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The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) in the northern and parts of central Western Ghats

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The genus Impatiens L. comprises over 1,000 species worldwide. It is represented by c. 210 species in India and most of them are either endemic to the Himalaya or Western Ghats. We have studied the genus in the North-ern and parts of Central Western Ghats. We report here 26 species and 2 varieties including a new species with detailed descriptions, illustrations, distribution, critical note, updated nomenclature and IUCN threat status.
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Rheedea
Vol. 21(1)
23-80
2011
The genus
Impatiens
(Balsaminaceae) in the northern and
parts of central Western Ghats
Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam*
Department of Botany, Goa University, Goa – 403 206, India.
*E-mail: mkjana@yahoo.com
Abstract
The genus Impatiens L. comprises over 1,000 species worldwide. It is represented by c. 210 species in India and
most of them are either endemic to the Himalaya or Western Ghats. We have studied the genus in the North-
ern and parts of Central Western Ghats. We report here 26 species and 2 varieties including a new species with
detailed descriptions, illustrations, distribution, critical note, updated nomenclature and IUCN threat status.
Keywords: Endemic, Impatiens, New Species, Taxonomy, Western Ghats
Introduction
The richness of  owering plants makes India one of
the megadiversity countries in the world with four
biodiversity hotspots and three megacentres of
endemism. The  ora of India shows high diversity
in terms of families, genera and species of angio-
sperms. Many genera and families are known to be
represented by a large number of endemic species;
one amongst them is the genus, Impatiens L. of the
family Balsaminaceae.
The family Balsaminaceae comprises annual
as well as perennial herbs that show conspicu-
ous and striking  oral morphology. It comprises
two widespread genera, viz., Hydrocera Wight &
Arn., a monotypic genus and Impatiens L., a genus
with a large number of species. Hydrocera can be
distinguished by its  ve free petals and capsu-
lar berry while Impatiens has four petals that are
fused to form two lateral petals and a 5-valved
capsule. Hydrocera tri ora (L.) Wight & Arn. is a
semi-aquatic herb distributed in the Indomalesian
region.
Impatiens with more than 1,000 species (Janssens
et al., 2006, 2009a, b; Morgan, 2007) is distributed
in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Old
World as well as in the northern temperate regions
(Grey-Wilson, 1980; Mabberly, 2008). The genus is
known to have 5 distinct diversity hotspots, viz.,
tropical Africa, Madagascar, Southern India and
Sri Lanka, the Eastern Himalaya and Southeast
Asia (Yuan et al., 2004). Many species are cultivated
as ornamental and some are used in medicine and
cosmetics. Species belonging to this genus are com-
monly referred to as ‘balsams’ or ‘jewel weeds’.
The genus is represented by c. 210 species in India
with two centres of diversity – the Eastern Hima-
laya and the Western Ghats. Both regions show a
high degree of endemism and hence recognised as
two amongst the 34 biodiversity hotspot regions in
the world (Mittermeier et al., 2004). Species occur-
ring in India can be recognised under two groups:
the  rst group with short, swollen spindle-shaped
pods occurring in the peninsular region and the
second group with long and narrow pods distrib-
uted in the Himalayan region (Hooker, 1874).
Historical Review
Indian species of Impatiens rst appeared in print
in Hortus Malabaricus (Rheede, 1689). This monu-
mental pre-Linnaean work of Rheede includes
six plates of balsams with a brief description in
Latin, which are recognised as  ve distinct species
(Nicolson et al., 1988).
Linnaeus (1753) described seven species of Impa-
tiens including the present day Hydrocera tri ora (
I. tri ora L.) in the genus. It was later regarded as
a monotypic genus. Of the six species of Impatiens
described by Linnaeus (1753), three species occur
in India that include ‘Valli onapu’ (I. latifolia) and
‘Kondam pallu’ (I. oppositifolia) of Rheede.
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24
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
1979; Chandrabose et al., 1984; Bhaskar & Razi, 1982;
Pandurangan & Nair, 1995, 1996; Kumar & Sequi-
era, 1996, 2001; Ravikumar et al., 2000; Viswanathan
& Manikandan, 2003; Bhaskar, 2006). These publica-
tions imply that knowledge on Impatiens is incom-
plete and there are species to be discovered and
described as well as rediscovered. Hence, the pres-
ent study on the genus in the Northern and parts of
Central Western Ghats was taken up.
Study Area
Western Ghats is a chain of mountains run-
ning parallel to the West Coast of Peninsu-
lar India. The hill ranges are about 1,600 km
long and cover an area of about 1,60,000 km
2
(Nayar, 1996). The study area covers the whole
of Northern Western Ghats (from river Tapti
in Gujarat to river Kali in Karnataka) and the
Karnataka part of Central Western Ghats. The
remaining parts of Central Western Ghats from
Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Biligiriran-
gan Hills linking Western Ghats to the Eastern
Ghats are not covered in the study (Map 1). The
vegetation types include scrubs, sholas, mon-
tane grasslands, tropical moist deciduous for-
ests, tropical dry deciduous forests, peat bogs,
Major contributions on Peninsular Indian (basi-
cally the Western Ghats) Impatiens came from de
Candolle (1824), Wight & Arnott (1834), Arnott
(1835), Wight (1837, 1844, 1845, 1846) and Beddome
(1859, 1868 – 1874). Hooker (1904, 1905, 1906, 1911)
worked extensively on the Indian Impatiens. The
present day understanding of Indian Impatiens can
be attributed to Hooker.
Hooker & Thomson (1859) divided the genus into
two broad groups, viz., Scapigerae and Caules-
centes. Hooker (1874) re ned the classi cation
provided by Hooker & Thomson (1859). Warburg
& Reiche (1895) were the pioneers to classify Impa-
tiens at global level. However, their classi cation
was considered arti cial by Grey-Wilson (1980).
Regional  oristic studies and inventories published
in the early and mid 20th century by Cooke (1901),
Gamble (1915), Fischer (1930, 1931, 1934, 1935,
1936, 1938), Fyson (1932), Blatter (1933), Barnes
(1939) and Santapau (1967) have also contributed
signi cantly. Bhaskar (1975) worked extensively
on the genus Impatiens in Southern India. His stud-
ies included taxonomy, cytology, palynology, anat-
omy and reproductive biology and were published
in a series of papers.
Several district  oras and  oristic works were
published during the past four decades by vari-
ous authors including: Ramamoorthy (1978), Shah
(1978), Rao & Razi (1981), Yoganarasimhan et al.
(1982), Vajravelu (1983, 1990), Sharma et al. (1984),
Rao (1985), Manilal (1988), Ramachandran & Nair
(1988), Almeida (1990), Murthy & Yoganarasimhan
(1990), Lakshminarasimhan & Sharma (1991),
Deshpande et al. (1993), Kothari & Moorthy (1993),
Mohanan & Henry (1994), Saldanha (1996), Augus-
tine et al. (1999), Ramaswamy et al. (2001), Yadav
& Sardesai (2002), Bhat (2003), Sasidharan (2004),
Rathakrishnan et al. (2005) and Nayar et al. (2006).
All these taxonomic endeavours of these authors
resulted in deposition of large number of collec-
tions in various Indian herbaria.
The only major study of the entire genus for the
country is by Vivekananthan et al. (1997) which is
primarily based on literature and herbarium speci-
mens and includes 204 species for India. Critical
taxonomic account, nomenclature, relationship
among species and infrageneric classi cation are
not dealt within this treatment.
Several new species and extended distributional
reports from various parts of the Western Ghats have
been published from time to time (Chandrabose,
Map 1. Northern and parts of central Western Ghats.
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 25
tomentose, often rooting at lower nodes. Leaves
simple, rarely palmately lobed, alternate to
opposite, alternate and opposite, whorled, or all
radical, exstipulate, petiolate to sessile, attenuate
to cordate at base, apiculate-crenate to serrate at
margins; acute or acute-apiculate to emargin-
ate at apex, glabrous or hairy, pinnately nerved;
petioles short or long, glabrous to hairy, with
glandular base or on petiole. Flowers in axillary
racemes, fascicles, umbels or solitary, sometimes
scapose, bisexual, zygomorphic, resupinate
through 180º. Bracts entire. Pedicels glabrous or
with 1 or 2 rows of hairs or hairy throughout.
Sepals 3, rarely 5, free, entire at margins; lateral
sepals linear to ovate, small; lip (posterior sepal)
navicular, funnel-shaped or saccate; spur long
or short, rarely absent, straight, bent, incurved
or coiled, clavate, cylindric or inflated, bulged,
forked, acuminate at apex, rarely 2-lobed or
digitately lobed, coloured. Petals 3 or 5; stan-
dard (anterior) small or large, petaloid, flat or
concave, crested or keeled dorsally; lower 4 pet-
als (wing petals) free or fused, 1 or 2-lobed or
3-lobed, sometimes with a short or long and slen-
der dorsal auricle near base. Stamens 5, coher-
ing above pistil; filaments 5, narrow and free at
base, broad and fused at apex. Ovary superior,
5-loculed; ovules 2 – many in each locule, on
axile placenta; style 1, absent or rudimentary;
stigma 5-toothed. Fruit a loculicidal capsule,
explosive; valves open and coil elastically expel-
ling the seeds out; seeds non endospermous;
testa smooth, warted or hairy.
About 1,000 species distributed mainly in the
tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and
Africa with a few in the temperate regions of
Asia, Europe and North America with  ve cen-
tres of diversity, viz., Africa, Madagascar, Western
Ghats, Eastern Himalaya and Southeast Asia.
The genus is represented by c. 210 species in India
of which c. 90 species occur in the Western Ghats
region.
Key to the species
1. Plants caulescent, without tubers; leaves cauline;
owers axillary ….......................................…….. 8
1. Plants acaulescent, with tubers; leaves radical;
owers in scapes ......... (Sect. Scapigerae)............. 2
2. Wing petals 2-lobed ............................... I. acaulis
2. Wing petals 3-lobed ............................................. 3
tropical evergreen forests, semi-evergreen for-
ests and lateritic rocky plateaus. Many Impa-
tiens species are found growing in all these
diverse habitats.
Materials and Methods
Specimens collected from various parts of the
study area were processed for herbarium using
standard herbarium techniques proposed by
Fosberg & Sachet (1965) and  owers preserved
using the method described by Hooker (1904) and
Grey-Wilson (1980). The processed and identi ed
sheets were deposited in the Herbarium of Botany
Department, Goa University (GUH), Goa. Entities
found as novelties were recognised as new spe-
cies. Species that were not found distributed in the
study area and not represented by any collection
from the study area in any of the herbaria have
been excluded. Herbarium specimens from BLAT,
BSI, CAL, FRLH, JCB, MH, MGM, SPU and SUK
were studied. Photographs of herbarium sheets
(types and authentic specimens) were obtained
(or downloaded) from E, G, K, LINN, NY and W.
Provisions of the International Code of Botani-
cal Nomenclature (McNeill et al., 2006) have been
applied for resolving various nomenclatural
issues and typi cation problems. All the species
have been evaluated for their threat status using
IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1
(IUCN, 2001).
Impatiens L., Sp. Pl. 2: 937. 1753; de Candolle,
Prodr. 1: 687. 1824; Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. 2: 452. 1824;
Wight & Arnott, Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient.: 135. 1834;
Hooker & Thomson, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4:
118. 1859; Dalzell & Gibson, Bombay Fl.: 42. 1861;
Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 1: 277. 1862; Hooker,
Fl. Brit. India 1: 440. 1874; Cooke, Fl. Bombay 1:
168. 1901; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 134. 1915; Grey-
Wilson in Dassanayake, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon
5: 80. 1985; Saldanha, Fl. Karnataka 2: 247. 1996;
Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et al., Fl. India 4: 99.
1997.
Type: I. noli-tangere L. (Lectotype).
Annual or perennial, caulescent or acaulescent
herbs, rarely shrubs, terrestrial or epiphytic,
sometimes with tuberous or rhizomatous root-
stocks. Stem quadrangular to terete, flaccid,
succulent, rarely woody at base, glabrous to
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26
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
18. Flowers less than 1 cm across; spur shorter than
pedicel ................................................... I. tenella
19. Leaves all alternate .......................................... 21
19. Leaves at least a few opposite ........................ 20
20. Plants herbs;  owers pink ......... I. gardneriana
20. Plants undershrubs or shrubs;
owers white ...................................... I. latifolia
21. Plants glabrous; leaves broadly elliptic to ovate-
lanceolate; lobes of wing petals subequal .... 22
21. Plants pubescent; leaves linear-elliptic to linear-
lanceolate; lobes of wing petals unequal ...... 24
22. Capsules tomentose ............................ I. talbotii
22. Capsules glabrous ............................................ 23
23. Stems quadrangular; seeds hairy ........................
....................................................... I. dasysperma
23. Stems circular; seeds glabrous ..............................
....................................................... I. pulcherrima
24. Spur present ...................................................... 25
24. Spur absent ................................. I. scabriuscula
25. Spur up to 1 cm long .............................. I. rosea
25. Spur 1.5 – 2 cm long ........................... I. balsamina
Section: Scapigerae Hook.f. & Thomson
Rootstocks tuberous. Leaves all radical. In ores-
cence racemose. Seeds very minute, clothed with
spiral hairs (Hooker, 1906).
Impatiens acaulis Arn., Companion Bot. Mag. 1:
325. 1835; Hooker & Thomson, J. Proc. Linn. Soc.
Bot. 4: 119. 1859; Dalzell & Gibson, Bombay Fl.: 42.
1861; Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 1: 443. 1874 & Rec. Bot.
Surv. India 4: 44. 1906; Cooke, Fl. Bombay 1: 170.
1901; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 138. 1915; Blatter, J.
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 33: 309, t. 1. 1933; Santapau,
Fl. Khandala: 30. 1967; Vajravelu in Nair & Henry,
Fl. Tamil Nadu 1: 52. 1983; Sharma et al., Fl. Karna-
taka: 36. 1984; Grey-Wilson in Dassanayake, Rev.
Handb. Fl. Ceylon 5: 82, f. 2A – E. 1985; Rao, Fl. Goa
1: 56. 1985; Kulkarni, Fl. Sindhudurg District: 58.
1988; Almeida, Fl. Savantwadi 1: 76. 1990; Lakshmi-
narasimhan & Sharma, Fl. Nasik District: 113. 1991;
Deshpande et al., Fl. Mahabaleshwar 1: 113. 1993;
Kothari & Moorthy, Fl. Raigad District: 46. 1993;
Almeida, Fl. Maharashtra: 188. 1996; Saldanha, Fl.
Karnataka 2: 257. 1996; Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra
et al., Fl. India 4: 111. 1997; Mudaliar & Prasad in
Singh & Karthikeyan, Fl. Maharashtra State Dicotyl.
1: 445. 2000; Yadav & Sardesai, Fl. Kolhapur District:
93, t. 3, f. 19. 2002; Bhat, Fl. Udupi District: 87, t. 21.
2003; Rathakrishnan et al. in Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1:
530. 2005. Fig. 1; 7a
3. Wing petals without a tuft of hairs at base; spur
cylindric, 3 – 5 cm long .................... I. scapi ora
3. Wing petals with a tuft of hairs at base; spur  at
or absent, less than 2 cm long ............................. 4
4. Flowers white; seeds comose with tuft of hairs at
ends ........................................................................ 5
4. Flowers pink to lilac; seeds hairy throughout ... 6
5. Spur clavate; dorsal auricle present ......................
............................................................ I. dendricola
5. Spur saccate or absent; dorsal auricle absent .......
.................................................................. I. stocksii
6. Dorsal auricle rounded, less than 2 mm ...............
............................................................... I. bhaskarii
6. Dorsal auricle spiniform, 5 – 10 mm long ........ 7
7. Spur clavate; standard petal orbicular ...... I. clavata
7. Spur oblong; standard petal ovate ...... I. barberi
8. Leaves all opposite; seeds glabrous ......................
................................. (sect. Oppositifoliae) ........ 9
8. Leaves alternate or ternate; seeds hairy or with
appendages .. (sect. Uni orae/Microsepalae) .. 19
9. Plants tomentose .............................. I. tomentosa
9. Plants glabrous ………........……....................... 10
10. Wing petals 2-lobed ......................................... 12
10. Wing petals not lobed ...................................... 11
11. Lamina glandular at base; pedicel glabrous ......
................................................................... I. minor
11. Lamina eglandular at base; pedicels with two
rows of hair ................................. I. kleiniformis
12. Spur hooked, less than 0.8 cm long ............... 13
12. Spur straight or curved, more than 1 cm long .... 16
13. Dorsal auricle present ...................................... 14
13. Dorsal auricle absent ........................ I. dalzellii
14. Flowers orange .................................... I. raziana
14. Flowers pink ..................................................... 15
15. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate; serrations
acute; spur curved, straight or hooked ...............
...................................................... I. oppositifolia
15. Leaves ovate; serrations cuspidate; spur bent,
parallel to the lip ..................................... I. lawii
16. Spur distinctly curved,  at, broad in middle,
thick ................................................... I. chinensis
16. Spur not curved, cylindric, thin ..................... 17
17. Distal lobe of wing petals stipitate; basal lobe
triangular with acute apex ......... I. diversifolia
17. Distal lobe of wing petals sessile; basal lobe
ovate with obtuse apex .................................... 18
18. Flowers more than 2 cm across; spur as long as
pedicel .................................. I. vivekananthanii
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 27
to truncate at base, distantly apiculate-crenate
at margins, acute to acute-apiculate at apex,
hairy mainly on nerves above, glabrous below;
petioles 2.5 – 9 cm long, glabrous. In orescence a rac-
emose scape, 7 – 27 cm long, 4 – 10- owered. Flow-
ers 1.5 – 5 cm across, pink to lilac with white throat;
bracts ovate, 2 – 3.5 1 – 3 mm, green; pedicels
0.7 – 3 cm long, glabrous, de exed in fruits. Lateral
sepals asymmetrically ovate, 2 – 5 1.5 – 4 mm,
acute at apex, glabrous, pale green. Standard petal
broadly obovate, 0.5 – 1 0.6 – 1.6 cm, concave,
humped at base, forming a hood above column,
Type: CEYLON, Walker s.n. (K, photo!)
I. gracilis Bedd., Madras J. Lit. Sci. 2, 10: 69, t. 13.
1859.
I. scapi ora sensu Hook.f., Bot. Mag: t. 3587. 1837,
non B. Heyne ex Roxb. 1824.
Terrestrial or epiphytic, scapigerous, tuber-
ous or rhizomatous herb, 8 – 27 cm high; tubers
oblongoid, 0.5 – 0.8 0.5 – 1.5 cm. Leaves radi-
cal, 3 – 6 per tuber, ovate, oblong to orbicular,
(1.1 –) 2.5 – 16 (0.8 –) 2 – 9 cm, obtuse, cordate
5 cm
1 cm
2 mm
2 mm
2 mm
1 mm
1 cm
1 cm
1 cm
a
b
c
d
e
f
gh
i
jk l
2 mm
Fig. 1.
Impatiens acaulis
Arn. var.
acaulis
: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h. Wing
petals; i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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28
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
NI4426 (BLAT); Ratnagiri district, Amba ghat,
17.9.1961, C.J. Saldanha CS7195 (JCB); Satara
district, Khandala, 9.6.1941, H. Santapau HS715;
Fitzgerald ghat, Mahabaleshwar, 9.6.1954, P. V.
Bole BOLE1150; Fitzgerald ghat, Mahabaleshwar,
22.12.1954, P.V. Bole BOLE1270; Fitzgerald ghat,
Mahabaleshwar, 22.10.1957, P.V. Bole BOLE1452;
Fitzgerald ghat, Mahabaleshwar, 31.8.1958, B.
Balaman BB349; Fitzgerald ghat, Mahabalesh-
war, 16.9.1958, H. Santapau HS22827; Fitzgerald
ghat, Mahabaleshwar, 30.10.1958, H. Santapau
HS22905, HS22907 (BLAT); Sindhudurg district,
Phonda ghat, 18.8.1965, B.G. Kulkarni 105574
(BSI); Amboli ghat, 17.7.2004, Jyosna R.N. Dessai &
M.K. Janarthanam 4; Amboli ghat, 9.8.2005, Jyosna
R.N. Dessai 41; Amboli ghat, 12.8.2006, Jyosna
R.N. Dessai 107; On the way to Chaukul, Amboli,
12.8.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 112; Phonda ghat,
30.9.2007, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam
167 (GUH). SRI LANKA, Madulkelle, s. die, s. leg.,
s.n. (MH).
Chromosome No.: 2n 20 (Bhaskar, 1976, 1980).
IUCN Threat Status: LC.
var. granulata Bhaskar et al., Curr. Sci. 44: 622, t.
2. 1975; Yoganarasimhan et al., Fl. Chikmagalur
District: 60, f. 1. 1982; Sharma et al., Fl. Karnataka:
36. 1984; Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et al., Fl.
India 4: 113. 1997.
Holotype: INDIA, Karnataka, Chikmagalur dis-
trict, Charmadi ghat, 29.8.1972, V. Bhaskar 312
(MGM!).
Flowering & Fruiting: August – September.
Habitat: Damp rocks, between rock crevices, ver-
tical black boulders, amidst grasses in loose soil;
spray zones of waterfalls and cemented walls and
also tree trunks.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of
Karnataka.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Karnataka, North
Kanara district, Karwar, s. die,
W.A. Talbot s.n. (BSI);
Chikmagalur district, Charmadi ghat, 15.8.2005,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 59, 63;
Shimoga district, Agumbe ghat, 4.9.2005, Jyosna
R.N. Dessai 72; Agumbe ghat, 27.8.2006, M.K.
Janarthanam 161 (GUH).
Chromosome No.: 2n 16, 18 (Bhaskar, 1980); 2n
18, 20 (Bhaskar & Razi, 1972 – 1973).
IUCN Threat Status: EN [B2ac(iii)].
Impatiens barberi Hook.f., Rec. Bot. Surv. India
4: 39, 45. 1906; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 139. 1915;
Ramamoorthy in Saldanha & Nicolson, Fl. Has-
san District: 400, f. 78A. 1978; Sharma et al., Fl.
obcordate to emarginate, glabrous, pink outside,
white inside; wing petals 1.6 – 3.2 1 – 2.5 cm,
unequally 2-lobed; basal lobe oblong, 0.9 – 2.5
0.3 – 0.8 cm, rounded to obtuse at apex; distal lobe
asymmetrically obovate, 1.1 – 2.6 0.6 – 1.5 cm; lip
boat-shaped, 6 – 12 4 – 6 mm, 0.2 – 6 mm deep,
acute at apex, glabrous, pinkish white; spur basal,
tubular, 3 – 5.8 cm long, rounded at apex, glabrous,
pink to white. Column 3 – 6 1 – 3 mm, curved;
anthers c. 1 1 mm, white;  laments 3 – 5 0.5 – 1
mm, pink. Pistil 2.5 – 5 1 – 3 mm; ovary ellipsoid
to broadly lanceoloid, glabrous. Capsules asym-
metrically ellipsoid to lanceoloid, 1 – 1.3 0.4 – 0.7
cm, glabrous; pedicels 1 – 3.5 cm long; seeds oblon-
goid to lanceoloid, c. 1 0.5 mm, brown, hairy;
hairs coiled forming a cone-like structure.
Note: Impatiens acaulis has closest ally in I. scapi ora.
However, I. acaulis differs from I. scapi ora in the
presence of 2-lobed wing petals and not 3-lobed
wing petals. In the herbarium, I. acaulis cannot be
differentiated from I. scapi ora unless the  owers
are properly spread. Impatiens acaulis has the wid-
est latitudinal distribution from Maharashtra to
Tamil Nadu in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka
with major concentration in the Western Ghats of
Maharashtra.
Two varieties have been recognized under this
species that differ only in pollen characters.
Key to the varieties
1. Pollens 4-colpate; exine reticulate ........ var. acaulis
1. Pollens 3-colpate; exine granulate …...............
.......................................................... var. granulata
var. acaulis: Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et al., Fl.
India 4: 111, t. 34. 1997.
Flowering & Fruiting: June – December (April).
Habitat: Damp rocks, between rock crevices, ver-
tical black boulders, amidst grasses in loose soil;
spray zones of waterfalls and cemented walls and
also tree trunks.
Distribution: India (Western Ghats) and Sri Lanka.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Goa, North Goa
district, Chorla ghat, 27.8.2005, Jyosna R.N. Des-
sai 69 (GUH); South Goa district, Dudhsagar,
17.9.1970, M.Y. Ansari 124017; Mollem-Belgaum
road, 17.9.1970, N.P. Singh 124261 (BSI); Savar
falls, Tudav, Netravali, 26.4.2006, Ashish Prab-
hugaonkar 102 (GUH). Kerala, Idukki district,
way to Kattuppana, 5.10.1983, A.G. Panduran-
gan 79262 (MH). Maharashtra, Kolhapur dis-
trict, Ambha, 17.9.1996, Milind Sardesai MMS227
(SUK); Raigad district, Waterpipe, Junnap-
atti (Matheran), 26.8.1959, N.A. Irani NI4425,
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 29
Epiphytic, scapigerous, tuberous herb, 7 – 15 cm
high; tubers oblongoid to globose, 4 – 7 mm across,
creamish brown. Leaves radical, 3 or 4 per tuber,
elliptic to ovate, 1.1 – 3.7 1 – 1.8 cm, attenuate at
base, apiculate-crenate at margins, retuse to apicu-
late at apex, hairy only on nerves above, glabrous
below; nerves 3 – 5 pairs; petioles 1 – 3 cm long,
glabrous, light green with reddish tinge. In ores-
cence a racemose scape, 6 – 9 cm long, 3 – 7- ow-
ered. Flowers 1.2 – 2.4 cm across, lilac to pink;
bracts ovate, 1.5 – 2.5 1 – 1.5 mm, concave, entire
at margins, acute at apex, glabrous; pedicels 1.3 –
1.8 cm long, de exed in fruits. Lateral sepals asym-
metrically ovate, c. 2 1 mm, entire at margins,
Karnataka: 37. 1984; Saldanha, Fl. Karnataka 2:
250, f. 100A. 1996; Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et
al., Fl. India 4: 124. 1997. Fig. 2, 8b – d
Type: INDIA, Karnataka, Mysore State, Cada-
many, 8.9.1903, C.A. Barber 6082 (K, photo!). Lecto-
type selected here.
I. agumbeana Bhaskar & Razi, Curr. Sci. 79: 382.
1982; Saldanha, Fl. Karnataka 2: 249. 1996; Viveka-
nanthan et al. in Hajra et al., Fl. India 4: 124. 1997;
Ramaswamy et al., Fl. Shimoga District: 107. 2001,
syn. nov.
Holotype: INDIA, Karnataka, Shimoga district,
Agumbe, 29.9.1973, V. Bhaskar 386 (MGM!)
5 cm
1 cm
1 mm
2 mm
5 mm
2 mm
1 mm
2 mm
1 mm
1 mm
a
b
c
d
e
f
ghi
jk l
Fig. 2.
Impatiens barberi
Hook.f.: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h. Wing petal dorsal
and ventral views; i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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30
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
Bhaskar & Razi (1982) who described I. agumbeana
as a new species compared it with I. lawsonii and
I. stocksii and distinguished it based on a distinct
cylindrical spur which is up to 4 mm long enclos-
ing a dorsal auricle that is 3 – 4 mm long, a slightly
lobed distal lobe of wing petal with open dichoto-
mous venation.
The type of I. agumbeana (Bhaskar 386) at MGM is
very inadequate and has neither well preserved
owers nor any dissected  oral parts. Details are
not clear in the two specimens on the sheet as the
owers are not properly preserved. However, the
authors have provided illustrations of  oral parts
that throw light on morphology. Interestingly there
are no specimens of I. barberi at MGM, though it
is one of the common species in the locality of I.
agumbeana. The specimens determined as I. barberi
by Bhaskar (1975) were later described by him as
a new species, I. clavata (Bhaskar, 2006). Further, a
thorough search in the type locality of I. agumbeana
did not result in collecting any specimen despite I.
barberi was abundant on tree trunks.
Critical observations of the type specimens of I.
agumbeana and I. barberi including the illustrations
therein revealed that both the species are mor-
phologically similar with minor variations such
as height of the plant, length of spur and dorsal
auricle. Our other collections show that all these
characters are continuous variations. Hence, we
have synonymised I. agumbeana under I. barberi.
Impatiens barberi is similar to I. clavata but differs in
having oblong spur rather than clavate spur.
This species also grows along with Utricularia stria-
tula Sm. Plants grow on tree trunks from base to
heights of more than 20 m. Individuals growing
in shade are with dark pink  owers having deep
yellow-coloured tuft of hairs while those exposed
to light have lilac-coloured  owers with light yel-
low-coloured tuft of hairs. Plants growing amidst
mosses are more luxuriant than the ones which
grow in other habitats.
IUCN Threat Status: EN [B2ab(iii)].
Impatiens bhaskarii J. Dessai et al., Taiwania 54(2):
149. 2009. Fig. 3, 8e, f
Type: INDIA, Karnataka, Chikmagalur district,
Charmadi ghat, 15.8.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai &
M.K. Janarthanam 62 (Holotype, CAL; Isotypes,
BSI, MH).
Epiphytic, scapigerous, tuberous herb, 10 – 15 cm
high; tubers globose to oblongoid, 5 – 8 mm across,
creamish brown. Leaves radical, 3 – 7 per tuber,
broadly ovate to orbicular, 0.6 – 4 0.5 – 3.6 cm,
acute to obtuse at apex, glabrous. Standard petal
ovate, 2.5 – 4 2 – 3 mm, concave, cordate, forming
a pouch-like structure at base, glabrous, 3-nerved;
wing petals 1 – 1.5 0.6 – 0.8 cm, auricled near
base, unequally 3-lobed; basal lobe oblong, 2 – 4
1 – 2 mm, rounded at apex; mid-lobe larger than
other 2, ovate, 5 – 7 4 – 6 mm, obtuse at apex;
distal lobe oblong, 4 – 6 1.5 – 2.5 mm, rounded
at apex; dorsal auricle slightly above base of wing
petal, modi ed into a tapering needle-like struc-
ture, 5 – 7 mm long, yellow at base and apex; lip
boat-shaped, 3 – 6 mm long, 1 – 2 mm deep, acute
at apex, glabrous; spur basal, 3 – 6 mm long, later-
ally  attened, broad at base, notched at apex, gla-
brous. Column c. 2.5 mm long, bent forward;  la-
ments c. 2 0.5 mm; anthers c. 0.5 0.5 mm. Pistil
c. 1.5 1 mm; ovary ellipsoid to oblanceoloid,
glabrous. Capsules asymmetrically ellipsoid, 6 – 8
3 – 4 mm, glabrous; pedicels 1.7 – 2 cm long;
seeds oblongoid, c. 1 0.25 mm, with reticulate
testa, hairy throughout; hairs long and dense at
ends, lateral ones short and uniformly distributed,
spirally coiled.
Flowering & Fruiting: July – October.
Habitat: Wet moss-covered tree trunks and rocky
localities.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of Kar-
nataka.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Karnataka, Hassan
district, Kenchankumri State Forest, 15.8.1971, T.P.
Ramamoorthy 2042 (JCB); North Kanara district,
Jog falls, 6.8.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 39 (GUH);
Shimoga district, Gubbiaga, 22.8.1963, R. Sundara
Raghavan 90159 (BSI, CAL); Hulical, 25.8.1963, R.
Sundara Raghavan 90206 (CAL); Agumbe ghat,
30.8.1963, R. Sundara Raghavan 90304 (BSI, CAL);
Hulical ghat, 5.8.1979, C.J. Saldanha, S.R. Ramesh
& K.P. Sreenath KFP8933 (JCB); Agumbe ghat,
4.9.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 74, 75; Agumbe ghat,
27.8.2006, M.K. Janarthanam 162 (GUH); Malabar,
Concan, Stocks & Law s.n. (MH).
Note: Impatiens barberi was described by Hooker
based on C.A. Barber’s material. During the
present work two relevant materials of Barber
(Barber 6082) have been traced; one at K and the
other at MH. In this context the material at K is
designated here as a lectotype of I. barberi as the
sheet of this material bears dissected  oral parts.
When Hooker (1906) described I.
barberi he did
not provide any illustration or a detailed descrip-
tion. The characters provided in the key and the
type specimen formed the basis for identifying this
species.
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 31
obtuse to rounded at apex; mid-lobe broadly ovate,
2.5 – 5 2 – 5 mm, obtuse at apex; distal lobe
oblong, 2.5 – 6 1 – 3 mm, rounded; lip ovate, 4 –
5 2 – 3 mm, 1.5 – 3 mm deep, acute at apex; spur
saccate. Column c. 2 mm long, curved;  laments c.
1.5 mm long, light pink to white; anthers c. 1 0.5
mm, white. Pistil c. 1.5 0.5 mm; ovary lanceoloid
to ellipsoid, glabrous. Capsule asymmetrically
ellipsoid, 0.6 – 1 0.2 – 0.4 cm, glabrous; pedicel
1.5 – 2.2 cm long; seeds numerous, oblongoid, c.
1 0.5 mm; testa reticulate, brown, hairy; hairs
sparse throughout but long and tufted at ends,
spirally coiled.
Flowering & Fruiting: August.
Habitat: Moss-covered tree trunks.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of Kar-
nataka; known only from type locality.
obtuse to truncate at base, apiculate-crenate at mar-
gins, acute, retuse to apiculate at apex, hairy above,
glabrous below; petioles 1.5 – 4 cm long, glabrous.
In orescence a racemose scape, 1 – 4 per tuber,
slender, 5 – 14 cm long, glabrous, 6 – 10- owered.
Flowers 0.8 – 2 cm across, lilac to pink with a tuft
of yellow hairs at base of mid-lobe; bracts ovate,
1.5 – 2 1 – 1.3 mm, acute at apex; pedicels slen-
der, 0.6 – 2 cm long, glabrous, de exed in fruits.
Lateral sepals asymmetrically ovate, 1.5 – 2 0.5
– 1 mm, slightly concave, acute at apex, glabrous,
distinctly 3-nerved, light green. Standard petal
petal orbicular to obovate, 2.5 – 4 3 – 4.5 mm,
concave, dorsally humped at base, obcordate at
apex, glabrous, white outside, lilac to pink inside;
wing petals 0.8 – 1.5 0.6 – 1 cm, 3-lobed, auricled
near base; dorsal auricle up to 2 mm long, yellow,
unequally lobed; basal lobe asymmetrically ovate,
smaller than distal and mid-lobe, 3 – 5 1.5 – 3 mm,
5 cm
1 cm
1 mm
2 mm
1 mm
5 mm
1 mm
1 mm
5 mm
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
jk l
Fig. 3.
Impatiens
bhaskarii
J. Dessai, L. Joseph & Janarth.: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal;
g, h. Wing petal ventral and dorsal views; i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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32
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
lawsonii collected by Barnes housed at K matches
with the key characters provided by Hooker thus
indicating that I. lawsonii as determined by Bhaskar
is actually an undescribed species.
Chromosome No.: 2n 20 [as I. lawsonii Hook.f.
(Bhaskar, 1976, 1980)].
IUCN Threat Status: CR [B2ab(iii)].
Impatiens clavata Bhaskar, Curr. Sci. 91(9): 1139, f.
2. 2006. Fig. 4, 8g, h
Holotype: INDIA, Karnataka, Hassan district,
Pushpagiri, Bisle ghat, 24.9.1972, V. Bhaskar 328
(MGM!).
Epiphytic, scapigerous, tuberous herb, 8 – 10
cm high; tubers globose, 5 – 7 mm, whitish
brown. Leaves radical, 1 – 3 per tuber, asym-
metrically ovate, orbicular to obovate, 0.8 – 3.6
0.7 – 2.5 cm, attenuate at base, apiculate-cre-
nate at margins, apiculate at apex, hairy above
Specimen examined: INDIA, Karnataka, Chikmag-
alur district, Charmadi ghat, 26.8.1972, V. Bhaskar
315 (MGM).
Note: Impatiens bhaskarii is allied to I. stocksii
Hook.f. & Thomson and I. dendricola C.E.C. Fisch.
but differs from the former in possessing lilac to
pink  owers, short dorsal auricle, and seeds hairy
all over, and from the latter in the presence of lilac
to pink  owers, saccate spur and seeds hairy all
over.
Bhaskar (1975) had determined material of this
species as I. lawsonii and voucher material (Bhaskar
315) is available at MGM. He considered the auri-
cle as spiniform as described by Hooker (1906) in
the protologue, neglecting the fact that the species
is placed under the short-spurred group. How-
ever, I. bhaskarii can be distinguished from I. law-
sonii based on its saccate spur and rounded dor-
sal auricle rather than short spur (c. 5 mm long)
and short spiniform dorsal auricle. A material of I.
5 cm
1 mm
1 cm
1 mm
2 mm
2 mm
5 mm
5 mm
1 mm
5 mm
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
ij kl
Fig. 4.
Impatiens clavata
Bhaskar: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h. Wing petal dorsal
and ventral views; i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 33
signi cance in throwing light on their individual
status. However, we could not  nd even another
population in spite of our repeated attempts.
IUCN Threat Status: CR [B2ab(iii)].
Chromosome No.: 2n 16 [as I. barberi Hook.f.
(Bhaskar, 1976, 1980)].
Impatiens dendricola C.E.C. Fisch., Bull. Misc.
Inform. 1935: 157. 1935 & Fl. Madras 3: 1870.
1936; Henry et al., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 75:
686. 1979; Sharma et al., Fl. Karnataka: 37. 1984;
Murthy & Yoganarasimhan, Fl. Coorg: 86. 1990;
Saldanha, Fl. Karnataka 2: 251. 1996; Vivekanan-
than et al. in Hajra et al., Fl. India 4: 139. 1997;
Ravikumar et al., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 24: 335.
2000. Fig. 5, 8i, l
Type: INDIA, Karnataka, Coorg district, on tree
trunks in shola at foot of Thadiandamol, 17.9.1934,
E. Barnes 887 (K, photo!).
Epiphytic, scapigerous, tuberous herb, 10 – 20
cm high; tubers oblongoid to globose, 1 – 1.5
0.5 – 1 cm, brownish white. Leaves radical, 4 or 5
per tuber, ovate, elliptic or lanceolate to oblong-
lanceolate, 1.2 – 6 1 – 4 cm, cuneate or oblique
to obtuse at base, apiculate-crenate at margins,
obtuse or apiculate to retuse at apex, hairy above,
glabrous below; midrib distinct with obscure sec-
ondary nerves; petioles 1.5 – 7 cm long, glabrous.
In orescence a racemose scape, 5 – 18 cm long, 2
– 10- owered. Flowers 1.3 – 1.8 cm across, white;
bracts ovate, 3 – 5 1.5 – 3 mm, concave, acute
to obtuse at apex,  accid, green; pedicels  liform,
1 – 2 cm long, glabrous, de exed in fruits. Lateral
sepals asymmetrically ovate, acute to obtuse at
apex, glabrous, 3 – 5-nerved. Standard petal petal
orbicular to reniform, 4 – 5 7 – 9 mm, concave,
bulged at base, retuse at apex, glabrous; wing pet-
als 1.6 – 2 0.8 – 1 cm, auricled at base, unequally
3-lobed; basal lobe linear-oblanceolate, 6 – 7 1.5
– 2.5 mm; mid-lobe suborbicular, 5 – 6 mm across,
with a tuft of hairs at base; hairs c. 1.5 mm long,
bulged at apex, yellow, yellowish brown to orange
(only at apices); distal lobe linear-oblong, 9 – 11
3 – 5 mm, rounded at apex; auricle c. 1 1 mm,
yellow; lip broadly ovate, 7 – 8 4 – 6 mm, 3 – 4
mm deep, acute to acuminate at apex; spur basal,
clavate, 1.3 – 1.8 0.4 – 0.7 cm, rounded at apex,
at, glabrous, white. Column c. 4 2 mm, bent
forward;  laments c. 3 1 mm, white; anthers c.
0.5 0.5 mm, white. Pistil c. 3 1.5 mm; ovary
lanceoloid or ellipsoid to elliptic-lanceoloid, gla-
brous. Capsules ellipsoid or oblanceoloid to lan-
ceoloid, 6 – 8 3 – 5 mm, glabrous; pedicels 1.9
– 2.5 cm long; seeds oblongoid, c. 1 0.5 mm,
(mostly on nerves), glabrous below; nerves 2 or 3
pairs; petioles 1.3 – 2.5 cm long, glabrous. In ores-
cence a racemose scape, slender, 4.5 – 9 cm long,
glabrous, pale green to white with reddish tinge,
2 – 4- owered. Flowers 1 – 2.2 cm across, pink to
lilac-pink; bracts ovate, c. 1.5 1 mm, concave,
acute to rounded, thick at apex,  eshy, glabrous,
green; pedicels slender, 7 – 12 mm long, glabrous,
pale green, de exed in fruits. Lateral sepals asym-
metrically broadly ovate, c. 1.5 1 mm, acute at
apex, thick,  eshy, glabrous, distinctly 3-nerved,
pale green with reddish tinge. Standard petal petal
broadly ovate, 4 – 6 2 – 4 mm, concave, form-
ing a hood above column, obcordate at apex, gla-
brous, light pink; wing petals 1.5 – 1.9 0.6 – 1
cm, auricled near base, unequally 3-lobed; base
of mid-lobe and dorsal auricle with tuft of yellow
hairs; basal lobe asymmetrically ovate to oblong,
4 – 7 2 – 4 mm, rounded to obtuse at apex; mid-
lobe broadly ovate to oblong, 3 – 7 4 – 8 mm,
rounded at apex; distal lobe oblong, 3 – 6 2 – 3
mm, rounded at apex; auricle spiniform, 8 – 10 mm
long, produced in spur, yellow at base, rounded at
apex with yellow tinge; lip ovate, 5 – 7 5 – 6 mm,
2 – 5 mm deep, acute at apex, pinkish white; spur
clavate, 0.7 – 1.3 0.3 – 0.7 mm. Column c. 3.5
1.5 mm, curved;  laments c. 2 mm long, light pink
to white; anthers c. 1 1 mm, white. Pistil c. 2.5
1 mm; ovary ellipsoid to oblongoid, glabrous. Cap-
sules asymmetrically ovoid to ellipsoid, 5 – 7 2.5
– 4 mm, glabrous; pedicels 1.3 – 1.5 cm long; seeds
numerous, oblongoid, c. 1 0.5 mm, brown, hairy;
hairs long and dense at ends, short and uniformly
distributed in middle, spirally coiled.
Flowering & Fruiting: September.
Habitat: Moss-covered wet tree trunks.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of Kar-
nataka; not known from elsewhere other than the
type locality.
Specimen examined: INDIA, Karnataka, Hassan dis-
trict, Panoroma point, Bisle ghat, 16.9.2006, Jyosna
R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 138 (GUH).
Note: Impatiens clavata is similar to I. barberi Hook.f.
in  ower colour, presence of tuft of hairs near the
base of the wing petal and the long tapering spini-
form dorsal auricle. However, it differs from I. bar-
beri in the presence of a long, broadly clavate and
in ated spur rather than slightly club-shaped and
somewhat cylindrical spur. Since this is the only
difference between the two species and both the
species show morphological variations with regard
to their spur shape and size. Study of more popu-
lations along with molecular data will be of great
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34
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
Specimens examined: INDIA, Karnataka, Kodagu
district, Thadiandamol, 17.9.1934, E. Barnes 886
(K, photo!); Thadiandamol, 25.8.1975, V. Bhaskar
473 (MGM); Talacauvery, 10.8.1998, K. Ravikumar,
P.S. Udayan, S.P. Subramani & Mohan Karnat 06418
(FRLH); Foot of Thadiandamol peak, 18.9.2006,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 153; Foot of
Thadiandamol peak, 18.8.2007, Jyosna R.N. Dessai
& M.K. Janarthanam 166 (GUH).
reticulately veined, comose with tuft of hairs at
ends; hairs spirally coiled.
Flowering & Fruiting: August – September.
Habitat: Moss-covered tree trunks.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of
Kodagu district, Karnataka; known so far only from
two localities, viz., Talacauvery and Thadiandamol.
5 cm
1 cm
2 mm
2 mm
5 mm
5 mm
2 mm
2 mm
2 mm
1 cm
a
b
c
de
f
gh
ij
kl
Fig. 5.
Impatiens dendricola
C.E.C. Fisch.: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h. Wing petal
dorsal and ventral views; i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 35
Type: Not traceable.
I. rivalis Wight, Madras J. Lit. Sci. 1, 5: 13, t. 8. 1837
& Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 3(1): 2, t. 751. 1844; Dalzell
& Gibson, Bombay Fl.: 42. 1861; Hooker, Fl. Brit.
India 1: 444. 1874, excl. syn. I. verrucosa Bedd.;
Cooke, Fl. Bombay 1: 170. 1901.
Type: Courtallum, August 1835, R. Wight 174A (E,
photo!). Lectotype selected here.
Terrestrial or epiphytic, scapigerous, tuberous or
rhizomatous herb, 9 – 45 cm high; tubers oblon-
goid, 1 – 1.5 cm across. Leaves radical, 2 – 5 per
tuber, reniform, ovate to obovate, 2.5 – 20 2 – 15
cm, cordate to rounded at base, crenate to distantly
serrate at margins, acute to acuminate at apex,
pubescent above, glabrous below; petioles 2.5 – 12
cm long, glabrous. In orescence a raceme, 8 – 45
cm long, 4 – 16- owered. Flowers 2.5 – 5 cm across,
pink; bracts ovate, 2 – 8 1 – 5, acute to rounded at
apex, slightly concave, thick,  eshy, glabrous, pink
to green; pedicels 1.8 – 5 cm long, glabrous, de exed
in fruits. Lateral sepals asymmetrically ovate, 3 – 5
1 – 3 mm, acute at apex, glabrous, pale green, 5
– 7-nerved. Standard petal petal broadly reniform,
0.6 – 1 1 – 1.5 cm, forming a hood above column,
humped at base dorsally, emarginate to obcordate
at apex, glabrous pink outside, white inside; wing
petals 2.3 – 3.5 1.7 – 2.6 cm, 3-lobed; basal lobe
oblong, 1.6 – 2.4 0.5 – 0.8 cm, rounded at apex;
mid-lobe ovate to oblong, 1 – 2 0.6 – 1.2 cm,
obtuse at apex; distal lobe oblong, 1.1 – 1.8 0.3
– 0.6 cm, rounded at apex; dorsal auricle absent;
lip saccate, 8 – 12 0.4 – 0.7 cm, 5 – 9 mm deep,
acute at apex, glabrous; spur tubular, 4 – 8.5 cm
long, rounded at apex, curved, straight or coiled,
glabrous. Column c. 5 3 mm, bent forward;  la-
ments c. 5 1 mm; anthers c. 2 1 mm. Pistil c. 5
2 mm; ovary lanceoloid to ovate-lanceoloid, gla-
brous. Capsules lanceoloid, 1 – 1.5 0.5 – 0.8 cm,
glabrous; pedicels 4 – 6 cm long; seeds oblongoid
to ovoid-oblongoid, c. 1.5 0.5 mm, reticulately
nerved, hairy all over; hairs spirally coiled, form-
ing a cone-like structure.
Flowering & Fruiting: June – November.
Habitat: Tree trunks or terrestrial amidst grasses
and mosses and also in moist rocky localities.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of Kar-
nataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Karnataka, Chikmag-
alur district, Bababudan, Peetha, 23.7.1973, V.
Bhaskar
360; Bababudan, on the way to Abbe falls,
26.7.1973, V. Bhaskar 368 (MGM); Bababudan hills,
27.7.1979, C.J. Saldanha & K.P. Sreenath KFP8521;
Note: Fischer (1935) described this species based
on two specimens collected by Barnes (Barnes
886, 887, K) at Thadiandamol. Nair (1991) stated
that the species is known only from type collec-
tion. Bhaskar collected specimens of the species
from the type locality in 1975 after a lapse of 40
years (Bhaskar 473, MGM). Saldanha (1996) cited
only the Barnes collections housed at Kew. Mur-
thy & Yoganarasimhan (1990) included the spe-
cies in their flora based on the authority of Fis-
cher (1936). As there were no other collections,
Nayar (1996) included the species under endan-
gered category. Vivekananthan et al. (1997), how-
ever, overlooked Bhaskar’s collection and stated
that specimens of this species were not collected
after type. Ravikumar et al. (2000) reported the
species from Talacauvery which is about 10 km
south of the type locality thus indicating its
extended distribution.
Impatiens dendricola is similar to I. stocksii Hook.f.
& Thomson in the presence of white  owers, but
differs from it by presence of dorsal auricle and
clavate spur. This species grows on trunks and
lateral branches of huge trees on the periphery
of coffee and cardamom plantations adjoining
evergreen forest at about 1250 m. Plants usu-
ally occur 1 m above the ground level up to a
height of 20 m. The peak  owering period is
mid-August. The habitat being along cardamom
and coffee plantations may be a major threat to
the species in the near future since the trees are
likely to be cut.
Chromosome No.: 2n 14 (Bhaskar, 1976, 1980).
IUCN Threat Status: CR [B1ab(iii)].
Impatiens scapi ora B. Heyne ex Roxb., Fl. Ind.
2: 464. 1824; Wight & Arnott, Prodr. Fl. Ind. Ori-
ent.: 137. 1834; Hooker & Thomson, J. Proc. Linn.
Soc. Bot. 4: 118. 1859; Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 1: 443.
1874 & Rec. Bot. Surv. India 4: 44. 1906; Gamble,
Fl. Madras 1: 138. 1915; Blatter, J. Bombay Nat.
Hist. Soc. 33: 310. 1933; Ramamoorthy in Sal-
danha & Nicolson, Fl. Hassan District: 403. 1978;
Yoganarasimhan et al., Fl. Chikmagalur District:
60. 1982; Vajravelu in Nair & Henry, Fl. Tamil
Nadu 1: 56. 1983; Sharma et al., Fl. Karnataka: 39.
1984; Almeida, Fl. Savantwadi: 78. 1990; Murthy &
Yoganarasimhan, Fl. Coorg: 87. 1990; Almeida, Fl.
Maharashtra 1: 196. 1996; Saldanha, Fl. Karnataka
2: 257. 1996; Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et al., Fl.
India 4: 208. 1997; Mudaliar & Prasad in Singh &
Karthikeyan, Fl. Maharashtra State Dicotyl. 1: 461.
2000; Ramaswamy et al., Fl. Shimoga District: 109.
2001; Rathakrishnan et al. in Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1:
557. 2005. Fig. 6, 8j, m
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36
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
1 cm
2 mm
5 mm
2 mm
1 cm
0.5 mm
2 mm
5 cm
2 mm
1 cm
a
bc
de f
gh
i
jkl
Fig. 6.
Impatiens scapifl ora
B. Heyne ex Roxb.: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h. Wing
petals; i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
Kemmangundi, Bababudan hills, 5.9.1980, C.J. Sal-
danha KFP12189 (JCB); Kemmangundi, on the way
to Z-point, 17.11.2004, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K.
Janarthanam 25; Kemmangundi, 5.9.2006, Jyosna
R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 78 (GUH); Hassan
district, Bisle ghat, 16.7.1967, C.J. Saldanha 10745;
Bisle ghat, 14.8.1967, C.J. Saldanha 10927; Vanagur,
8.7.1970, T.P. Ramamoorthy HFP292; Peak above
Vanagur, 10.9.1970, F.M. Jarrett & C.J. Saldanha s.n.;
Bisle ghat, 7.7.1971, T.P. Ramamoorthy HFP1885; Peak
overlooking Vanagur, 14.8.1971, T.P. Ramamoorthy
HFP1992 (JCB); Bisle ghat, 16.9.2006, Jyosna R.N.
Dessai 136 (GUH); Kodagu district, Sampaji ghat,
6.8.1973, V. Bhaskar 374; Jodpala, 4.8.1974, V. Bhaskar
411 (MGM); Talacauvery, 914 m, 24.6.1977, T.A.
Rao & B.C. Banerjee 18227; 10 kms from Mercara,
Mercara to Mangalore road, 20.7.1978, S.R. Ramesh
KFP1851 (CAL); Jodpala, on the way to Madikeri
from Mangalore, 13.8.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 46;
2 km from Bagmandala, on the way to Talacauv-
ery, 13.8.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 50; Talacauvery,
17.9.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam
149; Foot of Thadiandamol peak, 18.9.2006, Jyosna
R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 151, 152; Foot of
Thadiandamol peak, 18.9.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai
& M.K. Janarthanam 165 (GUH); North Kanara dis-
trict, Karwar, 28.8.1883, W.A. Talbot 599; Gersoppa
falls, October 1908, A. Meebold 10721 (CAL); Jog
falls, 6.8.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 38 (GUH); Shi-
moga district, Hulical ghat, 8.11.1972, V. Bhaskar 345
(MGM); South Kanara district, Shiradi, 15.8.1967,
s. leg. 10957; Shiradi ghat, 7.8.1969, C.J. Saldanha
14427 (JCB). Kerala, Idukki district, Murinnavi-
zha, 17.6.1972, V. Bhaskar 288; Peermade, 18.6.1972,
V. Bhaskar 291 (MGM); Idukki to Kattappana, 900
m, 26.9.1981, C.N. Mohanan & B. Ramarajan 72018
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 37
rashtra in any of the herbaria to prove its distribu-
tion in the state.
Chromosome No.: 2n 20 (Krishnaswamy et al.,
1969); 2n 12 (Bhaskar, 1976); 2n 14, 16, 20
(Bhaskar, 1980).
IUCN Threat Status: LC.
Impatiens stocksii Hook.f. & Thomson, J. Proc.
Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: 119. 1859; Dalzell & Gibson,
Bombay Fl.: 42. 1861; Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 1: 442.
1874 & Rec. Bot. Surv. India 4: 45. 1906; Cooke, Fl.
Bombay 1: 170. 1901; Blatter, J. Bombay Nat. Hist.
Soc. 33: 310. 1933; Fischer, Fl. Madras 3: 1870. 1936;
Ramamoorthy in Saldanha & Nicolson, Fl. Hassan
District: 404, f. 78B. 1978; Henry et al., J. Bombay
Nat. Hist. Soc. 75: 686. 1979; Yoganarasimhan et al.,
Fl. Chikmagalur District: 59. 1982; Sharma et al., Fl.
Karnataka: 39. 1984; Murthy & Yoganarasimhan,
Fl. Coorg: 88. 1990; Saldanha, Fl. Karnataka 2: 257,
t. 100B. 1996. Fig. 7, 8k, n
Type: INDIA, Karnataka, Malabar, Concan and
regio trop., s. die, Stocks & Law s.n. (E, photo!).
Lectotype selected here.
Epiphytic, scapigerous, tuberous herb, 5 – 10 cm
high; tubers globose, c. 6 mm, creamish brown.
Leaves radical, 2 – 5 per tuber, broadly ovate or
elliptic to orbicular, 1 – 5 0.8 – 2.5 cm, obtuse to
truncate at base, distantly apiculate-crenate at mar-
gins, notched to emarginate at apex, membranous,
pubescent above (more so on nerves), glabrous
below; petioles slender, 1 – 4.5 cm long, glabrous.
In orescence a racemose scape, 3 – 8.5 cm long,
slender, glabrous, 2 – 7- owered. Flowers 1 – 1.5 cm
across, white; bracts ovate, c. 2.5 1 mm, glabrous,
light green; pedicels 0.9 – 1.3 cm long, glabrous,
de exed in fruits. Lateral sepals ovate, c. 2.5 1.5
mm, acute at apex, glabrous, light green. Standard
petal petal suborbicular, c. 3.5 4 mm, forming
a small sac-like structure at base, glabrous, white;
wing petals 1.3 – 1.6 0.5 – 0.8 cm, white with a
tuft of yellow hairs at base of mid-lobe, 3-lobed;
mid-lobe broader than distal and basal lobes; basal
lobe oblong, c. 5 3 mm, acute to obtuse at apex;
mid-lobe c. 5 4 mm, obtuse at apex; distal lobe
oblong – oblanceolate, c. 7 3 mm, rounded to
obtuse at apex; lip saccate, c. 6 3 mm, c. 3 mm
deep, acute at apex, white with a yellow spot; spur
absent. Column c. 2 mm long, curved;  laments
c. 1.5 0.5 mm, translucent; anthers c. 0.5 0.25
mm, white. Pistil c. 1 0.75 mm; ovary broadly
lanceoloid to ellipsoid, glabrous. Capsules broadly
asymmetrically ellipsoid, 5 – 7 2 – 4 mm, gla-
brous; pedicels 1 – 1.6 cm long; seeds oblongoid, c.
1 0.25 mm, comose with spirally coiled hairs.
(CAL); Kottayam district, Devicolam, 31.10.1973,
V. Bhaskar 401 (MGM); Palakkad district, Silent Val-
ley, 10.10.1965, E. Vajravelu 26068 (MH); Palghat,
10.8.1972, V. Bhaskar 308 (MGM). Tamil Nadu,
Coimbatore district, way to Ayyappan temple,
2.9.1977, N.C. Nair 50787; Anamalai hills, Konalar,
1950 m, 18.11.1980, M. Chandrabose 69004; Akkam-
alai R.F., 1650 m, 19.11.1980, M. Chandrabose 69033
(CAL); Tirunelveli district, Courtallum, August
1835, R. Wight 174B, C (E, photo!); Kallar river for-
est, 16.10.1989, R. Gopalan 90691 (MH).
Note: Impatiens scapi ora is similar to I. acaulis in
its general habit and spur characteristics but dif-
fers from it in having 3-lobed wing petals. Though
both the species are closely allied, it was observed
that I. acaulis and I. scapi ora are mutually exclu-
sive in the study area.
Roxburgh (1824) described I. scapi ora based on
Heyne’s material. However, he provided neither
a detailed description of the  ower especially the
wing petal nor any illustration of the  owers or
its dissected parts. But in the description he men-
tioned that the spur is several inches long which
provides the only clue. The absence of a descrip-
tion perhaps made Wight (1837) to describe a new
species, I. rivalis, which is actually I. scapi ora.
Wight (1844) illustrated both I. scapi ora (t. 967)
and I. rivalis (t. 751). Accordingly I. rivalis has a
long tubular spur whereas I. scapi ora has a short
clavate spur which actually makes it I. clavicornu
( I. beddomei) described by Hooker (1874). Hooker
& Thomson (1859) and Hooker (1874) overlooking
the fact dealt with both the species independently,
though Hooker later considered I. rivalis a syn-
onym of I. scapi ora.
Impatiens rivalis was described by Wight based on
the material collected from Courtallum. There are
three relevant materials of Wight (Wight 174A, B,
C) at E. Since Wight (1837) did not designate any
type for this taxon, a lectotype has been selected
here.
Specimens growing at an altitude of above 1250 m
around sholas have white  owers. Based on earlier
collections in herbaria and present collections it is
concluded that the species is well distributed and
occurs in large population in the Western Ghats of
Karnataka.
When Blatter (1933) revised Balsaminaceae for the
ora of Bombay Presidency, North Kanara was
also a part thereof. It is likely that following Blat-
ter (1933), Almeida (1990, 1996) and Mudaliar &
Prasad (2000) must have included the species for
Maharashtra. There are no specimens from Maha-
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38
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
Dessai 56; Mankanahalli, Bisle ghat, 16.9.2006,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 142; Kodagu
district, Indu Poovaia Estate (Madhe), 13.8.2005,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai 49; Talacauvery, 13.8.2005, Jyosna
R.N. Dessai 51 (GUH); South Kanara district, Shiradi
ghat, 700 m, 3.8.1979, Saldanha, Ramesh & Sreenath
KFP8801 (CAL, JCB); Shiradi ghat, 22.8.1980, C.J.
Saldanha KFP12080 (MGM).
Note: This species is distinguished from others
in section Scapigerae based on its white  owers
wherein the lip is saccate. It is similar to I. dendricola
in the presence of white  owers but differs in lack-
ing distinct clavate spur and dorsal auricle. Bhaskar
& Razi (1978a) discussed taxonomy of I. crenata and
I. stocksii and accept I. crenata as the correct name.
Flowering & Fruiting: July – September.
Habitat: Moss-covered tree trunks in evergreen
forests, 700 – 1600 m.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of
Karnataka.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Karnataka, Chikmag-
alur district, Peetha, Bababudan, 24.7.1973, V. Bhaskar
363 (MGM); Kemmanagundi, 5.9.2005, Jyosna R.N.
Dessai 82 (GUH); Hassan district, near Vanagur,
14.8.1967, C.J. Saldanha 10876; Bisle ghat, 21.8.1969,
C.J. Saldanha 14595; Vanagur, 4.9.1969, C.J. Saldanha
17815; Mankanahalli, 19.9.1969, C.J. Saldanha 15075;
Peak above Vanagur, 14.8.1971, T.P. Ramamoorthy
HFP2003 (JCB); Bisle ghat, 14.8.2005, Jyosna R.N.
1 cm
2 mm
2 mm
2 mm
1 mm
5 mm
5 cm
2 mm
5 mm
a
b
cd e
fgh
i
jk l
Fig. 7.
Impatiens stocksii
Hook.f. & Thomson: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h. Wing
petal ventral and dorsal views; i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 39
a
b
c
de
fg
hijk
l
mn
Fig. 8. a.
Impatiens
acaulis
Arn.; b – d.
I
.
barberi
Hook.f.; e, f.
I
.
bhaskarii
J. Dessai et al.; g, h.
I. clavata
Bhaskar; i, l.
I
.
dendricola
C.E.C. Fisch.; j, m.
I. scapifl ora
B. Heyne ex Roxb.; k, n.
I
.
stocksii
Hook.f. & Thomson.
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40
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
Impatiens chinensis L., Sp. Pl.: 937. 1753; Hooker
& Thomson, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: 119. 1859,
excl. syn. I. fasciculata Lam. (1785), I. setacea
Colebr. (1824), Balsamina fasciculata (Lam.) DC.,
Prodr. (1824), Impatiens fasciculata sensu Hook.
(1852); Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 1: 444. 1874 & Rec.
Bot. Surv. India 4: 46. 1906; Cooke, Fl. Bombay
1: 171. 1901; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 141. 1915;
Ramamoorthy in Saldanha & Nicolson, Fl. Has-
san District: 402. 1978; Sharma et al., Fl. Karna-
taka: 37. 1984; Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et al.,
Fl. India 4: 131. 1997; Mudaliar & Prasad in Singh
& Karthikeyan, Fl. Maharashtra State Dicotyl. 1:
449. 2000. Fig. 9, 21a
Type: CHINA, Linn. Herb. No. 1053.1 (LINN,
photo!).
Balsamina chinensis (L.) DC., Prodr. 1: 686. 1824.
Impatiens heterophylla Wall. in Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. 2:
458. 1824.
Type: Wall. Numer. List No. 4748 (CAL!)
I. cosmia Hook.f., Hooker’s Icon. Pl.: t. 2915. 1913.
Type: CHINA, Jungkun (Tungkun), s. die, E. Faber
s.n. (W0016508, photo!). Lectotype selected here.
I. chinensis var. brevicornis E. Barnes, J. Indian
Bot. Soc. 18: 99. 1939; Yoganarasimhan et al., Fl.
Chikmagalur District: 62. 1982; Sharma et al., Fl.
Karnataka: 37. 1984; Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra
et al., Fl. India 4: 131. 1997; Rathakrishnan et al. in
Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 534. 2005, syn. nov.
Type: INDIA, Kerala, Idukki district, Travancore,
Munnar, 20.10.1932, E. Barnes 558 (K, photo!). Lec-
totype selected here.
Herb, 15 – 40 cm high. Stem quadrangular, root-
ing at lower nodes, glabrous, pinkish red; branches
alternate. Leaves opposite, linear-lanceolate to
linear-oblong, sessile to shortly petiolate, 3 – 8.5
0.8 – 1.5 cm, truncate to cuneate at base, ser-
rate at margins, acuminate at apex, hairy above,
glabrous below; midrib distinct; lateral nerves
obscure; petioles c. 5 mm long, decurrent on stem
and terminates in glands (sometimes glands
absent). Flowers 2 – 4 per axil, 2 – 2.5 cm across,
dark pink with a violet throat; bracts linear, c. 3
1 mm, acuminate to aristate at apex, minutely
hairy on costa dorsally, pink; pedicels 3 – 3.8
cm long, dialated, glabrous to pubescent with 2
(rarely 1) rows of hairs, de exed in fruits, pink-
ish red. Lateral sepals linear-lanceolate to oblan-
ceolate, 7 – 10 1 – 1.5 mm, acuminate at apex,
minutely hairy on keel dorsally. Standard petal
petal orbicular to reniform, 8.8 – 1 0.6 – 0.8 cm,
Ramachandran & Nair (1988), Mudaliar & Prasad
(2000), Sasidharan (2004) and Nayar et al. (2006)
also considered I. stocksii as a synonym of I. cre-
nata. However, I. stocksii differs from I. crenata in
the presence of entire standard petal, tuft of hairs
on wing petals and saccate lip. Hence, I. stocksii is
treated as a distinct species in this work.
Fischer (1936) described the wing petals as 2-lobed
and the lobes as  lamentous thus introducing an
element of doubt about material. However, Hooker
& Thomson (1859) in the protologue described the
wing petals as 3-lobed. The present collections
from the Western Ghats of Karnataka have 3-lobed
wing petals.
Dalzell & Gibson (1861) cited that the species
occurs in the southern ghats. Blatter (1933) fol-
lowed Dalzell & Gibson (1861) whereas Cooke
(1901) cited collections by Stocks, Law and Wood-
row from Konkan and Kanara without any details.
In the present study material was collected only
from Karnataka. Hence, its distribution in the
localities referred by Cooke (1901) is doubtful.
The species was considered endemic to Karna-
taka until Pandurangan & Nair (1996) reported
it from Meenmutty, Idukki district, Kerala. In the
description provided, the authors stated that the
lip is saccate with 3 – 4 mm long curved spur.
The specimen cited by them is deposited at MH.
The specimen has a short spur of c. 3 mm long in
buds whereas in I. stocksii the spur is completely
absent. Hence its distribution in Kerala is doubt-
ful. However, the correct identity of the specimen
at MH could not be ascertained as other  oral
parts overlay on each other and are not clearly
visible.
Impatiens stocksii was described by Hooker &
Thomson based on Stocks & Law’s material. Dur-
ing the present work four relevant materials of
I. stocksii have been traced; two at CAL, one at E
and the remaining at NYBG. In this context the
material at E is designated here as a lectotype of
I. stocksii.
IUCN Threat Status: VU [D1].
Chromosome No.: 2n 20 (Bhaskar & Razi, 1972 –
73); 2n 14 (Bhaskar, 1976, 1980).
Section: Oppositifoliae Hook.f. & Thomson
Annual. Leaves opposite. Flowers pedicelled,
solitary, binate or fascicled, axillary, ebracteate or
minutely bracteate at base. Sepals elongated, linear,
rarely ovate or lanceolate. Seeds usually globose,
polished, glabrous, black (Hooker, 1906).
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 41
mm, curved;  laments c. 3.5 1 mm; anthers c. 1
1 mm, pink. Pistil c. 3 1.5 mm; ovary oblong-lan-
ceoloid, glabrous. Capsules asymmetrically ellip-
soid to lanceoloid, 1.5 – 2 0.5 – 0.7 cm, glabrous;
stigma persistent; pedicels 3.3 – 3.8 cm long; seeds
globose, c. 3 mm, shining, glabrous, black; funicle
prominent.
Flowering & Fruiting: August – November.
Habitat: Roadsides in evergreen forests, open plains,
foothills and on rock faces along with grasses.
semi-obcordate at apex, glabrous, dorsally keeled;
keel mucronate; mucro c. 1 mm long; wing petals
1.8 – 2.4 1 – 1.4 cm, auricled at base, 2-lobed;
basal lobe ovate, 5 – 7 4 – 5 mm, acute at apex;
distal lobe asymmetrically obovate, 1.3 – 1.6 1 –
1.4 cm, elevated at base, obtuse at apex; lip conical,
9 – 12 0.4 – 0.6 cm, 6 – 7 mm deep, acuminate
at apex, glabrous to minutely hairy especially on
nerves; spur 1.8 – 2.5 cm long, in ated, broad in
middle, acute to notched at apex, distinctly curved,
thick, glabrous to minutely hairy. Column c. 5 3
1 cm
2 mm
5 mm
5 mm
5 cm
2 mm
1 cm
2 mm
2 mm
1 cm
a
bc
de f
ghi
jk l
Fig. 9.
Impatiens chinensis
L.: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g. Lip; h, i. Wing petals;
j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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42
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
arcuatum crassum”. Though the type of I. chinensis
has not been mentioned in the Linnaean Typi ca-
tion Project report, a specimen (Herb. LINN 1053.1)
labelled as I. chinensis (http://www.linnaean-on-
line.org/11124) at LINN clearly depicts the spur
character described by Linnaeus (1753). Lamarck
(1785) published I. fasciculata and the illustra-
tion (Vol. 9: t. 47) in Hortus Malabaricus (Rheede,
1689) that formed the basis for I. fasciculata shows
that spur is  liform and neither arcuate nor thick
as described by Linnaeus for I. chinensis. Further
observations show that the wing petal of the lat-
ter is with a distinct basal lobe that is absent in
Rheede’s illustration. As I. fasciculata Lam. is found
as a distinct species and is considered as a good
species following Wight & Arnott (1834).
Wight & Arnott (1834) treated I. fasciculata Lam.
as distinct species, but described the wing petal
as 2-lobed. Again this character was well depicted
by Wight (1844: t. 748). Hooker (1852) too illus-
trated I. fasciculata Lam. in colour from the plants
grown from seeds obtained from Thwaites from
Ceylon. He observed that the name “fasciculata
is not appropriate as the  ower is solitary in
axils. He also noticed in Wight’s illustration a
conspicuous ‘spur’ at the base of the decurrent
leaf on the stem that he called stipule. These
characters are conspicuously absent in Rheede’s
illustration thus showing that what had been
considered by these authors as I. fasciculata was
distinct from that of Lamarck’s thus paving the
way for confusion.
Balsamina setacea ( Impatiens setacea) was described
by Hooker (1824) in his Exotic Flora with an excel-
lent coloured illustration. The spur of the lip is long
and thin and projecting backwards in all the three
owers and also in the dissected  ower as well as
in the line drawing of a dissected  ower. This char-
acter is entirely different from that of I. chinensis
and I. fasciculata. The distal lobe of the wing petal
is also without a notch at the apex. Hence, I. setacea
is considered here as a distinct species.
Since I. fasciculata, as illustrated by Wight (1844)
and Hooker (1852), was synomised under I. chin-
ensis by Hooker & Thomson (1859), later authors
mistook I. fasciculata for true I. chinensis. This
is evident as subsequent material of actual I.
chinensis with thick and distinctly curved spur
led Barnes (1939) to describe a new variety. The
description of I. chinensis var. brevicornis E. Barnes
exactly matches with I. chinensis especially in its
spur character and paradoxically the spur charac-
ter formed the basis for this new variety. Hence, I.
chinensis var. brevicornis is merged with I. chinensis.
Distribution: India to Southeast Asia through China;
widely distributed in the Western Ghats from Kar-
nataka to Tamil Nadu.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Karnataka, Chikmag-
alur district, Charmadi ghat, 13.8.1981, C.J. Saldanha
KFP13459 (JCB); Kudremukh, 18.11.2004, Jyosna
R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 27; Charmadi ghat,
15.8.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 61
(GUH); Hassan district, Maranahalli, Bisle ghat,
22.8.1969, C.J. Saldanha 14611; Maranahalli, Bisle
ghat, 3.9.1969, C.J. Saldanha 14725; Vanagur, Bisle
ghat, 14.8.1971, T.P. Ramamoorthy HFP2054 (JCB);
Bisle ghat, from Subramanya to Vanagur, 16.9.2006,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 137, 139;
Mankanhalli, Bisle ghat, 16.9.2006, Jyosna R.N.
Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 140; Kodagu district,
Talacauvery, 17.9.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K.
Janarthanam 148 (GUH). Kerala, Idukki district,
Travancore, Munnar, 20.10.1932, E. Barnes 556, 557;
Travancore, Kanan Devan hills, Munnar, Septem-
ber 1933, E. Barnes 553; Travancore, Munnar, Sep-
tember 1933, E. Barnes 554, 606; Below Kandalur,
Travancore High Range, September 1937, E. Barnes
1729 (K, photo!).
Note: Impatiens chinensis is similar to I. diversifolia
B. Heyne [Wall. Numer. List No. 4749, nom. nud.]
ex Wight & Arn. but differs in having distinctly
curved and thick spur that is broad in the middle
which is the key character for identifying this spe-
cies in section Oppositifoliae.
Plants growing in open plains are short with small
leaves and white to pale pink  owers. This species
is widely distributed and shows a high degree of
variation in shape of leaves, presence or absence of
stipular glands, hairy nature of pedicel either with
1 or 2 rows of hairs or glabrous. Hence, several
species that have been described are referrable to
this single variable entity.
Two distinct entities that were described as
varieties of I. chinensis by Saldanha (1996) were
collected. No other variety has been recogn-
ised under this species outside the study area,
though I. cosmia Hook.f., I. crassicornu Hook.f., I.
ecalcarata Collett & Hemsl., I. fasciculata Lam., I.
heterophylla Wall. ex Roxb. and I. setacea Colebr.
are treated as synonyms of I. chinensis. Hence, to
properly understand the taxonomy and correct
application of names, protologues of I. chinensis
and all its considered synonyms including those
at varietal level were critically examined along
with their types.
The type of I. chinensis L. came from China. Lin-
naeus (1753) described its spur as, “nectarium valde
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 43
bay Fl.: 43. 1861; Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 1: 449. 1874
& Rec. Bot. Surv. India 4: 46. 1906; Cooke, Fl. Bom-
bay 1: 173. 1901; Blatter, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.
33: 312. 1933; Lakshminarasimhan & Sharma, Fl.
Nasik District: 114. 1991; Deshpande et al., Fl. Maha-
baleshwar 1: 114. 1993; Almeida, Fl. Maharashtra:
191. 1996; Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et al., Fl.
India 4: 138. 1997; Mudaliar & Prasad in Singh &
Karthikeyan, Fl. Maharashtra State Dicotyl. 1: 443.
2000. Fig. 10, 21b
Type: (Mont. Tropicis Concan, Dalzell, Hb, Stocks)
Not known.
Herb, 30 – 50 cm high. Stem terete, swollen at
nodes, glabrous, light green; branches opposite.
Leaves opposite, broadly lanceolate to oblong-lan-
ceolate, 5 – 8 2 – 3 cm, truncate at base, serrate
at margins, acute at apex, membranous, glabrous;
lateral nerves 4 – 6 pairs; petioles c. 3 mm long, gla-
brous, light green. Flowers 3 – 6 in axillary fascicle,
8 – 10 mm across, yellow; bracts lanceolate, c. 1.8
0.8 mm, acuminate at apex, light green; pedicels
terete, slender, 2 – 2.5 cm long, glabrous, de exed
in fruits. Lateral sepals oblanceolate, 4 – 6 1 – 1.5
mm, acute to acuminate at apex, glabrous, 3-nerved,
greenish yellow. Standard petal petal broadly sub-
orbicular, 5 – 7 6 – 8 mm, concave, obcordate,
dorsally keeled (keeled surface green and with
teeth-like outgrowth), glabrous, yellow; wing pet-
als 1.1 – 1.4 0.5 – 0.6 cm, yellow with orange to
brown streaks at base, subequally 2-lobed; basal
lobe broadly ovate, 5 – 6 4 – 5 mm, rounded at
apex; distal lobe ovate, 6 – 8 4 – 5 mm, acute at
apex, slightly notched in upper half towards inner
side; lip boat-shaped, 7 – 9 3 – 4 mm, 3 – 4 mm
deep, glabrous, yellow with reddish brown streaks
inside; spur tubular, c. 2 mm long, rounded at apex,
glabrous, yellow. Column c. 4.5 2 mm, slightly
curved;  laments 3 – 4 c. 1 mm, yellow; anthers c.
1 1 mm, yellow. Pistil c. 3.5 1 mm; ovary ellip-
soid or lanceoloid to oblongoid, glabrous. Capsules
ellipsoid, 1 – 2 0.4 – 0.5 cm, with distinct ridges
and furrows, glabrous, dark green; pedicels 3.5 – 4
cm long; seeds oblongoid, c. 4 2 mm, laterally
compressed, smooth, shining, black.
Flowering & Fruiting: July – October.
Habitat: Open areas, on grassy hill slopes, along
the periphery of semi-evergreen forests and later-
itic plateaus.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of
Maharashtra.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Maharashtra, Con-
can, Stocks s.n. (MH); Pune district, Purandhar
fort, 22.9.1902, R.K. Bhide 1025; Purandhar hill fort,
Since Barnes did not designate any type for this
taxon, a lectotype has been selected here.
Hooker (1852) also cited I. heterophylla Wall. ex
Roxb. as a synonym of I. fasciculata (a wrong iden-
ti cation, which is published here as a new spe-
cies). Examination of the type of I. heterophylla
[Wall. Numer. List No. 4748 (CAL!)] shows that
it is conspeci c with I. chinensis as treated by
Hooker (1874).
Hooker (1913b, c) described two more species of
Impatiens: I. cosmia and I. crassicornu from China.
Both these species are considered as conspeci c
with I. chinensis (Yi-ling et al., 2007).
Impatiens cosmia was described based on material
collected in Jungkun, China by Fr. Faber and from
Chekiang by Capt. Jacobs. Original materials are
found at K and W. Photographs of original materi-
als have been studied. As there is more than one
original specimen, selection of lectotype becomes
necessary. Since the protologue is based on the
material at W it is designated here as lectotype of I.
cosmia (excluding the detached  ower).
Impatiens crassicornu is characterised by its spur
that is forked a little below the apex. This is very
well depicted in one of the dissected  owers, in the
bud present on the plant material as well as the
illustration made by Hooker on the sheet. How-
ever, the spur in other dissected  ower is without
a fork. Apart from the above character the spe-
cies bears ovate-lanceolate lateral sepals, dorsally
crested standard petal and oblong basal lobe thus
distinguishing it from I. chinensis. These characters
show that I. crassicornu is a distinct species and
hence treated so.
Hooker (1906) reduced I. ecalcarata Collett & Hemsl.
to a variety under I. chinensis. However, this is dis-
tinct from the latter for the absense of spur that
was critically illustrated in the protologue by Col-
lett & Hemsley (1890). Further they also stated that
they had observed copious healthy specimens all
exhibiting invariably the same character. Hence, it
is treated as a distinct species here.
The four names, viz., I. crassicornu Hook.f., I. het-
erophylla Lam., I. setacea Colebr. and I. ecalcarata
Collett & Hemsl. which were treated conspeci c
with I. chinensis are found to be distinct species and
hence not considered under I. chinensis.
Chromosome No.: n 8 (Song et al., 2003).
IUCN Threat Status: LC.
Impatiens dalzellii Hook.f. & Thomson, J. Proc.
Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: 123. 1859; Dalzell & Gibson, Bom-
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44
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
1 cm
1 mm
2 mm
2 mm
2 mm
5 mm
2 mm
5 cm
2 mm
5 mm
a
b
cd e
f
g
h
i
j
kl
Fig. 10.
Impatiens
dalzellii
Hook.f. & Thomson: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h. Wing
petals; i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
25.10.1944, H. Santapau 5304; Purandhar, July end
1945, Lesze 7277; Purandhar hill, behind RC church,
29.8.1945, H. Santapau 7084; Purandhar, level path
above camp, 31.8.1945, H. Santapau 7144, 7145, 7146,
7147, 7148; Purandhar camp, 10.7.1950, H. Santa-
pau 11332; Purandhar, 12.8.1955, N.A. Irani NI1052
(BLAT); Sinhagad, 25.8.1956, V.D. Vartak 5592; Sin-
hagad, 3.7.1961, U.R. Puram s.n. (MGM); Satara dis-
trict, Mahabaleshwar, Lodwick point, 17.8.1951, H.
Santapau 13111, 13112; Mahabaleshwar, Lingmala,
18.8.1951, H. Santapau 13182, 13183; Mahabalesh-
war, 9.7.1954, P.V. Bole BOLE1168 (BLAT); Maha-
baleshwar, 10.9.1956, S.D. Mahajan 6847; Maha-
baleshwar, Wilson point road, 12.10.1957, S.D.
Mahajan 27172 (CAL); Mahabaleshwar, Hotel
Lake, 14.9.1958, H. Santapau 22706; Mahabalesh-
war, 13.9.1959, H. Santapau 23263; Mahabaleshwar,
13.9.1959, Y.A. Merchant 1273; Mahabaleshwar
(along Petit road), 13.9.1959, Y.A. Merchant 1280;
(BLAT); Kas, October 1993, M.P. Bachulkar-Cholekar
5419 (SUK); Mahabaleshwar, Wilson point,
s. die, B. Balamani BB305 (BLAT); Mahabalesh-
war, Ambenini ghat, 17.9.2005, Jyosna R.N. Des-
sai 95; Mahabaleshwar, Lingmala fall, 17.9.2005,
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 45
deeply concave, mucronate at apex, glabrous; wing
petals 1.2 – 1.5 0.7 – 1 cm, 2-lobed; basal lobe lin-
ear to lanceolate, much smaller than distal lobe, c.
3 1 mm, acute to mucronate at apex; distal lobe
broadly obovate, c. 1.2 1 cm, elevated at base,
shortly stipitate, obtuse at apex; dorsal auricle c.
1 mm, rounded; lip saccate, 9 – 13 3 – 4 mm, 3 – 4
mm deep, acuminate at apex, glabrous; spur tubu-
lar, 1.5 – 2.2 cm long, tapering from base to apex,
coiled into a semicircular ring, straight or curved
upwards, notched or rounded at apex. Column c. 4
2 mm, slightly curved;  laments 5, c. 3 1 mm,
light pink; anthers c. 1 1 mm. Pistil c. 3.5 mm
long; ovary ellipsoid, c. 3 1 mm, glabrous. Cap-
sules asymmetrically ellipsoid, 1 – 1.3 0.4 – 0.6
cm, glabrous; pedicels 3 – 3.4 cm long; seeds ovoid
c. 1.5 1 mm, shining, glabrous, black to brown.
Flowering & Fruiting: July – October.
Habitat: Field bunds, grasslands and near streams,
up to 850 m.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of Kar-
nataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Karnataka, Shimoga
district, Hulical, 25.8.1965, R. Sundara Raghavan
90212 (CAL); Vanagur, 23.9.1971, C.J. Saldanha &
K.N. Gandhi HFP2132, 2164 (JCB); South Kanara dis-
trict, Sullia, 25.10.1900, C.A. Barber s.n. (MH); Yernal,
29.7.1978, C.J. Saldanha, Ramesh & Ravindra KFP2022
(CAL); Udupi district, Mavinmanay, Baindur-Kollur
road, 4.9.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam
71 (GUH). Kerala, Wayanad district, Tirunelli, 850
m, 18.8.1980, V.S. Ramachandran s.n. (CAL).
IUCN Threat Status: EN [B1ab(iii)].
Impatiens kleiniformis Sedgw., Rec. Bot. Surv.
India 6: 351. 1919; Blatter, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.
33: 311. 1933; Sharma et al., Fl. Karnataka: 38. 1984;
Rao, Fl. Goa 1: 59. 1985; Kulkarni, Fl. Sindhudurg:
60. 1988; Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et al., Fl.
India 4: 164. 1997; Mudaliar & Prasad in Singh &
Karthikeyan, Fl. Maharashtra State Dicotyl. 1: 455.
2000; Yadav & Sardesai, Fl. Kolhapur District: 95.
2002. Fig. 12, 21d
Type: INDIA, North Kanara district, Western
Ghats, Castle Rock, August 1917. Not traceable.
Herb, 15 – 40 cm high. Stem branched or not,
semiterete, glabrous, green. Leaves opposite-
decussate, sessile to shortly petiolate, lanceolate,
linear-lanceolate or oblong to elliptic, 5 – 14 2
– 3.8 cm, obtuse at base, apiculate-crenate to ser-
rate at margins, acuminate at apex, hairy above,
glabrous below; nerves 5 – 7 pairs; petioles up to
6 mm long, glabrous. Flowers 2 or 3 per axil, 0.8
Jyosna R.N. Dessai 97; 1 km before Kas plateau
from Satara, 18.8.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K.
Janarthanam 114; Panchgani, 19.8.2006, Jyosna R.N.
Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 121 (GUH).
Note: Rao (1985) recorded this species for Goa from
Amdiga near Bhutpal in Canacona taluk. Nei-
ther it is collected from Goa during our studies,
nor specimens from Goa are located in any major
Indian herbaria.
Yellow  owers distinguish this species from oth-
ers in the section Oppositifoliae. It is similar to I.
oppositifolia L. but differs in having broadly lan-
ceolate to oblanceolate leaves, yellow  owers with
glabrous pedicels and oblongoid and black seeds.
I. oppositifolia is characterized by linear-lanceolate
leaves, pink  owers with glabrous to pubescent
pedicel and brown globular seeds.
Chromosome No.: n 8 (Zinov'eva-Stahevitch &
Grant, 1982, 1984).
IUCN Threat Status: EN [B1ab(iii)].
Impatiens diversifolia B. Heyne [Wall. Numer.
List No. 4749, nom. nud.] ex Wight & Arn., Prodr.
Fl. Ind. Orient.: 139. 1834; Hooker & Thomson, J.
Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: 121. 1859; Hooker, Fl. Brit.
India 1: 446. 1874 & Rec. Bot. Surv. India 4: 46. 1906;
Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 140. 1915; Blatter, J. Bom-
bay Nat. Hist. Soc. 33: 310. 1933; Ramamoorthy
in Saldanha & Nicolson, Fl. Hassan District: 402.
1978; Vajravelu in Nair & Henry, Fl. Tamil Nadu
1: 53. 1983; Sharma et al., Fl. Karnataka: 37. 1984;
Alemida, Fl. Maharashtra 1: 192. 1996; Saldanha,
Fl. Karnataka 2: 252, t. 33. 1996; Vivekananthan et
al. in Hajra et al., Fl. India 4: 141. 1997; Mudaliar
& Prasad in Singh & Karthikeyan, Fl. Maharashtra
State Dicotyl. 1: 463. 2000; Bhat, Fl. Udupi District:
88, t. 22. 2003; Rathakrishnan et al. in Daniel, Fl.
Kerala 1: 539. 2005. Fig. 11, 21c
Type: Wall. Numer. List No. 4749 (CAL!).
Herb, 20 – 40 cm high, rooting at lower nodes.
Stem quadrangular, glabrous, red. Leaves oppo-
site-decussate, linear-lanceolate, 3 – 4.5 1 – 1.5
cm, rounded to truncate at base, distantly crenate
at margins, acute to acuminate at apex, pubescent
above, glabrous below; midrib distinct; lateral
nerves obscure; petioles c. 2 mm long, decurrent on
stem and terminating in glands, glabrous. Flowers
3 in each axil, c. 2.1 cm across, pink; bracts c. 1.5
0.5 mm, acute at apex, glabrous; pedicels 2.5 – 3
cm long, with 2 rows of hairs, de exed in fruits.
Lateral sepals 2, linear to linear-oblanceolate, c. 6
1 mm, acuminate at apex, glabrous, 3-nerved.
Standard petal petal suborbicular, c. 6.5 5 mm,
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46
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
ovate, c. 7 6 mm, clawed; claw c. 2.5 0.5 mm;
lip saccate to conical, c. 6 3 mm, c. 2 mm deep,
acuminate at apex, glabrous; spur 1 – 1.3 cm long,
compressed, straight or curved, broad in middle,
notched to rounded at apex, glabrous, pale green.
Column c. 3 1 mm, curved;  laments c. 2.5 0.5
mm; anthers c. 0.5 0.5 mm, pink. Pistil c. 2.5
0.5 mm; ovary lanceoloid, c. 2 0.5 mm, glabrous.
Capsules ellipsoid to fusiform, 1.2 – 1.7 0.3 – 0.4
mm, glabrous; pedicels 3 – 3.5 cm long; seeds glo-
bose, c. 1.5 mm, glabrous, shining, black to brown;
funicle present.
– 1.2 cm across, pink with violet throat; bracts tri-
angular to ovate, c. 1 0.75 mm, acute to acumi-
nate at apex, glabrous; pedicels 2.5 – 3 cm long,
pubescent with 2 rows of hairs, de exed in fruits.
Lateral sepals 2, linear-lanceolate, c. 5 1 mm,
acuminate at apex, hairy on costa dorsally and
side facing downwards, pale green. Standard
petal ovate, c. 4 3 mm, acute at apex, pinkish
white, dorsally keeled; keel hairy, green; wing
petals 8 – 10 5 – 6 mm; basal lobe rudimentary
or absent, c. 0.5 0.5 mm, asymmetrically ovate,
acute to obtuse at apex; distal lobe asymmetrically
1 cm
1 mm
2 mm
5 mm
2 mm
5 mm
1 mm
5 cm
2 mm
5 mm
a
b
c
de f
gh
i
jk l
Fig. 11.
Impatiens
diversifolia
B. Heyne ex Wight & Arn.: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal;
g, h. Wing petals; i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 47
South Goa district, Anmod ghat, 25.7.2004, M.K.
Janarthanam 08 (GUH). Karnataka, Belgaum dis-
trict, Castle rock, August 1919, L.J. Sedgwick 2841
(CAL); North Kanara district, Karwar, October
1919, Hall & McCann 34258 (BLAT); Guddshali,
Karwar, s. die, L.J. Sedgwick 6629 (CAL).
Maharashtra, Sindhudurg district, Amboli, near
water fall, 17.7.2004, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K.
Janarthanam 3; Amboli ghat, 16.7.2005, Jyosna R.N.
Dessai 31; Amboli ghat, 9.8.2005, Jyosna R.N. Des-
Flowering & Fruiting: June – October.
Habitat: Roadsides, rock crevices and occasionally
on tree trunks.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of Goa,
Karnataka and Maharashtra.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Goa, North Goa
district, Surla, 1.8.2004, M.K. Janarthanam 14;
Chorla ghat, 27.8.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 67, 68;
1 cm
1 mm
2 mm
2 mm
5 mm
1 mm
2 mm
5 cm
5 mm
2 mm
a
b
cde
fgh
i
jkl
Fig. 12.
Impatiens
kleiniformis
Sedgw.: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h. Wing petals;
i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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48
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
Sindhudurg: 60. 1988; Almeida, Fl. Savantwadi
1: 77. 1990; Deshpande et al., Fl. Mahabaleshwar
1: 116. 1993; Almeida, Fl. Maharashtra: 193. 1996;
Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et al., Fl. India 4: 169.
1997; Mudaliar & Prasad in Singh & Karthikeyan,
Fl. Maharashtra State Dicotyl. 1: 457. 2000;
Yadav & Sardesai, Fl. Kolhapur District: 95. 2002.
Fig. 13, 21f
Type: INDIA, Karnataka, Bababudan hills, s. die,
Stocks & Law s.n. (K, photo!).
Herb, 20 – 30 cm high. Stem semi-quadrangular,
diffusely branched, grooved on 2 sides, glabrous,
reddish pink; branches alternate. Leaves opposite-
decussate, subsessile, ovate, 1 – 2 1 – 1.5 cm,
sai 42; Amboli ghat, 6.10.2007, Jyosna R.N. Dessai
171 (GUH).
Note: Impatiens kleiniformis is similar to I. minor
but differs in the absence of glands at the base of
lamina and pedicels with 2 rows of hairs.
IUCN Threat Status: EN [B1ab(iii)].
Impatiens lawii Hook.f. & Thomson, J. Proc. Linn.
Soc. Bot. 4: 122. 1859; Dalzell & Gibson, Bombay
Fl.: 43. 1861; Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 1: 448. 1874 &
Rec. Bot. Surv. India 4: 46. 1906; Cooke, Fl. Bombay
1: 172. 1901; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 141. 1915; Blat-
ter, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 33: 312. 1933; Vartak,
Enum. Plant. Gomantak: 32. 1966; Kulkarni, Fl.
1 cm
1 mm
2 mm
2 mm
5 mm
1 mm
2 mm
5 cm
2 mm
5 mm
a
b
cde f
g
h
i
jk l
Fig. 13.
Impatiens
lawii
Hook.f. & Thomson: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h. Wing
petals; i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 49
crowded at apex, short lip with short and straight
spur that is very close to lip. Impatiens oppositifolia
on the contrary posseses linear-lanceolate leaves
and lip with a short, hooked spur.
Hooker & Thomson (1859) compared I. lawii with
I. inconspicua Benth. ex Wight & Arn. and I. diversi-
folia B. Heyne ex Wight & Arn. and differentiated it
from the latter two based on its stature, branched
nature, smaller leaves at the apex and size of the
ower. Gamble (1915) in the key mentioned that the
owers are yellow but in the text describes them as
purple or rose. Blatter (1933) also mentioned that
the  owers are yellow. Saldanha (1996) stated that
the type at K collected by Law from Bababudan
resembles I. scabriuscula B. Heyne ex Roxb. except
for the linear lateral sepals. However, the latter
species has alternate leaves and the specimen at K
has opposite leaves.
IUCN Threat Status: EN [B1ab(iii)].
Impatiens minor (DC.) Bennet, Indian J. Forest.
2: 283. 1979; Almeida, Fl. Savantwadi 1: 78. 1990;
Lakshminarasimhan & Sharma, Fl. Nasik District:
144. 1991; Deshpande et al., Fl. Mahabaleshwar
1: 116. 1993; Almeida, Fl. Maharashtra: 194. 1996;
Saldanha, Fl. Karnataka 2: 255, t. 36. 1996; Viveka-
nanthan et al. in Hajra et al., Fl. India 4: 181. 1997;
Mudaliar & Prasad in Singh & Karthikeyan, Fl.
Maharashtra State Dicotyl. 1: 457. 2000; Yadav &
Sardesai, Fl. Kolhapur: 95. 2002; Bhat, Fl. Udupi
District: 88. 2003; Rathakrishnan et al. in Daniel, Fl.
Kerala 1: 550. 2005. Fig. 14, 21g
Type: Same as Balsamina minor DC.
Balsamina minor DC., Prodr. 1: 686. 1824.
Type: Rheede, Hort. Malab. 9: 95, t. 50. 1689.
Impatiens kleinii Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind.
Orient.: 140. 1834; Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient.
3(2): 7, t. 884. 1844 – 1845; Hooker & Thomson,
J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: 122. 1859; Dalzell &
Gibson, Bombay Fl.: 43. 1861; Hooker, Fl. Brit.
India 1: 445. 1874 & Rec. Bot. Surv. India 4: 46.
1906; Cooke, Fl. Bombay 1: 171. 1901; Gamble, Fl.
Madras 1: 140. 1915; Blatter, J. Bombay Nat. Hist.
Soc. 33: 311. 1933; Vartak, Enum. Plant. Goman-
tak: 31. 1966; Santapau, Fl. Khandala: 30. 1967;
Ramamoorthy in Saldanha & Nicolson, Fl. Has-
san District: 403. 1978; Shah, Fl. Gujarat 1: 143.
1978; Yoganarasimhan et al., Fl. Chikmagalur
District: 62. 1982; Vajravelu in Nair & Henry, Fl.
Tamil Nadu 1: 54. 1983; Sharma et al., Fl. Karnat-
aka: 38. 1984; Rao, Fl. Goa 1: 60. 1985; Kulkarni, Fl.
Sindhudurg: 59. 1988; Murthy & Yoganarasimhan,
Fl. Coorg: 87. 1990; Kothari & Moorthy, Fl. Raigad
truncate at base, serrately toothed at margins,
acuminate at apex, hairy above in upper half,
glabrous below; midrib distinct; lateral nerves 3
or 4 pairs; petioles decurrent on stem, glabrous.
Flowers solitary, axillary, 1.7 – 2.2 cm across, pink
to purple with violet throat; bracts linear, c. 1.5
0.5 mm, acuminate at apex, dorsally glabrous to
sparsely hairy, light green; pedicels pubescent with
1 row of hairs, 1.5 – 2 cm long, de exed in fruits,
pinkish red. Lateral sepals linear, 8 – 10 c. 1 mm,
acuminate at apex, slightly keeled on midrib dor-
sally, glabrous, pink. Standard petal suborbicular,
8 – 11 mm, slightly concave, hairy in middle on
dorsal surface, pink, dorsally keeled; keel lacerate,
mucronate at apex; wing petals 1.7 – 2.2 cm long,
2-lobed, auricled near base; auricle rounded, c. 1
mm; basal lobe triangular or ovate to  n-shaped,
much smaller than distal lobe, 4 – 6 2 – 2.5 mm,
acute at apex; distal lobe asymmetrically obovate, 1
– 1.5 0.8 – 1 cm, shortly stipitate, elevated at base,
obtuse at apex; lip saccate, 1 – 1.2 0.4 – 0.5 cm, 4
– 5 mm deep, glabrous, purple with violet nerves;
spur c. 1.5 mm long, straight, bent inwards, very
close and parallel to lip surface, appearing spurless
when viewed from sides, notched at apex, greenish
yellow. Column c. 5 3 mm, incurved;  laments c.
4.5 1 mm, pink; anthers c. 0.5 0.5 mm, yellow.
Pistil c. 2.5 1 mm; ovary ellipsoid or oblongoid
to oblong-lanceoloid, glabrous. Capsules asym-
metrically ellipsoid to elliptic-lanceoloid, glabrous;
pedicels 2 – 2.5 cm long; seeds spherical to oblon-
goid, c. 2.5 1.5 mm, glabrous, shining, brown to
brownish black; funicle prominent.
Flowering & Fruiting: August – October.
Habitat: Open lateritic plateaus with high wind
velocity and mist; usually in association with I.
tomentosa and I. oppositifolia as well as species of
Strobilanthes and Utricularia.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of Kar-
nataka and Maharashtra.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Karnataka, Mala-
bar, Concan, s. die, Stocks & Law s.n. (CAL);
Malabar, Concan, Stocks & Law s.n. (MH); Bel-
gaum district, Sada, near Goa-Karnataka border,
24.9.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam
158 (GUH). Maharashtra, Satara district, Maha-
baleshwar, 19.9.1958, V.D. Vartak 13907 (MGM);
Kas, September 1992, M.P. Bachulkar-Cholekar
5337 (SUK); Kas plateau, 18.9.2005, Jyosna R.N.
Dessai 98; Kas plateau, 18.8.2006, Jyosna R.N.
Dessai 115 (GUH).
Note: Impatiens lawii is similar to I. oppositifolia but
differs in the presence of ovate leaves which are
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50
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
below; nerves 3 – 7 pairs; petioles up to 4 mm long,
glabrous. Flowers 1 – 3 per axil, 0.8 – 1.5 cm across,
pink with violet throat; bracts triangular to ovate,
c. 0.5 0.3 mm, acute at apex, glabrous; pedicels
1 – 2.5 cm long, glabrous, de exed in fruits. Lateral
sepals linear-lanceolate, 3 – 6 0.7 – 1 mm, acute at
apex, hairy on costa dorsally, 3-nerved, pale green.
Standard petal ovate to orbicular, 3 – 4 3 – 5 mm,
acute at apex, pinkish white, dorsally keeled; keel
glabrous to hairy, green; wing petals 0.8 – 1 0.5
– 0.7 cm, entire at margins; lobe asymmetrically
obovate, 4 – 7 5 – 7 mm, obtuse at apex; stipe 2
District: 46. 1993; Ramaswamy et al., Fl. Shimoga
District: 109. 2001.
Type: INDIA, Kerala, Cannanore, R. Wight 442 (K,
photo!)
Herb, 8 – 50 cm high. Stem semiterete, branched
or not, glabrous, green. Leaves opposite-decus-
sate, sessile to shortly petiolate, lanceolate, linear-
lanceolate, oblong or ovate to elliptic, 3 – 14 1
– 3.8 cm, obtuse to semicordate at base, apiculate-
crenate to serrate at margins, acute to acuminate
at apex, glandular at base, hairy above, glabrous
5 cm
1 cm
0.5 mm
2 mm
5 mm
2 mm
5 mm
1 mm
1 mm
1 cm
a
b
c
d
ef
gh i
j
kl
Fig. 14.
Impatiens
minor
(DC.) Bennet: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h. Wing petals;
i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 51
hill, 25.7.1984, G. Chandramohan GCM83 (SPU);
Pune district, Lonavala, 1.9.1949, H. Santapau
18684; Lonavala, 18.7.1951, B.A. Razi RAZI5229;
Raigad district, Matheran waterpipe, 17.9.1960,
N.A. Irani NI5410; Sindhudurg district, Mazgaon,
Savantwadi, 13.9.1980, S.M. Almeida SMA2950
(BLAT); Chaukul road, Amboli, 7.10.2007, Jyosna
R.N. Dessai 174 (GUH); Satara district, Khandala,
9.6.1941, H. Santapau 714; Khandala, 24.7.1943, H.
Santapau 2232; Khandala, Monkey hill, 13.7.1946,
H. Santapau 9242; Khandala, Bhoma hills, 23.7.1949,
H. Santapau 10135; Khandala, Battery hill pla-
teau, 21.7.1950, H. Santapau 6794; Mahabalesh-
war, Fitzgerald ghat, 20.8.1957, H. Santapau 13230;
Mahabaleshwar, Dhobi’s waterfall, 26.12.1957, B.B.
Bole 281 (BLAT).
Note: Impatiens minor (DC.) Bennet is similar to
I. kleiniformis Sedgw. but differs in characters as
shown in notes under I. kleiniformis. However, in
certain cases the leaves may lack glands hence this
character is not reliable for segregating this species
from I. kleiniformis.
Chromosome No.: n 8 (Zinovéva-Stahevitch &
Grant, 1982, 1984, as I. kleinii Wight & Arn.).
IUCN Threat Status: LC.
Impatiens oppositifolia L., Sp. Pl.: 937. 1753; Lama-
rck, Encycl. 1: 363. 1785; Wight & Arnott, Prodr. Fl.
Ind. Orient. 1: 139. 1834; Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Ori-
ent. 3(2): 7, t. 883. 1844 – 1845; Hooker & Thomson,
J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: 120. 1859; Dalzell & Gib-
son, Bombay Fl.: 43. 1861; Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 1:
448. 1874 & Rec. Bot. Surv. India 4: 46. 1906; Cooke,
Fl. Bombay 1: 172. 1901; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 141.
1915; Blatter, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 33: 312.
1933; Vartak, Enum. Plant. Gomantak: 32. 1966;
Santapau, Fl. Khandala: 30. 1967; Ramamoorthy
in Saldanha & Nicolson, Fl. Hassan District: 403.
1978; Vajravelu in Nair & Henry, Fl. Tamil Nadu
1: 55. 1983; Sharma et al., Fl. Karnataka: 38. 1984;
Grey-Wilson in Dassanayake, Rev. Handb. Fl. Cey-
lon 5: 110, f. 2X – Z. 1985; Rao, Fl. Goa 1: 60. 1985;
Kulkarni, Fl. Sindhudurg: 60. 1988; Almeida, Fl.
Savantwadi 1: 78. 1990; Deshpande et al., Fl. Maha-
baleshwar 1: 117. 1993; Kothari & Moorthy, Fl.
Raigad District: 47. 1993; Saldanha, Fl. Karnataka
2: 256. 1996; Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et al.,
Fl. India 4: 187. 1997; Mudaliar & Prasad in Singh
& Karthikeyan, Fl. Maharashtra State Dicotyl. 1:
459. 2000; Ramaswamy et al., Fl. Shimoga District:
109. 2001; Yadav & Sardesai, Fl. Kolhapur Dis-
trict: 95. 2002; Bhat, Fl. Udupi District: 88. 2003;
Rathakrishnan et al. in Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 552.
2005. Fig. 15, 21e
– 3 c. 0.5 mm; lip boat-shaped, 3 – 6 c. 2 mm, 1
– 2 mm deep, acute at apex, glabrous; spur tubular
to compressed, 1 – 1.3 cm long, rounded at apex,
straight or curved, glabrous, pale green. Column c.
2 1 mm, curved;  laments c. 1.5 0.5 mm, pink;
anthers c. 0.25 0.25 mm. Pistil c. 1.5 0.5 mm;
ovary lanceoloid, glabrous. Capsules ellipsoid to
fusiform, 1 – 1.5 2 – 4 mm, glabrous; pedicels 1.8
– 2.3 cm long; seeds globose, c. 0.5 mm, glabrous,
shining, black to brown; funicle present.
Flowering & Fruiting: June – December (May).
Habitat: Moist places, open plains amidst grasses,
rock crevices, on roofs or walls, in shade and also
on tree trunks.
Distribution: Endemic to Peninsular India; widely
distributed in the Western Ghats.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Andhra Pradesh,
East Godavari district, Maredumilli, 18.8.1995, M.
Mohanan 105044 (MH). Goa, North Goa district,
Anmod ghat, 18.7.2004, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 6; Goa
University campus, Taleigao plateau, 21.7.2005,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai 33; Bondir, Sattari, 27.7.2006,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai 103 (GUH). Gujarat, Valsad dis-
trict, Pangarbari, Dharampur, 22.8.1984, A. Sun-
dara Reddy ASR2751 (SPU). Karnataka, Chikmag-
alur district, Baserukatte, 28.7.1972, V. Bhaskar 300;
Charmadi ghat, 26.8.1972, V. Bhaskar 317; Bababu-
dan, Abbe, 26.7.1973, V. Bhaskar 368; Sukalahatti,
28.7.1973, V. Bhaskar 369 (MGM); Hassan district,
Bisle ghat, 16.9.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K.
Janarthanam 134; Kodagu district, Managunddi, on
the way to Madikeri from Mangalore, 13.8.2005,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai 45; Madyanadu, Jodpalla, 14
km before Madikeri from Mangalore, 13.8.2005,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai 48 (GUH); North Kanara dis-
trict, Karwar, July 1882, W.A. Talbot 28 (CAL); Kar-
war, 1.10.1919, Hall & McCann 34254 (BLAT); Jog
falls, 5.11.1972, V. Bhaskar 341 (MGM); Jog falls,
6.8.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 36 (GUH); Shimoga
district, Heggargudda, Tirthahalli, 30.8.1963, S.
Sundara Raghavan 90097 (CAL); Balehonnur, Cof-
fee Research Station Estate, 19.10.1971, V. Bhaskar
(MGM); South Kanara district, Shiradi, 15.12.1918,
s. leg., s.n. (MH); Subramanya, 5.8.1973, V. Bhaskar
373 (MGM). Kerala, Idukki district, Marinjapuzha,
17.6.1972, V. Bhaskar 293, 294 (MGM); Kottayam
district, Pulluparai, 24.9.1964, K. Vivekananthan
21342; Palakkad district, Karivara, 20.9.1977, J.
Joseph 51401; Thrissur district, Vazhani, 5.9.1976, K.
Ramamurthy 47637 (MH); Wayanad district, near
Kalpetta, 4.7.1972, V. Bhaskar 293; Tambracheri
ghat, 5.8.1972, V. Bhaskar 303 (MGM). Maharash-
tra, Nasik district, Tambakeshwar – Bhramagiri
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52
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
Hajra et al., Fl. India 4: 206. 1997; Rathakrishnan
et al. in Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 556. 2005.
Type: Castle Rock, October 1908, A. Meebold 10719
(K, photo!). Lectotype selected here.
I. nataliae Hook.f., Bull. Misc. Inform. 1910: 294.
1910; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 141. 1915; Sharma et
al., Fl. Karnataka: 39. 1984; Saldanha, Fl. Karnataka
2: 225. 1996; Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et al., Fl.
India 4: 184. 1997; Rathakrishnan et al. in Daniel, Fl.
Kerala 1: 552. 2005, syn. nov.
Type: INDIA, Karnataka, Shimoga district, Kumsi,
October 1908, A. Meebold 10718 (K, photo!)
I. chinensis L. var. rupicola (Hook.f.) Bhaskar, Indian
J. Forest. 1: 172. 1978.
Herb, 15 – 50 cm high. Stem often branched, semi-
circular at base, quadrangular above, glabrous,
Type: CEYLON, Hermann Herb. 314 (BM, photo!).
I. rosmarinifolia Retz., Observ. Bot. 5: 29. 1788;
Arnott, Companion Bot. Mag. 1: 325. 1835; Wight,
Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 3(1): 2, t. 750. 1844; Almeida,
Fl. Maharashtra 1: 195. 1996.
Type: E. Zeylona mi t Cel. König (C, photo!).
Balsamina oppositifolia (L.) DC., Prodr. 1: 686. 1824.
Type: Same as Impatiens oppositifolia
Balsamina rosmarinifolia (Retz.) DC., Prodr. 1: 686.
1824.
Type: Same as Impatiens rosmarinifolia
I. rupicola Hook.f., Bull. Misc. Inform. 1910: 292.
1910; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 140. 1915; Blatter, J.
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 33: 312. 1933; Sharma et
al., Fl. Karnataka: 39. 1984; Vivekananthan et al. in
5 cm
1 cm
1 mm
2 mm
2 mm
1 mm
2 mm
1 cm
2 mm
5 mm
a
b
cde
fgh
i
jkl
Fig. 15.
Impatiens
oppositifolia
L.: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h. Wing petals; i. Lip;
j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 53
Maharashtra, Kolhapur district, Gaganbawda,
18.9.2004, M.K. Janarthanam 21 (GUH); Satara
district, Khandala, September 1907, A. Meebold
8813 (K, photo!); Barrington point, Mahabalesh-
war, 17.9.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 94; Needle
point, Mahabaleshwar, 17.9.2005, Jyosna R.N.
Dessai 96; Kas plateau, 18.9.2005, Jyosna R.N. Des-
sai 99; Panchgani, 19.8.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai
120; Sindhudurg district, Tilari ghat, s. die, M.K.
Janarthanam 17; Amboli, beyond ghats, 17.7.2004,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 1; Amboli
ghat, 12.8.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 108; Chaukul
road, Amboli, 12.8.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 110;
Tilari, 3.9.2006, M.K. Janarthanam 126; Amboli
ghat, 9.9.2006, Harshala Gad 131, 133; Phonda ghat,
30.9.2007, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam
170; Chaukul, Amboli, 7.10.2007, Jyosna R.N.
Dessai 173 (GUH).
Note: Impatiens oppositifolia L. is allied to I. tomen-
tosa B. Heyne ex Wight & Arn. but differs in stem,
lateral sepals, lip and spur being glabrous. It is also
similar to I. raziana Bhaskar & Razi but differs in
the presence of lilac to pink-coloured  owers.
Impatiens oppositifolia is a very variable species
with regard to leaf shape and hairy nature of the
pedicel (glabrous or with 1 or 2 rows of hairs).
Plants exposed to sunlight and growing in humus
rich soil are tall, have semicircular stem with
broad leaves whereas those growing in shade
are stunted with quadrangular stem, linear and
smaller leaves. There are variations in the spur
as well. The spur in material collected in Amboli
region is straight, hooked or straight and curved
inwards at apex. Grey-Wilson (1985) who stated
that the Ceylon specimens exhibit variation in leaf
shape and size, however, did not mention any
variation in  ower.
Impatiens oppositifolia was described by Lin-
naeus (1753) based on the Hermann’s material
from Ceylon (Sri Lanka). The description pro-
vided by Linnaeus runs thus: “pedunculis uniflo-
ris aggregatis, foliis oppofitis linearibus”. Hooker
(1910) who described I. rupicola compared the
species with I. chinensis and differentiated the
species from the latter by its entire leaves, much
smaller flowers and capsules and a small and
distinct spur. He also stated that I. rupicola
may prove to be a small-flowered and fruited;
almost spurless state of I. chinensis occuring in
the Western Ghats from the latitude of Goa up
to Pune.
Santapau (1967) studied the material of I. rupicola
and I
. oppositifolia at Kew and treated I. rupicola
a synonym of I. oppositifolia. He also stated that
red, rarely green above. Leaves opposite-decus-
sate, sessile to shortly petiolate, elliptic-lanceolate,
linear-lanceolate, linear-oblanceolate or oblong to
spathulate, 3.5 – 7 0.8 – 1.9 cm, cuneate or trun-
cate to subcordate at base, apiculate-crenate at mar-
gins, acute to acute-apiculate at apex, hairy mostly
on nerves above, glabrous below; nerves 4 or 5
pairs; petioles decurrent on stem and terminating
in glands, up to 4 mm long, glabrous. Flowers 2 or
3 per axil, 1 – 1.6 cm across, lilac to pink with violet
throat; bracts linear, c. 1.5 0.5 mm, acuminate at
apex, glabrous; pedicels 1 – 2.6 cm long, with 2 rows
of hairs, rarely glabrous, de exed in fruits. Lateral
sepals linear, 4 – 5 c. 1 mm, acute at apex, trans-
lucent, glabrous. Standard petal broadly ovate, 3 –
6 4 – 6 mm, concave, emarginate to obcordate at
apex, pink, dorsally keeled; keel mucronate; mucro
c. 0.5 mm long; wing petals 0.9 – 1.3 0.4 – 0.7 cm,
2-lobed; basal lobe ovate, 3 – 5 2 – 3 mm; distal
lobe 7 – 9 4 – 6 mm, asymmetrically obovate, ele-
vated at base, obtuse at apex; lip conical to saccate,
5 – 6 c. 3 mm, 1 – 3 mm deep, acuminate at apex,
glabrous; spur straight or hooked, 2 – 4 mm long,
rounded, notched to bulged at apex, glabrous,
pink. Column c. 3 1.5 mm, curved;  laments c.
2.5 0.5 mm, pink; anthers c. 0.5 0.5 mm, white
to pink. Pistil c. 2 0.5 mm; ovary oblong-lance-
oloid, curved at apex, glabrous. Capsules asym-
metrically ellipsoid or lanceoloid to oblanceoloid,
0.8 – 1.5 0.4 – 0.5 cm, glabrous; pedicels 2 – 3 cm
long; seeds globose, c. 0.5 mm, glabrous, shining,
black to brown; funicle present.
Flowering & Fruiting: July – October.
Habitat: Grassy places; often forming large scat-
tered colonies.
Distribution: India (Western Ghats), Myanmar and
Sri Lanka.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Goa, North Goa dis-
trict, Nagzar, Pernem, 17.7.2004, Jyosna R.N. Des-
sai & M.K. Janarthanam 5; Surla, 1.8.2004, M.K.
Janarthanam 12; Goa-Karnataka border, 27.8.2005,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam
70; Bondir,
Sattari, 27.7.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 104; Surla,
24.8.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 125; South Goa dis-
trict, Cotigao WLS, 22.8.2004, Jyosna R.N. Dessai
20; Cotigao, 5.8.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 105, 106
(GUH). Karnataka, Belgaum district, Castle rock,
October 1908, A. Meebold 10719 (K, photo!); Sada,
24.9.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam
155, 156 (GUH); North Kanara district, 15.9.1891,
W.A. Talbot 2514 (K, photo!); Nagavelly, on the
way to Bhatkal from Jog falls, 6.8.2005, Jyosna R.N.
Dessai 40; Shimoga district, Talaguppa, 6.9.2005,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 91 (GUH).
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54
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
IUCN Threat Status: LC.
Impatiens raziana Bhaskar & Razi, J. Bombay Nat.
Hist. Soc. 79: 383. 1982; Sharma et al., Fl. Karnataka:
39. 1984; Saldanha, Fl. Karnataka 2: 257, t. 38. 1996;
Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et al., Fl. India 4: 204.
1997; Dessai & Janarthanam, Indian J. Forest. 32:
313. 2009. Fig. 16, 21h
Holotype: INDIA, Karnataka, Chikmagalur district,
Charmadi ghat, 26.8.1972, V. Bhaskar 311 (MGM!).
Herb, 10 – 40 cm high. Stem erect or prostrate to
procumbent, quadrangular, branches at basal
nodes, glabrous, red. Leaves opposite-decussate,
subsessile at apex, oblong, elliptic or oblanceolate
to obovate-spathulate, 2 – 6.5 1 – 1.8 cm, cuneate
to truncate at base, apiculate-crenate at margins,
acute at apex, membranous, hairy above, glabrous
and distinctly nerved below; petioles decurrent
on stem and terminating in glands, up to 4 mm
long, glabrous. Flowers 1 – 4 in each axil, 1.4 – 2
cm across, bright saffron; bracts linear-lanceolate,
none of the specimens were with entire leaves as
cited by Hooker (1910). Gamble (1915), Blatter
(1933), Sharma et al. (1984) and Vivekananthan et
al. (1997) treated them as distinct species. How-
ever, Saldanha (1996) treated I. rupicola conspe-
ci c with I. oppositifolia. Bhaskar (1978a) consid-
ered it as a variety of I. chinensis: I. chinensis var.
rupicola (Hook.f.) Bhaskar.
A detailed study of the specimens collected from
the study area and some of the specimens of I.
rupicola at Kew cited by Hooker (1910) are mor-
phologically similar to I. oppositifolia with a great
range of continuous variation. Therefore, I. rupicola
is considered a synonym under I. oppositifolia here.
Since there is more than one original material, a
lectotype is being selected here.
Hooker (1910) described I. nataliae along with I.
rupicola. The type material revealed that I. nataliae
is a morphological variation of I. oppositifolia and
hence synonymised under the latter.
2 mm
2 mm
2 mm
5 mm
1 mm
2 mm
5 cm
1 cm
2 mm
5 mm
a
b
cde f
gh i
jk l
Fig. 16.
Impatiens
raziana
Bhaskar & Razi: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h. Wing
petals; i) Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 55
the collections of Dessai & Janarthanam (2009) who
reported it from Belgaum and Shimoga districts.
Chromosome No.: 2n 16 (Bhaskar, 1975).
IUCN Threat Status: CR [B1ab(iii)].
Impatiens tenella B. Heyne [Wall. Numer. List
No. 4746, nom. nud.] ex Wight & Arn., Prodr.
Fl. Ind. Orient.: 140. 1834; Hooker & Thomson,
J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: 123. 1859; Hooker, Fl.
Brit. India 1: 447. 1874 & Rec. Bot. Surv. India
4: 46. 1906; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 141. 1915;
Vajravelu in Nair & Henry, Fl. Tamil Nadu 1: 56.
1983; Sharma et al., Fl. Karnataka: 39. 1984; Vive-
kananthan et al. in Hajra et al., Fl. India 4: 215.
1997. Fig. 17, 21i
Type: INDIA, Wall. Numer. List No. 4746A (CAL!).
Herb, 20 – 60 cm high. Stem semiterete, swollen at
nodes; branches opposite, glabrous, reddish pink.
Leaves opposite, lanceolate, 4 – 5.5 1.5 – 2 cm,
cuneate at base, apiculate-serrate at margins, acute
to acuminate at apex, pubescent above, glabrous
below, shortly petiolate or sessile; nerves obscure
above, prominent below; petioles decurrent on
stem and terminating in glands, c. 2 mm long.
Flowers binate, axillary, c. 1 cm across, dark pink,
lilac to white; bracts linear, c. 2 0.5 mm, acute
to acuminate at apex, glabrous; pedicels slender,
2.3 – 2.7 cm long, pubescent with 2 rows of hairs,
de exed in fruits. Lateral sepals linear-lanceolate
to oblanceolate, c. 5 0.75 mm, acute to acumi-
nate at apex, glabrous, distinctly 1-nerved. Stan-
dard petal broadly ovate, c. 4 3.5 mm, concave,
mucronate at apex, white to pink; wing petals c. 1
0.4 cm, auricled near base, 2-lobed; basal lobe
ovate to subulate, c. 3 1 mm, obtuse at apex;
distal lobe asymmetrically obovate, c. 6 4 mm,
rounded to obtuse at apex; auricle c. 1 mm long,
rounded at apex; lip saccate, c. 8 3 mm, c. 3 mm
deep, acute at apex; spur basal, tubular, c. 7 mm
long, rounded at apex, slightly curved, glabrous.
Column c. 3 1.5 mm, curved;  laments c. 2
0.5 mm, pink; anthers c. 0.75 0.5 mm. Pistil c.
2 0.5 mm; ovary linear-oblongoid, curved at
apex, glabrous. Capsules ellipsoid or oblongoid
to oblanceoloid, c. 1.2 0.5 cm, glabrous; pedicels
3 – 4 cm long; seeds subglobose, c. 2.5 2 mm,
laterally compressed, glabrous, shining, dark
brown to black; funicle prominent.
Flowering & Fruiting: September – November.
Habitat: Vertical cut surfaces on roadsides and in
open plains amidst grasses.
Distribution: Endemic to Western Ghats of Karna-
taka and Tamil Nadu.
c. 1.5 0.75 mm, acute at apex, glabrous; pedi-
cels 2 – 3 cm long, pubescent with 2 rows of hairs,
de exed in fruits. Lateral sepals linear to linear-
lanceolate, 8 – 10 1 – 1.5 mm, acute to acuminate
at apex, glabrous, light orange, 3-nerved; midrib
distinct, dorsally keeled, others obscure. Standard
petal orbicular to broadly ovate, 5 – 7.5 7 – 9 mm,
concave, rounded to subcordate at apex, dorsally
keeled, orange; costa mucronate, glabrous to hairy
dorsally; wing petals 1 7 – 2 0.8 – 1.1 cm, auricled
at base, unequally 2-lobed; basal lobe triangular,
c. 5 4 mm; distal lobe obliquely ovate, 1 – 1.3
0.8 – 1.1 cm, elevated in basal region, shortly
stipitate; stipe bears 4 or 5 dark orange spots; lip
funnel-shaped, 10 – 12 5 – 6 mm, 6 – 8 mm deep,
acuminate at apex, light orange with darker nerves;
spur 3 – 5 mm long, curved, rounded to notched at
apex, glabrous to hairy, yellow to green. Column c.
5 mm long, curved;  laments c. 3 1 mm, yellow-
ish orange; anthers c. 1 1 mm. Pistil c. 4 2 mm;
ovary linear-oblongoid, curved at apex, glabrous.
Capsules ellipsoid or oblongoid to oblanceoloid,
1 – 1.2 0.4 – 0.5 cm, glabrous; pedicels 3.5 – 4
cm long; seeds subglobose, c. 2.5 2 mm, later-
ally compressed, glabrous, shining, dark brown to
black; funicle prominent.
Flowering & Fruiting: July – November.
Habitat: Grows on the periphery of the moist decid-
uous forest in shade of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.)
Roxb. and T. paniculata Roth amidst grasses and
on  eld bunds at Tinaighat in Belgaum district at
about 650 m and in cultivated areas with sandy soil
in plantation of Acacia auriculiformis Benth. at Bidar-
gad in Shimoga district, reaching up to 800 m.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of Kar-
nataka.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Karnataka, Belgaum
district, Tinaighat, Rajval, 15
o
26’ 13.8’’ N and
74
o
26’ 19.2’’ E, 646 m, 1.8.2004, M.K. Janarthanam
11; Tinaighat, Rajval, 21.8.2005, Jyosna R.N. Des-
sai & M.K. Janarthanam 64 (GUH); Chikmagalur
district, Kotigehar, 850 m, 25.9.1979, C.J. Saldanha
KFP9756; Chikmagalur, 800 m, 3.11.1981, C.J. Sal-
danha KFP13494 (JCB); Shimoga district, Bidargad,
Agumbe-Sringeri road, 4.9.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai
& M.K. Janarthanam 76 (GUH).
Note: Impatiens raziana is the only species with
bright saffron-coloured  owers in the section
Oppositifoliae. Though similar to I. oppositifolia L.
in most characters, it can be easily distinguished in
the  eld by  ower colour.
Impatiens raziana appears a narrow endemic known
by the collections from the type locality except for
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56
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
I. diversifolia the standard petal is orbicular, basal
lobe of the wing petal is triangular, dorsal auricle
is ovate and spur is 15 – 20 mm long.
Chromosome No.: n 7 (Rao et al., 1986); n 8
(Bhaskar & Razi, 1972 – 1973).
IUCN Threat Status: EN [B1ab(iii)].
Impatiens tomentosa B. Heyne [Wall. Numer.
List No. 4751, nom. nud.] ex Wight & Arn., Prodr.
Fl. Ind. Orient. 2: 139. 1834; Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind.
Orient. 3(1): 2, t. 749. 1844; Hooker & Thomson, J.
Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: 121. 1859; Dalzell & Gibson,
Bombay Fl.: 43. 1861; Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 1: 449.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Karnataka, Chikmag-
alur district, Bababudan, 1400 m, 6.11.1979, C.J. Sal-
danha KFP9644 (CAL); Kavikal Gandhi forest check
post, Kemmangundi, 5.9.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai &
M.K. Janarthanam 77, 89 (GUH). Tamil Nadu, Nil-
giri district, Nilgiri, 26.11.1971, N.C. Rathakrishnan
39017 (MH); Pykara range, 7.10.1972, V. Bhaskar
331; Naduvattam, Nilgiris, 16.9.1973, V. Bhaskar
384 (MGM).
Note: Impatiens tenella is closely related to I. diver-
sifolia but differs in the presence of broadly ovate
standard, ovate basal lobe of the wing petal,
rounded dorsal auricle and 5 – 7 mm long spur. In
5 cm
1 cm
1 mm
1 mm
2 mm
1 cm
2 mm
2 mm
5 mm
2 mm
a
b
cd e f
gh i
jk l
Fig. 17.
Impatiens
tenella
B. Heyne ex Wight & Arn.: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract, d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h.
Wing petals; i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 57
Type: Wall. Numer. List No. 4751.
Herb, 25 – 30 cm high. Stem branched; branches
semi-quadrangular, densely hairy above, glabrous
below, pinkish red. Leaves opposite-decussate,
shortly petiolate at base, subsessile at apex, oblong
to oblanceolate, 3 – 4.5 1.5 – 2 cm, truncate to obcor-
date at base, serrate at margins, acute to acuminate
at apex, pubescent above, hairy on nerves below;
petioles decurrent and terminating in glands, c. 2
mm long. Flowers 4 or 5 per axil, c. 1.5 cm across,
dark pink with purple throat; bracts linear, c. 2 mm
long, dorsally hairy on nerve in middle; pedicels
1874, excl. var. rufescens & Rec. Bot. Surv. India 4:
46. 1906; Cooke, Fl. Bombay 1: 173. 1901; Gamble,
Fl. Madras 1: 141. 1915; Blatter, J. Bombay Nat. Hist.
Soc. 33: 312. 1933; Vajravelu in Nair & Henry, Fl.
Tamil Nadu 1: 56. 1983; Kulkarni, Fl. Sindhudurg:
61. 1988; Deshpande et al., Fl. Mahabaleshwar 1:
119. 1993; Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et al., Fl.
India 4: 217. 1997; Mudaliar & Prasad in Singh &
Karthikeyan, Fl. Maharashtra State Dicotyl. 1: 443.
2000; Yadav & Sardesai, Fl. Kolhapur District: 95.
2002; Rathakrishnan et al. in Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1:
559. 2005. Fig. 18, 21j
5 cm
1 mm
2 mm
2 mm
2 mm
5 mm
1 mm
2 mm
1 cm
2 mm
5 mm
a
b
cde
f
g
hi j
kl m
Fig. 18.
Impatiens tomentosa
B. Heyne ex Wight & Arn.: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f, g. Standard petal
side and dorsal views; h, i. Wing petals; j. Lip; k. Pistil; l. Capsule; m. Seed.
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58
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
Impatiens vivekananthanii J. Dessai & Janarth.,
sp. nov. Fig. 19, 21k
Impatienti chinensi similis, calcare gracili curvato e
basi ad apice angustato (versus crasso valde incurvato
compresso in medio latissimo), foliis scabridis (versus
sparse pubescentibus) differt.
Typus: INDIA, Karnataka, Kodagu district, Tala-
cauvery, 17 September 2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai &
M.K. Janarthanam 146 (Holotypus, CAL; Isotypii,
BSI, MH).
Herb, 60 – 70 cm high. Stem erect, quadrangular,
succulent, subsucculent at base, slightly swollen
at nodes, glabrous, pale green; internodes short
at base, long at apex. Leaves opposite-decus-
sate, sessile or subsessile, linear-oblanceolate to
spathulate, 3.5 – 7 0.5 – 1.2 cm, truncate at base,
distantly serrate at margins, acute to apiculate at
apex, coriaceous, scabrid above, glabrous below,
obscurely nerved; petioles decurrent on stem and
terminating in glands. Flowers 2 or 3 (4) per axil,
2 – 3 cm across, pink with maroon throat; bracts
triangular, c. 1.5 1 mm; pedicels subterete,
3 – 4.5 cm long, glabrous to hairy with a row of
hairs. Lateral sepals linear to linear-oblanceo-
late, 0.7 – 1.2 0.1 – 0.2 cm, acuminate at apex,
pinkish white, 3-nerved; nerves minutely hairy,
pinkish red. Standard petal reniform, 0.7 – 0.8
0.9 – 1.3 cm, concave, glabrous, pink to pinkish
white, dorsally keeled; keel mucronate at apex;
mucro c. 1 mm long; wing petals 1.7 – 2.5 1 – 1.7
cm, 2-lobed; basal lobe ovate, 4 – 7 2 – 3 mm,
acute to rounded at apex; distal lobe much larger
than basal lobe, 1.1 – 1.9 0.9 – 1.8 cm, obtuse
at apex, notched towards inner side much below
apex; lip conical, 9 – 14 5 – 6 mm, 5 – 7 mm
deep, glabrous to sparsely minutely hairy, dark
pink-nerved, pink; spur tubular, 2 – 4 cm long,
notched at apex, glabrous to sparsely minutely
hairy, thick, pinkish white. Column 5 – 6 2 – 3
mm;  laments 4 – 5 1 – 1.5 mm, pink to white;
anthers c. 1 0.75 mm, yellow. Pistil c. 5 mm
long; ovary asymmetrically oblongoid, c. 4.5 1
mm, glabrous.
Fl.: July – November.
Habitat: Grassy slopes and vertical cut surfaces on
roadsides.
Distribution: India (Western Ghats of Karnataka
and Tamil Nadu) and Sri Lanka.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri
district, Nilgiri, s. die, R. Wight 35 (G, photo!); Chin-
chona plantation, Naduvattam, 11.11.1959, N.P.
2 – 3 cm long, hairy with 2 rows of hairs. Lateral
sepals 2, linear, c. 9 1 mm, acute to acuminate
at apex, dorsally slightly keeled, hairy on keel and
side facing downwards, pink. Standard petal sub-
orbicular, c. 9 8 mm, pink, dorsally keeled; keel
mucronate at apex, hairy, green; wing petals c. 2.2
0.8 cm, auricled at base, 2-lobed; basal lobe tri-
angular, c. 6 4 mm, acute to obtuse at apex; distal
lobe asymmetrically obovate, c. 1.3 0.8 cm, ele-
vated at base towards inner side, obtuse at apex;
lip conical, c. 11 4 mm, c. 6 mm deep, acuminate
at apex, hairy, pink; spur cylindric, c. 3 mm long,
hooked, notched at apex, hairy, green. Column c. 5
3 mm, bent on one side;  laments c. 4.5 1 mm,
pink; anthers c. 0.5 1 mm, pink. Pistil c. 3.5 1
mm; ovary oblong-lanceoloid, glabrous. Capsules
asymmetrically ellipsoid to elliptic-lanceoloid, gla-
brous; pedicels 2 – 3.5 cm long; seeds oblongoid, c.
2.5 1.5 mm, glabrous, shining, brown to brown-
ish black; funicle prominent.
Flowering & Fruiting: (May) July – October.
Habitat: Open table lands; in association with I.
lawii Hook.f. & Thomson and I. oppositifolia L. and
with grasses.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of Ker-
ala, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Maharashtra, Satara
district, Kas plateau, 18.9.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai
101; Kas plateau, 18.8.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 116
(GUH). Tamil Nadu, Dindigul district, Pulney hills,
1804, R.H. Beddome s.n.; Pambar river, Kodaikanal,
12.9.1905, C.A. Barber 7265; Nilgiri district, Pykara
river, 15.7.1970, J.L. Ellis s.n.; Nilgiris, Kollimund,
12.10.1972, K. Vivekananthan 43034; Mudimund, in
swamps, 22.6.1986, M.K. Janarthanam 83000 (MH);
Tirunelveli district, Agasthiyamalai, 22.5.1901, s.
leg. 2923 (CAL); Agastyamalai, 1.7.1964, A.N. Henry
& M. Chandrabose 19182 (MH).
Note: Impatiens tomentosa is similar to I. rufescens
Benth. ex Wight & Arn. but differs in having soft
hairs only in the upper half of the stem and lip is
with distinct spur. In I. rufescens the plant is with
stiff hairs throughout and lip is devoid of spur.
Due to the morphological similarities between I.
tomentosa and I. rufescens, Hooker (1874), reduced
the latter to a variety of the former. However, both
the species can be distinguished based on the pres-
ence and absence of a spur. Hence they are treated
as distinct species in the present study.
Chromosome No.: n 8 (Rao et al., 1986).
IUCN Threat Status: EN [B1ab(iii)].
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 59
thick, distinctly incurved, compressed spur that is
broad in the centre in I. chinensis.
IUCN Threat Status: LC.
Etymology: This species is named in honour of Mr.
K. Vivekananthan, who contributed extensively to
the understanding of the  ora of the Western Ghats
and also co-authored the family Balsaminaceae for
the Flora of India and that of Kerala.
Balakrishnan 9693; Benne forest, Nilgiri, 19.7.1960,
K. Subramanyam 10477; Mukruti, Nilgiri, 14.7.1970,
J.L. Ellis 34668; Thalakunda, 27.8.1970, B.D. Sharma
35835; Pykara, 30.8.1970, B.D. Sharma 35951; Ava-
lanche, 14.10.1972, K. Vivekananthan 42964 (MH).
Note: Impatiens vivekananthanii sp. nov. is similar to
I. chinensis L. but differs in its scabrid leaves and
slender, curved spur that tapers from the base to
the apex against the sparsely hairy leaves and the
1 mm
5 mm
1 cm
2 mm
1 cm
5 cm
5 mm
1 cm
a
bc
de
f
g
h
ij
Fig. 19.
Impatiens vivekananthanii
J. Dessai & Janarth.: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g,
h. Wing petals; i. Lip; j. Pistil.
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60
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
at apex, hairy; spur basal, tubular, 3 – 3.5 cm long,
rounded to bulged at apex, sparsely hairy. Column
4 – 6 1 – 3 mm, curved;  laments 3 – 5 c. 1 mm;
anthers c. 1 1 mm. Pistil 3 – 5 1 – 2 mm; ovary
ellipsoid to lanceoloid, villous. Capsules broadly
ellipsoid, 1 – 1.5 0.6 – 0.9 cm, wooly; pedicels
c. 2 cm long; seeds globose, c. 2.5 mm, granulate,
dark brown.
Hooker (1906) listed 10 varieties under this species
for Peninsular India of which the following two
are found in the study area.
Key to the varieties
1. Flowers 2 per axil; lateral sepals ovate ..................
......................................................... var. balsamina
1. Flowers 3 – 4 per axil; lateral sepals lanceolate ....
......................................................... var. micrantha
var. balsamina Fig. 20, 21l – n
Flowering & Fruiting: August – November.
Habitat: Open areas and roadsides.
Distribution: China, India, Malesia and Sri Lanka.
Specimens examined: Gujarat, Bulsar district, Bul-
sar, 25.8.1968, R.M. Patel RMP353; Narmada dis-
trict, Dediapada, 22.9.1968, V.K. Singh VKS2158
(SPU). Karnataka, Chikmagalur district, Shivlinga
estates, Kemmangundi, 17.11.2004, Jyosna R.N. Des-
sai & M.K. Janarthanam 30; Kemmangundi, 5.9.2005,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai 81; North Kanara district, Jog
falls, 6.9.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 92; Shimoga dis-
trict, Near Kuvempu University, 5.9.2005, Jyosna
R.N. Dessai 88 (GUH). Madhya Pradesh, Bastar dis-
trict, Jeeram hills, 27.8.1959, K. Subramanyam 8669
(MH). Tamil Nadu, Dindigul district, Thandikudi
hills, 5.12.1989, K. Ravikumar 92361 (MH).
Note: It is widely cultivated in gardens as an orna-
mental; grows gregariously under all climatic con-
ditions.
Uses: The plant possesses medicinal properties.
Seeds of I. balsamina contain cysteine-rich peptides
with marked antimicrobial activity. These proteins
inhibit the growth of fungi and bacteria without
harming human cells (Tailor et al., 1997). A red-
coloured dye obtained from the  owers and leaves
is used for colouring nails (Polunin & Stainton,
1984; Yi-ling et al., 2007).
IUCN Threat Status: LC.
var. micrantha Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 454. 1874 &
Rec. Bot. Surv. India 4: 50. 1906. Fig. 22, 30a
Section: Uni orae (Microsepalae) Hook.f. &
Thomson
Shrubs and herbs. Leaves opposite or alternate,
rarely whorled. Flowers pedicelled, solitary, binate
or fascicled, axillary. Sepals small or minute. Seeds
smooth, rugose or papillose (Hooker, 1906).
Impatiens balsamina L., Sp. Pl.: 938. 1753; Wight
& Arnott, Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient.: 135. 1834; Hooker
& Thomson, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: 130. 1859;
Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 1: 453. 1874 & Rec. Bot. Surv.
India 4: 47. 1906; Cooke, Fl. Bombay 1: 174. 1901;
Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 142. 1915; Ramamoorthy in
Saldanha & Nicolson, Fl. Hassan District: 400. 1978;
Vajravelu in Nair & Henry, Fl. Tamil Nadu 1: 52.
1983; Almeida, Fl. Savantwadi 1: 77. 1990; Murthy
& Yoganarasimhan, Fl. Coorg: 86. 1990; Almeida,
Fl. Maharashtra 1: 189. 1996; Saldanha, Fl. Karnat-
aka 2: 249. 1996; Vivekananthan et al. in Hajra et al.,
Fl. India 4: 123. 1997; Mudaliar & Prasad in Singh &
Karthikeyan, Fl. Maharashtra State Dicotyl. 1: 445.
2000; Bhat, Fl. Udupi District: 87. 2003; Rathakrish-
nan et al. in Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 532. 2005.
Type: INDIA, Linnaean Herb. No. 1053.3 (LINN,
photo!).
I. cornuta L., Sp. Pl.: 937. 1753.
Type: CEYLON, Linnaean Herb. 316 (LINN,
photo!).
I. coccinea Sims, Bot. Mag.: t. 1250. 1810.
Type: Sims, Bot. Mag.: t. 1250. 1810.
Herb, up to 1.5 m high. Stem erect, much branched
or not, terete, swollen at nodes, pubescent, pinkish
red. Leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate, oblanceo-
late, linear-oblong or elliptic to linear-oblanceolate,
2.5 – 15 0.5 – 2 cm, cuneate to attenuate at base,
crenate to serrate at margins, acuminate at apex,
sparsely hairy above, hairy only on nerves below;
nerves 6 – 12 pairs; petioles 1 – 1.5 cm long, hairy;
glands 1 – 5 pairs. Flowers 1 – 4 per axil, 2 – 2.5 cm
across, pink; bracts linear-lanceolate, 1 – 3 0.5 –
1 mm, acute to acuminate at apex, dorsally hairy,
dark pink; pedicels 1 – 1.5 cm long, hairy, de exed
in fruits. Lateral sepals ovate or lanceolate, c. 2.5
1.5 mm, concave, acute to acuminate at apex, dor-
sally hairy. Standard petal broadly ovate to orbic-
ular, c. 8 7 mm, concave, dorsally keeled; keel
hairy, mucronate with c. 2 mm long mucro; wing
petals 1.5 – 2 1 – 1.6 cm, 2-lobed, auricled near
base; auricle curved outwards; basal lobe oblong-
ovate, 5 – 6 3 – 5 mm, obtuse to apiculate at apex;
distal lobe asymmetrically obovate, 1.2 – 1.6 1 –
1.5 cm, deeply notched at apex; lip conical, 8 – 13
c. 6 mm, 5 – 8 mm deep, acuminate to cuspidate
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 61
148. 1915; Vajravelu in Nair & Henry, Fl. Tamil Nadu
1: 53. 1983; Sharma et al., Fl. Karnataka: 37. 1984; Sal-
danha, Fl. Karnataka 2: 251. 1996; Vivekananthan et
al. in Hajra et al., Fl. India 4: 139. 1997; Rathakrishnan
et al. in Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 538. 2005. Fig. 23, 30b
Type: INDIA, Courtallum, 1835, R. Wight 166A (E,
photo!). Lectotype selected here.
I. lucida B. Heyne [Wall. Numer. List No. 4738] ex
Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 451. 1874; Rathakrishnan
et al. in Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 549. 2005, syn. nov.
Type: Wall. Numer. List No. 4738 (CAL!)
Herb, 15 – 50 cm high. Stem quadrangular, gla-
brous to hairy at base, glabrous above, light green.
Leaves simple, alternate, broadly lanceolate to
ovate-lanceolate, 1.8 – 6.5 1.1 – 3.5 cm, attenu-
ate at base, apiculate-crenate at margins, acute to
Fl.: September – December.
Habitat: Grassy slopes, margins of evergreen for-
ests and cut hills.
Distribution: Karnataka at 1480 m.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Karnataka, Hassan
district, Mankanahalli, Bisle ghat, 16.9.2006, Jyosna
R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 144; Kodagu dis-
trict, Talacauvery, 13.8.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 52;
Talacauvery, 17.9.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K.
Janarthanam 147 (GUH).
IUCN Threat Status: EN [B2ab(iii)].
Impatiens dasysperma Wight, Madras J. Lit. Sci. 5:
7, t. 2. 1837; Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 3(1): 1, t. 742.
1844; Hooker & Thomson, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4:
134. 1859; Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 1: 457. 1874 & Rec.
Bot. Surv. India 4: 47. 1906; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1:
1 mm
5 mm
1 cm
5 cm
1 cm
1 cm
1 mm
5 mm
2 mm
1 mm
a
bc
de
f
gh i
jk l
Fig. 20.
Impatiens
balsamina
L. var.
balsamina
: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal; g, h. Wing
petals; i. Lip; j. Pistil; k. Capsule; l. Seed.
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62
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
Fig. 21. a.
Impatiens
chinensis
L.; b.
I.
dalzellii
Hook.f. & Thomson; c.
I.
diversifolia
B. Heyne ex Wight & Arn.; d.
I.
kleiniformis
Sedgw.; e.
I. oppositifolia
L.; f.
I. lawii
Hook.f. & Thomson; g.
I.
minor
(DC.) Bennet; h.
I. raziana
Bhaskar & Razi; i.
I. tomentosa
B. Heyne ex Wight & Arn.; j.
I. tenella
B. Heyne ex Wight & Arn.; k.
I. vivekananthanii
J. Dessai & Janarth., sp. nov.; l – n.
I.
balsamina
L. var.
balsamina
.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
kl
m
n
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Jyosna R.N. Dessai and M.K. Janarthanam 63
apiculate at apex, dark green and hairy above, pale
green and hairy only on nerves below; petioles
with 2 pairs of glands (rarely absent), 2 – 3.5 cm
long, glabrous. Flowers 2 in each axil, 1.5 – 2 cm
across, pink; bracts linear, c. 1.5 mm long, concave,
acute at apex; pedicels 2.5 – 4 cm long, glabrous,
light green, de exed in fruits. Lateral sepals ovate,
c. 2.5 1.5 mm, acute at apex, glabrous, light green,
3-nerved (2 distinct, 1 obscure). Standard petal cor-
date, 8 – 10 6 – 8 mm, obcordate at apex, dorsally
hairy, pink; costa mucronate; mucro c. 1 mm long;
wing petals 1 – 1.5 0.8 – 1 cm, unequally 2-lobed;
basal lobe obovate, 6 – 8 4 – 6 mm, 2-lobulate;
distal lobe broadly oblanceolate, 8 – 10 4 – 6 mm,
rounded at apex; dorsal auricle absent; wing petals
slightly protruding into a spur at base thus appear-
ing as an auricle; lip conical, c. 7 5 mm, c. 4 mm
deep, acuminate at apex, sparsely hairy, light pink;
spur tubular, 2 – 2.5 cm long, rounded at apex,
glabrous to sparsely hairy. Column c. 4 1.5 mm;
laments c. 2.5 1 mm; anthers c. 1 1 mm. Ovary
ellipsoid, glabrous. Capsules asymmetrically ellip-
soid, 1 – 1.3 0.3 – 0.6 cm, glabrous; pedicels 2
– 4.3 cm long; seeds ovoid to globose, c. 1.5 mm
across, compressed, papillate-hairy, dark brown.
Flowering & Fruiting: August – October.
Habitat: Forest edges, in and around coffee planta-
tions and on black boulders along with I. gardneri-
ana in evergreen forests, 650 – 1650 m.
Distribution: Endemic to the Western Ghats of Kar-
nataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Karnataka, Chikmag-
alur district, Bababudan hills, 4000 ft, 7.9.1893,
W.A. Talbot 3099; Santaveri, Bababudan, 4000 ft,
October 1908, A. Meebold 10701 (K, photo!); Near
1 cm
2 mm
5 mm
5 cm
2 mm
1 cm
1 cm
2 mm
a
bc
de
f
gh
i
j
Fig. 22.
Impatiens
balsamina
L. var.
micrantha
Hook.f.: a. Habit; b. Flower; c. Bract; d, e. Lateral sepals; f. Standard petal;
g, h. Wing petals; i. Lip; j. Pistil.
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64
The genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats
Gaurishankar estates, Kemmangundi, 5.9.2005,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai 83; Kalhati coffee estates, Kem-
mangundi, 5.9.2005, Jyosna R.N. Dessai 87; Has-
san district, Vanagunda, Bisle ghat, 14.8.2005,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai 54; Mankanahalli, Bisle ghat,
16.9.2006, Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam
141; Kodagu district, Thadiandamol, 18.9.2006,
Jyosna R.N. Dessai & M.K. Janarthanam 150; Pal-<