ArticleLiterature Review
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound thatmay be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans,while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins,which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (fromHungary), Serjania lethalis (fromBrazil), Gelsemiumsempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Honey is often processed by heating to maintain freshness, expand shelf life, decrease viscosity, and prevent crystallization [17]. However, heating may lead to the formation of compounds that do not naturally exist in fresh honey and might be harmful to human health; HMF is such an example [18]. HMF is a six-carbon heterocyclic aldehyde compound, which is considered the most important intermediate byproduct in carbohydrate-containing foods, induced as a consequence of two reactions. ...
... Codex Alimentarius (2001) has established a maximum value of 40.00 mg/kg for HMF in nontropical honey, as well as 80 mg/kg for tropical honey, and 15 mg/kg for honey with low enzyme levels (8-3 Schade units) [4,21]. In addition to prolonged heat treatment and storage, several other parameters impact the formation of HMF in honey, including climatic conditions and honey composition (i.e., pH, total acidity, FA, mineral content, F/ G ratio, and water activity), thereby contributing to the floral source [1,3,18,22]. HMF is produced at low temperatures in acidic environments, and high temperatures along with prolonged deposition significantly increase its concentration [17,18]. ...
... In addition to prolonged heat treatment and storage, several other parameters impact the formation of HMF in honey, including climatic conditions and honey composition (i.e., pH, total acidity, FA, mineral content, F/ G ratio, and water activity), thereby contributing to the floral source [1,3,18,22]. HMF is produced at low temperatures in acidic environments, and high temperatures along with prolonged deposition significantly increase its concentration [17,18]. Therefore, the optimal period for the consumption of honey is within six months after harvesting [23,24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey is a prominent nutritional and medicinal production of honey bees, originating from the nectar of flowers. The physicochemical properties of honey serve as indicators of its freshness and originality. The current survey aimed to assess the parameters of quality control, including hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde [HMF], reducing sugars, fructose/glucose, sucrose, proline content, distaste activity, and free acidity, in 25 honey samples of different brands available in Khorasan Province, Iran. We used the methods suggested by the Association of Official Analytical Collaboration (AOAC, 1995), the International Honey Commission (IHC, 2009), and the Codex Alimentarius Honey Standards for the study. Statistical analysis was performed in Microsoft Excel. The obtained data indicated that eight out of 25 analyzed samples (32%) complied with all the requirements and were generally of acceptable quality. Meanwhile, 17 samples (68%) were unconfirmed by the Iranian Standard Organization (ISO), including 12 samples with a low level of diastase (<8 Schade) and high levels of HMF (>15 mg/kg), two samples with high sucrose levels, two samples with high proline, and one sample with high HMF. These findings suggested their inappropriate storage (time/temperature), heat treatment, and/or adulteration with industrial sugar. According to the results, the examined honey samples produced in Khorasan Province were not of acceptable quality, which highlights the importance of an effective regulatory framework to be evaluated and rectified periodically and accurately to maintain consumer rights, as well as public health.
... Whether directly applied or mixed with fiber or hydrogel membrane, it has achieved a good curative effect (Molan and Rhodes, 2015;Sen et al., 2021). It is worth noting that the poisoning symptoms caused by honey may differ depending on the source of the toxin (Islam et al., 2014). Honey should not be considered a completely safe food. ...
... Toxicity also occurs when GL-PS exceeds the stimulatory concentration (Bishop et al., 2015). Honey extract is also partially toxic (Islam et al., 2014). Comfrey Extract has hepatotoxic and carcinogenic properties (Mei et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Under normal circumstances, wound healing can be summarized as three processes. These include inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. The vast majority of wounds heal rapidly; however, a large percentage of nonhealing wounds have still not been studied significantly. The factors affecting wound nonhealing are complex and diverse, and identifying an effective solution from nature becomes a key goal of research. This study aimed to highlight and review the mechanisms and targets of natural products (NPs) for treating nonhealing wounds. The results of relevant studies have shown that the effects of NPs are associated with PI3K-AKT, P38MAPK, fibroblast growth factor, MAPK, and ERK signaling pathways and involve tumor growth factor (TNF), vascular endothelial growth factor, TNF-α, interleukin-1β, and expression of other cytokines and proteins. The 25 NPs that contribute to wound healing were systematically summarized by an inductive collation of the six major classes of compounds, including saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids, anthraquinones, polysaccharides, and others, which will further direct the attention to the active components of NPs and provide research ideas for further development of new products for wound healing.
... On the other hand, Cd originating from metal industry and incinerators is transported from the soil to plants and can then contaminate nectar and honeydew (Ciobanu and Rădulescu 2016). In the last decade, many research results show lower concentration than 1 mg kg −1 and 0.1 mg kg −1 for lead and cadmium respectively, which are maximum residue levels (MRL) proposed for the EU (Mujić et al. 2011); small quantities of heavy metals were found in the honey collected in the eco-friendly areas of Lithuania located on the seacoast, in the Varėna region (Islam et al. 2014). Also, contamination of honey by Cd was found to be under the maximal limits in Egyptian honeys (from 0.001 to 0.087 mg kg − 1 ) and in Italian honeys (0.0153 ± 0.004 mg kg −1 ) and it was below detection level in different regions of Timis County while it ranges from 0.0016 mg kg −1 in Hungarian to 0.04 mg kg −1 in Spanish samples, while Pb concentration ranges from 0.007 to 1.650 mg kg −1 in Egyptian honeys, 0.08 ± 0.04 mg kg −1 in Iranian honeys, 0.012 mg kg −1 in honey Turkey, 0.28 mg kg −1 in honeys from Spain, and 0.1709 ± 0.078 mg kg −1 in Italian honeys (Hassan et al. 2010;Mujić et al. 2011;Naccari et al. 2014;Islam et al. 2014;Ciobanu and Rădulescu 2016). ...
... In the last decade, many research results show lower concentration than 1 mg kg −1 and 0.1 mg kg −1 for lead and cadmium respectively, which are maximum residue levels (MRL) proposed for the EU (Mujić et al. 2011); small quantities of heavy metals were found in the honey collected in the eco-friendly areas of Lithuania located on the seacoast, in the Varėna region (Islam et al. 2014). Also, contamination of honey by Cd was found to be under the maximal limits in Egyptian honeys (from 0.001 to 0.087 mg kg − 1 ) and in Italian honeys (0.0153 ± 0.004 mg kg −1 ) and it was below detection level in different regions of Timis County while it ranges from 0.0016 mg kg −1 in Hungarian to 0.04 mg kg −1 in Spanish samples, while Pb concentration ranges from 0.007 to 1.650 mg kg −1 in Egyptian honeys, 0.08 ± 0.04 mg kg −1 in Iranian honeys, 0.012 mg kg −1 in honey Turkey, 0.28 mg kg −1 in honeys from Spain, and 0.1709 ± 0.078 mg kg −1 in Italian honeys (Hassan et al. 2010;Mujić et al. 2011;Naccari et al. 2014;Islam et al. 2014;Ciobanu and Rădulescu 2016). However, significant amounts of heavy metals, namely Pb and Cd, are detected in honey samples collected from different regions in Burgos (Spain). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The concentration of certain heavy metals in various foods (fruits, cereals, legumes and bee products) produced in industrial and urban cities is increasing each year following industrial development. Quality of honey and its contamination by different polluting agents are related essentially to its production environment or it can arise from beekeeping practices, In the present study, the determination of physicochemical properties: moisture, pH, total acidity, electric conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), sugars, chloramphenicol (CAP) residues and the metal content by determination of two toxic metals levels: lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and other trace elements: magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) in 23 different honey samples collected from North regions of Algeria were investigated. The physicochemical properties and the metal contents were found within the ranges established by the international standards. For the antibiotic residues, only four honey samples are contaminated by CAP. Metals were found in non-significant values and are in safety baseline levels for human consumption except Mg which exceed the limits. These results suggested that honey could be used as an indicator to detect contaminating agents from the environment since bees are excellent sentinels for assessing environmental contamination because of their physiological and biological characteristics. Key words: honey, contamination, physicochemical properties, heavy metals, chloramphenicol residues, north Algeria.
... However, honey may contain undesirable compounds like furan derivatives (it may lead to toxicity), which create during a heat treatment facilitating the filtration process, reduce viscosity, delay the crystallization and prevent fermentation during honey processing [22]. The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars and occurs during cooking conditions, as well as in food storage at low temperature [23][24][25]. ...
... Hydroxymethyl-furfural (5-hydroxy-2-furaldehyde, HMF) is one of many important Maillard reaction products and the evaluation of HMF level is a well-known procedure to investigate the quality of honey (an indicator of quality different food products). Due to its adverse effects on human health, like cytotoxic, mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic consequences, the HMF level is limited for some foods such as molasses and honey [22,[26][27][28][29][30]. HMF is absent in fresh honeys immediately stored by bees and tends to increase during processing and/or aging of the product; therefore, the HMF content is widely recognized as a parameter of honey sample freshness [31,32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The benefits of natural honeybee products (e.g., honey, royal jelly, beeswax, propolis, beevenom and pollen) to the immune system are remarkable, and many of them are involved in the induction of antibody production, maturation of immune cells and stimulation of the immune system. The type of plants in the geographical area, climatic conditions and production method have a significantly influence on the nutritional quality of honey. However, this variability can influence consumer liking by the sensory attributes of the product. The aim of this work was to compare the most popular honeys from Poland in terms of nutritional value, organoleptic properties and antioxidant activity. In the study, five varieties of honey (honeydew, forest, buckwheat, linden and dandelion) from conventional and organic production methods were tested. The nutritional characteristics of honey samples included acidity, content of water, sugars, vitamin C, HMF and phenolics (total and flavonoids), while honey color, taste, aroma and consistency were investigated in the organoleptic characteristics. The antioxidant activity was determined in water- and ethanol-soluble honey extracts using DPPH and ORAC tests. The results showed that organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of popular Polish honeys differ significantly in relation to plant source and production method. The significant effect of honey variety on the content of HMF, saccharose and phenolics, as well as acidity and antioxidant capacity were noted. The impact of variety and variety × production method interaction was significant in the case of the content of vitamin C, glucose and fructose. A visible difference of buckwheat and forest honeys from other samples was observed. The highest content of total phenolics with antioxidant activity based on the SET mechanism was found in buckwheat honeys, while forest honeys were richer in flavonoids.
... Le miel est un produit connu depuis des siècles pour ses propriétés nutritives et thérapeutiques [1]. Cependant, de nombreuses variétés contiennent des composés, tels que le 5-hydroxyméthylfurfural (HMF) qui, ingérés en grandes quantités peuvent être toxiques [2,3]. Le HMF est un produit de dégradation du fructose et du glucose dans un milieu acide [4]. ...
... Le HMF est un produit de dégradation du fructose et du glucose dans un milieu acide [4]. Des effets cancérogènes, mutagènes, toxiques pour la reproduction et pour la peau de ce composé ont été rapportés par plusieurs études [2,3]. Dans les miels frais, le HMF n'est présent qu'à l'état de traces et sa teneur augmente avec la température et la durée de stockage [4]. ...
Article
Résumé Objectif Le 5-hydroxyméthylfurfural (HMF) est un produit de dégradation des sucres réducteurs, potentiellement toxique pour l’homme. Dans les miels, l’HMF n’est présent qu’à l’état de traces, mais sa teneur augmente avec la température et la durée de stockage. L’objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la teneur en 5-hydroxyméthylfurfural dans les miels du Nord-Ouest de l’Algérie. Méthodes La teneur en HMF a été mesurée par la méthode de Winkler décrite parmi les méthodes harmonisées de la commission internationale des miels. Résultats Le 5-hydroxyméthylfurfural a été recherché et dosé dans 34 échantillons de miel provenant de la région nord-ouest de l’Algérie. Les teneurs obtenues se situaient entre 5,90 mg/kg et 47,10 mg/kg de miel, avec une valeur moyenne de 21,15 ± 11,7 mg/kg. Quatre (04) échantillons avaient une teneur supérieure à 40 mg/kg. Conclusion La plupart des résultats obtenus s’accordent avec les normes du Codex Alimentarius, exception faite pour certains échantillons présentant des valeurs élevées. La détermination de la teneur en HMF est une excellente méthode pour l’appréciation du vieillissement et du chauffage des miels.
... The chemistry of honey is complex, and this complex chemistry is essential for the health benefits that come from honey consumption. The specific chemistry of honey varies among botanical ecosystem, season of the year, and geographical location because bees are opportunistic harvesters (Gheldof et al., 2002;Islam et al., 2014;Salonen et al., 2017;Tanleque-Alberto et al., 2019). Honey, when considered by bees to be a storable product, is capped with wax and allowed to ripen (Ayton et al., 2019). ...
... Poisoning by honey is recorded in ancient medical history. Toxic substances in honey can be plant toxins secreted into the nectar, toxic substances contaminating materials brought to the hive by bees, and substances formed by the redox potential of honey (Islam et al., 2014). Plant toxins in honey can be toxic to humans and have no apparent ill effects in bees. ...
Chapter
At the starting of recorded history are descriptions of the uses of bee products as nutraceuticals and as remedies for various maladies. Honey, beeswax, propolis, royal jelly, and bee venom are the most commonly used products. These nutraceuticals are used to improve wellness, in skin care, mouth care, dental surgery, and in the management of wounds, burns, and skin conditions. Bee products have antimicrobial activity and are used in treating Helicobacter pylori, candidiasis, herpes infections, and fungal infections of the skin and genitalia. Bee products are being investigated in ophthalmology as replacements for the prophylactic use of antibiotics, treatment of keratoconjunctivitis, and their use in artificial tears. In reproduction, bee products are used as supplements to increase fertility. They are being investigated to replace antibiotics in semen extenders and for their use in vitrification of embryos. Bee products are being used as a treatment for premenstrual syndrome, mensural distress, reduction of birthing pain, and to reduce the genitourinary syndrome in postmenopausal women. Bee products are being used in the management of complications from antineoplastic treatments and as supplements to reduce fatigue in cancer patients. Bee venom is being investigated for its use in autoimmune diseases, especially osteoarthritis. Individuals can have allergic reactions to bee products. Profit margins on bee products, especially honeys, can be increased by adulterating them with various substances. Environmental contaminants can be present in bee products. Honey can contain phytotoxins. Phytotoxins in nectar are concentrated in the honey-making process. Nutraceuticals are being studied in bees to replace the use of antimicrobial prophylactics. Nutraceuticals and probiotics are being investigated and used to increase the health of bees.
... A heat treatment is applied to honey to facilitate the filtration process, reduce viscosity, delay the crystallization and prevent fermentation during honey processing. Due to this application, furan derivatives may be composed in honey [11]. Also usage of evaluation of HMF level is well known procedure to investigate the quality of honey. ...
... Also usage of evaluation of HMF level is well known procedure to investigate the quality of honey. However, F is widely accepted as an indicator of flavor changes [11,12]. ...
Article
ABSTRACT: A novel high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural in 18 honey samples. An Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 150x3 mm 2.7μm particle sized column and isocratic elution with a 0.5 mL/min flow rate were used. The mobile phase was 10mM pH 2.5 phosphate buffer and acetonitrile and monitoring of analytes was carried on using a DAD detector at 284 nm wavelength. The method was validated according to USP guideline in terms of accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity and range\ robustness and ruggedness. According to the obtained results, the concentration levels of hydroxymethylfurfural were between 19.56-209.42 mg/kg in honey samples. Observed concentration values of HMF for 5 honey samples were higher than requirements and the highest level of hydroxymethylfurfural was observed in a thyme honey sample (209.42 mg/kg). The concentration values of furfural found in honey samples were in the range of 0.34-2.23 mg/kg. The highest level of furfura was determined in the thyme honey sample (2.23 mg/kg) also containing the highest concentration of hydroxymethylfurfural. In this study, the margins of exposure to furfural were also calculated for investigated honey samples. The margins of exposure for all analyzed samples were above the value of 100, indicating the safety of samples regarding to furfural exposure. The excessive hydroxymethylfurfural contents in some samples is a concerning point for public health and the national authority needs to increase its supervision on the honey. KEYWORDS: High performance liquid chromatography; honey; furfural; hydroxymethylfurfural.
... This compound could be mutagenic, carcinogenic, and cytotoxic if taken in high doses [124]; for this reason the Codex Alimentarius Standard Commission has established a maximum limit for 5-HMF in honey at 40 mg/kg, with an exception for those of tropical origin (80 mg/kg) [125]. In other studies, it has been seen that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium, lead, and arsenic, which are toxic and carcinogenic [126]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey is a natural substance appreciated for its therapeutic abilities since ancient times. Its content in flavonoids and phenolic acids plays a key role on human health, thanks to the high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that they exert. Honey possesses antimicrobial capacity and anticancer activity against different types of tumors, acting on different molecular pathways that are involved on cellular proliferation. In addition, an antidiabetic activity has also been highlighted, with the reduction of glucose, fructosamine, and glycosylated hemoglobin serum concentration. Honey exerts also a protective effect in the cardiovascular system, where it mainly prevents the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, in the nervous system, in the respiratory system against asthma and bacterial infections, and in the gastrointestinal system. A beneficial effect of honey can also be demonstrated in athletes. The purpose of this review is to summarize and update the current information regarding the role of honey in health and diseases.
... Honey adulteration refers to the immoral act of producers by adding sugar syrups into natural product [8]. Commonly, adulterants such as water, sucrose, inverted sugar, hydroxymethyl cellulose, dextrin, and starch have been detected by routine analysis of physicochemical [9][10]. ...
Conference Paper
W. N. Julika , A. Ajit, A. Z. Sulaiman, Aishath Naila (2018). Physicochemical and microbiological analysis of stingless bees honey collected from local market in Malaysia. 4th International conference of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology, 1-2 August 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
... HMF is considered a freshness indicator for honey, even though its presence could naturally occur in honeys from warm climate areas, such as tropical and subtropical countries. On the other hand HMF has potential harmful properties; in fact in vitro studies showed mutagenic, genotoxic, cytotoxic, and carcinogenic effects (Janzowski, Glaab, Samini, Schlatter, & Eisembrand, 2000;Teixido, Santos, Puignou, & Galceran, 2006); notwithstanding, effects on humans are not completely clarified yet (Capuano & Fogliano, 2011;Islam, Khalil, Islam, & Gan, 2014). For the above considerations, the European Union (Directive, 2001/110/EC) recommended an HMF content lower than 40 mg kg −1 . ...
Article
Honey represents a well appreciated food product endowed with several beneficial properties. In these last decades organic agriculture highly impacted social and political thought involving also honey production. To the best of our knowledge, no studies are present in literature focusing the differentiation of organic and conventional honeys. The present study demonstrated the capability of the combined use of ¹H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics, to address this important issue. Specifically Italian polyflower, chestnut and acacia honeys have been differentiated on the basis of the water soluble compounds, by taking the advantage of the application of Orthogonal Signal Correction (OSC) filters on ¹H NMR data leading to highlight molecules responsible for sample differentiation. Succinate and acetate resulted the common compounds characterizing all conventional honey samples along with other different metabolites specific of each botanical origins, while a higher content of kynurate was observed for organic chestnut honeys. Moreover the HMF content was quantified by ¹H NMR to evaluate sample freshness, thus confirming the content largely below the acceptance limit of 40 mg kg⁻¹ for all samples.
... [41,43] Toxicity of honey from plants has also been reported. [66] There is a health implication for infants' regarding the presence of Clostridium botulinum in honey. [43] Spores of this bacterium can survive in honey, but they cannot build toxin. ...
... For example, honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal [20,21] have observed that phytochemicals are present in fruits, vegetables and many other plants. ...
Article
Full-text available
Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant documented to have an interesting toxicity profile however; bees produce honey from the nectar of its flowers in a Jatropha curcas plantation in the Yeji municipality of the Brong- Ahafo Region of Ghana. This study therefore is aimed at ascertaining the safety for consumption of honey produced from the J. curcas plant. Grouped Sprague-Dawley rats administered orally with single doses of this honey (300-1500 mg/kg) were observed critically for 24 h in an acute toxicity study. Cage-side observation, hematological profile, liver and kidney function tests, and body and organ weight monitoring were also carried out on grouped rats given 300-800 mg/kg of honey daily for 30 days in a sub-chronic toxicity test. Results indicated no physical, clinical signs and symptoms of toxicity, morbidity, and mortality after acute and prolonged administration of the honey. Subchronic toxicity studies revealed no significant changes (p>0.05) in body weight and organ weight (stomach, heart, and kidney), hematological parameters, liver and kidney function. There was however a dose-dependent increase (p ≤ 0.05-0.01) in aspartate transaminase, and significant increments in liver weight at all treatment doses. Histopathological studies of stomach, heart, kidney and liver showed normal architecture with no pathologies. Honey produced from Jatropha curcas flower nectar would be deemed safe for consumption as it did not show significant toxicity symptoms in Sprague-Dawley rats.
... Honey was used as a candidate resource for isolation of a stress-tolerant strain that could utilize xylose, a fermentable sugar found in the acidic wastewater from sequential acid-/alkali-pretreatment of biomass. Although honey is primarily made up of sugars, sugar acids, and HMF are also present as minor compounds (Zirbes et al., 2013;Islam et al., 2014). Among these minor compounds, HMF is a fermentation-inhibitory compound generated from hydrolyzed sugars under high-temperature, acidic conditions (Jönsson and Martín, 2016;Wang et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
A stress-tolerant yeast was isolated from honey using acid hydrolysate generated from sequential acid-/alkali-pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF). The isolated yeast was identified molecularly, taxonomically, and morphologically as Candida tropicalis YHJ1, and analyzed for application in xylitol production. The isolated yeast showed stress tolerance toward various chemical reagents and could grow with up to 600 g/L xylose in the culture medium. This yeast also had a broad carbohydrate utilization spectrum, and its xylitol yield was greatest in medium supplemented with xylose as the sole carbon source. In batch fermentation for xylitol production, the yeast could convert xylose prepared from acidic EPFBF pretreatment wastewater into xylitol. Interestingly, C. tropicalis YHJ1 xylose reductase, containing a Ser279 residue, exhibited more effective xylitol conversion compared to orthologous Candida enzymes containing Leu279 or Asn279; this improvement was associated with NADPH binding, as predicted through homologous structure modeling and enzyme kinetic analysis. Taken together, these results show a novel stress-tolerant yeast strain that may be applicable to xylitol production from toxic lignocellulosic byproducts.
... In addition, external factors, such as thermal effects and storage conditions, have a great influence on the composition of honey collected and prepared for storage, as well as the products of its processing [8,9,10] . Despite its high beneficial properties, the high content of chemicals such as heavy metals, alkaloids (even in minimal quantities), as well as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) make honey and its products practically unsuitable for human consumption [11,12] . Therefore, the Codex Alimentarius Commission set the maximum limit for HMF honey at 40 mg/kg (with a higher limit of 80 mg/kg for honey originating from tropical regions) to ensure that the product is not subjected to intense heat during processing and is safe for consumption [13] . ...
... Honey is considered both nutritional and medicinal, although the presence of certain constituents, for example, HMF, citric acid, heavy metals (even in trace amounts), some alkaloids may contribute to honey's toxicity. [17] ...
Article
Honey represents a natural, agricultural product endowed with valuable nutritional and pharmacological functions. Therefore, the classification and evaluation of honey has always been a challenge for chemical analysis, especially when honey adulteration is increasing. The traditional methods for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical methods, which is often relatively high cost and time‐consuming. NMR based metabolomics is a metabolomic fingerprinting approach for NMR data using chemometric tools. This combined approach can be apply in food analysis for origin discrimination, biomarker discovery and authenticity screening. The present study demonstrated the capability of the 1H NMR based metabolomics for evaluation of 27 NMR spectra of 09 selected honey samples from Viet Nam. 1H NMR analysis was conducted immediately on collected honey samples, without extraction. Unsupervised PCA multivariate data analysis, applied on 1H NMR experimental data, used to characterize and classify honey samples according to their origin and quality. Different metabolites specific for each botanical origins of honey samples also determined. The obtained results of the demonstration suggests that this combined approach could be useful to develop generally applicable metabolomic approaches to valuate honey products as well as other agricultural products.
... It increases the risk of botulism, leading to illness and even death [137,138] . 6. Honey contains nectar of various flowers of which some may possibly be poisonous [139] . 7. Honey can be fermented to produce ethanol, which can be intoxicating. ...
Article
Full-text available
The natural honey is one of the most valued and appreciated nutraceutical known to mankind since ancient times. It is produced by bees from the nectar of flowers, which bees collect, transform and, store in the honey comb to ripen and mature. It is used for functional food, medicinal and industrial purposes and has been listed as remarkable commodity in the foreign exchange. This review spotlights the physical, biochemical and therapeutic properties of honey, which were discovered by various researchers since last forty years. The review broadly discusses composition, nutritional and therapeutic, and Yogavahi properties of honey. The relation of ophthalmology and Honey was also included along with cosmetic properties of honey. Its effectiveness on reproductive system and safety measures to be followed while using honey showed the path of future research. It is composed mainly from carbohydrates, lesser amounts of water and many minor components. It is rich in enzymes, phenolic acids, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, organic acids, amino acids, proteins and minerals. The knowledge about physicochemical parameters determines nutritional value, microbial safety, acceptability and commercial quality assessment of honey.
... Various studies have confirmed the presence of such elements in samples of bee products, which in turn could lead to unintended negative consequences on human health. Such elements can be introduced to bee products accidentally by environmental hazards or intentionally by beekeeping practices, for example by adding antibiotics or medications to the hive to control infection in bees and prevent the development of disease (Al-Waili et al., 2012;Islam et al., 2014;El-Nahhal, 2020). Furthermore, bee products can be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum, which produces the dangerous "botulinum toxins" under low-oxygen conditions (Nevas et al., 2002), as well as by genetically modified organisms such as rape and maize (Bogdanov, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Since the ancient times, bee products (i.e., honey, propolis, pollen, bee venom, bee bread, and royal jelly) have been considered as natural remedies with therapeutic effects against a number of diseases. The therapeutic pleiotropy of bee products is due to their diverse composition and chemical properties, which is independent on the bee species. This has encouraged researchers to extensively study the therapeutic potentials of these products, especially honey. On the other hand, amid the unprecedented growth in nanotechnology research and applications, nanomaterials with various characteristics have been utilized to improve the therapeutic efficiency of these products. Towards keeping the bee products as natural and non-toxic therapeutics, the green synthesis of nanocarriers loaded with these products or their extracts has received a special attention. Alginate is a naturally produced biopolymer derived from brown algae, the desirable properties of which include biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity and non-immunogenicity. This review presents an overview of alginates, including their properties, nanoformulations, and pharmaceutical applications, placing a particular emphasis on their applications for the enhancement of the therapeutic effects of bee products. Despite the paucity of studies on fabrication of alginate-based nanomaterials loaded with bee products or their extracts, recent advances in the area of utilizing alginate-based nanomaterials and other types of materials to enhance the therapeutic potentials of bee products are summarized in this work. As the most widespread and well-studied bee products, honey and propolis have garnered a special interest; combining them with alginate-based nanomaterials has led to promising findings, especially for wound healing and skin tissue engineering. Furthermore, future directions are proposed and discussed to encourage researchers to develop alginate-based stingless bee product nanomedicines, and to help in selecting suitable methods for devising nanoformulations based on multi-criteria decision making models. Also, the commercialization prospects of nanocomposites based on alginates and bee products are discussed. In conclusion, preserving original characteristics of the bee products is a critical challenge in developing nano-carrier systems. Alginate-based nanomaterials are well suited for this task because they can be fabricated without the use of harsh conditions, such as shear force and freeze-drying, which are often used for other nano-carriers. Further, conjunction of alginates with natural polymers such as honey does not only combine the medicinal properties of alginates and honey, but it could also enhance the mechanical properties and cell adhesion capacity of alginates.
... Honey is considered both nutritional and medicinal, although the presence of certain constituents, for example, heavy metals (even in trace amounts), some alkaloids, and HMF and its derivatives may contribute to honey's toxicity. Islam, (2014) ;Sanna, (2000). HMF is a cyclic aldehyde produced by sugar degradation through the Maillard reaction (a non-enzymatic browning reaction) during food processing or long storage of honey (Markowicz, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Eighteen honey samples were collected from the local market of Libyan cities (Zawya, Zahra, Al jable-Al ghrbi, Surmman, Sabratha, Al-Ajeelat, Zuwara, Al-Jameel), at the period between 10/2/2019 to 3/3/2019. Three types of honey were collected from the different regions (Rabiee, Sader, and Zater) to evaluation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels in samples. Samples were prepared in the chemistry laboratory of the faculty of science at the University of Sabratha, the determination of HMF was performed in Zawia medical research center using the white method, which is based on UV-Vis Spectroscopy measurement at wavelengths of 284nm and 336nm, and the results were compared with Libyan Standard No. 1988. Results showed that the concentration of the MHF in the eighteen samples were within the allowed range according to the Libyan standard specification. The highest levels of the MHF level found in the Rabiee Honey (6.60 ±19.55 mg/kg) and Sader Honey (5.54±13.45 mg/kg).While the lowest levels of MHF was found in Zater Honey (1.82 ±7.13 mg/kg).
... Honey adulteration refers to the immoral act of producers by adding sugar syrups into natural product [8]. Commonly, adulterants such as water, sucrose, inverted sugar, hydroxymethyl cellulose, dextrin, and starch have been detected by routine analysis of physicochemical [9][10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The growing demand for honey in the market has led to the occurrence of the tampering honey with foreign substances and increases the production of artificial honey. Due to this concern, this study works on the physicochemical and microbial characterization of stingless bee honey. The physicochemical analysis showed that the honey possessed pH (2.51–3.26), free acidity (121.1 to 318.7 meq/kg), moisture (19.4–30.9%), electrical conductivity (0.33–0.69 mS/cm), ash content (2.75–4.31 g/100g), Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content (35.4 to 461.7 mg/kg) and diastase activity (2.71 to 6.11 DN). Also, sugar profile of honey showed that the honey contained fructose (15.03–32.52 g/100g), glucose (12.17–34.55 g/100g) and sucrose (0.01–7.29 g/100g). The harvested honey, H1, and H2 have the highest potential to become an antibacterial agent to treat disease compared to commercial honey samples because they were active against Gram-negative bacteria. All analyzed samples were within the maximum limit of the quality criteria set by the Malaysian Kelulut Standard and Codex Alimentarius except for free acidity, HMF, and Diastase Number. All the data obtained is vital in order to create a specific statute for stingless bees honey in Malaysia that may help to protect the consumer from purchasing adulterated honey.
... [4,[54][55][56]58,60,61,71,72] Given the low values of HMF in the analyzed honey samples, adulteration by adding inverted syrup is ruled out. [23,30,[54][55][56][57]60,61,73] Regarding the amount of HMF, the analyzed honey samples met the standards established in the FSR (Table SI-5) [66] and Codex Alimentarius (≤ 40 mg/kg) (Table SI-6). [26] ...
Article
Full-text available
To contribute to Chilean honey’s characterization, 12 honey samples were analyzed using comprehensive physicochemical and pollen analyses. Beekeepers donated samples from La Pintana, Linderos, Cajón del Maipo, and Chiloé. Physicochemical parameters required for honey authentication such as free acidity (in range of 9.5–46 meq/kg), hydroxymethylfurfural (0–8 mg/kg), humidity (14.4–16.9%), sugar profile, amino acid profile, organic acid profile, pH (3.8–4.7), electrical conductivity (0.25–1.47 mS/cm) and diastase activity (28.6–43.8 ºG), were determined by conventional techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at an international quality control laboratory for honey analyses. The Chilean honey samples analyzed showed physicochemical properties in normal ranges and typical sugar profiles for natural honey, which confirmed their authenticity and high quality.
... However, some scientists found contrary results that 5-HMF could not be observed in PMP in their HPLC analyses (Wu et al., 2012). Furthermore, 5-HMF was a controversial agent due to its toxicity (Severin et al., 2010;Bauer-Marinovic et al., 2012;Islam et al., 2014), as studies had shown that 5-HMF exhibited cytotoxic, genotoxic and tumoral effects. On the other hand, six ingredients, namely catechin, flavanol gallate dimer, polygoninmitin B, emodin-1-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-(6 ′ -O-malonyl)-glucoside, and physcion-8-O-(6 ′ -O-malonyl)-glucoside, disappeared or decreased significantly after processing, which were assigned as chemical markers for differentiating PM from PMP (Liang et al., 2010;Liu et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its processed products have been used in China for centuries due to their multiple beneficial effects to human body. Currently, liver injuries caused by taking P. multiflorum have been reported worldwide, but the potential toxic components and possible mechanism that caused hepatotoxicity remain unclear. It is worth noting that the processing procedure could significantly decrease the toxicity of raw P. multiflorum and the processed products of P. multiflorum are considered to be relatively safe. However, the processing mechanism is still ambiguous, and there is the lack of a scientific approach to control the quality of P. multiflorum praeparata. This study is the first review that summarizes the recently advances (from 2007 to 2017) in the chemical analysis of P. multiflorum, and provides comprehensive information on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of P. multiflorum as well as its related species. In addition, the processing mechanism and quality evaluation of processed P. multiflorum are discussed. Moreover, the toxicity of P. multiflorum is analyzed from the perspectives of exploration of the proposed toxic ingredients, metabolite identification, metabolomics studies, and exogenous contaminant determination. Furthermore, trends and perspectives for future research of this medicine are discussed.
... The amount of the elements can be affected by climatic, geologic and environmental features according to Pisani et al. [56] and Islam et al. [57]; however, the minor components in honeys cannot be considered as a reliable bio monitor of environmental pollution [22]. Mohammed et al. [27] showed evidence that minerals in some honeys were not in strict relation with the soil mineral content. ...
Article
Full-text available
Melissopalynology, antioxidant capacity and mineral and toxic element contents were analyzed in eight types of Hungarian honeys. Based on color, two groups were distinguished: light honeys comprised acacia, amorpha, phacelia and linden honeys; while dark honeys included sunflower, chestnut, fennel and sage honeys, with 100 to 300 and 700 to 1500 mAU, respectively. The unifloral origin of each sample was supported using pollen analysis. The absorbance of honey correlated positively with antioxidant capacity determined by three different methods (TRC, DPPH, ORAC), and also with mineral content. The exception was the light amber linden honey with significantly higher K content and antiradical activity than other light honeys. The Mn, Zn and Fe contents were the highest in chestnut, sunflower and fennel honeys, respectively. The black meadow sage honey performed best regarding the content of other elements and antioxidant activity. The concentrations of several toxic elements were below the detection limit in the samples, indicating their good quality. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed correlations between different antioxidant assays and minerals, and furthermore, confirmed the botanical authentication of the honeys based on the studied parameters. To our best knowledge, the present study is the first to provide a complex analysis of quality parameters of eight unifloral Hungarian honeys.
... NFCs are of interest because of their potential adverse health effects. For instance, acrylamide is classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, while furan and FFA are considered as possibly carcinogenic for humans (2B) (IARC, 2012(IARC, , 2017 and HMF is a compound that can be mutagenic, carcinogenic, and cytotoxic (Islam et al., 2014), due to its metabolic activation to 5-sulfooxymethylfurfural (SMF) (Choudhary et al., 2020). ...
Article
s Background Neo-formed contaminants (NFCs) occurrence in coffee, a highly consumed beverage worldwide, has raised concern among different food safety agencies because a high intake of these toxic compounds may represent a long-term risk for the consumer health. The mechanisms responsible of NFCs formation in roasted coffee also trigger the generation of its desirable aroma and flavor characteristics. Hence their mitigation in coffee beverage while preserving these organoleptic properties represent a food safety challenge. Scope and approach This article performs a systematic review of the different strategies proposed for the NFCs mitigation in roasted coffee considering their effect on the bioactive compounds content and the sensory characteristics of the final product. The mechanisms of NFCs formation are addressed as the main axis for the rational design of technologies for their mitigation. Key findings and conclusions Available technologies for decreasing the NFCs (acrylamide, furfuryl alcohol, furan and 5-hydroxymethylfulfural) levels in roasted coffee were grouped in two main categories: (i) mitigation (before or during roasting) and (ii) reduction (after roasting). The understanding of the mechanisms responsible of NFCs formation allowed to establish different alternatives for their mitigation in roasted coffee. However, the greatest challenge still lies in guaranteeing a final product low in NFCs with desirable sensory and bioactive characteristics. The rational design of strategies that decrease the occurrence NFCs in roasted coffee without affecting its nutritional and sensory quality must consider the inclusion of pre-roasting stages such as fermentation and drying into the mitigation technology.
... [41,43] Toxicity of honey from plants has also been reported. [66] There is a health implication for infants' regarding the presence of Clostridium botulinum in honey. [43] Spores of this bacterium can survive in honey, but they cannot build toxin. ...
... On the other hand, it is well known that seasonal, environmental, storage, and processing time and conditions may affect honey's composition. Although the nutritional and healing features of this food are appreciated, the possible presence of heavy metals (usually in traces) [1], some alkaloids [2], and reactive organic compounds, such as aldehydes, might imply a possible threat for the health of consumers. The 5-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde, better known as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), is produced during the ...
Article
Full-text available
5-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde, better known as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), is a well-known freshness parameter of honey: although mostly absent in fresh samples, its concentration tends to increase naturally with aging. However, high quantities of HMF are also found in fresh but adulterated samples or honey subjected to thermal or photochemical stresses. In addition, HMF deserves further consideration due to its potential toxic effects on human health. The processes at the origin of HMF formation in honey and in other foods, containing saccharides and proteins—mainly non-enzymatic browning reactions—can also produce other furanic compounds. Among others, 2-furaldehyde (2F) and 2-furoic acid (2FA) are the most abundant in honey, but also their isomers (i.e., 3-furaldehyde, 3F, and 3-furoic acid, 3FA) have been found in it, although in small quantities. A preliminary characterization of HMF, 2F, 2FA, 3F, and 3FA by cyclic voltammetry (CV) led to hypothesizing the possibility of a comprehensive quantitative determination of all these compounds using a simple and accurate square wave voltammetry (SWV) method. Therefore, a new parameter able to provide indications on quality of honey, named “Furanic Index” (FI), was proposed in this contribution, which is based on the simultaneous reduction of all analytes on an Hg electrode to ca. −1.50 V vs. Saturated Calomel Electrode (SCE). The proposed method, validated, and tested on 10 samples of honeys of different botanical origin and age, is fast and accurate, and, in the case of strawberry tree honey (Arbutus unedo), it highlighted the contribution to the FI of the homogentisic acid (HA), i.e., the chemical marker of the floral origin of this honey, which was quantitatively reduced in the working conditions. Excellent agreement between the SWV and Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) data was observed in all samples considered.
... It is also known to induce oxydative stress resulted as genotoxic damage on wistar rats (Eraslan et al. 2018). So, toxic activity of RH containing GTXs have been researched by many researchers (Oztasan et al. 2005, Islam et al. 2014, Silici et al. 2014b, Kukner et al. 2016, Cakmak-Arslan et al. 2020a, while other studies were carried out using the GTX chemical (Nishikawa et al. 1989, Onat et al. 1991, Ascioglu et al. 1996, 2000, 2001, Cucer and Eroz 2010, Gunduz et al. 2014. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rhododendron honey (RH) is obtained from the rhododendron plants are grown in many regions around the world, causes poisoning in humans due to the grayanotoxin (GTX) compound in its structure. It is used by the public as a therapeutic for some diseases. It was aimed to study the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of RH in mouse bone-marrow and sperm cells by using three mammalian bioassays. 25, 50 and 75 mg kg⁻¹ concentrations of RH given to male mice via gavage for 24 and 48 h treatment periods and its active ingredient Grayanatoxin (GTX-III) 0.01 mg kg⁻¹ by i.p. injection. Chromosome aberrations (CA), polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE)/normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) and sperm abnormalities were investigated. The results demonstrated that all the tested concentrations of RH significantly induced total abnormal cell frequency including chromosomal breaks for two time periods. In the MN assay, 75 mg kg⁻¹ RH and 0.01 mg kg⁻¹ GTX-III significantly increased % MNPCE and significantly reduced PCE/NCE ratios after 24 and 48 h treatments on mice demonstrating potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effect. Although there was a concentration-related increase in the percentage of total sperm abnormalities, this increase was not statistically significant compared to control. As a result, microscopic genotoxicity and cytotoxicity marker tests showed that RH and its active ingredient GTX-III have potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effect on mice bone marrow cells. It is understood that RH that is used to treat some diseases by public, should be handled carefully and used in a controlled manner. • Highlights • Chromosome aberration, micronucleus and sperm morphology assays are recommended as reliable biological indicators. • RH and its active ingredient GTX-III have potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effect on mice bone marrow cells. • Significant changes were observed upon the treatment of 75 mg kg⁻¹ MH for MN assay.
... However, research shows that the presence of 5hydroxymethylfurfural in honey that has been overheated and stored for too long can cause toxicity to the body characterized by nausea, vomiting, headaches, and convulsions. Therefore, honey that is not overheated and stored for too long is safe to use 16 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Black honey contains higher flavonoids, phenols, and minerals, which serves as antiinflammatory agents and promote faster wound healing. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of black honey on macrophage cells and blood vessels in rats’ wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: This was an experimental study with a post-test only control group design. This study involved 24 rats divided into 4 groups. The treatment was carried out for 5 days. The rats in the K1 group were wounded (cut) and given aquadest. The rats in the K2 group were wounded (cut), infected with Staphylococcus aureus, and given aquadest. The rats in the P1 group were wounded (cut), infected with Staphylococcus aureus, and treated with 2ml of black honey topically. The rats in the P2 group were wounded (cut), infected with Staphylococcus aureus, and treated with2ml of black honey orally. Observations were made histopathologicaly using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining by calculating the number of macrophage and blood vessels, and further using One-Way ANOVA. Result: The number of macrophages and blood vessels between groups was significantly different. The K2 group had the highest mean number of macrophage cells and blood vessels, and the K1 group was the least. The mean number of macrophage cells in the P1 group was more than the K1 group and less than the K2 and P2 groups, both significantly. Conclusion: Black honey was effective in reducing inflammation in wounds infected by Staphylococcus aureus.
... The identification of substrates/intermediates acting as effectors of the different transcriptional regulators putatively involved in furans catabolism is relevant not only to understand the molecular basis of pathway activation, but also from a biotechnological perspective on their potential for biosensing. Since cytotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects of HMF and furans derivatives have been demonstrated in several animal models and mammalian cell cultures, its quantification becomes relevant in alimentary industry because this compound is produced during processing of several foodstuffs [64][65][66][67]. As an alternative to sophisticated chromatographic methods for HMF quantification, sensor protein-based biosensors would allow a fast and low-cost procedure to detect this compound and/or their transformation products. ...
Article
Full-text available
Furans represent a class of promising chemicals, since they constitute valuable intermediates in conversion of biomass into sustainable products intended to replace petroleum-derivatives. Conversely, generation of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) as by-products in lignocellulosic hydrolysates is undesirable due its inhibitory effect over fermentative microorganisms. Therefore, the search for furans-metabolizing bacteria has gained increasing attention since they are valuable tools to solve these challenging issues. A few bacterial species have been described at genetic level, leading to a proposed HMF pathway encoded by a set of genes termed hmf/psf, although some enzymatic functions are still elusive. In this work we performed a genomic analysis of major subunits of furoyl-CoA dehydrogenase orthologues, revealing that the furoic acid catabolic route, key intermediate in HMF biodegradation, is widespread in proteobacterial species. Additionally, presence/absence profiles of hmf/psf genes in selected proteobacterial strains suggest parallel and/or complementary roles of enzymes with previously unclear function that could be key in HMF conversion. The furans utilization pattern of selected strains harboring different hmf/psf gene sets provided additional support for bioinformatic predictions of the relevance of some enzymes. On the other hand, at least three different types of transporter systems are clustered with hmf/psf genes, whose presence is mutually exclusive, suggesting a core and parallel role in furans transport in Proteobacteria. This study expands the number of bacteria that could be recruited in biotechnological processes for furans biodetoxification and predicts a core set of genes required to establish a functional HMF pathway in heterologous hosts for metabolic engineering endeavors.
... Honey is considered both nutritional and medicinal, although the presence of certain constituents, for example, heavy metals (even in trace amounts), some alkaloids, and HMF and its derivatives may contribute to honey's toxicity (Islam et al., 2013;Sanna et al., 2000). HMF is a cyclic aldehyde produced by sugar degradation through the Maillard reaction (a non-enzymatic browning reaction) during food processing or long storage of honey (Bastos et al., 2012) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Bees produce honey from plant nectar, plant secretions, and excretions of plant-sucking insects. Indonesian local honey contains active compounds that have the potential effect as antioxidant and anticancer. The composition and biological effects of honey vary depending on the flower sources; seasonal and environmental factors can also influence the composition and the physical products. This research was conducted to identify the chemical compounds found in several honey samples produced by beekeepers in Indonesia with LCMS/MS method and to determine the profiles of the honey from Indonesia with the Chemspider and MassBank Database. Honey samples were collected from several regions in Indonesia. The results of the analysis showed that the honey’s diastase number vary from region to region and showed that the HMF contents are relatively low. The compounds that were allegedly found through LCMS/MS analysis include and have been traced based on literature studies had bioactive activity and beneficial to health, include: millefin (potential for treating heart disease and cancer), mangiferin (anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, immunomodulators, anti-tumor, antioxidants), rhamnetin (anti-inflammatory), tricin (antioxidant-like), acacetin (inhibit tumor angiogenesis agents), aurantiamide acetate (antiviral or anti-inflammatory, therapeutic agent for the treatment of influenza), salvigenin (controlling inflammation, acute and chronic pain), brucine (modulates anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties), dehydrocostus lactone (anti-inflammatory), santonin (anthelmintic activity), dimethylesculetin (bilirubin clearance), imidazole 4- acetic acid (neuropharmacological properties), propafenone (antiarrhythmic), yohimbine (affected sexual performance), Velutin (anti-inflammatory), narigenin (linked to cardiovascular disease protection). Eventually, honey is is such a natural product with a number of salient therapeutic properties. However, there are still components that were found but their roles cannot be described in detail. Therefore, it is recommended that further meticulous studies should bring to light the other hidden properties of the honey compounds.
Article
There is an increasing interest in determining the concentration of furanic compounds naturally formed in food aqueous matrices, by in situ, fast and low-cost methods. A sensor presenting such characteristics is here proposed, and characterized. It is based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a receptor with electrochemical transduction on a screen printed cell (SPC). The molecularly imprinted polymer has been developed for a particular furanic derivative, 2-furaldehyde (2-FAL). The detection bases on the reduction of 2-FAL selectively adsorbed on the polymer layer in contact with the working electrode. The polymer layer is simply formed by in situ polymerization, directly over the SPC and it was characterized by IR, SEM and electrochemical methods. Even if based on an easy and fast preparation procedure, the layer sufficiently adheres to the cell surface giving a reusable sensor. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was applied as the signal acquisition method. The sensor performance in aqueous solution (NaCl 0.1 M) was tested, obtaining that the dose-response curve is fitted by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The sensitivity, and so the limit of detection, were noticeably improved by a chemometric approach based on the Design of experiment method. (optimized conditions: Estep = 0.03 V, Epulse = 0.066 V, f = 31 s⁻¹). In water solution at pH around neutrality the dynamic range was from about 50 μM to 20 mM. Similar results were obtained for a white wine containing 12% ethanol, which has been considered as a typical example of beverage possibly containing furhaldehydes. The higher limit of quantification can be modulated by the amount of MIP deposited, while the lower detection limit by the conditions of the electrochemical measurement.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance In traditional Chinese medicine, the dried root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (licorice root) is usually used after stir-baked with honey. However, in Japanese traditional Kampo medicine, processed licorice root is prepared by roasting without honey. Aim of the study: We summarized our previous studies on the processed licorice root products to review the effectiveness of the processing for licorice root. Materials and methods We summarized our previous studies about processed licorice root. The first report was about investigating the successive literatures of traditional medicine in China and Japan about the processing of licorice root. Next was the report about chemically analyzing for prepared various kinds of processed licorice root samples. The last reports were evaluating in vitro effects of the extracts of these samples and heated honey on granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) secretion in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. Results Before Song dynasty in mainland China, the processing of licorice root for the internal usage had been roasted without any drug adjuvants. Then, clinicians had also used honey-roasted licorice to treat throat pain since Song dynasty, and honey-roasted licorice has been used as the substitute to roasted licorice since the end of Qing dynasty. While the descriptions using honey have been disappeared in 18th century in Japan. We found that the conversion between liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin or between liquiritin and isoliquiritin in licorice root by heating was accelerated by using honey as drug adjuvant. The inducible effect of G-CSF of licorice root was not augmented by roasting, but significantly augmented by stir-baked with honey. Heated honey also had this activity, and isomaltose contributed the appearance of this activity among the constituents in honey. The best activity was appeared when isomaltose was heated at 180 °C for 60 min or at 200 °C for 15–30 min, and the average molecular weight of the active product was 790 kDa. Conclusions By our previous studies, we believe that the processing method in China is better than that in Japan for licorice root, since the immunostimulatory effects are appeared in honey used as drug adjuvant when honey is heated. Among the ingredients of honey, isomaltose can be used as the marker compound to choose a conforming honey product for the processing of licorice root.
Article
Full-text available
Toxic element pollution is an ecological concern in the regions where mining, industry and agriculture are developing. Anthropogenic impact on the environment results in the reduction of the population of honey bees over the world with varying degrees of morbidity and mortality. Bees exposed to contaminants produce polluted products through various sources, including foraging activities on contaminated plants. Therefore, monitoring of honey bee products in terms of toxic elements is very important for food safety and for preventing potential future ecological problems. The data presented in this review are useful for bee health protection and improving the quality and safety of honey production chain.
Article
The determination of 5‑hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content in honey samples of different botanical origin by a NIR-chemometrics-based approach is reported. Spectral regions, statistical models, scatter and derivative correction together with smoothing pre-treatment were examined and selected on the basis of correlation coefficient and root mean square errors for both the calibration (R²c and RMSEC) and cross-validation (R²v and RMSECV). Prediction ability was tested on an external set of honey samples and the best results were achieved with a Partial Least Square regression approach coupled with a multiplicative signal correction of the scattering in the spectral region 4252–4848 cm¹. The correlation coefficient in prediction (R² = 0.98) as the residual predictive deviation (RPD = 3.3) suggest that the proposed model proves to be a powerful tool to fulfil quality goals in such a complex matrix as honey.
Article
This work assessed the effect of formulation and heat treatment on the formation of HMF, non-enzymatic browning and rheology of dulce de leche (DL). Laboratory scale trials were developed with different DL formulas: whole powdered milk, skimmed milk, and lactose-free skimmed milk, and added sucrose, subjected to different processing temperatures (110°C, 120°C, and 130°C). Additionally, an alternative formulation was designed in which half the sucrose was replaced by 50% tagatose. DL samples were compared with three commercial products in terms of water activity, soluble solids content, pH, colour, apparent viscosity, and HMF concentration. HMF formation in DL was mitigated (35%) in a lactose-free formulation by lowering the process temperature. Moreover, HMF formation was reduced up to 80% replacing sucrose by tagatose without affecting the quality parameters (pH, soluble solids, colour, and apparent viscosity). Decrease in processing temperature and the use of tagatose are viable alternatives for HMF mitigation in DL.
Article
5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is one of the food contaminants mainly formed by Maillard and caramelization reaction. Here, we developed a simple method to detect HMF based on split-DNAzyme assisted signal amplification via Quartz crystal microbalance. Firstly, two fragments of the split-DNAzyme (ESΙ and ESII) and AuNPs-ssDNA were prepared. In the absence of HMF, the amino group of ESΙ reacted with the aldehyde group of ESΙΙ by Schiff base condensation,which linked ESΙ and ESII as DNAzyme. With the help of Mg²⁺, this DNAzyme cleaved AuNPs-ssDNA, freeing the complementary sequence of capture DNA from the ssDNA. In the presence of the target HMF, the aldehyde group in its molecular structure preferred to react with ESΙ, which prevented the link of ESΙ and ESII. In this case, DNAzyme cannot be formed effectively and the ssDNA modified on AuNPs cannot be cleaved. Secondly, the capture DNA was immobilized on Au chip in the QCM chamber. Then, the intact AuNPs-ssDNA was introduced to hybridize with the capture DNA, resulted in a large frequency change (ΔF) of the QCM biosensor because of the huge increased mass of AuNPs. So, HMF can be detected based on the frequency change (ΔF) of the QCM biosensor. This QCM biosensor is more sensitive than previously reported methods, which provide a new direction for the analytical detection of HMF and other food contaminants.
Chapter
Compared to GPCRs, the set of plant-derived compounds that target ion channels appears much more limited. For voltage-gated channels, most known toxins are derived from animals such as snails, spiders and snakes. Also, many ligand-gated channels are targeted by few to none known plant-derived drugs. Nevertheless, ion channels are the target of some of the most potent plant poisons and most commonly used plant-derived drugs.
Chapter
The presence of GPRCs in plants is still a question of debate. While G-protein coupled signalling exists, the signalling cycle is typically not activated by seven transmembrane-spanning receptors. By contrast, many plant secondary metabolites are known to affect human GPRCs. Some are very specific for a single type of receptor; however, many others act on more than one type, albeit with often strongly different affinities.
Article
A novel method for non-target screening of toxicants in poisonous honey was established in this study. Poisonous honey and nontoxic honey were contrastive detected using liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analyzed by Mass Profiler Professional Software. 4 poisonous alkaloids were screened out and confirmed by comparison with reference compounds. In order to investigate the source of these poisonous alkaloids, 6 poisonous alkaloids, ubiquitous in Gelsemium elegan, from honey, honeybees, pollen in honeycomb and different organs of Gelsemium elegan, were quantified by liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that alkaloids composition characteristics in honey, honeybees, and pollen were similar to those in the flower and bud of Gelsemium elegan and significant different from those in leave, stem and root. This result demonstrated that poisonous alkaloids in honey were come from the gathering honey process. This strategy provided an efficient and rapid method for non-target screening of toxicants in food.
Article
Full-text available
Conventional method of honey production is widely spread in the area of western Serbia. Despite the advantages of honey production in an organic manner, beekeepers are still hesitant to take this step, regardless of the difficulties with placement of such honey on the foreign market, so their products are mainly sold on the domestic market. Besides the undeniable nutritional value, honey produced in the conventional way with proper use of agro technical measures and implementation of the wide range of products in the treatment of bee diseases, in its composition very often contain residues of hazardous chemical compounds, pesticides, antibiotics. Research on four qualitative differences of the content of certain substances between the conventional and organic honey producers has been conducted in western Serbia. The research obtained five manufacturers, out of which two were engaged in organic manner of production, while the remaining three dealt with the conventional honey production. After examining the area and the apiaries in question, interviews with honeybee producers, the sampling of honey took place. Upon performed analysis, it was concluded that one conventionally produced sample of honey was not safe for human consumption, due to presence of pesticides.
Article
The feasibility of Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric modeling for analysis of trace compounds is studied on the example of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) in honey up to a concentration of 110 ppm, and compared to results in literature. Randomized repeated measurements of the calibration samples were carried out to prevent analytical artifacts. A partial least squares (PLS) model was calculated for quantitative determination. The considered spectral range has significant influence on the PLS model. Furthermore, averaging of spectra can improve the model quality due to the elimination of statistical noise. A low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 13 ppm was achieved. Hence, the results indicate that trace compound determination with ATR FTIR spectroscopy is possible, although calibration and modeling efforts are higher compared to standard applications of ATR FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.
Article
This study presents a sensitive approach for electrochemical determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in food. The electrochemical sensor was fabricated on a copper electrode (CuE) modified with co-electrodeposited Cu-Ni bimetallic particles. This sensor, fabricated by 30 cycles of cyclic voltametric scanning with a scan rate of 50 mV s⁻¹, exhibits good electrocatalytic ability to 5-HMF oxidation. Under the optimal conditions, linear scan voltammetry (LSV) and chronoamperometry were conducted for the determination of 5-HMF. The results of LSV show that a linear dependency within the 0.4–10 mM range with a detection limit (LOD) of 3.51 μM (S/N = 3) was achieved, while a linear range in 1×10-⁴–11 mM with a LOD of 0.043 μM (S/N = 3) was obtained by chronoamperometric measurement. The electrochemical sensor was finally applied in determination of 5-HMF in various foods, and the reliability and accuracy of the method were assessed by adopting an UV method as a standard method. Results show that the concentrations of 5-HMF in real samples are close to those measured by the standard method. In addition, standard addition method was further performed to evaluate the accuracy of our approach. The recoveries ranged from 90.0% to 110.0% are calculated, demonstrating good accuracy of the electrochemical sensor.
Article
The fascinating collection and evaluation of natural products with enormous structural and chemical diversity can contribute to ensure human health and inspire potential drug discovery. We reported the identification of 14-(R)-hydroxy-gelsenicine (HGE), a new component from poisonous honey, which has recently caused multiple serious intoxications and deaths up on consumption. The prevalence, toxicity, toxicokinetics and metabolic profile of HGE were evaluated through in vitro and in vivo analyses. HGE is a very toxic substance and shows significant gender difference with LD50 of 0.125 mg kg-1 and 0.295 mg kg-1 for the female and male mice, respectively. Toxicokinetics test indicates that HGE has good bioavailability in rats, and is metabolized extensively, in which hydroxylation, reduction, N-demethyl ether and glucuronication are the major metabolic pathways. Additionally, HGE shows specific neurotoxicity by enhancing the binding of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to its receptors. We found that flumazenil, a selective antagonist of GABA receptor, could effectively increase the survival of the tested animals, which provides a potential therapy for future clinical applications.
Article
This systematic review (SR) evaluated evidence of lead (Pb) levels in foods consumed or produced in Brazil. Seventy-seven publications were included in this review, corresponding to a total of 8466 food samples that were grouped into 12 food categories with similar characteristics (infant food; sugar; beverages; meat and meat products; nuts, cocoa and products; fruits and fruit products; grains, cereals and products; milk and milk products; eggs; oil and fat spreads; vegetables and vegetable products and other foods). The random model was used to establish levels of Pb in food categories. We used the software R® to perform the meta-analysis. The overall occurrence of Pb was estimated at 0.0541 mg/kg, and ranged from 0.0004 mg/kg to 0.4842 mg/kg. The SR and meta-analysis presented relevant results about Pb contamination on foods, despite the high heterogeneity. They were understood as a viable strategy to answer questions regarding prevalence of Pb which is necessary for the risk assessment of Pb intake in foods.
Article
Full-text available
Good nutrition pattern reflects a healthy and nutritionally balanced diet to help promote health and prevent chronic diseases for current and future generations. This present study was conducted to assess dietary patterns and eating behavior among nursing students at Misurata University; also, to clarify the relationship of hemoglobin level with gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), dietary patterns and eating behavior. Sixty-one students aged 18-30 years old were selected randomly. Pearson correlation was used to find out a correlation of hemoglobin with measured parameters. The results showed a significant (P˂0.05) correlation of hemoglobin level with regular breakfast intake, practice tea and coffee intake immediately after meal. There was no significant (P>0.05) correlation of hemoglobin level with gender, BMI, fast meal and animal products intake. Some negative food habits were observed among participants, such as skipping breakfast and eating fast meals many times during a week. The majority of students didn’t eat enough rich heme iron foods such as fish, eggs and red meat. Also; many students were not eating a wide variety of foods frequently. The results also revealed that, the majority of participants have consumed many servings of dairy products on daily bases in replacement of meat, fruits and vegetables. This may be due to community dietary habits or cultural and economic factors. The nutrition awareness is necessary to gain healthy lifestyle, desirable dietary habits including all food groups, as well as regular breakfast and physical exercise.
Article
Full-text available
A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) platform, based on a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF), combined with a biomimetic receptor, i.e., a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), is proposed to detect furfural (2-furaldheide, 2-FAL) in fermented beverages like wine. MIPs have been demonstrated to be a very convenient biomimetic receptor in the proposed sensing device, being easy and rapid to develop, suitable for on-site determinations at low concentrations, and cheap. Moreover, the MIP film thickness can be changed to modulate the sensing parameters. The possibility of performing single drop measurements is a further favorable aspect for practical applications. For example, the use of an SPR-MIP sensor for the analysis of 2-FAL in a real life matrix such as wine is proposed, obtaining a low detection limit of 0.004 mg L−1. The determination of 2-FAL in fermented beverages is becoming a crucial task, mainly for the effects of the furanic compounds on the flavor of food and their toxic and carcinogenic effect on human beings.
Article
Full-text available
The knowledge of important parameters for honey characterization is an increasing requirement of consumers and the honey industry. In this respect, differentiation between blossom honeys and some honeydew honeys is still an unresolved task. This study includes the results of physicochemical and melissopalynological analysis of 86 honey samples from north-western Spain. The relationship between the microscopic elements in honey, such as Metschnikowia cells and fungal spores from plant pathogens, together with their physicochemical parameters were analysed. A cluster analysis was performed to differentiate blossom honey samples from honeydew samples. Metschnikowia cells and certain fungal spores were found to be good variables to enable differentiation between blossom honeys and honeydew honeys.
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this research were to determine physico-chemical characteristics of 1,758 Apis mellifera L. honey samples produced by in the productive pole of Picos, state of Piauí, to understand, based on these characteristics, how they are grouped and to determine the percentage of honey that fit the specifications determined by Brazilian legislation. Thirty-five honey samples were collected directly from beekeepers for determination of total sugars, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, humidity, diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), protein, ash, pH, acidity, formol index, electrical conductivity, viscosity and color. Mean values of each one of the analyzed physico-chemical parameters are within the limits established by the current Brazilian legislation, but it was verified for apparent sacarosis, diastase activity and HMF, values different from the established ones. Protein and HMF were the traits that contributed most for group formation.
Article
Full-text available
International honey standards are specified in a European Honey Directive and in the Codex Alimentarius Standard for Honey, both of which are presently under revision. In this article, present knowledge on the different quality criteria is reviewed. The standard drafts include standards and methods for the determination of the following quality factors: moisture, ash, acidity, HMF, apparent reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, diastase activity and water-insoluble matter. International honey standards for fructose/glucose content, the sucrose content and electrical conductivity are proposed. Also the use of other quality factors, such as invertase activity, proline and specific rotation, used in many countries, is also discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the biological origin and temperature on rheological and physicochemical characteristics of honey. The honey of the selected varieties differed in color, scent, microstructure, total acidity, moisture, and pH. The level of moisture statistically significantly correlated with the rheological characteristics. The highest total acidity was a characteristic of forest and buckwheat honey, and the lowest of acacia honey. The lowest pH value (3.76) was found in forest and rape honey, and the highest in eucalyptus honey. Moisture levels significantly correlated with the rheological characteristics. All varieties of honey at all the studied temperatures were characterized by properties of non-Newtonian substances. The study showed that the effect of temperature on rheological characteristics of different types of honey varied and was more pronounced in honey with a crystalline structure, and less pronounced in non-crystalline honey.
Article
Full-text available
The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of 30 samples of acacia honey from Croatian territory were analysed. Phenolics were determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, antiradical activity by the l,l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and potential antioxidant activity using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method. In all samples, physicochemical parameters (water content, electrical conductivity, total reducing sugars, sucrose content, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural content, prolin content, optical rotation, diastase activity and invertase activity) were measured according to Croatian legislation and International regulatory standards. Honey can be considered as a dietary supplement as it contains some important components including α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, flavonoids and phenolics. The composition and properties of honey are dependent on floral origins, climatic conditions of the produced area, processing and storage methods. The results of physicochemical analyses showed that all the values of investigated parameters are in agreement with the current legislation. Phenolic content ranged from 31.72 mg/kg to 80.11 mg/kg, antiradical activity expressed as IC50 ranged from 61.28% to 253.47% and antioxidant activity expressed as FRAP value from 6.95 to 142.43. A positive correlation was observed between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity, indicating that phenolic compounds are mainly responsible for the antioxidant power of acacia honey.
Article
Full-text available
This study was intended to evaluate the quality chemical parameters of 62 Apis mellifera L. honey samples, from the Province of Chubut, Argentina. Samples were obtained from the three melliferous areas of this province: Andean region, lower Chubut River valley and plains of Senguerr River. The average values obtained for electrical conductivity (0.33 mS cm-1) and pH (4.17) indicate that the analyzed honeys came mainly from nectar. Electrical conductivity was higher in honeys from the Andean region than in honeys from the other two regions. Moisture (water content) was low, with an average value of 14.67%. The hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was very low and ranged between 0.0 and 14.70 mg kg-1. Moisture, HMF and free acidity values show good maturity and absence of undesirable fermentation in all the samples. Diastase activity had a mean value of 13.50 units on the Gothe scale. Color parameter presented variations between honeys from different areas. The analytical values for the samples from the Andean region, the lower Chubut River valley and the plains of the Senguerr River respectively were: 67.73, 40.33 and 23.26 mm Pfund. Results obtained in this study, indicate that honeys produced in Chubut present excellent quality properties according to international standards. : .
Article
Full-text available
Summary It is important to know the antioxidant properties of Malaysian honey of different sources to ensure their quality. In this study, we analysed nine common Malaysian honeys and one manuka honey to determine the total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and colour intensity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenols content, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay for reducing capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) assays for radical scavenging capacity. The colour intensity measure, ABS450, was used to approximate the contribution of coloured phytochemicals (carotenoids, flavonoids) to the overall antioxidant capacity of honey. The results showed that all the honey samples showed high content of phenolic compounds (876.58-166.97 mg GAE/kg) and high colour intensity (169.89 -740.59 mAU) but that the results differ widely among the honey types. Out of nine honey samples, tualang honey 1 and 2 had the highest content of polyphenols and showed the highest colour intensity at ABS450. All of the honey samples tested have high antioxidant properties as analysed by FRAP and DPPH· assay. Correlations between the parameters analysed were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.01). On the basis of employed analytical methods, the tested honey samples may be considered easily accessible natural sources of antioxidants and valuable additions to everyday diet. The results have shown that tualang honey 1 and 2 were characterized by the highest total polyphenols content (876.58 mg GAE/kg and 652 mg GAE/kg), the highest reducing capacity (755.33 mM Fe(II) and 794.67 mM Fe(II)) and the best radical scavenging properties with respect to DPPH· (81.64% and 77.25%) of the analysed Malaysian honey samples. Radical scavenging activity and antioxidant properties of the honey samples showed good correlation with polyphenols content and colour intensity. Keywords: Polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidants, colour intensity.
Article
Full-text available
The quality of sixteen samples of Apis mellifera L. honey, from the center of Algeria, was evaluated by determining the physico-chemical characteristics. The following determinations were carried out: water content, total sugar, electrical conductivity, ash, pH, acidity (free, lactone, and total), hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) and color. The physicochemical parameters found are within acceptable ranges: water 13.36–17.93%, total sugar 80.17-84.73%, pH 3.58–4.72, total acidity 17.97-49.1 meq/kg, electrical conductivity 2.75×10 -4 –7.19×10 -4 S/cm, ash 0.075–0.33%, and color 4.1–9.2 Pfund index. The analysis of HMF showed that the majority of samples were exposed to a high temperature during processing or storage.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Efforts are being made to apply physicochemical parameters analysis in the identification of varietal honeys. With many variables describing a given population, it is feasible to differentiate between basing on principal component analysis (PCA). The aim of this study was to investigate selected physicochemical quality characteristics of nectar honey, with particular emphasis paid to carbohydrate composition, and to determine its applicability in identifying the variety of floral honey. Material and methods: The experimental materials were samples of commercial honey available at retail in Krakow in 2005-2007 period. The following analyses were performed: water content by the refractometric method, sugars content according to Luff-Schoorl, content of sugars using HPLC, electrical conductivity, specific rotation, and acidity of honey. Results: Application of HPLC allowed the precise qualitative identification of sugars, which was impossible to be determined by Luff-Schoorl method. The obtained results were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA). Conclusions: Based on the obtained results and performing the statistical analysis, it was found that the relationship between specific rotation and the total acidity can be used to distinguish buckwheat honeys from other analysed varieties. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the relationship between the specific rotation and maltose content can be used to distinguish between acacia honeys vs. buckwheat and lime honeys.
Article
Full-text available
It is very difficult to detect adulteration by conventional laboratory methods. However, differences in stable carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C=‰), between honey and its protein fraction give a qualitative and quantitative indication of honey adulteration. Forty honey samples from Brazil and eight imported from Argentina, Canada and the USA, were analyzed to detect possible adulteration by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Honey was adulterated with sucrose solution and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to determine detection limits. The 13C/12C value for honey and its protein fraction should not differ more than 1‰ for delta (δ). The range of values found for bee-produced honey was −21.96‰ to −30.47‰ for C3 plants and −11.82‰ to −19.00‰ for C4 plants (produced near cut sugar cane and not considered to be flower honey). For cane sugar it was −11.33‰ to −11.78‰, and −9.70‰ to −9.78‰ for HFCS. Adulteration was found in six Brazilian honey samples.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this work was to establish a solid platform of analytical information for the definition/standardization of the antioxidant properties of honey. We investigated first the antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity of 14 commercial honeys of different floral and geographic origin, using a battery of spectrophotometric tests: Folin-Ciocalteu assay for phenol content (PC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay) for total antioxidant activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay for antiradical activity, absorbance:450 (ABS450) for color intensity and one fluorimetric method: ORAC, oxygen reactive antioxidant capacity for the antilipoperoxidant activity. Then the data from different procedures were compared and analysed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation, principal component analysis (PCA)). Significant correlations were obtained for all the antioxidant markers (r ranging from 0.933 to 0.716), with antioxidant properties strictly correlated to the phenolic content and honey color intensity. PCA found different clusters of honey based on the antioxidant power and very likely also on chemical composition. The results of this study demonstrated that only through a combination of antioxidant testings, comparative analyses, and chemometric evaluation we can achieve a strictly rigorous guideline for the characterization of the antioxidant activity of honey, an invaluable tool for the understanding/demonstration of its antioxidants linked therapeutic efficacy.
Article
Full-text available
This study intended to determine and compare the microscopic and physicochemical characteristics of Burkina Fasan honey (n = 27) with those described in the Codex Standard, and to also find correlations between individual constituents. Physicochemical properties were determined using the harmonised methods of the international honey commission. Microscopic pollen analyses identified the samples as being derived from one Acacia, one Lannea, three Vitellaria, two Combretaceae, two mixed Poaceae honeydew and eighteen multifloral honey. Despite the tropical ambient temperature, all the samples were nevertheless well within the limits of the Codex Standard for levels of hydroxymethylfurfural, reducing sugars, proline and diastase activity. Only 7.4% (ash), 14.8% (free acidity and pH) and 22.2% (moisture) of samples exceeded the Codex-permitted limits. A highly significant correlation was found between pH and ash content (r = 0.77; P < 0.001). The training of non-professional beekeepers in beekeeping practice is suggested to improve the quality of Burkina Fasan honey.
Article
Full-text available
Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples---acacia, pineapple and borneo honey---and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. Methods The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Results Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 +/- 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 +/- 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 +/- 0.64 muM Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 +/- 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 +/- 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the biochemical and antioxidant parameters of all the Malaysian honeys. Conclusion Although Malaysian honeys are of good quality, tualang honey contains the strongest antioxidant properties by far.
Article
Full-text available
Codex Alimentarius Standard, EU Legislation and National Standards state honey authenticity. Authenticity in respect of production (to prevent adulteration) and authenticity in respect of geographical and botanical origin are the two main aspects of general honey authenticity. Quality of honey depends on the plant source, the chemical composition of these plants as well, as on the climatic conditions and soil mineral composition. Romanian acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) honey that came from the most important Transylvanian massif (Valea lui Mihai, Bihor County, Romania) was evaluated for authenticity by pollen-analysis, several physico-chemical analyses, including sugar profile and mineral content. As polyphenolic content could be also an important factor for botanical authentification, HPLC-DAD-MS analyses were performed to assess the fingerprint of this important secondary plant metabolite. Statistical data were processed in order to develop a biochemical profile of this type of honey and the main quality categories identification. The results of physico-chemical analysis demonstrated that the tested honey samples could be framed into monofloral type of acacia honeys. The analysis of acacia honeys originating from Valea lui Mihai, Romania, showed that polyphenolic profile (phenolic acids and flavonoids) could be used as a complementary method for authenticity determination together with pollen analysis and other physico-chemical analysis.
Book
The nature .and diversity of presentations at the conference on: "Bee Products: Prop­ erties, Applications and Apitherapy" held at Tel-Aviv on May 26--30, 1996, emphasize the increasing interest of physicians, practitioners, scientists, herbalists, dieticians, cosmeti­ cians, microbiologists, and beekeepers in different facets of bee products. This volume consists of a selection of 31 contributions presented at the conference and which provide information on the present status of our knowledge in this area. In spite of their diversity, they reflect the mainstream of the conference, namely: "Imported" Prod­ ucts (honey, pollen and propolis), Exocrine Secretions of Workers (venom, royal jelly). Toxicity and Contaminants, Quality Control, Marketing, Apitherapy, Cosmetics, etc. Since antiquity, honey as well as other bee products were used as food, as a cure for ailments of humans and animals, and as cosmetics. We hope that this volume will contribute to interdisciplinary studies on chemical composition, pharmacological effects, nutrition, and other aspects of bee products. Critical and unbiased experimental research may unravel the yet unknown composition and mode of action of bee products and elucidate many unanswered questions. The noteworthy features of this conference were the participants from all parts of the world and of different cultural backgrounds, who shared their keen interest and curios­ ity regarding honey bees and their products. We thank all of them for their personal con­ tribution to the success of this conference.
Book
Not since the late 1970s has a single work presented the biology of this heterogenous group of secondary alkaloids in such depth. Alkaloids, a unique treatise featuring leaders in the field, presents both the historical use of alkaloids and the latest discoveries in • the biochemistry of alkaloid production in plants • alkaloid ecology, including marine invertebrates, animal and plant parasites, and • alkaloids as antimicrobial and current medicinal use . Highlights include chapters on the chemical ecology of alkaloids in host-predator interactions, and on the compartmentation of alkaloids synthesis, transport, and storage. Extensive cross-referencing in tabular format makes this volume an excellent reference.
Book
This is the sixth edition of Hayes' Principles and Methods of Toxicology. It has been revised and updated while maintaining the high standards necessary to serve as a reference to the concepts, methodologies, and assessments integral to toxicology. As was the case with the first five editions of the book, new chapters have been added to address the advances and developments in the field of toxicology. These chapters deal with the importance of the dose-response, systems toxicology, food safety, the humane use and care of animals, and neurotoxicology. A number of new authors have been added and the glossary has been expanded. Every effort has been made to maintain this book as a tome useful both to graduate students beginning their educational journey as well as the more seasoned toxicologist.
Article
The chemical composition of honeys produced in Eastern and South-Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) was studied. For this aim, the composition of 45 honey samples collected from the mentioned regions and the effect of one year storage (20 ± 5°C) on the diastase activity and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content were determined. Compositional data measured in the fresh honeys were HMF, diastase number, moisture, invert sugar, sucrose, ash, proline, pH, free acid and lactone. Average values were as follows: HMF 3.3 mg kg-1, diastase number 14.6, moisture 16.0%, invert sugar 70.3%, sucrose 1.89%, ash 0.1%, proline 53.0 mg/100g: pH 3.8, free acid 22.3 meq kg-1 and lactone 7.4 meq kg-1. The changes in HMF content and diastase number of the samples after one year storage (20 ± 5°C) were also investigated. The average HMF content (mg kg-1) increased from 3.3 to 19.1, and the average diastase number decreased from 14.6 to 10.7 following one year storage. The results indicate that storage has a significant role in the increase HMF contents and the decrease in diastase numbers, and changes in these two parameters were statistically significant (P< 0.001).
Article
A procedure for the detection of acetylandromedol in plant extracts was developed through use of paper electrophoresis with borate buffer solutions. Positive results, were found for some but not all species of Kalmia, Leucothoe, Lyonia, Pernettya, Pieris and Rhododendron. A particularly good source was found in K. angustifolia var. caroliniana. New evidence indicated that the empirical formula for andromedol is C20H34O6, and that acetylandromedol, grayanotoxin I and rhodotoxin are identical and have the formula C22H36O7.
Article
This study was designed to evaluate different honey samples obtained from local market and beekeepers for their quality parameters at Gomma woredas, south west Ethiopia. Sixty samples were collected to evaluate their moisture, pH, acidity, ash, Estimation of Hydroxymethyl Furfural (HMF), water insoluble solids, total reducing sugar and sucrose content. The result showed locally produced honey had moisture, ash, acid, and pH contents ranged between 15.66 to 23.45%, 0.05-0.60, 0.30 and 57.30 meq kg- 1,3.45 and 4.18, respectively, which is within the standard limits. Similarly, the HMF and reducing sugar contents of locally produced honeys ranged from 0.05 to 17.70 mg kg-1 and 61.15 and 77.41%, respectively. The water insoluble material content of the honey samples ranged between 0.01 and 23.82 gm/100gm while the sucrose content ranged between 0.75-6.96 for the tested samples of locally produced honey. The result indicated that moisture content of honey at farmer level is increasing due to harvesting of un ripened honey and improper storage condition, which increases the hygroscopic of honey. Generally, the mean of all samples were found to be in acceptable range of international standards for all of the tested parameters except for water insoluble material indicating its potential for export with few management interventions.
Chapter
This chapter discusses about honey, the only sweetening material that can be stored and used exactly as produced in nature. No refining or processing is necessary before enjoying this. Honey is the sweet, viscous substance elaborated by the honeybee from the nectar of plants. This simple definition excludes honeydew honey, which is produced by the bee from honeydew excreted by various plant-sucking insects. The combs are constructed by the bees from wax they secrete, the production of which requires about 8–10 times its weight in honey. As produced, it is highly variable, particularly in color, flavor, moisture content, and sugar composition, indeed in nearly every constituent. As agricultural practices and crops change, the value of areas for beekeeping or the quality, type, and amount of honey produced will be influenced. Honey is characterized by its color and floral type. A group of naturally blended honeys is available on a consistent basis — such as — fall flowers, alfalfa — sweet clover, and mixed flowers from various specified areas. In contrast to the a–glucosidase, which has a clear and essential function in the conversion of nectar to honey, no such function has been assigned to the starch — digesting enzymes in honey. The use of inhibine number or glucose oxidase activity as a measure of honey quality on heat exposure is therefore impractical because of the wide range of activity and the wide range of heat sensitivity. Honey color is generally evaluated in the honey industry by Pfund Honey Color Grader.
Article
Stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) of honey for undeclared presence of cane or corn sugars has been available for 20 years. Its use with domestic and imported honeys is reviewed. Six years of data from the internal standard isotope ratio analysis (ISCIRA) method support its worldwide validity for honey analysis. The ISCIRA database of pure honeys has been increased from 64 U.S. samples to 224 by addition of data from Germany, United Kingdom, Mexico, Italy, and Spain. ISCIRA analyses of 131 commercial honeys from the United States, Mexico, and Spain found that 17 are adulterated. Analyses of 303 Chinese honeys proves that they should have carbon isotope values similar to honeys from other areas, contrary to claims that the observed differences are intrinsic because of the variability of environmental conditions and of plants used in honey production in China. Addition of corn or cane (C 4) sugars to honeys in amounts that do not produce a δ 13C value greater than -23.5‰ for the mixture cannot be detected by the original 1978 SCIRA procedure. Such adulteration however is detected by ISCIRA procedure from the δ 13C value of the protein contained in the honey, which shows the isotopic composition of the honey before addition of C 4 sugars. Forty-three percent of 98 honeys received in the United States in 1994-1997 with δ 31C < -23.5‰ were suspected and found to be adulterated.
Article
The quality and value of honey, as a natural bio-product depends on its sort and origin. The quantitative and qualitative ratio of chemical elements is individual in each blossom of the plant from each region of the country, so the total content of mineral substances depends on a location. It is possible to determine the origin of specific samples of honey and the environmental pollution of a region from the quantitative and qualitative ratio of heavy and rare metals in honey. The content of heavy metals (HM) such as (Pb (lead), Cd (cadmium), Cu (copper), Zn (zinc) an excess of which could be toxic, of other biologically required elements such as Sr (strontium), Rb (rubidium), Ba (barium) and rare elements Ce (cerium), La (lanthanum), U (uranium) were determined in samples of honey collected from different parts of Lithuania. The research was done at the Federal Institute of Consumer Health Protection and Veterinary Medicine in Berlin, Germany, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS (Finningan Mat). Numerous biologically important trace elements were found in Lithuanian honey. The concentration of heavy metals in Lithuanian honey varied in a wide range: Pb 2.9÷22.1 µg/kg, Cd 4.1÷14.6 µg/kg, Cu 119.6÷342.9 µg/kg, Zn 514.0÷5639.0 µg/kg. The content of harmful microelements were within the Maximum Tolerable Limit (MTL) of Lithuanian Standards of Hygiene. The content of heavy metals in Lithuanian honey was found to be lower than in honey of other EU countries. Lithuanian honey is eco-friendlier comparing to honey collected in other EU Countries and can successfully compete in the market. Honey can be an indicator of environmental pollution with HM, because the maximum amount of Pb (22.1 µg/kg), high levels of Sr and Ba were found in the honey collected in the Kaunas city territory, and the maximum levels of Cd (14.6 µg/kg), a high content of Pb, Cu, Sr was determined in the honey collected in Elektrėnai, Šiauliai and Birštonas regions, while the least quantities of heavy metals were estimated in the honey collected in the eco-friendliest areas of Lithuania: on the seacoast, in the Varėna region and in the north of the country. According to Rb content, honey can be assorted into honey of mead and forest. 2446.5 µg/kg of Rb was found in honey collected in the Labanoras forest. This content is 4÷12 times higher than in other samples of honey.
Article
Surveys of floral honey composition have established that the three major components are fructose, glucose, and water, averaging 38.2, 31.3 and 17.2%, respectively. Glucose and fructose are the only monosaccharides in honey and it is these sugars, combined in various forms, that comprise the di- and trisaccharide fractions of floral honey. Several laboratories, utilising various chemical and physical methods, have been responsible for the isolation and characterisation of ten disaccharides, ten trisaccharides, and two higher sugars from floral honey. Several of these occur only rarely in nature, and the trisaccharide erlose, produced by the action of honeybee invertase on sucrose, was first discovered as a component of honey. Honeydew honey is produced by the honeybee from honeydew deposits left by various hemipterous insects on their host plant. Honeydew contains a more complex mixture of sugars than does nectar, and honeydew honey is appreciably higher in reducing disaccharides and higher sugars than is floral honey. The trisaccharide melizitose, not found in floral honey, is often present in levels exceeding 10% in honeydew honey. The precipitation of glucose from honey, termed granulation, is often technologically undesirable as it is sometimes followed by fermentation. Indices such as the glucose/water ratio have been used to predict granulation tendency. Small amounts of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) occur naturally in honey, resulting from the acid catalysed dehydration of the hexoses, particularly fructose. High levels of HMF suggest adulteration of honey with acid inverted invert syrup and several methods are available for its determination. The conversion of nectar and honeydew to the complex array of honey sugars by the honeybee involves a variety of chemical and biochemical processes, some of which are now understood, while others remain to be elucidated.
Article
Contents of Zn, Cd and Pb in honey samples (15) from the Pomeranian region were determined by atomic absorption spectrometer AAS. The mean values for Zn, Cd and Pb were 7.76, 0.015 and 0.048 mg/kg, respectively. Also determined in the honey samples were invert sugar, sucrose, HMF, diastase activity, pH, electrical conductivity, moisture and mechanical pollutions. Pomeranian honeys were of good quality, but they were not free of heavy metals. Results suggested that honey may be useful for assessing the presence of environmental contaminants.
Article
The effects of added magnesium, manganese, zinc and iron(II) ions on the production of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in honey were studied using a spectrophotometric method using p-toluidine and barbituric acid for the formation of a coloured complex. All the metal ions used significantly accelerated HMF formation in honey, especially at high temperatures. As the concentration of the added metal ions was increased, there was a corresponding increase in the amount of HMF formed. Manganese ions caused the highest increase in the level of HMF, followed by zinc, magnesiumn and iron (II) ions in that order.
Article
The concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb were determined in 54 multi-floral honey samples collected from five regions of Croatia during 2009 and 2010. Element contents decreased in the following order: Cu>Pb>As>Hg>Cd. Significant differences in lead and copper levels were observed between regions. Mean levels of elements (μgkg−1) in all honey samples measured were: 19.7 for As, 1.51 for Cd, 1074 for Cu, 2.72 for Hg and 65.2 for Pb. Copper and lead were the most abundant elements in the Centre region, with range and mean contents of 108–41,271 and 3232μgkg−1 and 22.0–440 and 131μgkg−1, respectively. The highest element contents were: As 23.8μgkg−1 in the South region, Cd 2.11μgkg−1 in the Southwest region and Hg 2.63μgkg−1 in the Northeast region. The finding that lead contents in Croatian honey were higher than most reported lead levels in honey from other European countries is of particular concern. These indicate that attention must be focused on setting positions for honey production hives in areas distant from highways and railways.