is obtained from the case of Cape Verde, an archipelago strongly committed to the development of the nautical sector. Survey data from nautical tourists’ satisfaction visiting Cape Verde is modeled utilizing an ordinal logistic approach. Results show that tourist satisfaction with Cape Verde increases with the authenticity of the cultural experience offered by the destination, the diversity and quality of the nautical offer and the security perceived. Moreover, tourists declaring a satisfactory travel experience in other recently visited islands have higher levels of satisfaction with the nautical destination of Cape Verde. This suggests that proper strategies for nautical tourism development in these islands should not only allow tourists to discover the best cultural and local values of the destination, but also enhance their awareness of the quality of the experience provided by island competitors and, therefore establishing a benchmark for the common benefit of all island destinations becomes of interest. In this regard, coopetition strategies among islands with common interests of specialization may allow them to gain better positioning in the international nautical tourism market, and contribute to tourism development and the sustainability of the industry.
... After the open-ended question, the survey concluded with a section on basic demographics. The household income indicator measure was used in Barbieri and Sotomayor's (2013) study. The survey items were pilot tested with 7 surfers prior to distribution. ...
Article
Coastal managers are increasingly reliant upon the process of beach nourishment to mitigate coastal erosion due to development and sea level rise, especially along the East Coast of the United States. While beach nourishment has been found to be more effective than hard stabilization measures, the process can negatively impact marine life, natural shoreline processes and coastal recreation users. There are few studies examining coastal users' opinions of beach nourishment, especially surfers, a user group that can be substantially affected by the process. The purpose of this study was to examine surfers' perceptions of beach nourishment in Virginia and North Carolina. An online survey distributed in 2018 resulted in a sample of 500 surfers. The study found that respondents had neutral to somewhat negative perceptions of beach nourishment. Respondents from the southern North Carolina coast had significantly more negative opinions of the process that surfers in other regions. Results of the study confirm previous findings on the impacts of beach nourishment for surfers and other coastal users. The study highlights the need for additional research on the impacts of beach nourishment and the involvement of surfers as local knowledge experts in coastal management.
... Serious Leisure SL was measured by the Serious Leisure Inventory and Scale (SLIM) proposed by Gould et al. (2011). Previous studies have used the SLIM to measure outdoor leisure sport activities, such as surfing (Barbieri and Sotomayor, 2013) and rock climbing (Lee et al., 2017), confirming the applicability of this scale. The SLIM consists of six dimensions and comprises the following 18 items: perseverance (1 item), personal effort (1 item), unique ethos (1 item), identity (1 item), career (2 items, career progress and career contingencies), and durable benefits (12 items, e.g., self-expression and self-image). ...
Article
Full-text available
The topics of serious leisure and subjective well-being have been discussed extensively in previous research. It is generally acknowledged that people prefer to experience deeper satisfaction and happiness through serious participation in leisure-time physical activities. However, it is essential to examine the relationship between serious leisure and subjective well-being in an urban setting as well as the mediating effect of leisure satisfaction. Data were collected from 447 recreational runners at the 2018 Wuxi International Marathon event in China. The study results showed that serious leisure was positively associated with leisure satisfaction and subjective well-being, that leisure satisfaction was positively associated with subjective well-being, and that leisure satisfaction completely mediated the relationship between serious leisure and subjective well-being. Running group membership significantly affected the path from serious leisure to leisure satisfaction, while other demographic variables (e.g., gender and education) did not moderate any paths. These results help explain the intricate relationship between serious leisure and subjective well-being and offer theoretical and managerial implications for serious leisure.
Thesis
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La thèse part d’un double constat sur les pratiques récréatives de montagne. D’une part, il se développe un intérêt croissant pour les sports de nature, qui amène chaque année un nombre de plus en plus élevé de pratiquant·es dans le milieu naturel (Lefèvre et Thiery 2015). D’autre part, malgré des conséquences négatives avérées sur les milieux et notamment sur la faune (Boyle et Samson 1985, Steven et al. 2011, Sato et al. 2013, Larson et al. 2016), les usager·ères récréatif·ves ne sont pas toujours conscient·es des conséquences que peut entrainer leur présence dans la nature (Gruas et al. 2020). Ce travail a donc pour objectif d’interroger le rapport des amateur·rices d’activités hivernales (ski de randonnée et raquette) et estivales (randonnée pédestre et trail), à la faune sauvage de montagne. L’analyse est basée sur quatre terrains (massifs des Bauges, Belledonne, Aiguilles Rouges et Vanoise) et sur des données récoltées par questionnaires (n = 2559) et par entretiens (n = 33). Quatre axes de recherche sont développés. Le premier concerne l’origine sociale des pratiquant·es. Contrairement à l’idée communément répandue, les données quantitatives de l’enquête excluent l’hypothèse d’une réelle démocratisation de la montagne tant lespratiquant·es sont homogènes dans leurs origines sociales. Le deuxième axe vise à analyser les modalités de pratique différenciées au sein de chaque sport ainsi que leurs éventuelles affinités avec les groupes sociaux dont sont issu·es leur pratiquant·es. Si chaque sport hébergebien différents styles de pratique, ceux-ci ne sont pas reliés de manière aussi évidente que l’on aurait pu le penser aux origines sociales des sportif·ves. Ces deux premiers axes mettent également en évidence de fortes inégalités d’accès aux sports de montagne, et à leurs modalitésde pratiques les plus engagées, pour les femmes. Le troisième axe porte sur les attitudes et comportements éco-responsables propres aux individus en dehors de leur pratique sportive, dans la vie quotidienne. Les pratiquant·es interrogé·es dans le cadre de cette enquête sonten effet plus soucieux·ses de la question environnementale que leurs concitoyen·nes. Des différences marquées apparaissent cependant au sein de l’échantillon, notamment en fonction du genre et du milieu social. Le quatrième axe est dédié à la question du rapport à la faune sauvage. Si le genre et le domaine d’étude influencent en partie le lien affectif à la faune et sa connaissance, ils n’expliquent aucunement la perception du dérangement et le respect des zones de quiétude qui sont davantage liés aux valeurs environnementales.Cette analyse structuraliste des sports de montagne vise in fine à proposer une approche de la sociologie des pratiques sportives en milieu naturel sous le triple rapport de la pratique sportive, de la relation au milieu de pratique et de la perception du dérangement de la faunesauvage.
Article
The purpose of this study was to reaffirm the structural validity of the Serious Leisure Inventory and Measure (SLIM) measure model developed by Gould et al. and to compare the inventory model’s psychometric performance with the alternative SLIM inventory model developed by Romero et al. Target sampling of Sports Clubs in the Basque Country (Spain) yielded 370 athletes of which 138 had physical disabilities and 232 did not. The results showed that the data converged using the Gould et al. one-factor model and supported the use of the inventory of outcome factors as non-additive measures resulting from serious orientations to an activity. The alternative model tested by Romero et al. provided a three-factor solution with psychometrically sound performance. Further specification of the SLIM model could bolster future quantitative explorations of SL behavior.
Chapter
Increasing awareness of the relevance of natural resources for the practice of outdoor leisure and recreation purposes has contributed to the increasing attention upon the assessment and monitoring of the quality of sports spots. As such, evaluating the existing natural conditions and leisure-related infrastructures is crucial, helping public and private stakeholders in decision-making processes. This chapter aims at examining the conditions for surf tourism in the north of Portugal, enabling the monitoring and positioning as an international flagship destination for surf practitioners. This is done through a mixed-methods approach comprising the demand and supply perspectives and supported by an assessment tool developed to evaluate the conditions for the practice of surfing activities within a framework of sustainable tourism development. The relevance of assessing the potential and monitoring of the existing conditions for sport and outdoor activities, namely surf tourism, according to a defined set of attributes, is also discussed.
Chapter
Creative tourism experiences constitute clear examples of the experience economy principles. They address new tourists' necessities. They can activate tangible and intangible resources, contribute to the development of local skills while offering the chance to engage with the overall social agents of the tourism system addressing key tourism challenges of the 21st century. Over the past few years, surf tourism has aroused the interest of many people, and surf tourists are increasingly more experienced, demanding and seeking a wide range of engaging experiences. To connect surf tourism to creative tourism, the authors developed a model focused on a creative surf experience. The chapter presents several contributions to the development of creative experiences of surf tourism where surf destinations can focus on and develop a greater audience that searches for such experiences.
Article
This article studies three key liquidities of a surfer-traveller lifestyle. The first liquidity is mobility, or the ‘fluid’ nature of the lifestyle, following Bauman’s analysis of liquid modernity. The second liquidity is water: waves and sea. The third liquidity refers to oil, the ‘lifeblood’ of mobility. The analysis is based on 20 thematic life story interviews with Finnish surfer-travellers who lead a highly mobile lifestyle, one that often involves flying to distant surf locations. The results reveal that the three liquidities intertwine and blend in complex ways. Surfing deepens surfer-travellers’ relationship with water, which enhances their understanding of ecological issues. Surfer-travellers largely desire to continue travelling, and their relationship with ecological issues is ambivalent, but they often also seek ways to compensate for their individual ecological footprint. Furthermore, many of them engage in various forms of environmental activism. The findings are connected with issues of sustainability in surfing and mobilities.
Article
The rapid growth of the Chinese travel market has gained attention in the tourism industry. However, very few studies have been conducted to examine travel constraints that prevent Chinese outbound travelers from going somewhere quite accessible to their major destination from a multidestination perspective. Drawing upon the leisure constraint model (LCM), this study explored Chinese independent tourists' perceived travel constraints in selecting second-tier destinations in their destination choice and analyzed the market segments. A self-administered survey was collected from 393 Chinese travelers who did not visit Gyeonggi Province close to Seoul during their travels in South Korea. Based on the findings, four distinct groups were formed. The findings provide important insights into destinations that desire to attract more Chinese independent travelers.
Conference Paper
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The focus in this paper is the management of nature-based tourism and outdoor recreation activities in coastal national parks in Norway, with Ytre Hvaler and Færder National Parks in Norway and Kosterhavet National Park in Sweden as case areas. National parks in the two countries have typically been localized in rural and remote alpine and forest regions, whereas coastal landscapes have been underrepresented. The research question we address is how well designed the coastal national park management system, with its jurisdiction, management regulations, management plans, professional competences, financial and staff resources at hand, etc., is to handle the large and diverse visitation pressure as well as various tourism industry interests. In 2009, the first coastal national park in Norway, Ytre Hvaler National Park, was established in southeastern Norway and in tandem with the launching of the neighboring coastal Kosterhavet National Park on the Swedish side of the national border. Færder National Park, a coastal national park localized on the western side of the outer Oslofjord, was inaugurated in 2013. The three national parks have a series of common features, as they comprise similar types of ragged coastal landscapes with archipelagos of islets and skerries, cultural and natural landscapes of high value, as well as unique marine ecosystems. The protected areas cover mostly marine territory and some relatively small terrestrial parts of the shoreline. Moreover, these attractive coastal environments, located in the proximity of Norway’s largest population centre, have since long been popular spaces for various forms of nature-based tourism and outdoor recreation activities such as boating, sun bathing, angling, camping, kayaking, windsurfing, scuba diving, etc. Many marinas, privately owned cabins, camping facilities, guesthouses, etc. also lead to a high and diverse visitation pressure in the protected areas. Our exploratory research is based on personal interviews with managers of the three national parks, conducted in October 2016, and analysis of relevant documents related to the National Park management. The qualitative data confirms that the national park management faces particular challenges in the coastal context connected to both the volume and the diversity of the visitation as well as accommodating tourism industry interests. The managers express that the inherited management regime originates from a period when there were mostly alpine national parks in the two countries. As a response to this deficiency, the coastal national park managers try to form professional networks amongst themselves and seek to learn from each other’s experiences and management practices.
Article
The purpose of this article is to present the sociodemographic and professional profile of nature sports technicians who work in the Region of Coimbra, to identify the main problems of the sector and the profession felt by these technicians, and to present strategic recommendations for the improvement of the setor. For this, a case study was developed, whose data collection was carried out through the application of 30 semi-structured interviews to a sample of technicians who collaborated with touristic animation companies based in the Region of Coimbra, complemented with six months of participant observation in one of these companies of the referred region. The interviewed technicians are young, single, male individuals, with high academic qualifications, who collaborate in part-time in the companies with which they collaborate, with low remuneration resulting from the performance of the various functions they perform (technical, logistical, secretarial, and management), therefore working on other professional activities throughout the year. When analyzing the main problems identified in this study, the creation of an association of sports technicians of nature and tourist entertainment, the introduction of a training scheme, the production of legislation related to the regulation of access to the profession, and the implementation of a system for monitoring and evaluating the competence and performance of technicians are suggested.
Article
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Tourism has been one of the sectors that has suffered the greatest impact by the Covid-19 virus, which has created an unprecedented context with thousands of tourism-related companies closing with an unclear future. International tourism was recovering from the previous financial crisis achieving historical milestones regarding international tourist arrivals. Simultaneously, tourism niches like active sport tourism have experienced significant growth which has been developed to achieve more sustainable tourism as is the case of surf tourism in Cape Town. This article aims to investigate the surf tourism socio-economic competitiveness of Cape Town beaches to provide solutions and alternatives for a return to the ‘new normality’ due to the Covid-19 crisis. Political economy and geography, as well as tourism systems’ approach, are employed for the theoretical background. A mixed-method approach was utilised in this study including a qualitative, narrative method for the literature review, and a quantitative weighted set of indicators. The results suggest that active sports and domestic tourism have potential to help short-term tourism recovery. Three beaches showed the best potential for socio-economic development, while two beaches in underprivileged neighbourhoods were found potentially interesting for boosting surf tourism development. This study could inform government policy to determine the main areas for surf tourism development.
Article
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RESUMEN El turismo de surf es un fenómeno de gran relevancia a nivel mundial; millones de surfis-tas se desplazan a diversos destinos con la finalidad de montar la ola perfecta, mejorar sus habilidades, aprender el deporte o simplemente apreciarlo. Sin embargo, aun cuando se han reconocido las características particulares de este nicho de turismo en Iberoamérica, poca atención ha recibido como fenómeno social por parte de la Academia y, por lo tanto, la revisión de su estado de conocimiento ha sido limitada. El presente documento tiene como objetivo presentar las líneas de investigación relacionadas con el turismo de surf durante el periodo 2012-2018, a través de un análisis de contenido aplicado a artículos científicos publicados tanto en inglés como en español. Entre los principales resultados destacan cinco líneas de investigación: 1) El surfista; 2) Turismo de surf, desarrollo local y sustentabilidad; 3) Impactos del turismo de surf; 4) Identidad y género en el turismo de surf; e 5) Historia del surf y stake-holders, las cuales son descritas en este estudio. Cabe señalar que la revisión realizada también permitió identificar autores, universidades y países que han abordado temas relacionados, así como aquellos vacíos de conocimiento que aún persisten sobre este tópico de actualidad. Palabras claves: turismo de surf; revisión de la literatura; análisis de contenido.
Article
Surfing is often a mobile lifestyle, centred around the search for waves. This article analyses Finnish surfer-travellers through a life course perspective. The data consists of 20 thematic life story interviews, conducted in 2016–2017. Surfer-travellers are representative of highly mobile cosmopolitan youth. This analysis focuses on how they have engaged with surf-travelling, what networks and capital they have utilized in doing so, and how their active agency and choices have influenced their lifestyles. Through their individual agency, surfer-travellers organize their lives to prioritize their travels. For surfer-travellers, mobility is a goal in itself, and this leads to a life ‘lived differently’. The results are connected to wider discussions on lifestyle mobilities, youth mobilities, mobile transitions, and changing conceptions of adulthood.
Research
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Welcome to CMT2017! Last time many of us were gathered was in 2015 at the 25-year anniversary of CMT, which took place on the Big Island of Hawai'i. Three of the members in the CMT2017 Organizing Team participated at this event for the first time and found it to be both intellectually and socially stimulating and with a great potential to anchor the topic of coastal and marine tourism within in Sweden. Already during CMT2015, we were therefore discussing amongst ourselves that we would like to bring the CMT network to Sweden and the University of Gothenburg. In spring 2016, we took action and made a bid to become the 9th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism and were glad to receive a positive response from the International Coastal and Marine Tourism Society (ICMTS), where the congress has its roots. And so, here we are, one year after, ready to launch CMT2017! An interesting thing to observe this year is that, although it has been less than 2 years after the previous CMT, we can at CMT2017 conclude that the interest in coastal and marine tourism is large and steadily growing. We have received a little more than 100 abstracts, of which 76 will be presented at CMT2017. We have also managed to invite and accommodate friends from around the globe, representing 29 countries and all continents (aside from the Antarctic). We are very proud of this, as it emphasizes the true diversity of the congress and the topic of coastal and marine tourism in general. Furthermore, many of the received abstracts have inter- or cross-disciplinary content. This shows that our field of study has many dimensions and important cultural, social, economic and environmental impacts on the world we all share and must protect as best we can. In terms of the congress program, we have kept most of the session themes from Hawai’i, which we found to be relevant and covering the broad study field of coastal and marine tourism. The main theme of the congress is ”Global challenges, local solutions” – a theme which we find increasingly important as current topics and discourses on coastal and marine tourism contexts often are global in nature, in particular in connection to the aims of sustainable development. At the same time, planning, strategy, innovation and development are usually grounded in local coastal and marine contexts. This is a challenge in itself, but might also be an opportunity if the local is connected to the global. The congress theme is reflected in the proposed panel sessions on Innovation, Development in the global south and the Tourism-Recreation relationship. The congress sessions and keynotes also connect to this theme. On this background, we have tried to make an exciting congress program for you. We encourage you to listen, explore and experience as much as possible during your days here in Sweden. It is an honor to welcome you all!
Conference Paper
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The presentation introduces an ongoing project idea with a focus on developing a mobile app for visitor monitoring and education purposes in recreational management contexts. Visitor monitoring and education strategies have long been established and used in the management of different recreational contexts around the world (Manning 2011). Visitor monitoring concerns professional documentation of recreational activities and behaviour in recreational area contexts and have been described in various visitor monitoring manuals and handbooks (Kajala et al. 2007). Visitor education, on the other hand, concerns how recreational areas may offer important experiential learning opportunities for relevant context-based education (Aguayo 2016). Surprisingly, the use of new technologies for monitoring and education purposes has received little attention. In particular, there is currently very little information available on the potential use of mobile technology, such as mobile apps, for monitoring and educational purposes within recreational area contexts. The lack of attention is concerning, especially as mobile technology offer many novel options for visitor monitoring and education purposes in the management of recreational areas. The objective of this project is to address this knowledge gap by introducing: a) the design, development and implementation of mobile app technology for visitor monitoring and education purposes; and b) new research ideas with a focus on how a mobile app framework can assist in advancing current monitoring and educational activities in recreational management. In practice, this means that the project will give attention to several research opportunities that will be examined in congruence with the mobile app development process. Two project teams, one in New Zealand and one in Sweden, will undertake this work by sharing international experiences and strategies. This work includes theoretical considerations from park management and visitor monitoring practices, to technological, educational and socio-cultural considerations around the use of mobile technology. The project will be structured as a comparative study with a base in two case study areas following the same mobile app framework. This involves a refinement of the framework by applying and testing it in both study contexts, and use the obtained experiences to evaluate its success as well as transferability across socio-cultural and educational contexts.
Conference Paper
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This paper describes experiences and challenges in managing outdoor recreation in coastal-marine national parks as part of national strategies on Maritime Spatial Planning in Sweden and Norway. Both countries received their first coastal-marine national parks as late as in 2009, with two more established in Norway since then and two more under way, both in Sweden and in Norway. Like other land-based national parks, the purpose of coastal-marine national parks is to be containers of both environmental and recreational qualities, with a distinct focus on balancing use (recreation/tourism) and protection (conservation) aspects. However, while both countries have large experience on these matters in their land-based national parks (e.g. forest-, mountain-, and urban parks), experiences in coastal-marine national parks are limited. This is particularly the case when managing outdoor recreation aspects, such as providing quality recreational experiences or performing visitor monitoring activities. Based on a series of semi-structured interviews with managers and experts in three coastal-marine national parks (one Swedish and two Norwegian parks), the paper reveals important challenges concerning outdoor recreation planning and management in coastal-marine national parks in Sweden and Norway. Main results show large differences in experience between planning and managing coastal-marine national parks versus traditional land-based national parks, including the problem that coastal-marine national parks are often managed based on experiences from their land-based equivalents. Particular identified challenges include working with outdoor recreation in open, free roaming landscapes as well as more administrative barriers, such as lack of education and resources among managers to work more actively with outdoor recreation aspects in the daily management. The paper therefore concludes that outdoor recreation aspects must receive a larger focus in coastal-marine national parks.
Article
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The concept of serious leisure (Stebbins, 1992) was used to investigate the social world of shag dancing to determine the reasons for long-term involvement and commitment to the dance. Data were collected over a three-year period through in-depth interviews at regional shag festivals. A method of ethnographic analysis was used to analyze the data (Spradley, 1979). Two types of dancers, casual and serious, were identified and differentiated into five subtypes. Results confirm Stebbins (1992) six qualities of serious leisure. Friendship was cited as the most important reason for long-term involvement and commitment to the dance. Findings indicate the shag world is a combination of serious leisure and casual leisure. Participants choose their level of involvement based on changing lifestyle needs.
Article
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In this investigation, the serious leisure inventory and measure (SLIM) was developed from convenience and target samples. The multidimensional framework of serious leisure contains six qualities from which 18 operations were employed. With the use of a q-sort, an expert panel, and confirmatory factor analysis, the 72 item SLIM demonstrated acceptable fit, reliability and equivalence across samples. Mean differences and correlation patterns found between samples demonstrated preliminary evidence for the predictive ability of the new measure. The SLIM short form (54 items) demonstrated good model fit and construct validity. Future replications are needed to adequately address the psychometric complexities of the SLIM within the network of interrelated leisure constructs.
Article
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The concept of serious leisure (Stebbins, 1979; 1992) was used to examine the meanings, rituals, and practices associated with being a University of Florida Football fan. We contend that Gator football fans typify the serious leisure category of the hobbyist. Face to face in-depth interviews were conducted with four female and sixteen male fans. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using constant comparison and grounded theory methods (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1998 a & b). Themes emerging from the data confirmed Stebbins' six characteristics of serious leisure. The results suggest that being a Gator football fan provides both a source of identity for the fan as an individual and a sense of belonging in an increasingly fragmented postmodern society.
Article
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Many social scientists believe the future will offer significantly fewer opportunities for most adults to gain and maintain a job in the way they are used to doing today. A smaller number of jobs and a substantially reduced number of work hours are in store for many employees in the postindustrial society. Whether or not their jobs ever provided such things, they will increasingly be searching the world of leisure for ways to express their abilities, fulfill their potential, and identify themselves as unique human beings. Serious leisure is a main route open to people with these goals. Its three types--amateurism, hobbyist pursuits, and career volunteering--are defined, described, and interrelated. They are contrasted throughout with unserious or casual leisure, on the one hand, and work, on the other. The intermediate position of serious leisure between these two extremes relegates its current participants to the status of marginal men and women of leisure.
Article
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The therapeutic use of sport has received attention as a viable and effective modality to address various client needs (Dattilo, Loy, & Keeney, 2000). Kinney, Kinney and Witman (2004) found that sports were within the top 10 most frequently employed modalities in a national study of therapeutic recreation practitioners. In addition, a wide variety of therapeutic outcomes have been identifi ed as a result of sports participation. Researchers (Montelione & Davis, 1986; Sherrill, 1986) have suggested that individuals with disabilities often view sport as a means of affi rming competence as well as reifying a focus on ability rather than disability. Two important motivational forces in sport participation for people with disabilities include demonstrating skill or competence to others and bringing oneself in contact with others (Page, O'Connor, & Peterson, 2001). While individuals with dis abilities are also motivated to remain fi t, participation in sports is an important source of self-esteem, provides opportunities to gain feelings of self-effi cacy (Taub, Blinde, & Greer, 1999) and affi rms one's identity (Groff & Kleiber, 2001). In addition, many athletes with disabilities tend to adopt a new sport for competition and exert themselves to learn new techniques, skills, and approaches in order to pursue high levels of competition (Asken, 1991). Participants in community-based adaptive sports have also reported their involvement in sport to have had a positive infl uence on their overall health, quality of life, quality of family life, and quality of social life (Zabriskie, Lundberg, & Groff, 2005). There are important conceptual similarities between sport participation of individuals with disabilities and serious leisure. Serious leisure is characterized as the systematic pursuit of amateur, hobbyist, or volunteer activity that is substantial and interesting for the participants involved (Stebbins, 1992). Stebbins identifi ed six defi ning characteristics of serious leisure: (a) perseverance, (b) signifi cant
Article
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A handful of observers have suggested that volunteering can be defined and described as a leisure activity. Extending this reasoning, it is argued that many kinds of volunteering, because they foster the acquisition and expression of a combination of special skills, knowledge, and experience, can be looked on as serious leisure. The serious leisure perspective not only defines and explains volunteers and volunteering as self-interested leisure bur also opens the way to a more comprehensive theoretical statement of leisure volunteering than was heretofore available. In this article, the author explores the leisure components of all volunteering to learn where the serious leisure model applies. Distinctions are drawn between types of volunteering: career and casual, formal and informal, and occupational and nonoccupational. The perspective fails to fit each type equally well. It fits best the types of volunteering classifiable as formal and nonoccupational, types in which volunteers normally find substantial leisure careers.
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate “tribal” consumption behaviour and its relationship to branding, in the particular context of the surfing community in Portugal. Design/methodology/approach – Two focus group meetings with “surfers” and “fans” respectively, in April 2006, were enriched by computerised projective techniques and program-assisted design (PAD) technology, backed by high quality video prompts. Qualitative data analysis was enhanced by quantified data collected in the PAD phase. The design was expressly directed at future quantification and model building. Findings – Four research propositions, derived from an extensive literature review, were mostly confirmed: surfing does exhibit characteristics of a cult. There are three distinct types of adherent, their associative behaviour characterized by affiliation, social recognition, socialization and symbolism. Surfers and fans exhibit strong brand awareness and less strong preferences for surf-linked brands, in different ways. Research limitations/implications – Interpretation is limited by the scope of the study: two focus groups in one country. There is some compensation in the richness of the data. Practical implications – Marketers involved with cult consumers and tribal brands need a body of knowledge on which to base their marketing intelligence gathering and strategic planning. Originality/value – This paper provides exploratory research findings related to one classic example of the tribal brand-consumption behaviour that accounts for significant consumer spending around the postmodern world.
Article
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This paper contends that recent developments in the field of positive psychology, particularly in the area of psychological well‐being, in combination with Stebbins's framework of casual versus serious leisure, may provide a new perspective for the understanding of tourism experiences. Based on the experience accounts of three different groups of wellness tourists (i.e., visitors to beauty spas, lifestyle resorts, and spiritual retreats), the aim of this paper is to explore whether tourism experiences can be classified into hedonic or eudaimonic experiences. Aggregated experience accounts were collected through individual, semi‐structured interviews with 27 wellness tourists. Thematic analysis deductively applied Stebbins's characteristics of casual/hedonic and serious/eudaimonic experiences to the data. The results found that the three wellness tourism experiences can be placed along a continuum between hedonic and eudaimonic end‐points. Accordingly, beauty spa visitation was perceived as a purely hedonic tourism activity and spiritual retreat experiences were considered as almost purely eudaimonic. Lifestyle resort experiences were also seen predominantly as eudaimonic, however they sit more towards the middle of the continuum because hedonic outcomes can sometimes be recognised as important ‘by‐products’ of eudaimonic experiences.
Article
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Commercial surf tourism is recent in origin but is now a significant component of the worldwide adventure tourism sector. There are over 10 million surfers worldwide and a third of these are cash-rich, time-poor and hence potential tour clients. Most travel- ling surfers visit mainland destinations and are not distinguished from other tourists. Specialist surfing boat charters and lodges are most prevalent in Indo-Pacific islands. In the smaller reef islands, growth in tourism carries risks to drinking water and subsis- tence fisheries. There risks are easily overcome, but only if appropriate waste and sewage management technologies are installed. In the larger rock islands, nature and adventure tourism may provide an economic alternative to logging and plantation agri- culture. Cultural impacts can occur in either type of island. As with most types of adventure tourism, the commercial surf tourism industry in the Indo-Pacific is strongly linked to the clothing, fashion and entertainment industries, and marketed through specialist surfing magazines and surfing media. From a tourism development perspec- tive, the trend is towards integrated ocean sports destinations which attract entire families as well as individual surfers. Currently, however, marketing crossovers with other specialist ocean sports such as diving are far smaller than with other boardsports such as snowboarding.
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine participation patterns of two different segments of the wildlife watching population: casual wildlife watchers and serious birders. We used Texas Conservation Passport holders and members of the American Birding Association to represent the views of these two groups of wildlife watchers. Consistent with the recreation specialization framework, these two groups were defined in terms of their skill at identifying birds, frequency of participation, yearly expenditures, and birdwatching behaviors close to home. Further analysis revealed many significant differences in participation characteristics between casual wildlife watchers and serious birders. Specifically, there were differences in the types of information sources used for trip planning and differences in desired setting preferences. The implication of this study is that managers and planners will be able to more effectively target casual wildlife watchers and/or serious birders with the appropriate promotional strategy and provide the desired products and services.
Article
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Surf tourism is of major importance to the tourism industry. Nevertheless, very few investigations of the surf tourism market exist. This paper extends the work by Fluker (2003) and Dolnicar and Fluker (2003) by investigating surf tourists from a behavioural perspective with the main aim of the study being to gain an insight into the travel patterns of the surf tourism market. This is achieved in an empirical way by using unsupervised neural networks to partition a group of surfers into homogeneous segments based on their past surf destination choice. This binary information was gathered by means of an online survey, which asked respondents questions indicating whether or not they have ever surfed in particular places. In addition, descriptive information is included in the data set and is divided into “surf related questions”, “personal characteristics” and “travel behaviour”. It was found that based on past destination choice, six market segments could be described, each with significantly different ages, surfing ability, length of stay, preferred wave type, and regularity of undertaking surf trips. The results of these finding have implications for both surf destinations and the tourism industry that facilitates the experience.
Article
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Surfing has grown from its beginnings as a western civilisation sport in the early 1900’s to a stage where it is now an industry worth an estimated $8 billion dollars and involves surfers travelling to both domestic and international destinations as surf tourists. However, there is a dearth of empirical academic research that has been conducted into this segment of the sports tourism market. This study makes a contribution towards understanding surf tourism behaviour by analysing the demographic and psychographic characteristics of 430 surf tourists. The most lucrative segments of the five identified, from the tour operators perspective, are the price conscious safety seekers and the luxury surfers, while the lack of crowds at surfing destinations is a common preference with all groups. Areas of future research include surf destination image and the ratio of surf tourists choosing package tours compared to being free independent travellers.
Article
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Surfing has developed to become a major industry, both within the leisure and the tourism sector. While surfers themselves can be viewed as a homogeneous segment characterised by their common interest for the sport, there clearly exists a wide variety of surfers with very different demographic characteristics, lifestyles or even motives for surfing. The aims of this paper are (1) to review past attempts to profile the surfer segment in general and to determine existence and describe the nature of surfer segments, and (2) to suggest a novel approach of segmenting the surfer market, by analysing the pattern of past destination choices, where so far pure profiling was conducted.
Article
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Recreational capacity is a function of the natural and social environment, the activity concerned, and the management regime. Indo-Pacific surf destinations with cheap and open access and no capacity management have experienced crowding, crime, pollution and price collapses. Many island surf breaks can handle only a few surfers at once because of the shape of the reefs. A crowding factor may be conceptualised as the proportion of rideable waves each surfer is forced to cede to another boardrider. Quota management systems using operator permits need to incorporate the complexity of the environment and the industry, but be equitable enough to gain general acceptance, and simple enough to enforce without dispute. Siberut Island in the Mentawai chain near West Sumatra, Indonesia, is covered by dense tropical rainforest which supports a number of endangered species and has been proposed as a Biosphere Reserve. It is also home to indigenous village communities with traditional social and religious practices. This island is subject to commercial logging and plantation agriculture, and tourism seems to be the only politically realistic economic alternative at present. To provide infrastructure for long-term growth in nature and cultural tourism, an immediate source of tourism revenue is needed. The most immediate option seems to be surf lodges on some of the smaller Mentawai Islands, which have already been largely cleared and are already visited by boat-based surf tour operators. Operators will only invest in lodges if they can acquire preferential rights to particular surf breaks. Hence the recreational capacity of the islands for surf tourism must be determined, and allocated between operators through a management system. Relevant data and one management option are presented here. Yes Yes
Article
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In its practical operations on the ground, adventure tourism is very closely allied to ecotourism, and under some definitions may even be considered as part of the ecotourism sector. But from a financial perspective, adventure tourism is also tightly tied to the clothing, fashion and entertainment industries. Particular clothing companies use sponsored athletes and specialist lifestyle entertainment media to sell clothing and accessories at both a high volume and a high mark-up to nonsporting, but fashion-conscious urban consumers, and adventure tourism is one of the links in the marketing chain. The surfing industry provides a particularly good example, but the same process applies for skiing and snowboarding, rock-climbing and other outdoor adventure activities. The process is directly comparable to the sale of sports shoes and sports utility vehicles in cities and suburban markets. Yes Yes
Article
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The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine whether engagement in a serious leisure activity provided older adults opportunities for successful aging. Data were collected through in-depth interviews at shag dance festivals in North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. To provide structure for the interview, a general interview guide consisting of open-ended questions was used. A total of 31 interviews were conducted with 25 individuals and 6 couples, between 60 and 82 years of age. During the analysis stage, the constant comparative method was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged support the idea that shag dancing is a form of serious leisure for older adults and support the role of serious leisure in successful aging. The narratives provided by the informants illustrate the powerful role serious leisure can play in an individual's life and point toward the value of serious leisure as an approach that holds promise for recreators working to help older individuals experience successful aging.
Article
This study examines the meaning of the serious leisure experience for American Kennel Club (AKC) activity participants. Particular attention is given to issues of the centrality of leisure participation as it relates to personal identification with the leisure pursuit and adopting a “dog person” lifestyle. This serious leisure pursuit differs from others previously examined because amateurs and professionals compete together. Hobbyists and amateurs support the formal AKC activity pursuit by fulfilling multiple club roles. This volunteer action serves to diversify the nature of the pursuit and supports intense levels of involvement. Costs and benefits associated with the pursuit are interpreted from a lifestyle orientation and serve to justify the intense time and monetary commitment invested by the participant.
Book
Ideal for non-math majors, Advanced and Multivariate Statistical Methods teaches students to interpret, present, and write up results for each statistical technique without overemphasizing advanced math. This highly applied approach covers the why, what, when and how of advanced and multivariate statistics in a way that is neither too technical nor too mathematical. Students also learn how to compute each technique using SPSS software. New to the Sixth Edition Instructor ancillaries are now available with the sixth edition. All SPSS directions and screenshots have been updated to Version 23 of the software. Student learning objectives have been added as a means for students to target their learning and for instructors to focus their instruction. Key words are reviewed and reinforced in the end of chapter material to ensure that students understand the vocabulary of advanced and multivariate statistics.
Article
A conceptual framework of trout fishermen is developed around the concept “recreational specialization.” This refers to a continuum of behavior from the general to the specialized. It is reflected by equipment, skills used, and preferences for specific recreation setting. Two hundred sixty-three on-site interviews with fishermen in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho, supplemented by participant observation, yielded four types. They range from sportsmen with minimal interest and skill in the sport to those highly committed and, specialized members of a leisure social world. Resulting propositions are: (1) Fishermen tend to become more specialized over time, (2) the most specialized comprise a leisure subculture with unique minority recreationist values, (3) increased specialization implies a shift from fish consumption to preservation and emphasis on the activity's nature and setting, and (4) as specialization increases, dependency on particular resource types increases. Management implications of these propositions are discussed.
Article
Psychological research involving scale construction has been hindered considerably by a widespread lack of understanding of coefficient alpha and reliability theory in general. A discussion of the assumptions and meaning of coefficient alpha is presented. This discussion is followed by a demonstration of the effects of test length and dimensionality on alpha by calculating the statistic for hypothetical tests with varying numbers of items, numbers of orthogonal dimensions, and average item intercorrelations. Recommendations for the proper use of coefficient alpha are offered.
Book
This book explores the relationship between amateurs and professionals within the framework of serious leisure.
Article
This current study utilized recreation specialization and leisure motivation theory to explore the meanings, perspectives, and behaviors among female surfers. Despite numerous studies previously published regarding recreation specialization and leisure motivation related to activity participation, little research has been conducted on the activity of surfing from a female perspective. Data for this study were collected using in-depth, semi- structured interviews of nine women surfers from the California Central Coast. Content analyses of the data involved coding and identifying key themes, patterns, and categories. The dominant themes significant within recreation specialization included past participation (e.g., preceding activities to eventual participation and wave/swell conditions), perceived skills (i.e., skills important to surfing, perceived skill level), commitment (e.g., central to life activity, central leisure activity, affective attachment, and adoption of social/cultural values), and enduring involvement (e.g., attraction and sensory enjoyment). The major themes that emerged from data specific to leisure motivation included initial attraction (e.g., observing others), initial motivation to participate/actively pursue (e.g., desirable setting and sensory enjoyment) and enduring motivation (e.g., achievement/stimulation, sensory enjoyment, anticipation, attraction and flow). Major themes emerged from the results of this study identify the varying styles of involvement in the participants. Additionally, results revealed the behaviors and feminine perspectives of participants that identified the meanings and experiences associated with these categories. Participants identified the pre-activity routines they engage in to prepare for surfing addressed how surfing provides them opportunities for relational leisure and self-determined leisure. Lastly, participants’ revealed factors that constrain participation and opportunities for relational and autonomous experiences.
Article
For Canadian and United States Masters swimmers we examined how career contingencies (age, sex, familial status, and stage of swimming experience) were linked to benefits derived (personal and social rewards - importance of reasons for participation) from their pursuit of this serious leisure sport career. From questionnaire data on convenience samples of Masters swimmers, Canadian (337) and U.S. (363), we identified reasons for adult participation in competitive swimming, measured the relative importance of reasons, and ascertained whether the relative importance of reasons varied by age, sex, familial roles, or swimming experience. A factor analysis of 25 reason statements extracted six factors (sociability, achievement, fitness, skill development, enjoyment, and tension release). A series of regression models specified which career contingency variables were linked to each reason and whether differences existed across samples. In sum, Canadian and U.S. swimmers generally endorsed similar reasons for participation. U.S. swimmers assigned greater importance than Canadians to achievement, fitness, and tension release. For the career contingencies: fitness, sociability, and enjoyment were important to females; all ages viewed fitness, achievement, skill development and sociability as important; and stage of swimming experience was linked to relative importance assigned to skill development and achievement.
Article
This study investigated factors that explain the life satisfaction of Senior Games participants. One 193 older adults from the 2005 Michigan State Senior Games and the 2005 New York State Senior Games participated in the study. The results of the study show that one of the indicators of serious leisure (affective attachment) was positively correlated to optimism (.16, p.05), age (.28, p.01), and the number of years participated (.28, p.01). Regression analysis was also used to identify which variables contribute to predicting life satisfaction. It was found that dispositional optimism (=.308, p.001) and perceived health (=.185, p.05) were significant predictors of life satisfaction.
Article
Seven Welsh beaches with environmental designations were assessed, using an established beach rating checklist comprising 50 physical, biological and human use factors. Weightings were subsequently established in response to priorities of three tourism markets: surfing, eco-tourism and family. Assessments showed physical factors scored significantly lower (p < 0.01) than both biological and human use factors and were seen as a specific location consequence. Physical factors dominated surfer responses; biological factors reflected conservation priorities and human use factors, especially safety, were family concerns. Common concerns related to beach litter and outfalls. However, there were some contradictions in interpretation, such as high numbers of waves in the breaker zone, being seen as positive for surfing but negative for family safety. Results showed weighting had changed overall ranking and assessment range in response to beach factors favoured by user group priorities. Analysis identified motivating factors behind the decision to visit and highlighted resource protection aspects for specific user group needs. The methodology supports development of sustainable beach management strategies, based on local characteristics and different tourism markets.
Article
It has been suggested that serious leisure can reduce problems resulting from meaningless leisure because serious leisure requires sustained and committed involvement. Youth sport participation has traditionally been viewed as a positive leisure involvement because of its contribution to healthy lifestyles and character development. These benefits can be compromised when parents and coaches engage in youth sport as their own serious leisure. This article examines the positive and negative implications of youth sports as serious leisure for children and adults. Stebbins's six qualities of serious leisure—personal effort, perseverance, career, subculture, identification, and long-lasting benefits—are discussed, as well as the role of parents and coaches. Suggestions for improving the youth sports experience are also provided.
Article
Stebbins (1992) has suggested that the 'profit hypothesis', whereby the perceived benefits of taking part in an activity exceed the perceived costs, can be used to explain continued engagement in serious leisure activities. This argument, however, fails to explain the continued participation in such activities where the costs to the individual seem to exceed the rewards. This paper adopts a social identity perspective to identify and demonstrate the role of four compensatory behaviours – in-group favouritism, out-group derogation, unrealistic optimism, and voice – in ensuring continued participation in serious leisure. Such behaviours are described in the context of one particular serious leisure activity – that of football fandom – to explain why engagement in such an apparently unrewarding activity is maintained. A model of serious leisure participation is presented based upon these behaviours
Article
Imagery of perfect uncrowded surf in paradisaical tropical destinations has been the dominant theme in the surf media since its inception. The hermeneutic circle of representation in tourism has been explored in the context of tourism industry advertising material with tourists reproducing iconic images of destinations through their own photographic choices (Butler & Hall, 1998; Crawshaw & Urry, 1997; Hall, 1997; Jenkins, 2003; Urry, 1990a, 1990b). This article extends such research by exploring the media's role in driving a hermeneutic circle in the absence of tourism industry marketing. The article employs grounded theory method in an instrumental case study investigating the role of the surf media in the social construction of an idealized surfing tourist space. As well as providing the first empirical evidence of the relationship between the surf media and tourism demand, the article explores the symbolic elements of surfing tourist space, imagery of which drives a multi-billion-dollar global surf industry. The article expands the notion of the hermeneutic circle by looking beyond impacts on marketing and tourist behavior and questioning the implications of a tourism industry that continues to develop in remote, less-developed regions as an ad hoc response to demand fueled by media imagery of commercially created symbols designed to sell fashion items and consumer goods.
Article
In this paper, the notion of serious leisure is critically explored in relation to women's climbing careers and identities. It draws upon findings from an in‐depth qualitative study of 19 women climbers and explores the concept of serious leisure from a gender perspective, arguing that in order to develop a more sophisticated understanding of serious leisure, it is important to situate participation in the social, cultural and political contexts that frame experience. Drawing on the theoretical work of Aitchison, Shaw and Wearing, we use a feminist theoretical approach that recognises both collective experiences of gender, focusing on inequality, as well as a post‐structuralist engagement with difference and identities. The data identified the central significance of physicality, social relationships and motherhood in the experiences of, and motivations for, the women's participation in climbing as a form of serious leisure. It is argued that understanding the relationship between climbing and the women's wider lives, specifically their work, attitudes to childbearing, sexual relationships, gender identities and motherhood is central to understanding their commitment to climbing.
Article
In this paper, the meaning of volunteering and related concepts are discussed first, and then a brief history of volunteering in Australia is given. The notion of volunteering as serious leisure is examined and the paper concludes with a few case studies of people who volunteer in various ways as part of their leisure.
Article
Psychological research involving scale construction has been hindered considerably by a widespread lack of understanding of coefficient alpha and reliability theory in general. A discussion of the assumptions and meaning of coefficient alpha is presented. This discussion is followed by a demonstration of the effects of test length and dimensionality on alpha by calculating the statistic for hypothetical tests with varying numbers of items, numbers of orthogonal dimensions, and average item intercorrelations. Recommendations for the proper use of coefficient alpha are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tournaments designed to attract sport participants to a destination have become significant elements of tourism marketing. This study examines participants' motives for traveling to a women's flag football tournament. In addition to collection of observational data, participants were interviewed, tournament communications analyzed, and tournament records reviewed. It is shown that participants seek opportunities to share and affirm their identities as football players. It is the occasion to celebrate a subculture shared with others from distant places, rather than the site itself, that attracts them. Implications for marketing and for theories of sport tourism are discussed.RésuméLe tourisme sportif comme célébration d'une subculture. Des tournois qui sont conçus pour attirer des participants à une destination sont devenus un élément significatif du marketing du tourisme. Cette étude examine les motivations des participantes pour voyager à un tournoi pour femmes d'une variante du football américain. En plus de rassembler des données d'observation, on a interviewé les participantes, analysé les communications du tournoi et examiné les archives du tournoi. On voit que les participantes cherchent des occasions pour communiquer et affirmer leur identité comme joueuses de football. C'est l'occasion de célébrer une subculture partagée avec d'autres personnes qui habitent loin, plutôt que le site même, qui les attire. On discute les implications pour le marketing et pour les théories du tourisme sportif.
Article
Surfing has become a popular sport activity in Australia and many other countries since 1960's. The first generation of surfers is now older than 60 years of age while many of them still surf regularly. Limited information is available in respect of the long-term physiological adaptations of participating in surfing. The aim of this study was to provide evidence on the effects of long-term surfing on neuromuscular function as compared to age-matched non-surfers. Eleven male surfers who had participated in surfing for at least 40 years volunteered for the study. A group of the age-matched and physically active men (n = 11) were recruited as the control. The physiological variables measured included maximal isometric voluntary contraction force (MVC), rate of force development, steadiness in muscle force production (knee extensors and flexors, and ankle dorsi- and plantar flexors) at 5, 15 and 25%MVC levels, joint position sense, and body sway in standing position under four different conditions: eye open or close and on hard or soft surface. The results indicated that older surfers had significantly lower muscle force fluctuations than the control subjects in the steadiness tests. The surfers also showed less postural sway in standing position with eye closed and on soft surface. The findings from this preliminary investigation suggest that long-term recreational surfing may cause specific adaptations that benefit participants by maintaining or improving their neuromuscular function which would ultimately lead to improved quality of life.
The effect of serious leisure and leisure experience on leisure commitment of bike participants in central Taiwan (Master's thesis)
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Home brewing and serious leisure an empirical evaluation (Master's thesis)
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Murray, D. (2009). Home brewing and serious leisure an empirical evaluation (Master's thesis). Auburn University, Alabama.
Survey research and analysis: Applications in parks, recreation, and human dimensions
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Surfing at Bombora controlled beaches
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Consuming Nirvana: An exploration of surfing tourist space (Doctoral dissertation)
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Ponting, J. (2008). Consuming Nirvana: An exploration of surfing tourist space (Doctoral dissertation). University of Technology, Sydney.
Everyday information organization practices in the pursuit of leisure: The information organization, management, and keeping activities of amateur art photographers
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