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Physicochemical Parameters, Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of the Algarvian Avocado (Persea americana Mill.)

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Abstract

The physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Persea americana fruits variety 'Hass' produced in the Algarve region were studied. Edible and non-edible parts of the fruits (pulp, seeds and peel) were compared considering their possible contribution to improve the sustainability of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The nutritional contents evaluated were moisture, ash, proteins, fat, total soluble solids and acidity. It were also evaluated the contents of bioactive compounds (phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and Vitamin E) and their influence in the antioxidant activity exhibited by the fruit material. The results of the analysis demonstrated that the Algarvian avocado has physical and chemical characteristics comparable or superior to avocados from other growing regions around the world namely, Mexico and California. With regard to the contents of bioactive compounds, the pulp of the Algarvian avocado proved to be rich in carotenoids (0.815±0.201 mg/100g), phenolic compounds (410.2±69.0 mg/100g) and flavonoids (21.9±1.0 mg/100g). The skin was superior to the pulp in the contents of all these compounds with 2.585±0.117 mg/100g of carotenoids, 679.0±117.0 mg/100g of total phenolics and 44.3±3.1 mg/100g of flavonoids. The seed, in turn, was the part of the fruit with the highest total phenolic content (704.0±130.0 mg/100g) and flavonoids (47.97±2.69 mg/100g). Regarding the concentration of vitamins C and E, the highest values were found in the pulp (5.36±1.77 mg/100g of Vitamin E) and skin (4.1±2.7 mg/100g of Vitamin C). The extracts obtained from the seeds demonstrated higher in vitro DPPH® assay antioxidant activity (43%) than those obtained from the skin (35%) and the fruit pulp (23%). The contents of carotenoids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids found in the non-edible parts of the Algarvian avocado demonstrated that these byproducts could be an interesting inexpensive raw material for the food and cosmetic industries.
Journal of Agricultural Science; Vol. 5, No. 12; 2013
ISSN 1916-9752 E-ISSN 1916-9760
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
100
Physicochemical Parameters, Phytochemical Composition and
Antioxidant Activity of the Algarvian Avocado (Persea americana
Mill.)
Ana F. Vinha1,2, Joana Moreira1 & Sérgio V. P. Barreira1
1 FCS/UFP-Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Fernando Pessoa (FCS-UFP), Rua Carlos da Maia,
Porto, Portugal
2 REQUIMTE/Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Laboratório de Bromatologia e Hidrologia, Faculdade de
Farmácia da Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, Porto, Portugal
Correspondence: Ana F. Vinha, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Fernando Pessoa (FCS-UFP), Rua
Carlos da Maia, Porto, Portugal. Tel: 352-225-074-630. E-mail: acvinha@ufp.edu.pt
Received: September 2, 2013 Accepted: September 22, 2013 Online Published: November 15, 2013
doi:10.5539/jas.v5n12p100 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jas.v5n12p100
Abstract
The physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Persea americana fruits variety ‘Hass’ produced in the
Algarve region were studied. Edible and non-edible parts of the fruits (pulp, seeds and peel) were compared
considering their possible contribution to improve the sustainability of the food and pharmaceutical industries.
The nutritional contents evaluated were moisture, ash, proteins, fat, total soluble solids and acidity. It were also
evaluated the contents of bioactive compounds (phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and vitamin E)
and their influence in the antioxidant activity exhibited by the fruit material. The results of the analysis
demonstrated that the Algarvian avocado has physical and chemical characteristics comparable or superior to
avocados from other growing regions around the world namely, Mexico and California. With regard to the
contents of bioactive compounds, the pulp of the Algarvian avocado proved to be rich in carotenoids
(0.815±0.201 mg/100g), phenolic compounds (410.2±69.0 mg/100g) and flavonoids (21.9±1.0 mg/100g). The
skin was superior to the pulp in the contents of all these compounds with 2.585±0.117 mg/100g of carotenoids,
679.0±117.0 mg/100g of total phenolics and 44.3±3.1 mg/100g of flavonoids. The seed, in turn, was the part of
the fruit with the highest total phenolic content (704.0±130.0 mg/100g) and flavonoids (47.97±2.69 mg/100g).
Regarding the concentration of vitamins C and E, the highest values were found in the pulp (5.36±1.77 mg/100g
of vitamin E) and skin (4.1±2.7 mg/100g of vitamin C). The extracts obtained from the seeds demonstrated
higher in vitro DPPH assay antioxidant activity (43%) than those obtained from the skin (35%) and the fruit
pulp (23%). The contents of carotenoids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids found in the non-edible parts of
the Algarvian avocado demonstrated that these byproducts could be an interesting inexpensive raw material for
the food and cosmetic industries.
Keywords: Persea americana Mill., Algarvian avocado, food byproducts, bioactive compounds, antioxidant
activity, edaphoclimatic conditions
1. Introduction
The Persea americana Mill. tree belongs to the family Lauraceae, genus Persea and is a plant native of Central
America. Apart from its use as food the avocado is traditionally utilized for various medicinal purposes including
as hypotensive, hypoglycemic and anti-viral, and is applied for the treatment of ulcers and cardiovascular
diseases (Anita et al., 2005; Nayak et al., 2008; Raharjo et al., 2008; Anaka et al., 2009; Kosińska et al., 2012).
To the avocados are equally attributed analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties (Adeyemi et al., 2002) and the
avocado pulp is also used in various dermatological formulations namely, emulsions for the treatment of dry skin,
protective agents against ultraviolet radiation, and anti-aging agents (Korać & Khambholja, 2011). Given the
variety of uses that are assigned to ethnobotanical species Persea americana several studies have been conducted
in order to unveil their biological activity (Gomez-Flores et al., 2008; Yasir et al., 2010; Pahua-Ramos et al.,
2012). For example the characterization of phenolic components and antioxidant activity of hydroethanolic
extracts of the avocado skin and seed revealed a predominance of compounds belonging to the group of
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flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and hydrocinnamic acids (Kosińska et al., 2012). Phenolics and flavonoids are
bioactive compounds that have been related with a decrement of different deteriorative processes in the human
body owing to their ability to reduce the formation and to scavange free radicals (Hidalgo et al., 2010).
Rodríguez-Carpena and coworkers (2011) ascribed the high antioxidant activity exhibited by avocado extracts in
various in vitro assays to these phenolic compounds. Chia and Dykes (2010) studied the essential oils of avocado
and were able to demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of the skin and seeds of three different varieties of
avocado (‘Hass’, ‘Fuerte’ and ‘Shepard’). Other studies revealed that the avocado contains other classes of
bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties and that are equally beneficial to Human metabolism, such as
mineral constituents (phosphorus, magnesium and potassium), hydro and liposoluble vitamins (vitamin E, B, C
and β-carotene, or provitamin A) (Honarbakhsh & Schachter, 2009; USDA, 2011). Given all the above,
prominence has been given in certain countries, to public information about the avocado and its health promoting
properties. An independent Australian organization, “The Heart Foundation” certified the fruit as healthy food
for the heart and this certification with its appropriate logo is already used in advertising. The Californian
Avocado Commission, has also driven efforts to publicize the fruit as health promoter, including conjoint
publications with the American Dietetic Association, American Heart Association, and more recently, some
press releases. For all the reasons above, the avocado is gaining worldwide recognition as healthy food and,
consequently, a significant economic value. Hence, quite naturally, the avocado culture has attracted the interest
of European farmers and, currently, it is already possible to find avocado orchards spread across Spain, Italy,
Greece and Portugal. Regarding cultivars produced, ‘Hass’ and ‘Fuerte’ dominate the international market
(Rodríguez-Carpena et al., 2011). In Portugal these fruits are being cultivated in the south (Algarve), where the
soil and climatic conditions are more favorable. The cultivated area at present does not exceed 750 acres but it is
rapidly expanding, as more and more farmers recognize the potential of this crop (Freire, 2012). The avocado
tree is one of the most productive plants per unit of cultivated area. The Algarve region has a temperate
Mediterranean climate, characterized by mild short winters and long, hot and dry summers. The soils of this
region are mostly litholic not humic of sandstone, stoneware of Silves or similar. Given that the edaphoclimatic
conditions play a fundamental role in plant metabolism and by this route in the chemical makeup of fruits, one of
the objectives of this study was to evaluate the chemical and antioxidant composition of the Algarvian ‘Hass’
avocado and compare their content of phytochemicals with those of the same variety of fruit produced elsewhere.
This is pioneering study, since, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first scientific characterization of the
Portuguese avocado fruit. The non-edible parts of the fruit (skin and seed) were also studied in order to assess
their potential use as cheap source of bioactive compounds for the food, pharmaceutical and dermocosmetic
industries. The exploitation of non-edible parts of the fruits is an emerging trend which may prove to be very
profitable in the near future. Firstly because it entails an important reduction in the production of waste, secondly,
because the non-edible parts of some fruits, can concentrate high levels of valuable bioactive compounds,
particularly natural antioxidants (Vinha et al., 2013).
2. Materials and Methods
2.1 Sample Collection and Preparation
All the avocado fruits, variety ‘Hass’ used in the present study came from an orchard located in the Faro area
(Latitude: 37.019°, Longitude: -7.926°). The fruits, a total of 100 at the onset of ripening, were randomly
collected and selected by their firmness, absence of mechanical damage and visible decay. Immediately after
harvest the fruits were cleaned and prepared according to the requirements of the intended analysis. They were
cut open to obtain their edible and non-edible portions (pulp, peel, and seeds, respectively) and stored at 4ºC. Six
replicates of each sample were selected and analyzed. All analyzes were carried out over a period of time not
exceeding two weeks after harvest.
2.2 Standards and Reagents
2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol (Tillmans reagent), glacial acetic acid, meta-phosphoric acid, DL-α-tocopherol
acetate sodium carbonate, β-carotene, petroleum ether, ascorbic acid, sodium phosphate, aluminium chloride and
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).
Methanol, the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, sodium hydroxide, sulphuric acid, and gallic acid were purchased from
Panreac Química S.L.U. (Barcelona, Spain). All aqueous solutions were prepared with Milli Q filtered water
(resistivity >18 M.cm) (Millipore, Bedford, MA).
2.3 Proximate Composition Analysis
Moisture, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS) were evaluated as quality fruit indices. The ash, total
protein and total fat contents were also analyzed. A gravimetric assay was performed to evaluate the
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physiological weight loss of the avocado fractions (pulp, peel, and seeds). It was calculated by the difference
between initial and final weight. A porcelain capsule containing 5 g of each fresh avocado fraction was placed in
a stove (WTC binder Klasse 2.0, Tuttlingen, Germany) at 105±1ºC, followed by regular weighing up to a
constant weight. Results were expressed in water percentage (%). TA was determined by titrating 5 ml of
avocado aqueous extract with 0.1 M NaOH, using phenolphthalein (1%) as indicator. Results were expressed as
grams of tartaric acid per 100 g of sample, according to the methodology described by the Association of Official
Analytical Chemists (2005). The TSS were quantified using a hand digital refractometer Leica Abbe Mark II
(Leica, Buffalo, NY, USA) and expressed as °Brix.
As with all food analysis procedures it is crucial to carefully select a sample whose composition represents that
of the food being analyzed and to ensure that its composition does not change significantly prior to analysis. The
following methods (AOAC, 2005) were used to determine protein, fat and ash content in stored avocado pulp,
peel and seed samples: micro Kjeldahl for protein (N x 5.7) (method 960.52) (Glass Model Pyrex-1);
incineration at 550°C for ash (method 923.03) (PCSIR-Lhr); defatting in a Soxhlet apparatus (J.P.Selecta–Spain)
with 2:1 (v/v) chloroform/methanol for lipids (method 920.39C). All experiments were repeated in sextuplicate
and the values are presented as mean (±SD).
2.4 Bioactive Compounds Quantification
2.4.1 Extraction and Analysis of Ascorbic Acid
Avocado fruit fractions (5 g) were dissolved in a mixture of 200 ml of water, 5 ml of metaphosphoric acid (30%)
and 20 ml glacial acetic acid. The mixture was titrated with Tillmans reagent. Ascorbic acid ( expressed as
mg/100g (on a FW – fresh weight basis)) was quantified u s i n g a n analytical validated method published in a
previously work (Vinha et al., 2012).
2.4.2 Colorimetric Determination of Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E)
The determination of the vitamin E content in the different constituents of Algarvian avocado fruit followed the
procedure described by Amin (2001). From a standard solution of α-tocopherol acetate in 100 ml of methanol,
several dilute solutions were prepared by taking 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 μl aliquots of the stock solution and
placing them in 25 ml calibrated flasks.
α-tocopheryl acetate was converted into α-tocopherol by transesterification. Standards were prepared by taking
10, 25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 μl portions of stock solution in 25 ml calibrated flasks, adding a drop of sulphuric
acid, to catalyze the reaction, and 20 ml of methanol to each, and heating at 90°C in a water-bath for 90 min;
within this period, the flask contents were reduced almost to dryness. The end-product of transesterification was
dissolved in 15 ml of methanol, and 5.0 ml of NaOH (0.2 M) were added. The absorbance at 526 nm was
measured after 10 min of heating in a water-bath at 90±2°C. The experiments were performed in sextuplicate for
each avocado fruit fraction (pulp, peel, and seed).
2.4.3 Total Carotenoids Assay
Total carotenoids were extracted according to Akin et al. (2008) with some minor modifications. Briefly, five
grams of sample were homogenized using a high-speed homogenizer, at 5000 rpm for 30 minutes (Heidolph,
Diax 900, Germany) and then transferred to a separating funnel for extraction with 100 ml of
methanol/petroleum ether (1:9, v/v). The petroleum ether layer was then filtrated through sodium sulphate,
transferred to a 100 ml volumetric flask and dissolved with petroleum ether. Finally, total carotenoid content
was measured spectrophotometrically (Hitachi UV-2800 spectrophotometer) at 450 nm by using an extinction
coefficient of 2592. Results were expressed as β-carotene equivalents (milligrams per 100 g of FW).
2.4.4 Total Polyphenolic Content Assay
Total phenolics were determined according to the improved Folin-Ciocalteu method (Zieliski & Kozowska, 2000).
Briefly, 5 g of fresh avocado fruit fractions were homogenized by using a homogenizer (model F.60, Falc
Instruments, Italy) in water (100 ml) kept at 40°C for one hour and then filtered. The avocado fruit extracts were
then resuspended in water and the supernatant (0.5 ml) was mixed with 0.5 ml of Folin-Ciocalteu’s solution. The
solution was homogenized for 3 minutes and 1 ml of saturated Na2CO3 was added. The solution was then incubated
for 1 hour in the dark to obtain color development, through the reduction of phosphomolybdic and phosphotungstic
acids in alkaline medium. The absorbance readings were measured at 720 nm with an UV-VIS spectrophotometer
(Shimadzu UV-2100), using gallic acid (GA) as standard. Total phenol content was expressed as milligrams of GA
equivalent (GAE) per 100 grams of fresh fruit weight (mg GAE /100 g-1 FW).
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2.4.5 Total Flavonoids Content
Flavonoid contents in the aqueous extracts of the pulp, peel, and seeds of avocado fruits were determined using a
method described by Soares et al. (2013) with slight modifications. Aliquots of 1 ml of extract solution were
mixed with 4 ml of water and 300 μL sodium nitrate 25%. After 5 min incubation at room temperature it was
added 300 μl of AlCl3 reagent (10%), and left to react for one minute before adding 2 ml of sodium hydroxide
and 2.4 ml of water. The absorbance was recorded at 510 nm in a BioTek Synergy HT microplate reader
(GENS5). The flavonoid contents were express in milligrams per 100 grams of FW.
2.5 DPPH
Radical-Scavenging Activity
Pulp, peel and seeds of avocado aqueous extracts (300 µl) were mixed with 2.7 ml of an ethanolic solution
containing DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) in a concentration of 6 x10-5 M. The mixture was
shaken vigorously and left to stand in the dark until stable absorbance readings at 517 nm. The radical
scavenging activity (RSA) was calculated as a percentage of DPPH discoloration using the equation: % RSA =
[(ADPPH – AS)/ADPPH] x 100, where AS represents the absorbance of the sample solution extract with
DPPH· and ADPPH is the absorbance of the DPPH solution.
2.6 Statistical Analysis
A completely randomized design was used, with six replications. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS
v. 21 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Data of all chemical analysis were expressed as mean ± standard
deviation. The independent samples T-test or Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to assess the statistical
differences among means followed, in the case of ANOVA, by Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test for multiple
comparisons. Pearson correlation tests were used to ascertain the existence of linear relationships between the
contents of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The level of significance for all hypothesis tests (p)
was 0.05.
3. Results and Discussion
As previously referred, the objectives of this study were to characterize the Algarvian avocado in terms of food
and potential source of bioactive compounds for the food and cosmetics industries. The results obtained for the
fruit physicochemical parameters are presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Physicochemical parameters of the different fractions of the Algarvian avocado variety ‘Hass’. Moisture,
proteins, ash and fat are expressed in percentage. The Total Soluble Solids in °Brix and the acidity in mg of
tartaric acid equivalents /100g FW
Fraction of the Algarvian avocado var. ‘Hass’
Parameter** Pulp* Skin* Seeds*
Moisture (%) 70.83±3.53a 69.13±2.58
b
54.45±2.33c
Ash (%) 1.77±0.16a 1.50±0.08
b
1.29±0.03c
Proteins (%) 1.82±0.07a 1.91±0.08a 2.19±0.16
b
Fat (%) 43.5±4.62a 2.20±1.65
b
14.7±0.32c
Total Soluble Solids (°Brix) 6.68±1.02a 3.01±2.03
b
3.54±1.97
b
Acidity 1.07±0.02a2.05±0.24
b
2.67±0.17c
As shown in Table 1, *Values represented as mean±standard deviation obtained from six measurements; **A
letter is used to express the result of the comparison between the different fractions. Different letters indicate
significant statistical differences (95% significance).
The moisture content is one of the most important indices evaluated in foods, especially fruits. It is a good
indicator of their economic value because it reflects solid contents and serves to assess its perishability. The
results indicate that the Algarvian avocado pulp has a higher water content (70.83%) , followed the skin
(69.13%) and seed (54.45%). The fat and ash quantified in pulp were significantly superior to those found in the
skin. The seed was the part of the fruit that had higher amounts of total protein (2.19%) and lowest ash content
(1.29%), nevertheless, relative to its fat content, showed higher percentages compared to those found on the
exocarp. According to Hernández-Muñoz et al. (2006) the total acidity is a measure of the organic acid content.
The predominant acid found in avocados is tartaric acid although, theoreticaly, every species capable of donating
a proton, including fatty acids, also contribute to the total acidity of the fruit (Omar et al., 2012). Acidity and
soluble solids content are the common quality attributes that are associated with the maturity index of
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agricultural products, especially fruits. The total acidity tends to decrease during the ripening period as a result of
the breathing process or conversion into sugars. In the period of maturation of the fruit there is an increase in
metabolic activity and organic acids are, par excellence, a source of energy reserve of the fruit through the Krebs
cycle. In the case of the mature Algarvian avocado, the seed has higher acidity than the skin or pulp. The acidity
of the pulp was found to be superior to that exhibited by ‘Hass’ avocados of American origin (0.04±0.01% citric
acid) (Arias et al., 2012). In any case Algarvian ‘Hass’ avocados may be considered a non acidic fruit.
Among the various components of fruit, the total soluble solids (i.e., the percentage of solids that are dissolved in
the matrix of the food) in °Brix, have a primary role in their quality due to the influence on thermophysical,
chemical and biological properties. It is also a parameter which tends to increase with the progress of ripening
due to the biosynthesis of the plant and degradation of polysaccharides. As expected, given that this
physico-chemical parameter represents one of the best ways to evaluate the degree of sweetness of the fruit, and
the fruit pulp is the only edible part of the avocado, the total soluble solids are higher in the pulp. This parameter
follows a trend that is opposite to acidity. Nevertheless the content of soluble solids, although superior to those
reported for ‘Hass’ avocados of American origin (5.1±0.1°Brix) (Arias et al., 2012), can be considered low,
favoring the consumption of the Algarvian avocado in natura. Superior values of TSS have been reported for
‘Hass’ avocados from New Zeland (~9° Brix) (Burdon et al., 2007).
The characteristics of a fruit depend on the cultivar, the edaphoclimatic conditions of the region of provenance,
ripeness and storage conditions (Ahmed et al., 2010). Tango et al. (2004) studied 24 varieties of avocado, and
found levels for moisture and fat in the pulp of ‘Hass’ variety fruits of 57.3% and 31.1%, respectively. These
values are significantly lower than those found in the Algarvian avocado studied here. Regarding the avocado
seeds, Olaeta et al. (2007) observed higher protein concentrations and ash, compared with those recorded in this
study (3.18% and 1.51%, respectively). Lu et al. (2009) on the other hand, reported a value of 25% fat for the
pulp of ‘Hass’ avocados cultivated in California. The Algarvian avocado develops mainly during the winter
because during the rest of the year the orchards in the Algarve are subjected to water stress. This is an important
factor to justify the results presented in Table 1.
There is already evidence that the ingestion of fruits confers protection against human chronic diseases,
neurological disorders and some types of cancer (Middleton et al., 2000; Pandey & Rizvi, 2009; Hamid et al.,
2010). These properties are assigned to the presence of significant levels of bioactive antioxidant compounds in
fruits. For this reason, those molecules are attracting a growing interest from the scientific community. During
the last decades, ample evidence of the benefits of avocado on health has been gathered (Yasir et al., 2010;
Al-Dosari, 2011). This promoted their consumption, stimulating also the research about their pharmacological
potential. The maturation of any fruit promotes an increase of bioactive compounds (Arancibia-Avila et al.,
2008). Among the different secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties, phenolics, flavonoids and
carotenoids are the most cited. The levels of these compounds, as well as those of the vitamins C and E, found in
the Algarvian avocado are presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Concentration of bioactive compounds present in different Algarvian avocado ‘Hass’ var. fruit fractions
Avocado fraction var. ‘Hass’
Bioactive compound ** Pulp* Skin* Seed*
Total Phenolics 410.2±69.0
b
679.0±117.0a704.0±130.0a
Flavonoids 21.9±1.0
b
44.3±3.1a 47.9±2.7a
Carotenoids 0.815±0.201
b
2.585±0.117a0.966±0.164
b
Vitamin C 1.2±0.7c 4.1±2.7a 2.6±1.1a, c
Vitamin E 5.36±1.77a 2.13±1.03
b
4.82±1.42a
As shown in Table 2, *Values represented as mean±standard deviation mg/100g FW obtained from six
measurements; **A letter is used to express the result of the comparison between the different fractions.
Different letters indicate significant statistical differences (95% significance).
The results reveal that is in the avocado seed that the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids are found.
This agrees with the results reported for avocados cultivated in Mexico (Wang et al., 2010). The skin of the fruit
had the highest carotenoid content, as expected, since this tissue is usually the fraction were these phytochemicals
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are concentrated. Recently a study proved that the composition of carotenoids and vitamin E in fruits is affected by
several factors, including the degree of maturation and edaphoclimatic (Arancibia-Avila et al., 2008). Significant
differences were found in the levels of carotenoids and vitamin E in ‘Hass’ avocados cultivated in four different
Californian counties. It was concluded in the same study that the levels of carotenoids in the fruit pulp increased
with the fat present in it and that the xanthophylls, in particular lutein and cryptoxanthin, were the predominant
phytochemicals of this group, contributing approximately to 90% of the total carotenoids present in the ‘Hass’
avocado (Lu et al., 2005). When one compares the contents of bioactive compounds of the Algarvian fruit with
those of other fruits produced in different parts of the globe, it may be noted that it has levels of phenolics in the
pulp comparable to those found in Mexican ‘Hass’ avocados (4.9±0.7 mg GAE/g FW), inferior levels in the skin
(12.6±0.3 mg GAE/g FW) and seeds (51.6±1.6 mg GAE/g FW) (Wang et al., 2010) while possessing comparable
levels of flavonoids (26.36 QE/100 g FW) (Rodríguez-Carpena et al., 2011). The phenolic levels are also superior
to those reported for the same fruit of Turkish provenance (1.20±0.02 g/kg FW) (Golukcu & Ozdemir, 2010). The
content of carotenoids is inferior to that found in Californian avocados (42.2 μg/g) (Lu et al., 2009) and higher than
that found in the corresponding fractions of Mexican ‘Hass’ avocados ((7.1±0.6 μg/g (pulp), 15.2±2.7 μg/g (skin),
6.3±0.9 μg/g (seed)) (Wang et al., 2010). Furthermore the Algarvian avocado has superior levels of carotenoids in
the pulp than the ‘Hass’ avocados cultivated in New Zeland (~5.2 μg/g), but inferior levels in the skin (~50 μg/g)
(Ashton et al., 2006). The mesocarp of the Algarvian avocado presented higher levels of vitamin E, with a value
that is statistically similar to that found in the seeds and above that found in the skin. The amount of this vitamin
found in the pulp is comparable to that found in avocados grown in Brazil (6.4 mg/ 100g) (Salgado et al., 2008) but
superior to that of avocados from california (27 μg/g) (Lu et al., 2009). The concentration of ascorbic acid is
inferior to that reported for Californian avocados (17.3 mg/100g) (USDA, 2011).
Overall these results also demonstrate the potential of the non-edible parts of the avocado as a source of bioactive
compounds. The skin of the Algarvian ‘Hass’ avocado contains 59% of the carotenoids and the seeds 39% of total
phenolic compounds and 42% of the flavonoids present in the fruit. Instead of being wasted as trash, fruit skin
could constitute an inexpensive source of carotenoids in the dermocosmetic and food industries. Indeed the
avocado is the fruit with the highest content of carotenoids in the exocarp. The carotenoid compounds are known to
exert a protective action against cell damage caused by UV rays and pollution, which make them an essential
ingredient of several dermatological formulations. Additionally the carotenoids, phenolics and flavonoids are
known to prevent the risk of developing certain diseases related to age, such as premature aging, cancer and heart
disease (Hidalgo et al., 2010). Both the skin and the seeds can also be harnessed as a source of these compounds to
use as food additives (Ayala-Zavala et al., 2011). Remarkably the skin and seeds of avocado have higher levels of
these compounds than those that exist in many other fruits and vegetables such as apple (Malus domestica), banana
(Musa cavendish), tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) or red cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. botrytis) just to
name a few (Marinova et al., 2005; Lin & Tang, 2007; Sulaiman et al., 2011; Vinha et al., 2013).
Consistent with the fact that they contain higher levels of bioactive antioxidant compounds, it was found that the
avocado seeds also exhibit higher, and statistically different, values of in-vitro antioxidant activity (measured in
this work through the ability to scavenge the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)), Figure 1.
These results differ slightly from those reported in the literature since both Wang et al. (2010) and
Rodríguez-Carpena et al. (2011) showed that the skin had superior antioxidant activity. In fact it turns out that both
the skin and the seeds of avocado fruit are very rich in antioxidant compounds however the seed has greater content
of flavonoids and phenolic compounds while the skin is richer in carotenoids. In general, the contribution of
vitamin C to the total antioxidant capacity of extracts varies with the type of fruit. In fact, vitamin C due to its
hydrophilic character is unique among the vitamins present in the avocado matrix, the majority of which, namely
vitamins A, D and E, are all liposoluble. It is well known fact that the bioactive compounds do not all have the
same antioxidant activity, thus, an increase in the level of a compound does not mean a proportional increase of
antioxidant activity of the matrix (Sanjust et al., 2008). Furthermore for a complex extract, as the one in question,
it is also necessary to take into account the synergistic or antagonistic effects among the various compounds
present, which makes not only the antioxidant activity dependent of the concentration of each compound but also
of the interaction between different compounds, antioxidants or not. Perhaps this is why when the concentration of
the extracts doubles, the antioxidant activity exhibited by the pulp increases but remains unaltered in case to the
skin and seeds.
www.ccse
n
Figur
e
2,2-diph
e
differenc
Most stud
i
evaluated
b
2008). Re
antioxida
n
Table 3.
C
Extrac
t
P
u
S
k
Se
e
Consideri
n
determine
d
(r = 0.820
)
found for
t
extracts a
n
4. Conclu
s
Despite n
o
chemical
c
Mexico a
n
of the fru
i
410.2±69.
vitamin C
average o
f
mg of vit
a
flavonoid
s
accordanc
e
n
et.org
/
jas
e
1. Antioxida
n
e
nyl-1-
p
icrylh
y
es (p<0.05) a
m
Iden
t
i
es have dem
o
b
y different
m
gression anal
y
n
ts quantified
i
C
orrelation am
o
t
matrix
u
lp
k
in
e
ds
n
g all the diffe
d
by the Folin
-
)
, respectivel
y
t
he contents o
f
n
d the content
s
sions
o
t being nativ
e
c
haracteristics
n
d California.
I
i
t. Thus, for e
v
0
mg of total
and 5.36±1.7
7
f
679.0±117.0
a
min C and 2.1
s
, 0.966±0.16
4
e
with the hig
h
n
t activity (A.
A
y
drazyl radica
l
m
ong the antio
t
ical letters si
g
o
nstrated a lin
e
m
ethodologies
i
y
ses were per
f
i
n the avocado
o
ng the conte
n
Flavonoids
x
DPPH
-0.436
0.678
-0.506
rent antioxida
n
-
Ciocalteu an
d
y
. However, a
n
f
carotenoids,
t
s
of flavonoid
s
e
of the region
,
, with moistu
r
I
ts levels of bi
o
v
ery 100 g o
f
p
henolics, 21
7
mg of vita
m
mg total phe
n
3±1.03 mg o
f
4
mg of carote
n
h
er levels of bi
o
Journal of
A
A
.) of aqueou
s
l
(DPPH
). Th
e
xidant activit
y
g
nalize extract
s
e
ar correlatio
n
i
n fruits and v
e
f
ormed to co
r
tissues (Tabl
e
n
ts of bioactiv
e
Phen
o
x
DPP
H
-0.0
9
-0.4
3
0.7
1
n
t compounds
,
d
flavonoids c
o
n
alyzing the fr
u
t
otal phenolic
s
s
in the case o
f
,
the Algarvia
n
r
e, protein, f
a
o
active compo
u
f
Algarvian av
o
.9±1.0 mg of
m
in E. The no
n
n
olics, 44.3±3.
f
vitamin E (sk
i
n
oids, 2.6±1.1
o
active comp
o
A
gricultural Sc
i
106
s
extracts obta
i
e
symbol “*”
i
y
exhibited by
s
that exhibit t
h
n
between tot
a
e
getables (Ma
h
r
relate the ant
i
e
3).
e
compounds
a
o
lics
H
C
a
D
9
4
3
0
1
5
,
a good corre
l
o
ntents and D
P
u
it fractions s
e
s
and vitamin
E
f
t
he skin extr
a
n
avocado vari
a
t and ash co
m
u
nds are also
c
o
cado var. ‘H
flavonoids, 0
.
n
-edible parts,
1 mg of flavo
n
i
n) and 704.0
±
mg of vitami
n
o
unds the extr
a
i
ence
i
ned from the
v
i
ndicates the e
x
the two aque
o
h
e same antio
x
a
l phenolic co
n
h
attanatawee
e
i
oxidant activ
i
a
nd DPPH
an
t
a
rotenoids
x
D
PPH
-0.314
-0.132
0.703
l
ation was fou
n
P
PH radical sc
a
e
parately, goo
E
and antioxid
a
a
cts.
ety ‘Hass’ is
a
m
parable or s
u
c
omparable in
ass’, its edibl
e
.
815±0.201 m
i. e., the skin
n
oids, 2.585±
0
±
130.0 mg of
t
n
C and 4.82
±
a
cts obtained f
r
v
arious avoca
d
xistence of si
g
o
us extracts of
x
idant activity
n
tent and the
a
e
t al., 2006; C
o
i
ty of avocad
o
t
ioxidant activ
Vitamin C
x
DPPH
0.238
0.220
0.011
n
d between to
t
a
venging capa
c
d positive cor
r
a
nt activity ex
h
a
fruit with ex
c
u
perior to ‘H
a
the different c
e
portion (pul
p
g of caroteno
i
and seeds we
r
0
.117 mg of c
a
t
otal phenolics
±
1.42 mg of vi
r
om the seeds
a
Vol. 5, No. 12;
d
o fractions o
n
g
nificant statis
t
the same frac
t
a
ntioxidant ac
t
o
r
r
al-Aguayo
e
o
samples wit
h
ity
Vitamin
x
DPPH
0.123
-0.880
0.641
t
al phenolic c
o
c
ity (r = 0.783
r
elations were
h
ibited by the
s
c
ellent physic
a
a
ss’ avocados
onstituent fra
c
p
) has, on av
e
i
ds, 1.2±0.7
m
r
e found to ha
v
a
rotenoids, 4.
1
, 47.97±2.69
m
tamin E (seed
a
nd skin of av
o
2013
n
t
ical
ion.
t
ivity
e
t al.,
h
the
E
ntent
) and
only
s
eeds
a
l and
from
c
tions
rage,
m
g de
v
e an
1
±2.7
m
g of
s
). In
o
cado
www.ccsenet.org/jas Journal of Agricultural Science Vol. 5, No. 12; 2013
107
presented higher antioxidant activity against the DPPH (43% and 35%, respectively) compared to that exhibited
by the pulp (only 23%). The fact that the non-edible parts of the fruit (skin and seeds) contains such high levels of
carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolics makes the idea of their exploitation, as a cheap source of these compounds
in the food industry and dermo-cosmetics, very appealing. The mass of byproducts obtained as a result of
processing tropical exotic crops, such as that of avocado, may approach or even exceed that of the corresponding
edible part affecting the economics of growing of these crops.
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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution
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... This result is low as compared to that found by Vinha et al., (2013), who found that the pulp of the mature Algarvian avocado has 1.07% (as grams of tartaric acid per 100 g of sample), but it is relatively high as compared to that reported by Krumreich et al., (2018) for Breda cultivar (0.53%). ...
... Hass avocado was the highest in its content of total carotenoids, α-carotene, β-carotene, and lutein, while Reed avocado was the lowest in total carotenoids content, Fuerte avocado was the lowest in α-carotene content, and Pinkerton avocado was the lowest in β-carotene and Lutein contents. Vinha et al., (2013) found that β-carotene content in the pulp of Hass avocados grown in the Portugal region is (0.810 mg/100 g sample). Also, Hass avocado was the highest cultivar in its content of total chlorophyll (29.5 μg/g, FW), Chlorophyll a (15.6 μg/g, FW), and Chlorophyll b (13.2 μg/g, FW), while Ettinger avocado was the lowest in total chlorophyll (7.4 μg/g, FW), Chlorophyll a (2.1 μg/g, FW), and Chlorophyll b (4.5 μg/g, FW). ...
... The carotenoids are usually concentrated in the skin of the fruit, so the flesh of the fruits after peeling loses a large amount of these vital compounds. Vinha et al., (2013) reported that Carotenoids content in pulp, seed and skin of Hass avocado were 0.815, 0.966 and 2.585 mg/100 g FW, respectively. ...
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Amongst the most common tropical fruits is avocado (Persea americana), which is widely consumed in the world due to its high nutritional value and multiple applications. Hass avocado cultivar is the primary global cultivar of avocado. Recently, some other cultivars are included by some producers in Egypt namely Ettinger, Fuerte, Maluma, Pinkerton, and Reed. The point of the study is to evaluate the chemical composition, fatty acid profile, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of various cultivars in the fruit flesh. The results indicated that the ripening season of avocados extends from early October to mid-March. Ettinger avocado is the earliest cultivar, while the Reed cultivar is the most delayed avocado in the ripening. Hass cultivar recorded a higher value of firmness (89.5 N). Dry matter was 32.12, 27.67% in Hass and Ettinger, respectively. Acidity and chemical composition differed significantly (P <0.05) among all avocados under study. All cultivars can be considered as good sources of K, P, and Mg elements, and moderate sources of Ca and Na elements, while they contain relatively limited quantities of Fe, Zn, and Mn elements. Oleic acid was the main fatty acid present in the oil of all avocado cultivars, while myristic acid was the lowest in all of the cultivars. The acidic amino acids (glutamic and aspartic) were the greatest amino acids in all the studied avocados, while S-amino acids (methionine and cystine) and tryptophane were the lowest acids in the studied cultivars. Hass avocado significantly was the highest in its content of total carotenoids (6.91 μg/g, FW), α-carotene (0.58 μg/g, FW), β-carotene (1.43 μg/g, FW), lutein (3.84 μg/g, FW), total chlorophyll (29.5 μg/g, FW), Chlorophyll a (15.6 μg/g, FW), and Chlorophyll b (13.2 μg/g, FW), total phenols content (4.9±0.38 mg/g FW), total flavonoids content (0.25±0.01mg/g FW), Ascorbic acid content (12.8±0.15 mg/100g FW), and DPPH value (1.3±0.09 μmol TE/g). The individual phenolic compounds in the flesh of avocado fruits were significantly (P <0.05) affected by cultivars. The major compound was epicatechin, which ranged between 130.12 μg/g DW (in Hass cultivar) and 184.15 μg/g DW (in Pinkerton cultivar).
... Avocado Oil by-Products: Seed and Peel and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals Table 4 shows the chemical composition of seeds and peels of avocado "Hass" variety determined by different authors [30][31][32][33]. Although the same avocado variety was evaluated, differences have been detected. ...
... More hydroxycinnamic acids and derivatives were identified in avocado pulp, seed, and peel. Chlorogenic acid has been reported in avocado pulp, seed, and peel, while caffeoylquinic acids have been recorded just in seed and peel (ID: [30][31][32][33][34]. It is noteworthy that the application of alkaline hydrolysis is suggested in order to obtain better and more effective results in the extraction of phenolic acids (hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids) and even flavonoids [50]. ...
... The peel ethanolic extract (PEL-ET) presented the highest content of total phenolic compounds (35.40 ± 0.599 mg of gallic acid/g of ethanol extract), which was significantly different from all other extracts. Similarly, the TPC reported for peels from another variety of avocados using the same methodology (Folin-Ciocalteau) was 47.9 ± 2.7 mg of gallic acid/g of ethanol extract [28]. Conversely, peel ethanolic extracts from different varieties of P. Americana, including the Fortuna variety, presented lower phenolic compounds contents [29]. ...
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Avocado (Persea americana) is a widely consumed fruit and a rich source of nutrients and phytochemicals. Its industrial processing generates peels and seeds which represent 30% of the fruit. Environmental issues related to these wastes are rapidly increasing and likely to double, according to expected avocado production. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the potential of hexane and ethanolic peel (PEL-H, PEL-ET) and seed (SED-H, SED-ET) extracts from avocado as sources of neuroprotective compounds. Minerals, total phenol (TPC), total flavonoid (TF), and lipid contents were determined by absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography. In addition, phytochemicals were putatively identified by paper spray mass spectrometry (PSMS). The extracts were good sources of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, ω-6 linoleic acid, and flavonoids. Moreover, fifty-five metabolites were detected in the extracts, consisting mainly of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and alkaloids. The in vitro antioxidant capacity (FRAP and DPPH), acetylcholinesterase inhibition, and in vivo neuroprotective capacity were evaluated. PEL-ET was the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, with no significant difference (p > 0.05) compared to the control eserine, and it showed neither preventive nor regenerative effect in the neuroprotection assay. SED-ET demonstrated a significant protective effect compared to the control, suggesting neuroprotection against rotenone-induced neurological damage.
... Fruit peels, such as banana peels [45], watermelon peels [55], bitter orange peels [56], cucumis melo peels [57], and durian peels [58], have been widely used for AC biosynthesis. Therefore, the utilization of the inedible parts of fruits (peels) may prove profitable for farmers in the near future since certain fruit peels are of great value as a source of bioactive compounds [59,60]. Potato peel from domestic and industrial waste was used for AC fabrication [61,62], and date seeds were used for the green biosynthesis of AC [63]. ...
... Avocado is nutrients-dense fruit that is healthy and enjoyable fruit. Avocado contains a small amount of carbohydrates, a good amount of protein and fat, and it is rich in vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, and minerals (Vinha, Moreira, & Barreira, 2013). Due to the thermal and oxygen sensitivity of avocado, high hydrostatic pressure as a nonthermal technology is most suitable for this product. ...
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... As presented in Table 4, TSS decreased from initial values of 7.8 0 B to 5.9 0 B in Gunny bag cool chamber on 12 th day of storage, whereas in Bricks cool chamber and Bamboo mat cool chamber the corresponding values were 6.166 0 B and 6.7 0 B, respectively. Earlier researchers (Vinha et al., 2013) reported a TSS of 6.68±1.02 in avocado pulp. The present findings fall almost within the range reported by the researchers. ...
... Fruit peels, such as banana peels [45], watermelon peels [55], bitter orange peels [56], cucumis melo peels [57], and durian peels [58], have been widely used for AC biosynthesis. Therefore, the utilization of the inedible parts of fruits (peels) may prove profitable for farmers in the near future since certain fruit peels are of great value as a source of bioactive compounds [59,60]. Potato peel from domestic and industrial waste was used for AC fabrication [61,62], and date seeds were used for the green biosynthesis of AC [63]. ...
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Global overpopulation, industrial expansion, and urbanization have generated massive amounts of wastes. This is considered as a significant worldwide challenge that requires an urgent solution. Additionally, remarkable advances in the field of biomedicine have impacted the entire spectrum of healthcare and medicine. This has paved the way for further refining of the outcomes of biomedical strategies toward early detection and treatment of different diseases. Various nanomaterials (NMs) have been dedicated to different biomedical applications including drug delivery, vaccinations, imaging modalities, and biosensors. However, toxicity is still the main factor restricting their use. NMs recycled from different types of wastes present a pioneering approach to not only avoid hazardous effects on the environment, but to also implement circular economy practices, which are crucial to attain sustainable growth. Moreover, recycled NMs have been utilized as a safe, yet revolutionary alternative with outstanding potential for many biomedical applications. This review focuses on waste recycled NMs, their synthesis, properties, and their potential for multiple biomedical applications with special emphasis on their role in the early detection and control of multiple diseases. Their pivotal therapeutic actions as antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant nanodrugs, and vaccines will also be outlined. The ongoing advancements in the design of recycled NMs are expanding their diagnostic and therapeutic roles for diverse biomedical applications in the era of precision medicine.
... Not much work up to our knowledge has been reported regarding the most known organic acids evolution during growth, development, and ripening of Persea americana possibly due to its high oil content that significantly contributes to fruit quality and taste instead of other fruit in which organic acids such as malate, citrate, tartaric, etc. play a significant role in fruit quality and taste. Avocado is classified as a non-acid fruit and compared to other fruit, and it contains very low amounts of citric and malic acid being the tartaric acid the predominant organic acid (Duckworth, 1966;Ahmed et al., 2010;Viña et al., 2013;Defilippi et al., 2015). Defilippi et al. (2015) reported the organic acid profile of Hass avocado at harvest and during ripening at 20°C up to 15 days. ...
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Avocado (Persea americana Mill) is rich in a variety of essential nutrients and phytochemicals; thus, consumption has drastically increased in the last 10 years. Avocado unlike other fruit is characterized by oil accumulation during growth and development and presents a unique carbohydrate pattern. There are few previous and current studies related to primary metabolism. The fruit is also quite unique since it contains large amounts of C 7 sugars (mannoheptulose and perseitol) acting as transportable and storage sugars and as potential regulators of fruit ripening. These C 7 sugars play a central role during fruit growth and development, but still confirmation is needed regarding the biosynthetic routes and the physiological function during growth and development of avocado fruit. Relatively recent transcriptome studies on avocado mesocarp during development and ripening have revealed that most of the oil is synthesized during early stages of development and that oil synthesis is halted when the fruit is harvested (pre-climacteric stage). Most of the oil is accumulated in the form of triacylglycerol (TAG) representing 60-70% in dry basis of the mesocarp tissue. During early stages of fruit development, high expression of transcripts related to fatty acid and TAG biosynthesis has been reported and downregulation of same genes in more advanced stages but without cessation of the process until harvest. The increased expression of fatty acid key genes and regulators such as PaWRI1, PaACP4-2, and PapPK-β-1 has also been reported to be consistent with the total fatty acid increase and fatty acid composition during avocado fruit development. During postharvest, there is minimal change in the fatty acid composition of the fruit. Almost inexistent information regarding the role of organic acid and amino acid metabolism during growth, development, and ripening of avocado is available. Cell wall metabolism understanding in avocado, even though crucial in terms of fruit quality, still presents severe gaps regarding the interactions between cell wall remodeling, fruit development, and postharvest modifications.
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The avocado (Persea Americana Mill.), a pear-shaped fruit, is a member of the family Lauraceae. It is a tropical native American fruit and is considered a functional food due to its unique bioactive compounds. Mexico is the largest producing country of avocado by over 30%, followed by Dominican Republic, Peru, Indonesia, Colombia, Kenya, United States of America, Rwanda, Chile, and Brazil. The use of the waste obtained after processing of avocado fruit presents an important economically viable avenue to be explored and utilized. A number of essential industrial products can be obtained from the avocado wastes, such as animal feed, oil, microbiological culture media, adsorbents/bioremediants, biocatalysts, biodiesel, starch, fuel, cosmeceuticals, and biopolymers. The waste extracts mainly from peels and seeds have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anticancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, hepato-protective, and insecticidal activities, making them useful for a wide range of innovative nutraceutical applications. This chapter provides insight into composition, bioactivities, and potential food and non-food applications of the avocado by-products.
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Introduction. Matrixes engineering is a method to obtain functional food that uses the vacuum impregnatiuon technique to add components to the structure of porous food. Objective. Determining the effect of adding vitamin C and calcium by means of vacuum impregnation (VI) on the quality parameters of minimally processed Hass avocado (Persea americana Mill) Results. The VI process provided better characteristics to the samples treated with it in comparison to those with a fresh treatment, with a reduction of the enzymatic browning (a higher luminosity >L* and less red coloring), conservation of the hardness, less microbiological countings and a higher sensorial acceptance Conclusions. Adding vitamins and calcium with the vacuum impregnation technique, VI, is an efficient method to conserve the quality characteristics of the minimally processed Hass avocado samples.
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