ArticlePDF Available

Engagement of Facilities Management in Design Stage through BIM: Framework and a Case Study


Abstract and Figures

Considering facilities management (FM) at the early design stage could potentially reduce the efforts for maintenance during the operational phase of facilities. Few efforts in construction industry have involved facility managers into the design phase. It was suggested that early adoption of facilities management will contribute to reducing the needs for major repairs and alternations that will otherwise occur at the operational phase. There should be an integrated data source providing information support for the building lifecycle. It is envisaged that Building Information Modelling (BIM) would fill the gap by acting as a visual model and a database throughout the building lifecycle. This paper develops a framework of how FM can be considered in design stage through BIM. Based on the framework, the paper explores how BIM will beneficially support FM in the design phase, such as space planning and energy analysis. A case study of using BIM to design facility managers’ travelling path in the maintenance process is presented. The results show that early adoption of FM in design stage with BIM can significantly reduce life cycle costs.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Advances in Civil Engineering
Volume , Article ID , pages.//
Research Article
Engagement of Facilities Management in Design Stage through
BIM: Framework and a Case Study
Ying Wang,1Xiangyu Wang,1Jun Wang,2Ping Yung,1and Guo Jun3
1School of Built Environment, Curtin University of Western Australia, Australia
2School of Construction Management and Real Estate, Chongqing University, China
3CCDI, China
Correspondence should be addressed to Xiangyu Wang;
Received  November ; Revised  March ; Accepted  April 
Academic Editor: Ghassan Chehab
Copyright ©  Ying Wang et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Considering facilities management (FM) at the early design stage could potentially reduce the eorts for maintenance during the
operational phase of facilities. Few eorts in construction industry have involved facility managers into the design phase. It was
suggested that early adoption of facilities management will contribute to reducing the needs for major repairs and alternations that
will otherwise occur at the operational phase. ere should be an integrated data source providing information support for the
building lifecycle. It is envisaged that Building Information Modelling (BIM) would ll the gap by acting as a visual model and a
database throughout the building lifecycle. is paper develops a framework of how FM can be considered in design stage through
BIM. Based on the framework, the paper explores how BIM will benecially support FM in the design phase, such as space planning
and energy analysis. A case study of using BIM to design facility managers’ travelling path in the maintenance process is presented.
e results show that early adoption of FM in design stage with BIM can signicantly reduce life cycle costs.
1. Introduction
According to the International Facility Management Asso-
ciation (IFMA), facility management (FM) is dened as “a
profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure
functionality of the built environment by integrating people,
place, processes and technology” []. Industries in varieties of
areas are adopting BIM for FM. Organizations such univer-
sity, government, healthcare, retail, and information technol-
ogy are taking a survey for the adoption of BIM-based FM [].
Dierent parts of FM are adopted with BIM in these organi-
zations. Figure  depicts the proportion of each function.
However, few eorts in the construction industry have
involved facility FM into the design phase [,]. It was
suggested that early engagement of FM would contribute
to reducing the needs for major repairs and alternations
that will otherwise occur at the operational phase [,].
ere have been rare eective approaches or processes to
engage FM in design stage. e proposed framework of
this paper is going to integrate these FM works into early
design stage which could potentially strengthen the col-
laboration between design team and FM team and reduce
alternations. BIM is envisaged to be an eective tool, as
proposed in this paper. Considering the multidisciplinary
and interoperability of this process, there must be a data
source providing convenient integration and access to the
relevant information.Building Information Modelling (BIM)
is a conceptual approach to building design and construction
that comprises all the graphic and linguistic data of building
for design and detailing which facilitates exchange of building
information between design, construction, and operational
phase []. A BIM model could comprise individual D
models of each building component with all associated prop-
erties such as weight, material, length, height, geographical
information system GIS and information []. Beyond the
inherent information, BIM also includes external association
between building components. For example, the column with
name Col.  is installed between box ceiling Cei.  and
level  oor with GUID number . Figure  depicts the
column model and associated properties. e main dierence
Advances in Civil Engineering
0 102030405060708090
Energy management
Maintenance and repair
Space management
Quality assurance and control
Noncapital construction
Real estate management
Commissioning and closeout
F : Proportion of each function [].
3D model
Geometric information
Material information
F : Column model and properties in BIM.
between BIM and D CAD is that the latter describes a build-
ing layer by layer []. Editing one layer will result in massive
updating and checking work of associated oor plan. In con-
trast, BIM models are designed in terms of building compo-
nents in D view. An error-prone process such as clash detec-
tion could be conducted automatically []. is paper aims
to develop a framework of bringing facility management into
design stage through BIM. Which eld of FM work should
collected are also proposed. With the ease of access to lifecycle
information of all the building components BIM provided,
proposed building plan could be optimized and lifecycle cost
could be reduced with the FM knowledge and experience.
2. Methodology: Conceptual Framework of
Erdener [] developed a framework linking design with FM
by programming—an extension of “problem dening-solving
method” which however did not classify the specic eld
of work in FM that should be involved into the design
stage. Additionally, the backend database was not adopted
as an approach to integrate the massive information such
as asset portfolios, instructions, and design manuals in this
multidisciplinary process. Mostly, the operation and mainte-
nance process of a facility occupies more than % in its
lifecycleforbothcostandtime[]. During the FM process,
facility managers have to acquire, integrate, edit, and update
massive information related to diverse building elements
such as operational costs, warranties, and specications from
varieties of systems. BIM could eectively merge these prima-
ry data and provide convenient storage and retrieval of these
FM data. Based on the work of Becerik-Gerber et al. [], three
types of FM data should be incorporated into BIM: () equip-
ment and systems, () attributes and data, () portfolios and
documents. Figure  illustrates the structure of the proposed
BIM database for FM. Every facility in buildings is regarded as
an individual entity with two kinds of properties—attributes
plumbing, and electrical are represented as entities in BIM.
Each entity has its attributes (vender information, location
information, etc.) and attached documents (specications,
warranties, manuals, etc.). Specically, serial numbers of
products specied by vendors will be collected as unique
identier for each facility. Model and part numbers will act
as reference information during the maintenance. Location
information is comprised of building number, oor, and
room number. Description stores the status of the facility.
Attributes include weight, power, and energy consumption.
In order to integrate the whole information into one stan-
dardised BIM database, interoperability needs to be assured.
is is partially because in dierent circumstances dierent
Advances in Civil Engineering
Equipment and systems
Portfolios and documents
HVAC Plumbing
Fire safety
Attributes and data
Attr ibutesDescription
Test re ports
F : FM based BIM database.
FM soware systems are adopted, that is, Mainpac for build-
ing maintenance; FaPI for monitoring building condition;
TRIM for document management. Nevertheless, all these
are not compatible with each other. International Alliance
for Interoperability (IAI) published the Industry Foundation
Classes (IFC), a standard for BIM data structure based on an
ISO standard (ISO, ) enabling exchange of information
among heterogeneous systems [].
BIM will provide supporting information for many cat-
egories of FM work such as maintenance and repair, energy
management, commissioning, safety, and space management.
ree categories of FM during the building’s lifecycle are
determined to be the most proper and specially discussed
in this paper—() maintenance and repair, () energy man-
agement, and () commissioning. e decisions made in the
design stage aect all aspects in maintenance stage and vice
versa. e designer’s relationship with the other participants
in maintenance stages is very important []. erefore, the
for decision making. Additionally, dierent energy saving
alternatives can be explored and simulated in early design
stage with BIM []. Last but not least, commissioning stage
ensures that a new building or system begins its life cycle at
optimal productivity [], in which coordination and infor-
mation sharing between designer and participants essential.
is transformation will provide evaluation information
for the design team and make the decision making much
easier in both strategic-tactical and operational phase.
For the former, the facility manager could provide post
occupancy evaluation of facilities for the design team as
feedback. For the latter, bringing these FM jobs into the
design stage will avoid redesign and reduce the maintenance
job. e following subsection discusses the BIM role in FM
engagement in design stage in detail.
2.1. Maintenance and Repair. Maintenance is dened as
activities required keeping a facility in as-built condition,
while continuing to maintain its original productivity [].
During this procedure, FM personnel have to identify the
components’ location and get access to the relevant doc-
uments, and nally, the maintenance information. In the
state-of-the-art design phase, facility management relevant
information such as working space of equipment, storage
condition, and weight are not considered. is directly leads
to the inappropriate allocation of space and incorrect estima-
tion of load expectations.
Location information of facility could help facility man-
agers eciently identify the location of specic building
e knowledge and experience of facility managers could
inform the architecture designers with working condition
and space of dierent facilities. Both interior and exterior
space requirements must be considered for the normal
installation and implementation. Interior space refers to the
working space, storage space, and privacy of the space.
Exterior space includes the spaces needed for installation
and, in case of emergency, for peoples escape route. All the
graphical interface for the discussion between designers and
facility managers.
Additionally, FM personnel could retrieve the relevant
data of task from BIM’s graphical interface in real time.
For example, when troubleshooting a printer, FM personnel
have to check the maintenance history, get the mainte-
nance manual, generate maintenance reports, and close the
request. Conventionally, they have to log on to dierent elec-
tronic document management systems (EDMSs) and toggle
between multiple databases to retrieve relevant information.
Preventative maintenance (PM) is dened as the care
and servicing by personnel for the purpose of maintaining
Advances in Civil Engineering
equipment and facilities in satisfactory operating condi-
tion by providing for systematic inspection, detection, and
correction of incipient failures either before they occur or
before they develop into major defects []. For the matter
of regular inspections, a schedule will be prepared. Detailed
work description is preferred for improving the overall
productivity that is work order ID, facility ID, location,
description of the preventive work, documents required to
perform maintenance, estimated and actual labour hours,
and frequency of maintenance work []. All these data
could be incorporated into BIM database as attributes and
documents. Considering the unique ID of every facility,
each one could be assigned an associated barcode for the
ease of access to relevant information in real time through
mobile device. Additionally, aer every time of maintenance,
status information and working hours will be sent to BIM
as feedback and reference for next turn. Figure  depicts the
workow of BIM-based PM. rough predesigning of main-
tenance information such as location information, relevant
maintenance history, and schedule for PM with BIM, incor-
porated information could be accessed conveniently. Future
maintenance will be reasonable, and redesign is avoided.
2.2. Energy Management. Statistics from the US Green Build-
ing Council [] show that in the United States, % of
electricity consumption, % of energy use, and % of all
carbon dioxide are from buildings. However, most buildings
are not optimized in terms of energy consumption or not
professionally optimized with advice or knowledge of facil-
ity management teams []. Torcellini et al. [] identied
designing and constructing low-energy buildings (buildings
that consume % to % less energy than code-compliant
buildings) require the design team to follow an energy-design
process that considers how the building envelope and systems
work together.” Energy consumption design must be set by
the design team in the predesign phase. Aerwards, virtual
prototyping will be created to simulate the energy eciency.
Acquainted with knowledge on energy codes and standards,
the information related to energy consumption for the basic
energy analyses []. However, traditionally, most building
energy analyses have been conducted late in design. Due to
the diculty and expense of modelling the energy systems,
identifying and validating energy saving alternatives with
dierent models is not economically possible. A large portion
of time will be consumed in converting oor plans to energy
management system graphics []. BIM is envisaged to be
the platform for data exchanging avoiding reentering all the
building geometry, enclosure, and HVAC information. Inter-
operability can be overcome by the data exchange standard
gbXML (Green Building Extensible Markup). BIM soware
such as Bentley,Autodesk Revit,Graphiso ArchiCAD,and
Google sketchUp are able to export energy analyses data in
gbXML format. For overall BIM energy design of a building,
three steps have to be executed based on Kim et al.s []work
as follows.
(1) Create BIM Model of Building. BIMmodelcouldbecreated
based on the existing oor plan. is model comprises
Feedback as history
Regular inspection
Order ID
Facility ID
Working time
F : BIM-based PM workow.
structured building components which include spatial data,
volume can be calculated, as well as energy estimates.
(2) Integrate Energy Consumption Data and Test to Identify
an Alternative. Aer modelling, energy consumption relevant
tools such as Ecotect,GreenBuildingStudio,andDOE-2.
gbXML data could be used to analyse the energy consump-
tion of the whole building, estimate water usage and cost
evaluation, visualize solar radiation on surfaces, and simulate
daylight factors []. Alternative design could be simulated by
changing the lighting, roof, and walls.
(3) Validation of the Proposed Design. Aer a design alter-
native is specied, validation from energy consultant is
essential. Logic and assumptions of the energy model must be
carefully reviewed. Figure  depicts the framework of energy
management design using BIM.
Treating each energy-consuming object as an entity, real
time and period energy consumption will be collected as one
of its property. us, cost information of a room/zone could
be calculated by adding up all the energy cost of energy-
consuming objects in it. Some high-energy-consumption
facilities’ information could be predicted by the historical
Advances in Civil Engineering
BIM model
Test and tune
Ye s
Ye s
F : Framework of energy management design using BIM.
2.3. Commissioning and Handover. Building commissioning
is dened as “a quality assurance program intended to dem-
onstrate that the building is constructed well and performs as
designed. If the building materials, equipment and systems
were not installed well and are not operating as intended, the
health, productivity and other benets of high performance
design will not be achieved” []. Building commissioning is
a key process for the building operation and maintenance, as
the Department of Energy (DOE) suggested that “it ensures
that a new building or system begins its life cycle at optimal
productivity and improves the likelihood that the equipment
will maintain this level of performance throughout its life.
Building commissioning is the key to quality assurance in
more than one way” []. For evaluating the project quality
and identify potential signicant design defects before it is too
late or expensive to make changes, building commissioning
should be embedded in the following phases: predesign
phase, design phase, construction phase, transition to opera-
tional sustainability, postoccupancy and warranty phase, and
retrocommissioning []. is section is focused on the rst
two processes: predesign phase and design phase. In design
stages, commissioning scope and commissioning team must
be identied. Since dierent facilities have dierent features
and budget limitations and dierent projects have special
systems to be commissioned, commissioning team has to
be involved in early design stages for the decision making.
dierent parties. However, in the process of commissioning,
massive D documents, images, maintenance, and operation
information need to be collected and accessed frequently.
For example, in the commissioning process of the Maryland
General Hospital (MGH), the following systems need to
be commissioned: a new KVA normal power substa-
tion, a new  KW emergency generator and paralleling
switchgear, three new automatic transfer switches and dis-
tributions,  new  ton electric centrifugal chillers and
 ton cooling towers, temperature and humidity systems,
and duct work, air handlers, dampers, and fans []. ere
has to be an easily accessed platform for data exchange and
integration. BIM is envisaged to overcome the problem of
interoperability and provide easy access for these massive
data. When scoping which facilities need to be commis-
sioned, similar projects’ information could be retrieved from
BIM database, as reference for the decision. e graphical
owner, d esig ner, an d contrac tor. Sc hedu les and com miss ion
facilities could be predesigned and stored in BIM models by
each facility/zone/room. ese plans are shown as timeline,
which act as a simulation of actual commissioning practice.
us, the logical faults and collision between activities can
be easily identied. Moreover, design errors and conicts of
plumbing, HVAC, and electrical from dierent team could
be discovered in the integrated view of BIM. In the design
phase, dierent commissioning tasks have to be assigned to
the specied experts for individual commissioning. Aer all
these commissioning subtasks are approved, the whole sys-
tem has to be commissioned together. For example, plumbing
and electrical systems in a room need to be commissioned
in a designed order. Aer both are approved, it must be
ensured, these systems could work together successfully.
us, the overall commissioning task must be done. When
commissioning the plumbing or electrical system in dierent
areas, a logical order must be specied. Simulating this
schedule and identifying an optimal alternative will reduce
the commissioning cost and time. Figure  depicts the BIM-
based commissioning streamline.
Barcode system could also be incorporated into BIM for
the ease of accessibility of commissioning documents. Each
commissioning facility is assigned a unique ID in the BIM
model for storing the properties and relevant documents
when it is designed. Each ID could be associated with one bar-
code. e commissioning team could scan the barcode and
retrieve the product data, operation data, and maintenance
manuals right in the eld. Commissioning critical tasks and
will be automatically uploaded to BIM central database in a
standard format aer commissioning tasks.
As project proceeds, these data are handed over to
the operational phase as well as the updated BIM model.
Besides correcting design defects, simulating commissioning
schedules, and bringing easy access for information, bringing
commissioning to design phase through BIM could also
improve energy saving performance in operation and main-
tenance phase.
3. Case Study
ideal example of bringing FM to design stages through BIM.
Advances in Civil Engineering
Drawing HVAC Individual
Drawing Plumbing
Drawing Electrical
system Overall
Operation and
F : BIM-based commissioning streamline.
Travelling path of facility manager is predesigned in BIM thus
reducing the maintenance time and providing easy access to
the location information of facilities.
3.1. Project Overview. Shanghai Disaster Tolerance Center
is in the north of the North Industrial Park in Shanghai,
China. It was designed in September of  as a State
Grid Corporation of centralized information systems data
center. e construction area is , square meters with
one underground layer and four oors on the ground. e
diesel generator room and pump are . meters in height, with
construction area of , square meters. Shanghai Munic-
ipal Electric Power Company is the construction company.
Shanghai Modern Architectural Design Co., Ltd. is the design
company. is project is complicated in facility systems with a
tight schedule. High-standard requirements of materials and
has been decided to be the tool to bring the FM work into
design stage for predesign and simulating the maintenance
work in FM.
3.2. BIM Services Content. Accurate BIM model of the
mechanical, electrical, construction, and interior decoration
Clash detection of pipelines is conducted and optimized.
BIM model is used for scheduling and guiding the on-site
construction work. A D construction simulation is also
conducted based on the BIM model. Security control and
quantity takeo are based on analysis of pedestrian stream.
Construction schedule needs to be incorporated into model
in order to visualize the construction process in BIM model.
Last but not least, a database platform is developed to read
F : Traditional travelling path and latent hazards.
BA surveillance data and conduct real time positioning in D
mode to get location of facilities thus facilitating maintenance
work. is improves the monitoring ability and security level
of the disaster tolerance center.
3.3. BIM-Based Travelling Path Optimization in Maintenance.
During the process of maintenance, FM personnel have to
identify the components’ location, getting access to the rel-
evant documents, and nally, the maintenance information.
Location information of facility could help facility managers
eciently identify the location of specic building compo-
nents, especially for those who outsource the FM tasks. Con-
ventionally, they have to log on to dierent electronic doc-
ument management systems (EDMSs) and toggle between
multiple databases to get the location information, relevant
maintenance manuals, and warranty documents. BIM could
integrate all these information together in a graphical view.
By predesigning the travelling path in the maintenance job,
travelling time is well scheduled and reduced and latent
hazards could be avoided. Traditionally, aer identifying the
building number and room number, FM personnel just go
to the maintenance spot through a normal path, which may
be not the shortest path. Moreover, latent hazards are not
identied because of lack in relevant knowledge. Figure 
depicts the normal travelling path and latent hazards. Since
there are dierent kinds of latent hazards in dierent areas,
the travelling path needs to be identied with the knowledge
of all departments of FM teams. Aer discussion between
spatial experts and FM team, an optimal path is specied and
incorporated into BIM database, which is safe and consumes
the littlest time.
In the following scenario, using BIM to design, optimize,
and simulate the path of troubleshooting, the reciprocating
compressor is illustrated. Figure  depicts the reciprocating
compressor with problem.
Firstly, FM sta receives a manual request of trouble-
shooting the reciprocating compressor with ID -
f-d-e-baad in the underground oor of
Advances in Civil Engineering
F : Targeted reciprocating compressor.
F : Optimal maintenance travelling path.
the Shanghai Disaster Tolerance Center. He then opens the
Figure  is shown, and the targeted reciprocating compressor
is highlighted. Access to the maintenance manuals, war-
ranty documents, and maintenance history is also provided
in the BIM model. Aer choosing the action of “go the
maintenance site,” an optimal path is visualized which is
safe and timesaving as depicted in Figure .Athirdperson
view is also provided for the simulation of travelling. Arrow
keys in keyboard can be used to control the character.
Figure  depicts the third person view. e FM sta follows
the path and troubleshoots the reciprocating compressor
with maintenance manuals in a mobile device. Reports are
uploaded to BIM central database as history. Status of the
reciprocating compressor is updated as “Normal.
In this case, BIM is utilized as a database and visualization
platform to predesign the travelling path in the maintenance
job. With knowledge of FM experts, travelling time is well
scheduled and reduced, and latent hazards are avoided in the
design stage.
F : ird person view of travelling.
4. Conclusion and Future Work
is study developed a framework of considering FM in
design stage with BIM. e contribution of this paper is the
development of an innovative framework, which integrates
FM work into early design stage via BIM. Furthermore,
proof of the concept. An innovational concept of gathering
strengthening collaboration as well as information sharing
potential issues such as rework and inappropriate allocation
of workspace in the operational phase. As little research
has identied the approach and benet of integrating FM
with early design stage, this study aims at bridging this gap
by providing a working pattern of providing the essential
information with BIM. Due to the diculty of altering the
main structure and core service areas in the operational
phase, it is practical to design for adaptability by considering
operational condition and the facilities’ own attributes. It
is very dicult to achieve without the relevant information
from FM team and appropriate integration platform. With
the ease of access to lifecycle information of all the building
components BIM provided, the proposed building plan could
be optimized, and lifecycle cost could be reduced with the FM
knowledge and experience.
CCDI of China provided support for the traveling path opti-
mization case study, which is a large architectural consulting
rm that provides integrated services for urban construction
and development. Data and projects of Shanghai Modern
Architectural Design Co., Ltd., Shanghai Municipal Electric
Power Company, and Grid Corporation of centralized infor-
mation systems data center belong to the CCDI company.
e contents of this study reect the views of the authors
presented herein. e contents do not necessarily reect the
ocial views or policies of these companies.
Advances in Civil Engineering
[] International Facility Management Association, http://w ww
[] B. Becerik-Gerber, F. Jazizadeh, N. Li, and G. Calis, “Application
areas and data requirements for BIM-enabled facilities manage-
ment,Journal of Construction Engineering and Management,
[] B. Nutt and P. McLennan, Facility Management: Risks and
Opportunities, Blackwell Science, .
[] D.G.Cotts,K.O.Roper,andR.P.Payant,e Facility Manage-
ment Handbook, Amacom Books, .
[] E. Erdener, “Linking programming and design with facilities
management,Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities,
[] R.Sacks,I.Kaner,C.M.Eastman,andY.S.Jeong,“eRose-
wood experiment—building information modeling and inter-
operability for architectural precast facades,Automation in
[] V.Singh,N.Gu,andX.Wang,“Atheoreticalframeworkof
a BIM-based multi-disciplinary collaboration platform,Auto-
mation in Construction, vol. , no. , pp. –, .
tional technologies in architectural curricula,” in Computational
Design Methods and Technologies: Applications in CAD, CAM
and CAE Education,N.GuandX.Wang,Eds.,IGIGlobal,
[] X. Wang and P. S. Dunston, “Comparative eectivenessof mixed
reality-based virtual environments in collaborative design,
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics C,vol.,
no. , pp. –, .
[] M. R. Devetakovic and M. Radojevic, “Facility Mangement: a
paradigm for expanding the scope of architectural practice,
International Journal of Architectural Research,vol.,no.,pp.
–, .
[] International home of openBIM. , http://buildingsmart
[] D. Arditi and M. Nawakorawit, “Designing buildings for main-
tenance: designers’ perspective,Journal of Architectural Engi-
[] H. Kim, E. Jenicek, and A. Stumpf, “Early design energy analysis
using bims (building information models),” in Proceedings of the
Construction Research Congress, pp. –, April .
[] ASHE, Healthcare Facility Commissioning Guideline,ASHE,
Chicago, Ill, USA, .
[] J.W.Korka,A.A.Oloufa,andH.R.omas,“Facilitiescom-
puterized maintenance management systems,Journal of Archi-
tectural Engineering,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] U. S. G. B. Concil, Green Building Facts,.
[] P. A. Torcellini, S. J. Hayter, and R. Judko, “Low-energy build-
ing design—the process and a case study,” in Proceedings of the
ASHRAE Annual Meeting, pp. –, June .
[] B.Dong,K.P.Lam,Y.C.Huang,andG.M.Dobbs,“Acompara-
tive study of the IFC and gbXML informational infrastructures
for data exchange in computational design support environ-
ments,” in Proceedings of the Building Simulation,.
[] US Environmental Protection Agency,
Assurance, Rebuild America Guide Series, DOE, Washington,
DC, USA, .
[] G.C.Lasker,H.Y.Dib,andC.Chen,“Benetsofimplementing
building information modeling for healthcare facility commis-
sioning,” in Computing in Civil Engineering,vol.,pp.
, .
International Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Active and Passive
Electronic Components
Control Science
and Engineering
Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
International Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Journal of
Volume 2014
Submit your manuscripts at
VLSI Design
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Shock and Vibration
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Civil Engineering
Advances in
Acoustics and Vibration
Advances in
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Electrical and Computer
Journal of
Advances in
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Volume 2014
The Scientic
World Journal
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Modelling &
in Engineering
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Chemical Engineering
International Journal of
Antennas and
International Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Navigation and
International Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014
Sensor Networks
International Journal of
... Recent studies have proposed the concept of landscape information modeling (LIM) as a natural extension of BIM to landscape engineering design [4], [5]. However, the application of BIM during the operation and maintenance stage of the facility has only been explored by limited preliminary studies [6]. Currently, it is still impossible to apply BIM to practical maintenance and management operations of a landscape facility. ...
... As the construction industry focuses its effort on adopting lean principles to eliminate waste through the construction phase, there is an argument to reorient the industry's lean journey to start with the operations phase (Pilanawithana and Sandanayake 2017). Approximately 80% of any given project's life cycle costs occur during the operations phase (Wang et al. 2013). Facility management (FM) professionals through developed understanding of the relationships that exist between buildings, owners, businesses, and occupants can identify value-adding activities to benefit future projects. ...
... Initial findings suggest that bin collection regimes could be forecast based on annual occupancy trends. Thus, providing a BIM model that responds to the operations of a building throughout its life to reduce costs (Wang et al., 2013). ...
A groundswell of opinion exist about the present and future use of smart cities and digital twin technologies and processes and, despite increasing use of information modelling, artificial intelligence, and internet of things, many challenges remain in designing and implement integrated smart systems in large scale contexts. Often, the big picture is shadowed by fragmented processes, and there is a disconnect between the problem and the solution. This chapter aims to address this inverted approach, based on a solution looking for a problem by focusing on the problems of developing integrated solutions for smart cities based on digital twins. The narrative in this chapter is informed by a research project exploring the digitalisation of facilities management processes in Bath, UK. The conclusion is that the development of digital twins goes far beyond linking digital models to sensors.
... This is extremely important for transport infrastructure projects, especially for large and complex projects. Recently, BIM has been one of the promising technologies to obtain a potential design along with the infrastructure settings [13][14][15]. BIM has become an effective tool for developing smart cities in the era of internet-of-things and big data. Hence, BIM can improve the life cycle of the project, including planning, design, construction, management, and maintenance. ...
... This is extremely important for transport infrastructure projects, especially for large and complex projects. Recently, BIM has been one of the promising technologies to obtain a potential design along with the infrastructure settings [13][14][15]. BIM has become an effective tool for developing smart cities in the era of internet-of-things and big data. Hence, BIM can improve the life cycle of the project, including planning, design, construction, management, and maintenance. ...
Full-text available
Infrastructure decisions greatly affect society for a long time. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of traffic construction in the present and future. Traffic modeling has proven to be an effective tool to analyze and evaluate the impact of traffic projects through various simulation scenarios. It is also a vital tool to obtain suitable traffic planning decisions. VISSIM is being widely implemented in the traffic simulation field. Besides, Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology is being widely applied to road and bridge projects to enhance the quality and efficiency of the whole project process. This study proposes the integration of BIM and VISSIM simulation for improving construction management. To achieve the objective, firstly, we suggest the design idea for the traffic project. Secondly, the author builds models and simulates traffic using VISSIM software. The goal of this step is to evaluate the effectiveness of the project in the future. Thirdly, the appropriate design is implemented by the Civil 3D software. Lastly, the three-dimensional (3D) model is exported via the InfraWorks software to visualize this project. The empirical project is applied to evaluate the efficiency of this proposed approach. The result shows that the hybrid method between BIM and VISSIM is promising to be used for monitoring and improving traffic project management.
Rapid urbanization and overpopulation in the cities create a demand for the efficient usage of resources for the cities of the near future. Correspondingly, the need for more effective urban management strategy rises up as a current issue. The understanding behind smart cities can fulfil this need for providing a strategy model for urban management. Based on the literature review, this paper researches BIM usage throughout the lifecycle of the smart city (SC) project. This article focuses on the IoT, GIS and BIM integrated SC project model. This model aims to enhance BIM model by providing real time information from built environment to IoT sensors and geographical data to GIS in BIM model. Utilization of this SC project model can be beneficial for the industry to design and construct the smart city as well as for municipality and city government entities to manage the city.
Conference Paper
Malaysian construction industry has become one of the economic catalysts with possibilities to adopt and adapt new digital transformation towards better development. Nonetheless, the adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies is still low in the construction industry, thus triggering the notion of this study. This study intents to investigate the drivers towards enhancing the adoption of Industry 4.0 This study utilized the quantitative approach, where data were collected through a structured questionnaire survey in the form of face-to-face meeting. A total of 42 sets of responses were collected from the construction industry practitioners based on Public Works Department (PWD) projects. The data was further analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Package using the Factor Analysis (FA) to extract the key components of the drivers. This study provides empirical evidence for the classification of the 21 drivers retrieved from the previous literature according to the respective components of drivers. Findings from the factor analysis have identified the perceived drivers by the respondents and subsequently divided into two clusters, which are internal factors and external factors. The internal factor describes the organization, economic, technology and innovation drivers. Meanwhile, the external factor consists of legal, environment and people drivers. Hence, this study may contribute to the fundamentals of establishing theoretical frameworks for Industry 4.0 adoption towards construction industry development.
Designing for Safety (DfS) aims to make designs inherently safer to build, operate and maintain, but any residual risk must be controlled, something essential to realising the benefits of inherently safer designs. Here, a conceptual decision-making framework to support DfS, developed in conjunction with industry, is introduced. It aims to assist designers in communicating risk, residual risk and actions needed to support DfS, in a way easily understood by non-specialists such as clients and business leaders. The framework proposes a qualitative categorisation for DfS linked to a clear numerical scale, which embraces the complexity of engineering assessment across the full asset lifecycle, while using a form of language (numbers) that can be readily understood by all. The framework was empirically explored through an operational design workshop with the four engineers leading design and planning teams on the framework. It was found to bring a range of benefits for DfS at the design stage: it provided structure for the discussion of DfS, made the consideration of DfS objective, gave a new vernacular which improved the collective thought process, and made the debate and the resultant design decisions more accessible to non-specialists. The framework provides a tool to support the implementation of DfS across the entire lifecycle of an asset, enhancing DfS communication within the decision making process from the initial strategic definition stage onwards.
Full-text available
Large-scale public buildings play an irreplaceable role in business, office, tourism, science, education, culture and health, communication and transportation. Due to technical difficulties, large public buildings usually lack operation and maintenance (O&M) management information platforms. To ease these difficulties, this paper presents an application method of lightweight O&M management platform for large-scale public buildings based on GIS. Large-scale public buildings' drawings are converted into map services through conversion and editing. Attribute data are summarized to form hierarchical structures, and unique identifiers are given to establish standard attribute libraries. Based on these libraries, O&M management processes are reviewed to form standard O&M management procedures and data flows. A unified platform is developed to integrate the above 4 achievements before actual application. This method is tested in a large airport terminal. A lightweight O&M management platform is developed, which realizes the information O&M management of the terminal. The results have verified the effectiveness and operability of the proposed method.
Full-text available
This chapter describes two case studies concerning the introduction of computational design methods and technologies in new undergraduate architectural curricula, one in Portugal and the other in Brazil. In both cases, the immediate goal was to introduce state-of-the-art technologies in the curriculum to promote creative design thinking. The ultimate goals were to fulfill the criteria of intellectual satisfaction, acquisition of specialized professional skills, and contribution for the economic development of society that should underlie university education. The chapter describes the theoretical framework, the various courses and labs that were devised and implemented, as well as the strategies used to implement them. Then it presents the final results and concludes with a discussion of the pros and cons of each strategy. The main lesson drawn from both efforts was that cultural and organizational aspects are at least as important as technical aspects for the successful integration of computer media in architectural education.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Designing and constructing low-energy buildings (buildings that consume 50% to 70% less energy than code-compliant buildings) require the design team to follow an energy-design process that considers how the building envelope and systems work together. A design team must set energy efficiency goals at the beginning of the pre-design phase. Detailed computer simulations are then used throughout the design and construction phases to ensure the building is optimized for energy efficiency and that changes to the design do not adversely affect the energy performance. Properly commissioning the building and educating the building operators are the final steps to successfully constructing a low-energy building. This paper defines this energy-design process and shows an actual project where energy costs were reduced by 63%. These energy savings were achieved by incorporating daylighting, passive solar heating and cooling, and energy efficiency strategies into the building design.
Significant progress has been made in the area of common data exchange in the building industry with the development of information technology. Currently, the Industry Foundation Class (IFC) and Green Building XML (gbXML) are two prevalent informational infrastructures in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. IFC and gbXML are both used for common data exchange between AEC applications such as CAD and building simulation tools. This paper presents a detailed investigation and comparative study of the differences between IFC and gbXML in terms of their data representations, data structures and applications. It aims to explicitly illustrate the complex data representation through selected examples of the respective schema. Two specific demonstrative cases will include building element specification (i.e.,enclosure geometry) and building sensors (control and operation). Findings will be reported on the following aspects: (1) the strength and challenges of the diametrically opposing approaches between IFC and gbXML; (2) hierarchical structure of the schema in support of extensibility, data extraction, ease of implementation etc.; (3) formal adoption and application. Based on the results of this study, the gbXML schema is selected for development to demonstrate the features of gbXML. A proposed XML schema for lighting simulation will be presented. It aims to provide a seamless data integration platform between a CAD model (i.e., REVIT) and lighting simulation software (i.e., Radiance) in this study to support concurrent design of high performance buildings.
Conference Paper
Perhaps no other building types benefit more from Building Information Modeling (BIM) than healthcare facilities, in which the coordination of Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) systems is a challenging effort for all parties involved in the project. Research has been developed and focuses on the multitude of benefits resulting from using BIM in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) process of healthcare facilities. BIM provides detailed information for decision-making and facilitates information exchanges between different parties in Design and Construction phases. Project commissioning is essentially a communication and validation process that begins as early in the building acquisition process as possible and continues through owner occupancy. The benefits of adopting BIM in healthcare facility commissioning will be discussed throughout this document. A case study of Mary General Hospital (MGH) follows to help illustrate the benefits that have been brought about using BIM in the commissioning process.
Conference Paper
An emerging area of interest within the A/E/C industry is designing sustainable buildings, as evidenced by the increasing use of the US Green Building Council (USGBC) LEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) green building rating system. This research utilized Building Information Modeling (BIM) for energy analysis during the conceptual design phase. Most building energy analyses are conducted late in the design by energy analysts. This paper describes a process of exploring different energy saving alternatives in early design using 3D-CAD (computer aided design)/BIM technology. The recommended process allows project teams to utilize BIM models in energy simulations and compare results quickly. In order to test the feasibility of the proposed approach, a prototype energy modeling process was developed and tested on a new construction project, the Community Emergency Service Station at Fort Bragg, North Carolina with a team led by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The energy modeling process was applied to explore different building envelope and equipment scenarios to enable energy conscious decisions early in the design process when they make the biggest impact on buildinglife cycle costs.
The degree to which the design of a building embraces maintenance considerations has a major impact on its performance. A survey was conducted of the largest 211 building design firms in the United States to investigate the relationship between design practices and maintenance considerations. The findings shed light on the extent to which maintenance issues are considered when designers specify building materials and service equipment; the level of designers' knowledge in maintenance-related issues; the degree to which design personnel is exposed to training in maintenance-related matters; the extent to which designers consult property managers and maintenance consultants; the relative importance of maintenance issues to other design factors; the level of difficulty in cleaning, inspecting, repairing, and replacing various building components; and the magnitude and frequency of maintenance-related complaints that designers receive from clients and tenants. The performance of buildings is likely to be enhanced if designers are cognizant of maintenance-related matters.
Maintenance has a profound impact on the efficiency and overall budget of facilities. Today many maintenance organizations are developing and using computer programs geared toward control of this maintenance program. However, despite the rapid expansion, the area of computerized maintenance management has still not been sufficiently researched by facility management organizations to determine the required features of a computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) for facilities. This paper reports on research to study the characteristic requirements of a CMMS. The researchers have chosen for this study the public works departments of the U.S. Navy. Required features were determined by examining three naval bases that support different naval missions. An assessment of how a facility's mission impacts the features of a maintenance software system and the effectiveness of the current automated maintenance system was also performed. Significant improvements necessary to promote a more productive and cost effective computerized maintenance management program are summarized.
This paper focuses on the potential of programming as a link between design and facility management. Not well understood and usually avoided, the promise of programming as a key activity is presented as a dynamic and flexible tool for identifying client-user facility expectations and requirements in the entire project-delivery process. In this context, facility management is proposed as a strategic resource and partner together with all the parties involved. Hinging on the design perspective, an analysis of the current practice and a modified framework are introduced, which suggests relying on facility management data, feedback, and involvement throughout the, project delivery process.