Article

Mucosal delivery of antigen-coated nanoparticles to lungs confers protective immunity against tuberculosis infection in mice

Infection and Immunity Research Centre, St George's University of London, UK
European Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.03). 02/2014; 44(2). DOI: 10.1002/eji.201343887
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Mucosal boosting of BCG-immunised individuals with a subunit tuberculosis (TB) vaccine would be highly desirable, considering that the lungs are the principal port of entry for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the site of the primary infection and reactivation. However, the main roadblock for subunit TB vaccine development is the lack of suitable adjuvants that could induce robust local and systemic immune responses. Here, we describe a novel vaccine delivery system that was designed to mimic, in part, the MTB pathogen itself. The surface of yellow carnauba wax nanoparticles was coated with the highly immunogenic Ag85B antigen of MTB and they were directed to the alveolar epithelial surfaces by the incorporation of the heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesion (HBHA) protein. Our results showed that the intranasal immunisation of BCG-primed BALB/c mice with nanoparticles adsorbed with Ag85B-HBHA (NanoAH vaccine) induced robust humoral and cellular immune responses and IFN-γ production, and multifunctional CD4(+) T cells expressing IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α. Mice challenged with H37Rv MTB had a significantly reduced bacterial load in their lungs when compared with controls immunised with BCG alone. We therefore conclude that this immunisation approach is an effective means of boosting the BCG-induced anti-TB immunity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Laura Sibley, Mar 30, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Individuals infected with mycobacteria are likely to experience episodes of concurrent infections with unrelated respiratory pathogens, including the seasonal or pandemic circulating influenza A virus strains. We analyzed the impact of influenza A virus and mycobacterial respiratory coinfection on the development of CD8 T cell responses to each pathogen. Coinfected mice exhibited reduced frequency and numbers of CD8 T cells specific to Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in the lungs, and the IFN-γ CD8 T cell response to BCG-encoded OVA was decreased in the lungs of coinfected mice, when compared with mice infected with BCG alone. Moreover, after 2 wk of infection, mice coinfected with both pathogens showed a significant increase in the number of mycobacteria present in the lung compared with mice infected with BCG only. Following adoptive transfer into coinfected mice, transgenic CD8 T cells specific for OVA257-264 failed to proliferate as extensively in the mediastinal lymph nodes as in mice infected only with BCG-OVA. Also noted was a reduction in the proliferation of BCG-specific CD4 transgenic T cells in mice coinfected with influenza compared with mice infected with BCG alone. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of CD11c(+) dendritic cells from mediastinal lymph nodes of the infected mice showed that coinfection was associated with decreased surface expression of MHC class II and class I. Thus, concurrent pulmonary infection with influenza A virus is associated with decreased MHC expression on dendritic cells, reduced activation of BCG-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells, and impaired clearance of mycobacteria.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Next-generation vaccines for tuberculosis should be designed to prevent the infection and to achieve sterile eradication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mucosal vaccination is a needle-free vaccine strategy that provides protective immunity against pathogenic bacteria and viruses in both mucosal and systemic compartments, being a promising alternative to current tuberculosis vaccines. Micro and nanoparticles have shown great potential as delivery systems for mucosal vaccines. In this review, the immunological principles underlying mucosal vaccine development will be discussed, and the application of mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems to the enhancement of protective immune responses at mucosal surfaces will be reviewed, in particular those envisioned for oral and nasal routes of administration. An overview of the essential vaccine candidates for tuberculosis in clinical trials will be provided, with special emphasis on the potential different antigens and immunization regimens.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TB is a global health problem, killing 1.5 million people every year. The only currently available vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, is effective against severe childhood forms, but it demonstrates a variable efficacy against the pulmonary form of TB in adults. Many of these adult TB cases result from the reactivation of an initially controlled, latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Effective prophylactic vaccination remains the key long-term strategy for combating TB. Continued belief in reaching this goal requires unrelenting innovation in the formulation and delivery of candidate vaccines. It is also based on the assumption, that the failure of recent human vaccine trials could have been due to a suboptimal vaccine design and delivery, and therefore should not erode the key principle that a TB vaccine is an attainable target. This report gives a brief overview of the mucosal immune system in the context of M. tuberculosis infection, and focuses on the most recent advances in the field of mucosal TB vaccine development, with a specific emphasis on subunit TB vaccines.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Immunotherapy
Show more