ArticlePDF Available

Two Canariella Species (Gastropoda: Helicodea: Hygromiidae) Endemic To The Northwest Tenerife (Canary Islands)

Authors:
  • Grupo de Ornitología e Historia Natural de las islas Canarias

Abstract and Figures

Canariella giustii sp. nov. is described and morphological data for C. pontelirae Hutterer, 1994, previously believed extinct, are added. C. giustii differs from all the other known species of the genus mainly by the broadened penis, with a lateral-proximal epiphallar opening and the extension of the two epiphallar folds in the penial cavity without merging in a penial papilla. Both species are endemic to Teno massif (Tenerife Island). The range of the living population of C. pontelirae is very small, only of about 0.4 km2, and tourism has significant effect over the entire area. Thus, C. pontelirae is seriously threatened. It is recommended that the species be classified as “Critically Endangered”, that it be included in the Habitats Directive Annex II and IV of the European Union, and to increase the legal protection level of its relic distribution area to the category of "Site of Scientific Interest". Nine other endemic land snail species also live at that site (among them, C. giustii) and they would benefit from this new level of protection.
Content may be subject to copyright.
1258
Accepted by B. Ruthensteiner: 13 Jun 2006; published: 14 Jul. 2006 33
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2006 Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 1258: 3345 (2006)
www.mapress.com/zootaxa/
Two Canariella species (Gastropoda: Helicodea: Hygromiidae)
endemic to the Northwest Tenerife (Canary Islands)
MIGUEL IBÁÑEZ1,3, FELIPE SIVERIO2, MARÍA R. ALONSO1 & CARMEN E.
PONTE-LIRA1
1Department of Animal Biology, La Laguna University, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.
E-mail: mibanez@ull.es
2Los Barros, 21, E-38410 Los Realejos, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
3Corresponding author
Abstract
Canariella giustii sp. nov. is described and morphological data for C. pontelirae Hutterer, 1994,
previously believed extinct, are added. C. giustii differs from all the other known species of the
genus mainly by the broadened penis, with a lateral-proximal epiphallar opening and the extension
of the two epiphallar folds in the penial cavity without merging in a penial papilla. Both species are
endemic to Teno massif (Tenerife Island).
The range of the living population of C. pontelirae is very small, only of about 0.4 km2, and
tourism has significant effect over the entire area. Thus, C. pontelirae is seriously threatened. It is
recommended that the species be classified as “Critically Endangered”, that it be included in the
Habitats Directive Annex II and IV of the European Union, and to increase the legal protection
level of its relic distribution area to the category of "Site of Scientific Interest". Nine other endemic
land snail species also live at that site (among them, C. giustii) and they would benefit from this
new level of protection.
Key words: Gastropoda, Hygromiidae, Canariella, taxonomy, Tenerife Island, endangered species
Introduction
The Canary Islands, like other oceanic archipelagos, are a natural laboratory for studies
directed towards understanding the origins of diversity (Emerson 2002; Emerson & Kolm
2005), mainly utilising species-rich groups of arthropod and terrestrial gastropod. The
Canarian land snails are also of interest for Quaternary geochronological studies because
of the excellent conservation of the shells, which are uncontaminated and therefore
particularly useful for amino-acid racemization/epimerization dating (Ortiz et al. 2006).
Many groups of plants and invertebrates show high levels of endemism, having
diversified throughout the Canary Islands to produce a series of species-rich genera, such
IBÁÑEZ ET AL.
34 © 2006 Magnolia Press
1258
ZOOTAXA as the gastropods Plutonia Morelet in Stabile, 1864 (Alonso et al. 2000) and the Canarian
endemics Napaeus Albers, 1850 (Alonso et al. 1995, in press), Hemicycla Swainson, 1840
and Canariella Hesse, 1918. Canariella has 16 described living species and one
previously presumed extinct from Tenerife, C. pontelirae Hutterer, 1994 (Table 1). Several
other fossil species from Lanzarote Island (Gittenberger & Ripken 1985) and Europe
(Pfeffer 1929; Wenz 1924; Zilch 1960) have been assigned to Canariella.
The Canary archipelago (Fig. 1) is located in the Atlantic off the North West African
coast at the western fringe of the Palaearctic, about 500 km north from the Tropic of
Cancer and between 600 to 110 km west from Morocco. The northwest of Tenerife Island
is an interesting mountainous region (mainly comprising the Teno massif), with rugged
topography, some deep ravines and cliffs, and altitude differences of as much as 1350 m
over a distance of as little as 56 kilometres. This area is 6 to 5 million years old and one
of the oldest of the island (Guillou et al. 2004). It possesses habitats ranging from arid
subtropical scrub to humid laurel forest, mainly generated by the high altitude and moist
trade winds coming from the northeast.
FIGURE 1. Geographic distribution of Canariella pontelirae and C. giustii sp. nov.; symbols
represent 1 x 1 km UTM squares.
© 2006 Magnolia Press 35
TWO CANARIELLA
1258
ZOOTAXA
The Teno massif harbours several endemic species including the new Canariella
species and living specimens of the presumed extinct C. pontelirae. In this paper the new
Canariella species is formally described, and the genital anatomy and conservation status
of C. pontelirae added.
The shell and genital system of Canariella hispidula (Lamarck, 1822), also from
Tenerife, as well as the genital systems of C. bimbachensis Ibáñez & Alonso, 2002 from
El Hierro Island and C. discobolus (Shuttleworth, 1852) from La Gomera Island, are
illustrated for comparison. We only describe the distal genitalia (excluding the
spermoviduct, albumen gland and gonad).
Methods
The shells of Canariella pontelirae, C. giustii and C. hispidula (Fig. 4) and genital systems
of C. pontelirae and C. giustii (Fig. 6) were photographed with a digital camera (Olympus
DP70) coupled to a stereomicroscope (Olympus SZX12). The genital drawings of C.
bimbachensis, C. discobolus, C. hispidula and C. giustii sp. nov. (Fig. 5) were obtained
with a camera lucida coupled to a stereomicroscope (Zeiss Jena Citoval). Only C.
pontelirae was freshly dissected, the other ones were taken from the AIT ethanol
collection. "Proximal" and "distal" refer to the position in relation to the gonad.
Standardized measurements of shells were taken as shown in Figure 2. The
measurements (Fig. 3) were obtained following Alonso et al. (2006). All the shells were
oriented with the shell axis (columella) to the Y axis of coordinates and the maximum
shell breadth represented accurately in plane view, the straight linear shell measurements
being obtained with the program analySIS® (Soft Imaging System GmbH 2002) as the
projections on the X and Y axes of the respective structures. Shell whorls numbers were
calculated following Kerney & Cameron (1979: 13).
FIGURE 2. Drawings of the Canariella giustii sp. nov. holotype shell, showing the placement of
the measurements obtained (in mm or mm2). D1, maximum shell diameter; D2, shell diameter
perpendicular to D1; FP, shell frontal perimeter; FS, shell frontal surface (plane view); SH, shell
height; SP, shell perimeter (dorsal plane view); SS, shell surface (dorsal plane view).
IBÁÑEZ ET AL.
36 © 2006 Magnolia Press
1258
ZOOTAXA Abbreviations
AIT Alonso & Ibáñez collection, Department of Animal Biology, University of La
Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
CEC Commission of the European Communities
CGH K. Groh private collection, Hackenheim, Germany
CHB R. Hutterer private collection, Bonn, Germany
CFS F. Siverio private collection, Los Realejos, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
SMF Natur-Museum Senckenberg, Frankfurt/Main, Germany
TFMC Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
UTM Universal Transverse Mercator, cartographic projection system
Systematics
Family Hygromiidae Tryon, 1866
Genus Canariella Hesse, 1918
Type species: Carocolla hispidula Lamarck, 1822
(designation by monotypy: Hesse 1918: 106–107)
Canariella pontelirae Hutterer, 1994
Type locality. Roadcut in the Urbanización Los Gigantes, Tenerife (Fig. 1, empty square;
UTM coordinates: 28RCS1925, 150 m altitude).
Holotype. SMF (309931); leg. R. Hutterer, 22-02-1989.
Paratypes. 3 shells and 3 shell fragments leg. between 1988 and 1993 in the type
locality. TFMC (1 paratype), AIT (1 paratype) and CHB (4 paratypes, 1 shell and 3 shell
fragments).
This species was described by Hutterer (1994) as possibly being extinct, from a slope
deposit exposed at that time by a fresh road cut in the mountain slopes south of the cliff
named Acantilado de Los Gigantes (south of the Teno massif). The species was
subsequently assigned to the subgenus Gara Alonso & Ibáñez, 2002 due to the
resemblance in shape and ornamentation of the shell with that of the two other Gara
species (Ibáñez et al. 2002), C. ronceroi Ponte-Lira, 2002, from La Gomera, and C.
bimbachensis Ibáñez & Alonso, 2002, from El Hierro (Table 1).
Living specimens of C. pontelirae (Fig. 4A) were recently found on La Punta, a small,
dry open area in northwest Teno, near the lighthouse. It has a xeric type of vegetation
community named “cardonal-tabaibal” and located over fallen rock, with Euphorbia
canariensis Linnaeus, 1753, E. balsamifera Aiton, 1789 and E. lamarckii Sweet, 1818 as
the predominant species, and also the aloctonous Opuntia dillenii (Ker Gawler) Hawort,
© 2006 Magnolia Press 37
TWO CANARIELLA
1258
ZOOTAXA
1819, at about 50300 m altitude. The snails were collected from between the roots of
Asphodelus ramosus distalis Z. Díaz & Valdés, 1996, Drimia maritima (Linnaeus) Stearn,
1978, Hyparrhenia hirta (Linnaeus) Stapf in Prain, 1919 and Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus,
1771.
Unfortunately, the genital systems of the six specimens dissected were seemingly not
fully developed because the penis was undifferentiated from the epiphallus, and the
epiphallar folds reached the atrium (Fig. 6A). The general shape of the genital system is
similar to those of C. ronceroi, and C. bimbachensis, supporting its conchological
assignment to the subgenus Gara, despite the uncertainty about its mature penial anatomy.
The genital system of C. pontelirae differs from that of both species by two known
character-states: firstly the slender flagellum is very long, about 68 times longer than that
of the other two species, in which it is less than 1 mm, and secondly the presence of two
vaginal glands rather than one.
Canariella giustii Ibáñez & Alonso new species
Type locality. Barranco de Masca (Tenerife; UTM coordinates: 28RCS1831, 250 m
altitude).
Holotype (Fig. 4B): TFMC (MT 0387); leg. M. Ibáñez, 14-11-1983.
Paratypes. 256 paratypes (49 alcohol specimens and 207 shells, leg. between 1982
and 2005). TFMC (MT 0277/1), CGH (1 paratype), CFS (20 paratypes) and AIT (235
paratypes).
Etymology. The specific name derives from the family name of Dr. Folco Giusti
(University of Siena), to whom we dedicate this species for his remarkable contributions to
the knowledge of land and freshwater snails.
Distribution and habitat (Fig. 1): The species is endemic to Tenerife, occupying a
range of habitats, from dry open areas through to humid laurel forests (“laurisilva”),
between 40 to 1050 m altitude. In the area in which it co-occurs with C. pontelirae, both
species are also found subfossil to depths of 15 m.
Diagnosis: A medium-sized Canariella with a depressed, dorso-ventrally flattened,
discoidal, umbilicate shell, angular at the periphery;5½ whorls. Epiphallus opening
laterally on the proximal side of the broadened penis. Two epiphallar folds extending in
the proximal part of the penial cavity without forming the penial papilla that is present in
other species.
Description: Shell (Fig. 4B) dextral, depressed, dorso-ventrally flattened, angular at
periphery, with a small to medium-sized diameter and a spire of 4¾5½ slightly convex
whorls and a marked suture; umbilicus about 14% of shell diameter, slightly obscured by
the reflected lip. Mouth rounded-ovate with a discontinuous peristome, slightly expanded
as a pale lip at the basal-columellar edge. Colour uniform matt brown. Protoconch with
small granulations; teleoconch densely, regularly, radially ribbed, ventral ribs slightly
smoother than dorsal ones. Thin periostracal hairs present on periphery (up to 800 m
long) but only up to 140 m long on the umbilicus.
IBÁÑEZ ET AL.
38 © 2006 Magnolia Press
1258
ZOOTAXA TABLE 1. Data of known living Canariella species.
Island Species name and synonyms Main data
Tenerife Canariella hispidula (Webb & Berthelot, 1833)
Helix bertheloti A. Férussac, 1835.
Helix fortunata Shuttleworth, 1852a.
Helix lanosa Mousson, 1872
Helix hispidula subhispidula Mousson, 1872
Helix beata Wollaston, 1878
Helix everia Mabille, 1882
Helicodonta salteri Gude, 1911
Type species
Webb & Berthelot (1833),
Ibáñez et al. (1995)
Tenerife C. planaria (Lamarck, 1822) Lamarck (1822), Ibáñez et
al. (1995)
Tenerife C. leprosa (Shuttleworth, 1852) Shuttleworth (1852a),
Ibáñez et al. (1995)
Tenerife C. pthonera (J. Mabille, 1883)
Helix parryi Ponsonby & Sykes, 1894
Mabille (1883), Groh et
al. (1994)
Tenerife C. pontelirae Hutterer, 1994 Hutterer (1994), this
paper
Tenerife C. giustii Ibáñez & Alonso, sp. nov. This paper
La Gomera C. discobolus (Shuttleworth, 1852),
Helix afficta A. Férussac, in Férussac & Deshayes,
1832
Shuttleworth (1852b),
Ibáñez et al. (1995)
La Gomera C. multigranosa (Mousson, 1872) Mousson (1872), Groh et
al. (1994)
La Gomera C. gomerae (Wollaston, 1878) Wollaston (1878), Ibáñez
et al. (1995)
La Gomera C. falkneri Alonso, Ibáñez & Ponte-Lira, 2002 Alonso et al. (2002)
La Gomera C. ronceroi Ponte-Lira, 2002 Ibáñez et al. (2002)
La Gomera C. squamata Alonso, Ibáñez & Ponte-Lira, 2003 Alonso et al. (2003)
La Gomera C. tenuicostulata Alonso, Ibáñez & Ponte-Lira, 2003 Alonso et al. (2003)
La Palma C. tillieri Alonso, Ibáñez & Ponte-Lira, 2003 Alonso et al. (2003)
El Hierro C. huttereri Ponte-Lira & Groh, 1994 Groh et al. (1994)
El Hierro C. bimbachensis Ibáñez & Alonso, 2002 Ibáñez et al. (2002)
Fuerteventura C. eutropis (Shuttleworth in Pfeiffer, 1861) Pfeiffer (1861), Ibáñez et
al. (1995)
Lanzarote and
Fuerteventura
C. plutonia (Lowe, 1861) Lowe (1861), Ponte-Lira
et al. (1997)
© 2006 Magnolia Press 39
TWO CANARIELLA
1258
ZOOTAXA
FIGURE 3. Scatter plots of some shell measurements for Canariella pontelirae, C. giustii sp. nov.
and C. hispidula. Abbreviations same as in Fig. 2.
Genital system (7 specimens dissected; Figs. 5D, 6B): Atrium short. Distal male duct
between atrium and penis retractor muscle insertion almost twice as long as the epiphallar
proximal portion and 56 times longer than flagellum. Flagellum and epiphallus tubular,
the latter opening laterally on the proximal side of the broadened penis, whose diameter is
twice than that of the epiphallus.
Epiphallus with two internal, distally expanded, longitudinal folds which extend in the
IBÁÑEZ ET AL.
40 © 2006 Magnolia Press
1258
ZOOTAXA penis tilting towards the proximal penial concavity opposite the epiphallar insertion,
ending separately but very close to each other, not merged into a penial papilla. Each
epiphallar fold distally has a transverse constriction, forming a small, terminal papilla
(indicated by arrows in the Fig. 5Da,c). The penis has 78 longitudinal internal pilasters
(Fig. 5Dc).
Short vagina proximally widened, with numerous irregular longitudinal folds, some of
them anastomosed, and 38 crown-shaped, finger-like vaginal glands, which open near the
orifice connecting the vagina to the oviduct (Fig. 5Da).
FIGURE 4. A. Canariella pontelirae living specimen and shell, from La Punta (Teno massif,
Tenerife). B. C. giustii sp. nov., holotype shell. C. C. hispidula shell, from Las Caletillas (Tenerife).
© 2006 Magnolia Press 41
TWO CANARIELLA
1258
ZOOTAXA
FIGURE 5. Drawings of genital systems and details of distal portions. A. Canariella bimbachensis
from Las Lajas (El Hierro; taken from Ibáñez et al. 2002, Fig. 1B). B. C. discobolus from Barranco
de La Rajita (La Gomera; taken from Ibáñez et al. 1995, Fig. 34). C. C. hispidula from Tabaiba Alta
(Tenerife; taken from Ibáñez et al. 1995, Fig. 28). D. C. giustii sp. nov. from La Punta (Teno
massif, Tenerife). a, general appearance of the whole genital system; at, atrium; ag, albumen gland;
b, detail of the distal female duct; bc, bursa copulatrix; c, detail of the distal male duct; d,
epiphallus-penis diagram (without scale); e, vaginal cross-section diagram with arrangement of
vaginal glands (without scale); ef, epiphallar fold; ep, epiphallus; f, flagellum; go, genital orifice; o,
free oviduct; p, penis; pi, pilaster; pp, penial papilla; r, retractor muscle; s, sheath; t, body tegument;
v, vagina; vd, vas deferens; vg, vaginal gland.
IBÁÑEZ ET AL.
42 © 2006 Magnolia Press
1258
ZOOTAXA Remarks. C. giustii differs from all the other living Canariella species by its
broadened penis. The penis diameter of C. giustii is twice than that of the epiphallus, with
an eccentric, lateral-proximal epiphallar opening; the distal male duct broadens rapidly in
the proximal part of penis. All the other living Canariella species have the penis about
11½ times broader than the epiphallus, with a central epiphallar opening, and the distal
male duct broadens gently in the proximal part of penis.
Moreover, C. giustii differs from all the other living Canariella species in its penial
anatomy. It is the only Canariella species in which the two epiphallar folds extend
together in the penis, tilting towards the proximal penial concavity opposite to the
epiphallar insertion and ending very close but independent of each other, not merged into a
penial papilla.
FIGURE 6. Photographs of genital systems. A. Canariella pontelirae. B. C. giustii sp. nov. (both
from La Punta, Teno massif, Tenerife). Abbreviations same as in Fig. 5.
The species most similar to C. giustii (Fig. 4B) in shell dimensions are C. hispidula
(Fig. 4C) and C. pontelirae (Fig. 4A). The C. giustii shell measurements (Fig. 3) occupy
an intermediate position between the other two, but with a broad overlap, although the
© 2006 Magnolia Press 43
TWO CANARIELLA
1258
ZOOTAXA
shell height and frontal surface of C. giustii are bigger than the others in relation to the
maximum diameter and frontal perimeter, respectively. C. giustii has a narrower umbilicus
than those of the other two species (Fig. 4). The C. giustii teleoconch is angular at
periphery and densely, regularly, radially ribbed, whereas the C. pontelirae teleoconch is
keeled and has prominent and regularly spaced radial ribs separated by 45 small ribs. The
C. hispidula shell is the most similar to that of C. giustii in shape and ornamentation, but
has a more angular periphery and it is shaggy, whereas that of C. giustii is almost hairless,
the adult live specimens only having well-developed hairs at the periphery.
Threats and conservation
The known range of living C. pontelirae is only of about 0.4 km2, distributed in two 1 km
UTM points (Fig. 1), approximately 12 km from its type locality. We have found neither
living specimens nor shells of the species between the two localities, which are at the
opposite ends of the cliff named Acantilado de Los Gigantes. The entire range of C.
pontelirae is protected, belonging to the Rural Park of Teno, which is one of the sites of
interest for biodiversity and nature protection to be designed as a Special Area of
Conservation: the ES7020096 Site, compiled in the framework of Natura 2000, EU
Habitats and Birds Directives (CEC 2002). However, its legal protection level (as Rural
Park) is low.
Canariella pontelirae is a thus threatened species and is in serious danger of
extinction, surviving in a small, relic natural area which could diminish still further as a
result of the increasing tourism in La Punta. The species should thus be considered as
"Critically Endangered" in accordance with the IUCN (2001) CR B2ab(iii) criteria, and
included in the Habitats Directive Annex II and IV of the European Union. Also, the legal
protection level of the C. pontelirae distribution area should be raised to afford this
species, and its habitat, appropriate protection, establishing a "Site of Scientific Interest,
with exclusion area", which is included in the Canarian legislation.
Besides C. giustii (Fig. 1), eight other land snail species are also living at that site: one
endemic to the archipelago, Gibbulinella dealbata (Webb & Berthelot, 1833); and seven
endemic to Tenerife Island, Pomatias laevigatus (Webb & Berthelot, 1833), Napaeus
tenoensis Henríquez, 1993, N. variatus (Webb & Berthelot, 1833), Monilearia phalerata
(Webb & Berthelot, 1833), Hemicycla incisogranulata (Mousson, 1872), H. mascaensis
Alonso & Ibáñez, 1988 and H. aff. modesta (A. Férussac, 1821). All of these would also
benefit from this new level of protection.
Acknowledgements
Our special thanks go to Manuel Siverio and Abraham Hernández (Tenerife) for their
collaboration in the collecting of C. pontelirae living specimens and to Daniel Geiger
(Santa Barbara), Peter Mordan (London) and Bernhard Ruthensteiner (Munich), for their
revision of the manuscript.
IBÁÑEZ ET AL.
44 © 2006 Magnolia Press
1258
ZOOTAXA References
Alonso, M.R., Goodacre, S.L., Emerson, B.C., Ibáñez, M., Hutterer, R. & Groh, K. (in press)
Canarian land snail diversity: conflict between anatomical and molecular data on the phyloge-
netic placement of five new species of Napaeus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Enidae). Biological
Journal of the Linnean Society.
Alonso, M.R., Henríquez, F. & Ibáñez, M. (1995) Revision of the species group Napaeus variatus
(Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Buliminidae) from the Canary Islands, with description of five new
species. Zoologica Scripta, 24, 303–320.
Alonso, M.R., Ibáñez, M. & Ponte-Lira, C.E. (2002) Canariella (Canariella) falkneri new species
(Gastropoda Pulmonata: Hygromiidae) from La Gomera (Canary Islands). In: Falkner, M.,
Groh, K. & Speight, M.C.D. (Eds.), Collectanea Malacologica—Festschrift für Gerhard
Falkner. Conchbooks, pp. 79–87.
Alonso, M.R., Ibáñez, M. & Ponte-Lira, C.E. (2003) Canariella (Salvinia), new subgenus, and
three new species of Canariella Hesse, 1918 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygromiidae). The
Veliger, 46, 69–76.
Alonso, M.R., Nogales, M. & Ibáñez, M. (2006) The use of the computer-assisted measurements
utility. Journal of Conchology, 39, 41–48.
Alonso, M.R., Valido, M.J., Groh, K. & Ibáñez, M. (2000) Plutonia (Canarivitrina), new subgenus,
from the Canary Islands, and the phylogenetic relationships of the subfamily Plutoniinae (Gas-
tropoda: Limacoidea: Vitrinidae). Malacologia, 42, 39–62.
Commission of the European Communities (2002) Commission Decision of 28 December 2001
adopting the list of sites of Community importance for the Macaronesian biogeographical
region, pursuant to Council Directive 92/43/EEC (notified under document number C(2001)
3998) (2002/11/EC). Available from http://www.legaltext.ee/text/en/T71165.htm (last accessed
2 June 2006).
Emerson, B.C. (2002) Evolution on oceanic islands: molecular phylogenetic approaches to under-
standing pattern and process. Molecular Ecology, 11, 951–966.
Emerson, B.C. & Kolm, N. (2005) Species diversity can drive speciation. Nature, 434, 1015–1017.
Gittenberger, E. & Ripken, Th.E.J. (1985) Seven Late Miocene species of terrestrial gastropods
(Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata) from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands. Proceedings
of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, B 88, 397–406.
Groh, K., Ponte-Lira, C.E., Alonso, M.R. & Ibáñez, M. (1994) Revision of the genus Canariella P.
Hesse 1918. Alvaradoa n. subgen., with description of one new species from El Hierro (Gas-
tropoda Pulmonata: Hygromiidae). Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 123, 89–107.
Guillou, H., Carracedo, J.C., Paris, R. & Pérez-Torrado, J. (2004) Implications for the early shield-
stage evolution of Tenerife from K/Ar ages and magnetic stratigraphy. Earth and Planetary
Science Letters, 222, 599–614.
Hesse, P. (1918) Die Subfamilie Helicodontinae. Nachrichtenblatt der Deutschen malakozoologis-
chen Gesellschaft, 50, 99–120.
Hutterer, R. (1994) A new, possibly extinct species of Canariella from Tenerife, Canary Islands
(Gastropoda: Hygromiidae). Vieraea, 23, 143–148.
Ibáñez, M., Alonso, M.R. & Ponte-Lira, C.E. (2002) A new subgenus and two new species of
Canariella Hesse 1918 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygromiidae). American Malacological Bul-
letin, 17, 85–90.
Ibáñez, M., Ponte-Lira, C.E. & Alonso, M.R. (1995) El género Canariella Hesse, 1918, y su
posición en la familia Hygromiidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicoidea). Malacologia, 36,
111–137.
IUCN (2001) IUCN Red List Categories: Version 3.1. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival
Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK., 23 pp.
© 2006 Magnolia Press 45
TWO CANARIELLA
1258
ZOOTAXA
Kerney, M.P. & Cameron, R.A.D. (1979) A field guide to the land snails of Britain and North-West
Europe. William Collins Son & Co., Ltd., London, 288 pp.
Lamarck, J.B. de (1822) Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres, presentant les caractères
généraux et particuliers de ces animaux, leur distribution, leurs classes, leurs familles, leurs
genres et la citation des principales espèces qui s'y rapportent; precedée d'une Introduction
offrant la détermination des caractères essentiels de l'Animal, sa distinction du vegetal et des
autres corps naturels, enfin, l'Exposition des Principes fondamentaux de la Zoologie. J.B.
Báilliére Libr., Paris, 6 (2), 232 pp.
Lowe, R.T. (1861) Diagnoses of new Canarian Land-Mollusca. The Annals and Magazine of natu-
ral History, Zoology, Botany and Geology, (3) 7 (38), 104–112.
Mabille, J. (1883) Diagnoses testarum novarum. Bulletin de la Société philomatique de Paris, (7) 7,
115–132.
Mousson, A. (1872) Révision de la faune malacologique des Canaries. Neue Denkschriften der
allgemeinen schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die gesammten Naturwissenschaften, (3) 25 (1),
I–V, 1–176 pp., pl. 1–6. Zürich.
Ortiz, J.E., Torres, T., Yanes, Y., Castillo, C., de la Nuez, J., Ibáñez, M. & Alonso, M.R. (2006) Cli-
matic cycles inferred from the aminostratigraphy and aminochronology of Quaternary dunes
and paleosols from the eastern islands of the Canary Archipelago. Journal of Quaternary Sci-
ence, 21, 287–306.
Pfeffer, G. (1929) Zur Kenntnis tertiärer Landschnecken. Geologische und paläontologische
Abhandlungen, Neue Folge, 17, 153–380, pls. 15–17.
Pfeiffer, L. (1861) Beschreibung neuer Heliceen. Malakozoologische Blätter, 7 [1860], 231–240.
Ponte-Lira, C.E, Alonso, M.R. & Ibáñez, M. (1997) Canariella (Simplicula) n. subgen. (Gas-
tropoda, Pulmonata, Hygromiidae), de las Islas Canarias. Bollettino Malacologico, 31,
221–230.
Shuttleworth, R.J. (1852a) Diagnosen einiger neuer Mollusken aus den Canarischen Inseln. Mit-
theilungen der naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Bern, 241/242, 137–146.
Shuttleworth, R.J. (1852b) Diagnosen neuer Mollusken. Mittheilungen der naturforschenden
Gesellschaft in Bern, 260/261, 289–304.
Soft Imaging System GmbH (2002) AnalySIS®. Available from http://www.soft-imaging.net (last
accessed 2 June 2006).
Webb, P.B. & Berthelot, S. (1833) Synopsis molluscorum terrestrium et fluviatilium quas in itineri-
bus per insulas Canarias, observarunt. Annales des Sciences naturelles, 28, 307–326; Paris.
Wollaston, T.V. (1878) Testacea Atlantica or the land and freshwater shells of the Azores, Madei-
ras, Salvages, Canaries, Cape Verdes and Saint Helena. L. Reeve, London, xi + 588 pp.
Wenz, W. (1924) Über zwei fossile Helicodontinae: Canariella disciformis (Wenz) und Caracollina
noerdlingensis n. sp. Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 56, 13–17.
Zilch, A. (1960) Gastropoda, Euthyneura. In: Wenz, W. (Edit.), Handbuch der Paläozoologie. Gebr.
Borntraeger, Berlin, 6 (4), 601–835, fig. 2112–2515, I–XII.
... This species is quite similar to C. giustii Ibáñez & Alonso, 2006, occurring in fossil bed stones at Montaña Negra, Tenerife (Bullard et al. 2017); nevertheless, Ibáñez et al. (2006) distinguished both species by their shell height and frontal surface (larger in C. giustii). Another fossil species recorded in Tenerife is C. pontelirae Hutterer, 1994, occurring in the Quaternary deposits of Acantilado los Gigantes (Hutterer 1994); nevertheless both species can be easily distinguished by the keel of the last one and prominent radial ribs (Hutterer 1994;Ibáñez et al. 2006). ...
... This species is quite similar to C. giustii Ibáñez & Alonso, 2006, occurring in fossil bed stones at Montaña Negra, Tenerife (Bullard et al. 2017); nevertheless, Ibáñez et al. (2006) distinguished both species by their shell height and frontal surface (larger in C. giustii). Another fossil species recorded in Tenerife is C. pontelirae Hutterer, 1994, occurring in the Quaternary deposits of Acantilado los Gigantes (Hutterer 1994); nevertheless both species can be easily distinguished by the keel of the last one and prominent radial ribs (Hutterer 1994;Ibáñez et al. 2006). ...
... This species is quite similar to C. giustii Ibáñez & Alonso, 2006, occurring in fossil bed stones at Montaña Negra, Tenerife (Bullard et al. 2017); nevertheless, Ibáñez et al. (2006) distinguished both species by their shell height and frontal surface (larger in C. giustii). Another fossil species recorded in Tenerife is C. pontelirae Hutterer, 1994, occurring in the Quaternary deposits of Acantilado los Gigantes (Hutterer 1994); nevertheless both species can be easily distinguished by the keel of the last one and prominent radial ribs (Hutterer 1994;Ibáñez et al. 2006). Castillo et al. (2006) also cited C. hispidula for La Mancha de la Laja, Tenerife. ...
Article
We studied a Middle Pleistocene molluscan association from northern Tenerife. It was composed of 14 species, all found in the TL-1 and TL-2 stratigraphic beds of the middle Pleistocene Unit I. The families present were Helicidae, Enidae with two new species, Pomatiidae, Canariellidae, Vitrinidae and Geomitridae. For the Geometric Morphometrics (GM) analysis, a total of 58 pictures from three localities were analysed, comparing the morphological similarities between Napaeus guanche sp. nov., and some closely related extant species, Pomatias laevigatus and extant and fossil Hemicycla eurythyra based on shell shape. According to the PCA, Napaeus accounted for 77.53% of the variation of the shell shape within the first two components, Hemicycla accounted for 62.62% and Pomatias accounted for 52.79%. The permutational ANOVA showed to be a useful analysis to discriminate between groups, presenting non-significance for Napaeus, and significance for Hemicycla and Pomatias depicting high similarity. Despite this, the dispersion analysis showed a relatively high dispersion of the dataset for Napaeus and Pomatias, related to sample size, while for Hemicycla, the result was significant and congruent with permutational ANOVA. We describe two new species, Napaeus lipauges and Napaeus guanche increasing the known diversity of the genus Napaeus in the Canary Islands.
... C. pontelirae fue encontrada por Hutterer (1994) en estado subfósil ( Fig. 5 A) en un depósito del Cuaternario en la Urbanización de Los Gigantes, a 150 m de altitud (UTM: 28RCS1925), y asignada al subgénero C. (Gara) por sus similitudes conquiológicas (forma y ornamentación de la concha) con C. ronceroi y C. bimbachensis (Ibáñez et al., 2002). Posteriormente, Ibáñez et al. (2006) disecaron seis ejemplares de C. pontelirae encontrados vivos en La Punta de Teno (Fig. 5 B, C); aparentemente no estaban completamente desarrollados, teniendo el pene indiferenciado del epifalo fig. 6A), y llegando los pliegues epifalares hasta el atrio; pero se mantuvo provisionalmente su asignación al subgénero C. (Gara) por las similitudes (conquiológicas y de la forma general de su aparato reproductor) con C. ronceroi y C. bimbachensis, aunque se diferencia de ellos por su flagelo, muy largo, y por la presencia de dos glándulas vaginales en lugar de una. ...
... Diagnosis del subgénero (Alonso et al., 2006): Concha desprovista de pilosidad: sus dos especies son las únicas del género Canariella que carecen de pelos periostracales, incluso en el ombligo; papila peneana bien desarrollada, formada a partir de los cinco pliegues del epifalo (Ibáñez et al., 1995, fig. 38;Alonso et al., 2006, fig. ...
... R. J. Shuttleworth no designó material tipo de esta especie, existiendo únicamente el dibujo de la concha: Shuttleworth, (1853) 1975. Ejemplar fotografiado: concha (Fig. 8) Ibáñez & Ponte-Lira in: Alonso et al., 2006, de Fuerteventura. Material tipo, reseñado en Alonso et al. (2006. ...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: Information and photographies are shown of the 19 living species known of the family Canariellidae (Helicoidea); the images mainly correspond to the holotypes or paratypes of these species, from the Alonso & Ibáñez collection, deposited in the Natural Sciences Museum of Tenerife.
... The material used for the dissections is in the AIT ethanol collection. The photographic methodology is the same as that of Ibáñez et al. (2006b). Standardized measurements of shells were taken as shown in Figure 2. The shell measurements ( Fig. 7 and Table 2) were obtained following Alonso et al. (2006b) with the software analySIS® (Soft Imaging System GmbH). ...
Article
Hemicycla laurijona sp. nov. and H. fulgida sp. nov. are described from the laurel forests of La Gomera and Tenerife islands, respectively (Canary Islands). Both species belong to the Helicinae group of genera sharing the “presence of a specialized twin papillae system” in the penis, the adaptive advantage of which has not hitherto been discussed. Both species present a proximal penial papilla homologous to the “penial papilla” of other Stylommatophora, and an apomorphic distal penial papilla. The arrangement of these organs is described in a specimen with the distal genital system everted, showing that the distal penial papilla is an accessory papilla whose main function may be to lengthen the male duct in the evaginated penis. The accessory papilla may also have another function; its base forms a protuberant ring in the everted penis, perhaps for anchorage during mating or to impede a too deep penetration. The dart and an undigested part of the spermatophore of H. fulgida are also described, the species status of both H. invernicata (Mousson, 1872) and H. consobrina (A. Férussac, 1822) is confirmed and some aspects of Hemicycla relationships are discussed.
... Eighteen living species have been described, being present ZOOTAXA in almost all the islands, with the noteworthy exception of Gran Canaria, where the genus only has a fossil representation known. A reference list of the main Canariella data was presented by Ibáñez et al. (2006). ...
Article
Canariella jandiaensis sp. nov. and Canariella (Majorata) subgen. nov. are described from the Jandía Peninsula mountains (Fuerteventura Island). The new subgenus, which includes C. jandiaensis and C. eutropis, is characterized mainly by the following synapomorphies: The shell is without hairs and there is a large penial papilla present arising from all the five epiphallar folds. C. jandiaensis differs from C. eutropis in the unkeeled, almost globular shell, which is smaller but taller than that of C. eutropis and has more numerous but smoother radial ribs. Also, C. jandiaensis has a pseudopapilla in the distal penial cavity instead of the thick longitudinal pilaster present in C. eutropis. The range of Majorata is small, declining from 30,000 years ago and the new species should be classified as “Critically Endangered” based on the very small size of its distribution area (smaller than 1 km2) and the very abundant and free-range livestock present. Mainly goats, grazing freely destroy the habitat in the entire Jandía mountains. Protection of their habitat is recommended, mainly by means of strict livestock control.
... The photographic methodology is the same as that of Ibáñez et al. (2006). Standardized measurements were taken as shown in Figure 2. The shell measurements of the new species (Table 2) were obtained following Alonso et al. (2006a;2006b) and Castillo et al. (2006), with the software analySIS® (Soft Imaging System GmbH 2002). ...
Article
Monilearia tubaeformis sp. nov. is described from Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) and placed in the taxon Lyrula Wollaston, 1878, previously considered as monospecific, for its distinctive type of shell ornamentation. Helix multipunctata Mousson, 1872, from the same island, is also placed in Lyrula because it has similar shell ornamentation. The anatomy of the genital system of both species shows that Lyrula should be treated as a subgenus of Monilearia Mousson, 1872. A new diagnosis of Monilearia (Lyrula) is added
... Maps of geographical distributions (Fig. 1) were produced using MapViewer software (Golden Software Inc.). The photographic methodology was described by Ibáñez et al. (2006). Drawings of shell outlines (Fig. 2) were obtained semi-automatically, adopting the methods used by Yanes et al. (2009). ...
Article
Five new species of Napaeus are described, four from Gran Canaria and one from El Hierro (Canary Islands): Napaeus josei n. sp., N. venegueraensis n. sp., N. arinagaensis n. sp., N. validoi n. sp. and N. grohi n. sp. The main differences from the most similar species and data on distribution are presented. At least three of the new species disguise their shells with soil, presumably to avoid predation.
... Eighteen living species have been described, being present ZOOTAXA in almost all the islands, with the noteworthy exception of Gran Canaria, where the genus only has a fossil representation known. A reference list of the main Canariella data was presented by Ibáñez et al. (2006). ...
Article
Canariella jandiaensis sp. nov. and Canariella (Majorata) subgen. nov. are described from the Jandía Peninsula mountains (Fuerteventura Island). The new subgenus, which includes C. jandiaensis and C. eutropis, is characterized mainly by the following synapomorphies: The shell is without hairs and there is a large penial papilla present arising from all the five epiphallar folds. C. jandiaensis differs from C. eutropis in the unkeeled, almost globular shell, which is smaller but taller than that of C. eutropis and has more numerous but smoother radial ribs. Also, C. jandiaensis has a pseudopapilla in the distal penial cavity instead of the thick longitudinal pilaster present in C. eutropis. The range of Majorata is small, declining from 30,000 years ago and the new species should be classified as "Critically Endangered" based on the very small size of its distribution area (smaller than 1 km2) and the very abundant and free-range livestock present. Mainly goats, grazing freely destroy the habitat in the entire Jandía mountains. Protection of their habitat is recommended, mainly by means of strict livestock control.
... The fossil shells come from a Pleistocene aeolian deposit older than 130 kyr BP (Castillo et al., 2006). The photographic methodology used is described in detail by Ibáñez et al. (2006) ...
Article
Full-text available
Hemicycla eurythyra O. Boettger 1908, endemic to Tenerife, was rediscovered near its type locality. It is redescribed and compared with two conchohgically similar taxa: H. pouchet (A. Férussac 1821) and H. pouchadan Ibáñez & Alonso 2007. H. eurythyra is grouped in the subgenus Hemicycla s. str. by the presence of a diverticulum in the bursa copulatrix complex.
Article
Article
http:/www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/45999873 Two new species of Canariella, Canariella ronceroi n. sp. from La Gomera Island and C. bimbachensis n. sp. from El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Atlantic Ocean), assigned to the new subgenus Gara are described. The new subgenus is characterized by the following synapomorphies of its species: "Penis wall with a thickened ring-shaped portion" and "penis with a toughened distal anklebone-like penial pilaster portion." The extinct species C. pontelirae Hutterer, 1994 also belongs to Gara n. subgen.
Article
Three new species of Canariella Hesse, 1918, Canariella tenuicostulata, sp. nov. and Canariella squamata, sp. nov., from La Gomera Island, and Canariella tillieri, sp. nov., from La Palma Island (mid-Atlantic Canary Islands), grouped in Canariella (Salvinia), subgen, nov. are described. The new subgenus is characterized by the following diagnostic character of the vagina: near the oviducal orifice, inner distal vaginal wall thickened like a cushion with two crossed furrows, one longitudinal and the other transverse. The species Helix discobolus Shuttleworth, 1852, from La Gomera Island also belongs to Canariella (Salvinia), subgen, nov.
Article
Plutonia (Canarivitrina), n. subgen., and four new species of this subgenus are described from three islands of the mid-Atlantic Canarian archipelago. The genus Plutonia Morelet, in Stabile, 1864 (of which Insulivitrina Hesse, 1923, is a new synonym), restricted to the mid-Atlantic islands, is characterized by the autapomorphy of the special course of the penial retractor muscle, rounding the right optic nerve. Canarivitrina, n. subgen., has a penis with two easily distinguishable portions: a distal one, short and slightly widened, containing a globular to cylindrical and perforated penial papilla level with the opening of the vas deferens (far from the penial apex), and a proximal one, long and slender, with apical insertion of the penial retractor muscle and two parallel longitudinal inner structures: a torus (thick fold, with roundish cross section) and, opposite, a laminar crest (velum). Torus and penial papilla are coated by glandular tissue, the penial gland. The autapomorphic character state of this subgenus is the proximal portion of the penis, long and equipped with internal torus and velum. New data are given about the sheath that surrounds the spout of the glandula amatoria in Canarivitrina, n. subgen., and in other supraspecific Plutoniinae taxa demonstrating the homology of the glandula amatoria and its spout sheath with the sarcobelum of the genus Semilimax, a basal branch of the Vitrinidae: the subfamily Plutoniinae has the "sarcobelum" fused with the proximal part of the vagina to form the glandula amatoria. A phylogenetic scenario of the supraspecific taxa of the subfamily Plutoniinae is presented. The cladistic analysis shows the Plutoniinae as the sister group of Semilimax, and Phenacolimax as the sister group of the remaining Plutoniinae: the genera Phenacolimax, Gallandia (which is almost certainly a junior synonym of Oligolimax), Arabivitrina and Plutonia: but this analysis does not resolve for the other taxa because the data are still too few to apply to a cladistic study of the group. The genus Plutonia includes the subgenera Plutonia, s. str., Guerrina, Insulivitrina, Madeirovitrina and Canarivitrina, n. subgen. The presence of this genus in the archipelagoes of the Azores, the Madeiras and the Canary Islands is probably as old as the humid "laurisilva" laurel-forest, a Tertiary relict that colonized these archipelagoes before the impact of the Pleistocene glaciations.