Article

L'eggo My Ego: Reducing the Gender Gap in Math by Unlinking the Self from Performance

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Abstract

Stereotype threat can vary in source, with targets being threatened at the individual and/or group level. This study examines specifically the role of self-reputational threat in women's underperformance in mathematics. A pilot study shows that women report concerns about experiencing self-reputational threat that are distinct from group threat in the domain of mathematics. In the main study, we manipulated whether performance was linked to the self by asking both men and women to complete a math test using either their real name or a fictitious name. Women who used a fictitious name, and thus had their self unlinked from the math test, showed significantly higher math performance and reported less self-threat and distraction, relative to those who used their real names. Men were unaffected by the manipulation. These findings suggest that women's impaired math performance is often due to the threat of confirming a negative stereotype as being true of the self. The implications for understanding the different types of threats faced by stereotyped groups, particularly among women in math settings, are discussed.

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... Plusieurs études confirment l'existence de menaces différentes en lien avec les caractéristiques du groupe (Pennington, et al., 2016 ;Shapiro, 2011 ;Zhang, Schmader, & Hall, 2013 Cette étude nous a également permis de montrer l'influence de la situation sur les perceptions de menace. En effet, la méthodologie employée, axée sur la menace de la réputation personnelle, a généré davantage de crainte pour ce type de menace. ...
... Dans deux études 5 , nous avons activé la source de la menace à travers des consignes Dans les deux situations de menace, la tâche était présentée comme une mesure des habiletés scolaires. La source de la menace était manipulée par le caractère public ou confidentiel de la performance (voir Wout, Danso, Jackson, & Spencer, 2008 ;Zhang, et al., 2013). Dans la situation de menace de soi, les participants étaient informés que leur résultat serait confidentiel et qu'ils seraient les seuls à avoir accès à leur résultat. ...
... L'existence de chute de performances différente en fonction des sources de la menace a reçu quelques confirmations théoriques (Wout et al., 2008 ;Zhang et al., 2013). Par exemple, Zhang et al. (2013) montrent que la chute de performance d'étudiantes en mathématiques est plus importante lorsque la situation génère une menace de la réputation personnelle plutôt qu'une menace de la réputation du groupe. ...
Thesis
Analyse des contextes menaçants en milieu scolaire. Effet des modalités de scolarisation et des stéréotypes
... Though perspective taking has not been examined directly in the realm of stereotype threat there has been previous work that alludes to the possible success of manipulating perspective taking to increase performance and motivation in threat situations. Recent research has demonstrated that changing the how you view the situation, whether it be through the use of specific emotion regulation techniques (Johns, Schmader, & Inzlicht, 2008), by changing the scope of the focus from the self to the larger group (McIntyre, Paulson, & Lord, 2003), or by removing the implication of the results from the self through pseudonyms (Zhang, Schmader, & Hall, 2013) can have positive impacts on the performance of women under stereotype threat situations. This research extends previous work that focused on removing the implication of performance for the self, to focus on seeing the self in a different way. ...
... This supports the idea that utilizing self-distancing in a situation that is likely to induce stereotype threat can have a buffering effect on motivation and performance on an ensuing task. This is in line with previous work that demonstrated that disconnecting the self from the performance (e.g., by using a pseudonym on the test) can have buffering effects on those under stereotype threat (Zhang et al., 2013). ...
... This work can provide initial evidence that adopting a self-distanced perspective can be used as a tool to work through stereotype threat situations that arise in common academic situations, such as receiving negative feedback in a course within a domain in which one's group is negatively stereotyped. Although previous research has begun to shine light on the idea that distancing the self from the threat can have positive effects within a stereotype threat situation (Martens, Johns, Greenberg, & Schimel, 2006;McIntyre et al., 2003;Zhang et al., 2013), these interventions were not necessarily feasible in everyday academic situations. The goal of this work was to test a type of intervention that could be utilized in an everyday academic setting under normal situational constraints. ...
Thesis
Women remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, perhaps in part because of the prevalent experience of stereotype threat. Stereotype threat leads to a ruminative cycle of negative thoughts and emotions resulting in decreased performance and motivation. It is expected that adopting a distanced self-perspective can disrupt this ruminative cycle and buffer the downstream negative effects of stereotype threat. Study 1 tests this by asking college women of all majors to adopt a self-distanced perspective while completing a math exam that created stereotype threat. Study 1 suggests that adopting a self-distanced perspective can increase women’s motivation and performance on a math exam. Study 2a aimed to replicate these effects among a sample of women highly invested in the STEM realm and to extend the findings to strength of STEM identity and commitment to future plans in STEM. Generally, adopting a self-distanced perspective led to increases in motivation in both solvable and unsolvable math exam problems, self-reported strength of STEM identity, and commitment to future plans. Study 2b sought to understand how the presence of stereotype threat interacted with self-perspective by examining the motivation and performance of STEM men while utilizing a self-distanced perspective. Contrasting Studies 2a and Study 2b demonstrated that self-distancing influenced motivation only for those experiencing stereotype threat. Study 3 examined the mechanism through which adopting a self-distanced perspective disrupted the ruminative cycle associated with stereotype threat. A thought listing task was utilized to gain insight into the thoughts and feelings women had while adopting different self-perspectives after receiving negative feedback. Women who adopted a self-distanced perspective reported significantly fewer internal and external attributions about the negative feedback they received. Study 4 assessed the influence that adopting a self-distanced perspective can have on protecting available working memory during a recall task. Female college students across all majors who adopted a self-distanced perspective demonstrated increased working memory directly following the self-perspective manipulation. Overall, adopting a self-distanced perspective was found to mitigate many of the negative effects of stereotype threat. Implications for use of self-distancing as a tool to combat stereotype threat are discussed.
... Few studies have shown that the target of threat could have distinct effects on one's performance (Wout, Danso, Jackson, & Spencer, 2008;Zhang, Schmader, & Hall, 2013). For example, Wout et al. (2008) investigated the effect of two types of threat on women's performance: A self-concept threat (i.e., the concern about confirming that a negative stereotype about oneself is true) and a group-reputation threat (i.e., the concern about confirming that a negative stereotype about their gender is true). ...
... Indeed, gender identification moderated the effect of the group-reputation threat condition on test performance (i.e., the more participants identified with their gender, the more their performance was impaired in this condition) but not the effect of the self-based threat. In the same way, Zhang et al. (2013) explored the effect of threat target on women's math performance. In a pilot study, they demonstrated that women's concerns about confirming the stereotype are more important in a self-reputation threat condition than in a group-reputation threat condition. ...
... However, according to Shapiro and Neuberg (2007), the performance context (i.e., public or private) could also influence the experience of both other-as-source ST (i.e. for self-as-target, own-reputation -ingroup-threat, own-reputation -outgroup -threat) and self-as-source ST (i.e., for self-as-target, the self-concept threat). If most studies in ST literature were conducted in public settings (see for examples Desombre et al., 2018;Steele, & Aronson, 1995;Wout et al., 2008;Zhang et al., 2013), the hypothesis that ST can appear in private settings has also received some attention (Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev, 2003;Larkin & Pines, 2011;Sekaquaptewa & Thompson, 2003;Stone, 2002). Steele and Aronson (1995) argued that private self-evaluation, in addition to public situations, can trigger ST (see also Steele, 1997). ...
Article
Stereotype threat (ST) refers to the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one's group. Distinct forms of ST can be elicited based on both the target and the source of the threat. Here, we focused on how peculiar ST sources distinctly impact performance for individuals who face self-based threats. More particularly, we hypothesized that the decrease in performance would be stronger for individuals who face a self-concept threat (triggered by a private self-evaluation) in comparison with those who face an own-reputation threat (triggered by a public evaluation). In two studies, participants were randomly assigned to one of the following experimental conditions: control, self-concept, or own-reputation threat. Results confirmed the hypothesis by showing that participants in the control condition perform better than those in the own-reputation threat condition, who performed better than those in the self-concept threat condition. The contributions of this work as well as the limitations are discussed.
... Others-as-source threats können auch als die Angst davor beschrieben werden, durch die Bestätigung eines Stereotyps Andere zu enttäuschen (Shapiro & Williams, 2013 Die Korrelation zwischen group-threats und self-threats liegt vermutlich bei einer mittleren Effektstärke (r=.62), was bedeutet, dass sie einen gemeinsamen Varianzanteil von 38% besitzen (Zhang, et al., 2012). Trotz dieser Überlappung, führen diese beiden Arten von threats zu verschiedenen Effekten. ...
... Trotz dieser Überlappung, führen diese beiden Arten von threats zu verschiedenen Effekten. Eine Hilfe, um die Art der Bedrohung näher zu bestimmen, sind zwei Moderatoren, welche das Auftreten verschiedener Bedrohungsformen bedingen: group-identification und stereotype-endorsement (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007;Shapiro, 2011;Wout, et al., 2008;Zhang, et al., 2012). Im Folgenden werden diese zwei Moderatoren behandelt. ...
... Es gibt Hinweise darauf, dass Identity-Switching keine nachhaltige Coping-Strategie ist, um mit Rolleninterferenzen umzugehen (Settles, 2004 (Schmader, et al., 2002;Wout et al., 2008;Zhang, et al., 2012), sich möglicherweise auf spezifische Traits, die mit der Identifizierung mit der In-Group einhergehen, reduzieren lassen. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Stereotype vereinfachen, beschleunigen und ordnen soziale Interaktionen, indem sie Menschen kategorisieren und ihnen spezifische " cultural traits " zuschreiben. Nach der Stereotype-Threat Theorie können negative Stereotype den Selbstwert von Menschen bedrohen, was Angst einflößend wirkt und die Leistung der Betroffenen in evaluativen Situationen negativ beeinflusst. Nach dem Multi-Threat-Framework (MTF) wird diese Bedrohung durch Stereotype von verschiedenen Gruppen unter verschiedenen Bedingungen auf verschiedene Weise erlebt. Es wird gezeigt, welche Rolle die Gruppenidentität, die Dis-Identifizierung, die Domänenidentität sowie die Zustimmung zu negativen Stereotypen im MTF spielt. Dabei werden offene Fragen, sowie theoretische und praktische Implikationen des MTF diskutiert.
... Ces différents types de menace ont été mises en évidence à travers des chutes de performances contrastées (Desombre, Jury, Bagès, & Brasselet, 2019 ;Jamieson & Harkin, 2010 ;Wout, Danso, Jackson, & Spencer, 2008 ;Zhang, Schmader, & Hall, 2013). Zhang et collaborateurs (2013, étude 2) ont par exemple mesuré l'effet modérateur des cibles de la menace sur les performances des étudiantes en mathématiques. ...
... Ainsi, Shapiro et Neuberg (2007) ont proposé un modèle multi-menaces dans lequel ils distinguent six différents types de menace en fonction de la source (c.-à-d., soi, les membres de l'endogroupe ou les membres de l'exogroupe) et de la cible de la menace (c.-à-d., soi ou le groupe). La distinction entre ces différentes formes de menace est signifiante puisque celles-ci peuvent avoir des conséquences particulières, notamment sur les performances des individus (Desombre et al., 2019 ;Wout et al., 2008 ;Zhang et al., 2013). Ainsi, l'objectif de cette étude était de traduire en français un outil proposé dans la littérature anglophone (Shapiro, 2011) et de tester sa structure factorielle ; la communauté francophone dispose ainsi d'une mesure des différents types de menace du stéréotype auquel un individu peut faire face. ...
Article
Selon le modèle Multi-Menaces de Shapiro et Neuberg (2007), la menace du stéréotype serait polymorphe et dépendrait de la source de la menace (c.-à-d., qui peut utiliser ces actions comme une indication des habiletés ? Soi, les membres de l’endogroupe, ou les membres de l’exogroupe ?) et de la cible de la menace (c.-à-d., quelle performance reflète l’action ? La performance du soi ou du groupe ?). L’objectif de cet article est de proposer une validation factorielle d’un outil francophone de mesure multimenaces du stéréotype (Shapiro, 2011). Pour ce faire, 273 lycéennes et lycéens en classe de seconde, première et terminale ont répondu au questionnaire dans un domaine stéréotypique correspondant (en mathématiques pour les filles et en français pour les garçons). Les analyses factorielles confirmatoires indiquent que conformément aux propositions théoriques de Shapiro et Neuberg (2007), un modèle à six facteurs s’ajuste le mieux aux données. Ces analyses soulignent la pertinence de distinguer différents types de menace du stéréotype en fonction de la source et de la cible de la menace. Les résultats sont discutés en termes d’implications théoriques et pratiques.
... Cette approche multi-menace pose aussi la question de l'ampleur des chutes de performances en fonction de la menace activée. Quelques travaux (Wout et al., 2008 ;Zhang, Schmader & Hall, 2013) ont d'ores et déjà montré des effets contrastés des menaces du stéréotype sur les performances des participants. Par exemple, Wout et ses collaborateurs (2008, étude 1) ont montré que la performance moyenne de femmes à un test mathématique était plus faible dans une situation de menace ciblant l'individu que celle obtenue dans la condition contrôle. ...
... 13 L'importance de la difficulté de la tâche dans les menaces du stéréotype a été mis en évidence antérieurement (Spencer et al., étude 1, 1999 Après une brève présentation de l'expérimentatrice, les types de menaces étaient activés par des consignes différentes, notamment à travers le caractère confidentiel ou public de la performance. Ce type de méthodologie, basé sur le caractère privé ou public de la performance, est employé dans les études qui mettent en oeuvre les différents types de menaces du stéréotype (Wout et al., 2008 ;Zhang et al., 2013). (West, Aiken, & Krull, 1996), afin de tester nos hypothèses, deux contrastes planifiés ont été mis en oeuvre où chaque contraste compare l'une des deux conditions menaçantes à la condition non menace. ...
Thesis
L’objectif général de cette thèse est de contribuer à la compréhension des phénomènes de menaces du stéréotype. Ce travail de thèse tente d’analyser les rôles de l’adhésion au stéréotype, de l’intériorisation du stéréotype et de la conscience de la stigmatisation dans les situations de menaces du stéréotype en fonction de leurs sources. Nous souhaitons montrer que l’impact de ces trois variables sur les perceptions de menaces et sur les performances est fonction de la source de la menace du stéréotype. Pour ce faire, nous avons conduit une série de six études expérimentales.A partir d’une approche multi-menaces, nous proposons dans un premier temps que l’adhésion au stéréotype et l’intériorisation du stéréotype interviennent exclusivement dans les menaces provenant de l’individu. Deux études expérimentales permettent de valider cette idée. Nous examinons dans un second temps le rôle de la conscience de la stigmatisation. Nous postulons que cette variable intervient exclusivement dans les menaces provenant des autres. Quatre études expérimentales permettent de valider en partie cette hypothèse.Cette thèse contribue à la compréhension des rôles de variables modératrices de la menace du stéréotype par l’approche multi-menaces.
... We suggest that increasing immigrant students' sense of belonging to the residence culture may buffer the negative effects of chronic experiences of stereotype threat. As stereotype threat differs across groups, domains, and outcomes, interventions need to be tailored according to the specific needs of the affected group (Shapiro, Williams, & Hambarchyan, 2013; see also Zhang, Schmader, & Hall, 2013). Based on theory and findings from acculturation and stereotype threat research, it is hypothesized that laying the ground to increase immigrants' feelings of connectedness to the residence culture -without promoting dissociation from the ethnic culture or exerting assimilation pressure -counteracts stereotype vulnerability. ...
... However, the sample was drawn from regular school classes in a Central European country; it represents the heterogeneous learning context that all students are facing. In line with previous research, we suggest that interventions need to be tailored to accommodate different needs in different environments, triggered by different threats (Shapiro et al., 2013;Zhang et al., 2013). In particular, there is a need for more in-depth research on the effects of chronic experiences of stereotype threat among immigrants and how to counteract them. ...
Article
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Research has shown that stereotype threat can inhibit immigrant students to unlock their full potential. Individual differences in cultural identity could be associated with immigrants’ stereotype vulnerability. This longitudinal study (n = 516) investigates the influence of recurring experiences of stereotype threat at school, and how adolescent immigrants’ cultural identity and stereotype vulnerability affect their educational achievement. The results show a stronger decline of immigrants’ (vs. non-immigrants’) GPA, domain identification, and sense of academic belonging, as well as higher dropout rates. Higher stereotype vulnerability predicted a stronger decline in GPA, and lower levels of academic belonging. Stronger ethnic identity was related to higher stereotype vulnerability. An experimental belonging treatment failed to improve students’ educational achievement. This research combines stereotype threat and acculturation research within the educational context.
... In several studies (e.g., Wout et al. 2008;Zhang et al. 2013), the authors observed different decrements in performances as a function of the type of threat that is activated. For example, Zhang et al. (2013)'s studies are devoted to two types of threats. ...
... In several studies (e.g., Wout et al. 2008;Zhang et al. 2013), the authors observed different decrements in performances as a function of the type of threat that is activated. For example, Zhang et al. (2013)'s studies are devoted to two types of threats. In a first pilot study investigating the women's threat concerns in math, they showed that women reported a greater concern about how gender stereotypes threatened their self-reputation rather than their group-reputation. ...
Article
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This study investigated the hypothesis that cognitive performance of students with physical disabilities may be influenced by the evaluators’ identity. Students with or without a physical disability completed a logic test and were informed that they would be evaluated by students from their own group (ingroup condition) or from an other group (outgroup condi- tion). When they had been informed they would be evaluated by students in the outgroup (i.e., students without disabilities), students with physical disabilities had a worse performance than all other participants. Findings are discussed in relation to stereotype threat and its conse- quences in academic contexts.
... For example, Cohen and Garcia (2005) found that Black undergraduates reported feeling both a sense of group-reputation threat (a worry that they could confirm the stereotype about Blacks) and self-reputation threat (a worry that the Black stereotype would be used to evaluate them personally). Women reflecting on their experience in math also have reported each of these threats (Zhang, Schmader, & Hall, 2012). Going forward, researchers should consider the type of threat that is evoked for different people or in different situations because interventions might need to be designed with the type of threat in mind. ...
... These questions have not been explored thoroughly. Several studies, however, have suggested that when it is emphasized that performance is anonymous and will be examined only in the aggregate, women perform better on a math test than when they believe their performance will be used to evaluate them as individuals (Jamieson & Harkins, 2010;Zhang et al., 2012). Removing the self from the performance context seems to alleviate stereotype threat, at least for the average female college student taking a math test. ...
... Whereas stereotyped groups were shown to exert more effort to prove the stereotypes about their social group wrong (e.g., Jamieson and Harkins, 2007), the effects were shown to be based not only on the social identity of and membership in the stereotyped group but also on the individual's self. Therefore, using fictitious names and thereby separating performance from the identity of the participant enabled a reduction in stereotype threat effects on women (Zhang et al., 2012). ...
Article
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This paper focuses on stereotype threat and its effects on sense of belonging in the German Physics Olympiad science competition. Participants completed questionnaires about sense of belonging, stereotype endorsement, interest, and self-concept in physics, as well as about value and success expectations of studying physics in college. Female participants who endorsed negative stereotypes about female talent for physics felt less sense of belonging to physics. This effect did not manifest for male participants. Sense of belonging to physics significantly predicted value and success expectations for studying physics in college beyond what is predicted by interest and self-concept in physics. These findings suggest that sense of belonging is influenced by stereotype threat, which was shown to cause gender differences in science. Nevertheless, sense of belonging could be included into the expectancy-value theory based on its predictive impact on value and success expectations of studying physics.
... Although neither end of this spectrum questions whether gender differences exist, these perspectives suggest different directions as to how to address gender differences. That is, if gender is viewed as a social construct, this suggests that a way to address gender differences is by breaking down barriers that may have come about through learned gender roles (e.g. as with stereotype threat (Appel et al., 2011;Zhang et al., 2013)). This is the direction the GenderMag method takes. ...
Article
In recent years, research into gender differences has established that individual differences in how people problem-solve often cluster by gender. Research also shows that these differences have direct implications for software that aims to support users' problem-solving activities, and that much of this software is more supportive of problem-solving processes favored (statistically) more by males than by females. However, there is almost no work considering how software practitioners—such as User Experience (UX) professionals or software developers—can find gender-inclusiveness issues like these in their software. To address this gap, we devised the GenderMag method for evaluating problem-solving software from a gender-inclusiveness perspective. The method includes a set of faceted personas that bring five facets of gender difference research to life, and embeds use of the personas into a concrete process through a gender-specialized Cognitive Walkthrough. Our empirical results show that a variety of practitioners who design software—without needing any background in gender research—were able to use the GenderMag method to find gender-inclusiveness issues in problem-solving software. Our results also show that the issues the practitioners found were real and fixable. This work is the first systematic method to find gender-inclusiveness issues in software, so that practitioners can design and produce problem-solving software that is more usable by everyone.
... Alternatively, averted-gaze cues might signal that he or she is not a target of social evaluation in that situation. Zhang, Schmader, and Hall (2013) reported that disassociating the self from an evaluative situation, achieved by asking participants to use a fictitious name (rather than a real name) in a math test, decreased self-evaluative concerns among women and alleviated negative effects of stereotype threat on math performance. Avertedgaze cues might signal a less evaluative situation, therefore reducing the applicability of implicit stereotypes to the self. ...
Article
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This paper argues that implicit self-stereotyping is moderated by the potential for social evaluation in that situation. It was hypothesized that implicit self-stereotyping is facilitated when social cues (i.e., gaze cues) signal social evaluation. This study examined whether gaze cues affected implicit self-stereotyping related to gender stereotypes regarding math competence. A pilot study demonstrated that just a presentation of direct-gaze cues (vs. averted-gaze cues) signaled social evaluation and social norms. The main study revealed that gender differences in math identity were more prominent under direct-gaze cues, relative to averted-gaze cues. Women showed more negative math identity than men did when they were exposed to directgaze cues, but not when exposed to averted-gaze cues. Moreover, these effects were particularly prominent among women with stronger implicit math-gender stereotypes and female identity. These indings improve our understanding of how and when implicit self-stereotyping occurs in social situations.
... Task differences may explain this discrepancy in results. Our task was an insight and association task, chosen intentionally over mathematical tasks to avoid any confounding effects of stereotype threat (e.g., Good et al., 2008;Zhang et al., 2013). Dardenne et al's task was a spatial working memory task that also required computation of distances. ...
Article
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Women's cardiovascular responses to sexist treatment are documented, but researchers have yet to consider these responses separately as a function of sexism type (hostile vs. benevolent). This study demonstrates distinct effects of hostile and benevolent sexism for women's cardiovascular responses that indicate increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Female participants performed a demanding insight task after exposure to a male researcher who offered them a hostilely sexist, benevolently sexist, or nonsexist comment. Women displayed heightened cardiovascular reactivity (increases from baseline) during the task following hostile sexism, and they displayed impaired cardiovascular recovery (return to baseline after the task) following benevolent sexism. The effects seen in the hostile condition were mediated by self-reported anger. These findings indicate that women's affective responses to hostile and benevolent sexism differ but that exposure to both forms of sexism may have negative cardiovascular consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
... 1 However, the video camera also served to create the perception that all participants' individual performance could be evaluated. Research suggests that the potential for evaluation plays a key role in producing stereotype threat performance deficits (e.g., Jamieson & Harkins, 2010;Wout, Danso, Jackson, & Spencer, 2008;Zhang, Schmader, & Hall, 2013). However, performing in a group has the potential to make individual task contributions unidentifiable (e.g., Karau & Williams, 1993), which may make group members feel less concern about personally confirming the stereotype (but see Jamieson & Harkins, 2010;Schmader, 2002). ...
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Stereotype threat has been one of the most studied topics in social psychology in recent years. This research shows that subtle reminders of stereotypes about one’s social category hurt task performance—an effect replicated across several stereotypes and performance domains. Despite extensive research on individual performance, it is unknown how stereotype threat affects group performance. A question of theoretical and practical importance is whether people who face a common stereotype can overcome it by working together. To answer this question, an experiment was conducted comparing the performance of individual women and groups of women on a math/ logic problem when faced with a stereotype threat. Results indicated that when facing a stereotype threat, groups outperformed the best individuals and performed just as well as non-threatened groups. This effect was due to threatened groups avoiding problem-solving errors. The implications for understanding group versus individual performance when facing stereotype threats are discussed.
Chapter
The design of domain-specific software systems can benefit from participatory design practices making domain experts and programmers equal, collaborating partners. The source code of such a system might be a viable communication artifact to mediate the perspectives of the two groups. However, source code written in a general-purpose programming language is often considered too difficult to comprehend for untrained readers. At the same time, it is yet unclear what makes general-purpose programming languages difficult to understand. Based on our previous study and related work from programming pedagogy and cognitive psychology, we develop an initial theory of factors that might influence the comprehensibility of source code documents by untrained readers. This theory covers factors stemming from the features of source code, factors related to the visual appearance of source code, and factors concerned with aspects independent of code documents. This chapter discusses and illustrates these potential factors and points out initial hypotheses about how these factors can influence comprehensibility.
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This meta-analytic review examined the effectiveness of stereotype threat interventions. Integrating the identity engagement model (Cohen, Purdie-Vaughs, & Garcia, 2012) with the process model of stereotype threat (Schmader, Johns, & Forbes, 2008), we categorized stereotype threat interventions into three types: belief-based, identity-based, and resilience-based stereotype threat interventions (STIs). Combining 251 effect sizes from 181 experiments, we found an overall effect size of d = 0.44, with the intervention group outperforming the control group. Subgroup analyses showed that while all three types of STIs helped counter stereotype threat, primary-appraisal-based (i.e., belief-based and identity-based) STIs were more effective than secondary-appraisal-based (i.e., resilience-based) STIs. We also traced the theoretical roots of 11 specific intervention strategies and showed that 9 of them yielded significant effect sizes. Moreover, we found evidence of publication bias regarding some but not all intervention types. These findings’ theoretical and practical implications, as well as methodological issues and future research directions for the stereotype threat intervention literature, are discussed. Keywords: stereotype threat, intervention, multilevel meta-analysis, resilience, performance.
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Contending with negative intellectual stereotypes has been shown to depress the academic performance of targets of the stereotypes [Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52, 613–629]. The present paper examines whether women’s mathematics performance is differentially affected by the concern of confirming that a negative stereotype is true of the self (self-threat), than by the concern of confirming that the stereotype is true of their gender (group-threat). In two studies we independently manipulated these different threats for women taking a mathematics test. Gender identification moderated the effect of group-threats on test performance; only women highly identified with their gender underperformed. The performance of less gender-identified women was unaffected by group-threats. In contrast, gender identification did not moderate the effect of self-threats—both high- and low-identified women underperformed. The results of these studies suggest that women’s math performance is differentially affected by the source of the threat.
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In many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines, women are outperformed by men in test scores, jeopardizing their success in science-oriented courses and careers. The current study tested the effectiveness of a psychological intervention, called values affirmation, in reducing the gender achievement gap in a college-level introductory physics class. In this randomized double-blind study, 399 students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the 15-week course. Values affirmation reduced the male-female performance and learning difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. A brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance and learning.
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People's fear and anxiety about doing math--over and above actual math ability--can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers' anxieties relate to girls' math achievement via girls' beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers' classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher's math anxiety and her students' math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year's end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that "boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading" and the lower these girls' math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers' math anxiety carries consequences for girls' math achievement by influencing girls' beliefs about who is good at math.
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Investigated the prediction that on difficult tasks (on which high levels of drive result in poor performance) working collectively would result in improved performance. A direct comparison of the methodologies of the social facilitation and social loafing paradigms was used. 48 undergraduate students were involved in the manipulation of 3 group conditions (alone, co-worker, and collective). The tasks involved 2 difficulty levels of computer mazes. Results indicate that Ss tended to perform better individually on simple tasks but better collectively on difficult tasks. Implications for integrating findings in social loafing and social facilitation are discussed. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although much research on stereotyping has documented significant negative consequences for the targets of unfavorable racial stereotypes, relatively little work has examined negative implications for the holders of such stereotypes. The present research highlights a notable cost for stereotype holders. In two studies, we demonstrated that racial stereotype activation can elicit maladaptive, stereotype-consistent behavior for nonstereotyped individuals who hold a stereotype. Non-African-American participants who were subtly primed with the African American stereotype performed significantly worse on a standardized math test than participants who were not so primed. The effect of the prime was significantly stronger for those individuals who spontaneously considered the stereotype from the first-person perspective. Implications and possible mechanisms of the effect are discussed.
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In addition to personal self-esteem, we propose that there is a second type of self-esteem, collective self-esteem. People who are high in trait collective self-esteem should be more likely to react to threats to collective self-esteem by derogating outgroups and enhancing the ingroup. In a study using the minimal intergroup paradigm, trait personal and collective self-esteem were measured, and subjects received information about the average performance of their group. Subjects high in collective self-esteem varied their ratings of above-average and below-average scorers on the test in an ingroup-enhancing fashion, whereas those low in collective self-esteem did not. Analyses based on personal self-esteem did not show this interaction. We conclude that collective self-esteem is an individual difference variable that may moderate the attempt to maintain a positive social identity. The relation between collective and personal self-esteem is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examines cardiovascular responses indicating challenge (vs. threat) during motivated performance of women under social identity threat. Low gender identified women should primarily be concerned with their personal identity and self-worth, leading them to benefit from self-affirmation under social identity threat. Highly identified women, conversely, should care more for the value of their group and benefit more from group affirmation. Among 64 female participants social identity threat was induced by emphasizing gender differences in car-parking ability. Then, participants received an opportunity to affirm the self or the group and worked on a car-parking task. During this task, cardiovascular challenge versus threat responses were assessed according to the biopsychosocial model (Blascovich, 2008). Results confirmed predictions by showing that self-affirmation elicited cardiovascular patterns indicating challenge in low identifiers, while group affirmation elicited challenge in high identifiers. Theoretical implications for work on social identity are discussed.
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The present studies were designed to investigate the effects of self-affirmation on the performance of women under stereotype threat. In Study 1, women performed worse on a difficult math test when it was described as diagnostic of math intelligence (stereotype threat condition) than in a non-diagnostic control condition. However, when women under stereotype threat affirmed a valued attribute, they performed at levels comparable to men and to women in the no-threat control condition. In Study 2, men and women worked on a spatial rotation test and were told that women were stereotyped as inferior on such tasks. Approximately half the women and men self-affirmed before beginning the test. Self-affirmation improved the performance of women under threat, but did not affect men’s performance.
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Under stereotype threat, when an individual risks confirming a negative self-relevant stereotype, activation of the stereotype can inhibit performance on a subsequent, related task. Although a significant amount of research has been devoted to examining the effects of stereotype activation on performance, relatively little is known about successful methods of intervention. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that individuation prior to performance would eliminate impairment due to stereotype activation. In both studies, Caucasian female participants in either a gender-prime or no-prime condition were administered a mathematics test. Gender primed, individuated participants outperformed gender primed, non-individuated participants and performed as well as unprimed, non-individuated (i.e., control) participants, supporting individuation as a protective measure against the detrimental effects of negative stereotype activation.
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As reported in summary form by W. Moede (1927), an unpublished study found that in a rope-pulling task, while collective group performance increased somewhat with group size, it was less than the sum of the individual efforts (IE). IE decreased as group size increased. The present 2 experiments with 84 undergraduates investigated this effect using clapping and shouting tasks. Results replicate the earlier findings. The decrease in IE, which is here called social loafing, is in addition to losses due to faulty coordination of group efforts. The experimental generality, theoretical importance, widespread occurrence, and negative social consequences of social loafing are examined, along with ways of minimizing it. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.
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This study investigated the role of negative thinking as a potential mediator of performance deficits under stereotype threat. After being assigned to a stereotype-threat or a no-threat condition, 60 female participants were asked to complete a difficult math task. Using the thought-listing technique, women under stereotype threat reported a higher number of negative thoughts specifically related to the test and to mathematics compared with women in the no-threat condition. Moreover, women under stereotype threat also showed a sharp decrease in performance that (a) was most pronounced in the second half of the test and (b) was mediated by the increase in negative thinking.
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Collective threat is the fear that an in-group member's behavior might reinforce a negative stereotype of one's group. In a field study, self-reported collective threat was higher in stereotyped minorities than in Whites and was linked to lower self-esteem in both groups. In 3 experimental studies, a potentially poor performance by an in-group member on a stereotype-relevant task proved threatening, as evidenced by lower self-esteem among minority students in 2 experiments and women in a 3rd experiment. The latter study demonstrated the generality of collective threat. Collective threat also undermined academic performance and affected self-stereotyping, stereotype activation, and physical distancing from the in-group member. Results further suggest that group identification plays a role in whether people use an avoidance or challenge strategy in coping with collective threat. Implications for theories of social identity and stigmatization are discussed.
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More than 100 articles have examined the construct of stereotype threat and its implications. However, stereotype threat seems to mean different things to different researchers and has been employed to describe and explain processes and phenomena that appear to be fundamentally distinct. Complementing existing models, the authors posit a Multi-Threat Framework in which six qualitatively distinct stereotype threats arise from the intersection of two dimensions--the target of the threat (the self/one's group) and the source of the threat (the self/outgroup others/ingroup others). The authors propose that these threats constitute the core of the broader stereotype threat construct and provide the foundation for understanding additional, as of yet uncharacterized, stereotype threats. The proposed threats likely differentially peril those with different stigmatizable characteristics, have different eliciting conditions and moderators, are mediated by somewhat different processes, are coped with and compensated for in different ways, and require different interventions to overcome.
s model also takes into account the source of the threat being the self and in-group or out-group other. Our focus here is on perceived evaluation from an out-group evaluator
  • Shapiro
  • Neuberg
Shapiro and Neuberg's model also takes into account the source of the threat being the self and in-group or out-group other. Our focus here is on perceived evaluation from an out-group evaluator.