Application of a hemolysis assay for analysis of complement activation by perfluorocarbon nanoparticles
Unlabelled: Nanoparticles offer new options for medical diagnosis and therapeutics with their capacity to specifically target cells and tissues with imaging agents and/or drug payloads. The unique physical aspects of nanoparticles present new challenges for this promising technology. Studies indicate that nanoparticles often elicit moderate to severe complement activation. Using human in vitro assays that corroborated the mouse in vivo results we previously presented mechanistic studies that define the pathway and key components involved in modulating complement interactions with several gadolinium-functionalized perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFOB). Here we employ a modified in vitro hemolysis-based assay developed in conjunction with the mouse in vivo model to broaden our analysis to include PFOBs of varying size, charge and surface chemistry and examine the variations in nanoparticle-mediated complement activity between individuals. This approach may provide the tools for an in-depth structure-activity relationship study that will guide the eventual development of biocompatible nanoparticles. From the clinical editor: Unique physical aspects of nanoparticles may lead to moderate to severe complement activation in vivo, which represents a challenge to clinical applicability. In order to guide the eventual development of biocompatible nanoparticles, this team of authors report a modified in vitro hemolysis-based assay developed in conjunction with their previously presented mouse model to enable in-depth structure-activity relationship studies.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Engineered nanomaterials are emerging functional materials with technologically interesting properties and a wide range of promising applications, such as drug delivery devices, medical imaging and diagnostics, and various other industrial products. However, concerns have been expressed about the risks of such materials and whether they can cause adverse effects. Studies of the potential hazards of nanomaterials have been widely performed using cell models and a range of in vitro approaches. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive and critical literature overview on current in vitro toxicity test methods that have been applied to determine the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects induced by the nanostructures. The small size, surface charge, hydrophobicity and high adsorption capacity of nanomaterial allow for specific interactions within cell membrane and subcellular organelles, which in turn could lead to cytotoxicity through a range of different mechanisms. Finally, aggregating the given information on the relationships of nanomaterial cytotoxic responses with an understanding of its structure and physicochemical properties may promote the design of biologically safe nanostructures.0Comments 2Citations
- "It is known that NPs are subject to the inspection of the immune system and, the complement system is a rapid-acting host defense mechanism that protects the intravascular space and other biological compartments from foreign attackers . In this context, Pham et al.  employed a modified in vitro hemolysis-based assay to examine the variations in NP-mediated complement activity between individuals. The assay was applied to perfluorocarbon NPs of varying size, charge and surface chemistry, and might provide the tools for an in-depth structure–activity relationship study. "
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles are potentially powerful therapeutic tools that have the capacity to target drug payloads and imaging agents. However, some nanoparticles can activate complement, a branch of the innate immune system, and cause adverse side-effects. Recently, we employed an in vitro hemolysis assay to measure the serum complement activity of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles that differed by size, surface charge, and surface chemistry, quantifying the nanoparticle-dependent complement activity using a metric called Residual Hemolytic Activity (RHA). In the present work, we have used a decision tree learning algorithm to derive the rules for estimating nanoparticle-dependent complement response based on the data generated from the hemolytic assay studies. Our results indicate that physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, namely, size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and mole percentage of the active surface ligand of a nanoparticle, can serve as good descriptors for prediction of nanoparticle-dependent complement activation in the decision tree modeling framework.0Comments 1Citation
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NF-κB signaling pathway is implicated in various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA); therefore, inhibition of this pathway has the potential to ameliorate an array of inflammatory diseases. Given that NF-κB signaling is critical for many immune cell functions, systemic blockade of this pathway may lead to detrimental side effects. siRNAs coupled with a safe and effective delivery nanoplatform may afford the specificity lacking in systemic administration of small-molecule inhibitors. Here we demonstrated that a melittin-derived cationic amphipathic peptide combined with siRNA targeting the p65 subunit of NF-κB (p5RHH-p65) noncovalently self-assemble into stable nanocomplexes that home to the inflamed joints in a murine model of RA. Specifically, administration of p5RHH-p65 siRNA nanocomplexes abrogated inflammatory cytokine expression and cellular influx into the joints, protected against bone erosions, and preserved cartilage integrity. The p5RHH-p65 siRNA nanocomplexes potently suppressed early inflammatory arthritis without affecting p65 expression in off-target organs or eliciting a humoral response after serial injections. These data suggest that this self-assembling, largely nontoxic platform may have broad utility for the specific delivery of siRNA to target and limit inflammatory processes for the treatment of a variety of diseases.0Comments 6Citations