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Lipid lowering activity of fruits of Carum carvi Lin in cholesterol and triton fed hyperlipidemic rats

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Hyperlipidemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-associated conditions such as coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular diseases. Moreover, current predictions estimate that by the year 2020 cardiovascular diseases, notably atherosclerosis will become the leading global cause of total disease burden. In the present paper, lipid lowering activity of methanolic extract of fruits of Carum carvi has been studied in cholesterol and triton fed hyperlipidemic rats. Co-administration of the methanolic extract (100 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) to different groups showed inhibition in the rise of Total Cholesterol significantly when compared to cholesterol fed group (p<0.05) and was statistically non significant to vehicle group. Test drug at both the doses decreases significantly (p<0.01) the rise of TGL and VLDL when compared with group II. Similarly, test drug (100 mg/kg) increases significantly (p<0.01) HDL when compared with group I and II. Test drug has significantly lowered the TC/HDL ratio and AI in the hyperlipidemic rats. Test drug possess more lipid lowering effect on higher dose and hence have dose dependent effect.
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... Increased HDL (p<0.01) ( Begum et al., 2012) 7 d Extract in 600 mg/kg b.w significantly inhibited paw edema (p<0.05) and chronic paw inflammation (p<0.01) (Begum et al., 2012) Histopathologically, reduced inflammatory factors (Seddighfar et al., 2020). ...
... Increased HDL (p<0.01) ( Begum et al., 2012) 7 d Extract in 600 mg/kg b.w significantly inhibited paw edema (p<0.05) and chronic paw inflammation (p<0.01) (Begum et al., 2012) Histopathologically, reduced inflammatory factors (Seddighfar et al., 2020). ...
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Background: To gain an insight on dyslipidemia from ancient and contemporary viewpoint and to study the modus operandi of a classical Unani anti-obesity pharmacopeial formulation SM (Safoof e Muhazzil) in its management. Hypothesis/Purpose: In Unani medicine as all kinds of excessive fats whether lipids or body fats accumulated in obesity are linked together through the concept of Baroodat (excessive coldness) of Liver, leading to deranged metabolism of fats and their abnormal accumulation. Hence same type of management should perhaps work in both the conditions. Study design: The literature was collected from electronic resources such as databases of Science direct, Web of Science, Google, PubMed, Google Scholar, Research gate, EMBASE and Elsevier along with main resource libraries having collection of Unani books and manuscripts were searched for the relevant material available on the topic. Methods: Studies evaluating either pharmacological or therapeutic potential of Safoof e Muhazzil were admitted whether in vivo or in vitro. No restrain of time period of the studies conducted was observed during the research. Results: Dyslipidemia, a disorder of lipoprotein roots from errant metabolism and lifestyle which causes an increase in the oily substance in the blood leading to dyslipidemic plethora. The Unani scholars advise the use of desiccant regimens together with lifestyle management. SM is the drug of choice for obesity. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have proved it to be highly significant (p
... It is expected that CVD's will become the leading cause of death and disability worldwide [1]. Hyperlipidemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis -Associated conditions such as coronary heart diseases (CHD), ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular diseases [2]. ...
... High cholesterol diet was prepared by mixing cholesterol 2%, sodium cholate 1%, and coconut oil 2%, with powdered standard animal food [2,13]. The diet which was prepared as pellets was placed in the cage carefully and was administered for 20 days. ...
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Objective: The present study is an attempt to investigate its anti-hyperlipidemic activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium alternifolium (MESA) using high-fat diet (HFDs) and dexamethasone-induced hyperlipidemia. Methods: MESA bark was evaluated for anti-hyperlipidemic activity in HFD and dexamethasone-induced hyperlipidemic rats. A comparison was also made between the action of S. alternifolium bark extract and a known anti-hyperlipidemic drug atorvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight). The results of the study were expressed as mean ± standard error, and data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance test followed by Dunnett’s t-test for multiple comparisons. Values of p<0.05 were considered as significant. Results: Oral administration of 100, 200 mg/kg body weight of the MESA bark exhibited a significant reduction (p<0.01) in serum lipid parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL, and increase in high-density lipoprotein in hyperlipidemic rats of both models as compared to hyperlipidemic control statistically. These extracts were found to possess better anti-hyperlipidemic potential. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that MESA bark possessed significant anti-hyperlipidemic activity and hence it could be a potential herbal medicine as an adjuvant with existing therapy for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All Rights Reserved.
... Test drug showed more hypolipidemic effect on a higher dose and therefore produce dose-dependent effect. 41 ...
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Abnormal increase in the level of more than any one of the lipoproteins such as triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL or VLDL in the bloodstream can be defined as hyperlipidemia. It is the greatest world is often overused so, use “the most significant” instead of the greatestrisk factor of coronary heart attack and stroke.This review emphasizes on some herbal medicinal plants with their extracts, including Glycyrrhiza glabra,Legenaria siceraria,Medicago sativa,Curcuma longa,Curatella americana, Glycine max, Hibisus rosa-sinesis, Hibisus sabdariffa, Cinnamomum tamala, Withania somnifera, Cassia auriculata, Cynaras scolymus, Eugenia jambolana, Adenanthera pavonia, Garcinia cambogia, Terminalia chebula, Ixora coccinea, Carica papaya, Lycimum barbarum, Bauhinia purpurea, Syzygium alternifolium, Vitex negundo, Piper longa, Moringa oleifera, Zingiber officinale, Trigonella foenum graecum, Carum carvi, Gloriosasuperba, Ficus infectoria, Ficus glomerata for anti-hyperlipidemic potential. Decrease in the levels of these lipoproteins like, triglycerides (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)includes some mechanisms actions of these medicinal plants observed in triton-x, cholesterol, high fat diet, Poloxamer-407, Dexamethasone and alloxan-induced in-vivo and in-vitro models. Accordingly, this review provides numerous evidenceswhichindicatethat these medicinal plants can be usedfor treating and preventinghyperlipidemia and related complications.
... The aqueous extract of Carum carvi exhibited a potent lipid lowering activity in both normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats after single and repeated oral administration and diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. It also found that the hyperlipidemic positive control group rats showed variable increase in serum triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoproteins) and total cholesterol levels [95][96][97][98][99] . ...
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The objective is to report Zeerah siyah in Unani Classical literature, phytochemistry, pharmacology and Unani formulations and to make an effort to prove the strengths of Zeerah siyah mentioned in Unani classical literature. This review gives research questions to young researchers of Unani and other traditional system of medicine. All the information on the plant available in Urdu, Persian, Arabic language in classical Unani literature available in different libraries of India from recent to past were searched, for phyto-chemical and pharmacological activities and computerized databases such as Medline, Pubmed, Ovid SP, Google Scholar and Science-direct were searched. The temperament of Zeera siyah is Hot and Dry in third degree, therefore Unani scholars have recommended to detoxify it before use. Almost all phyto-chemcial, experimental and clinical trials carried out on Zeerah siyah were collected. It has been used for several centuries to treat gastrointestinal disorders and obesity in Unani system of medicine. It is Muhazzil (Anti-obesity); Daf-i Nafakh (Anti-Flatulent); Fad-i Zahar (Antidote) Hazim (Digestive); Mudammil-i Qurooh (Cicatrizant); Mudir-i Bawl (Diuretic); Mudir-i Shir (Galactogogue); Mudir-i Tams (Emmenogogue); Mufatti-i Hasaat (Lithotriptic); Kasir-i Riyah (Carminative) etc. as per Unani classical literature. Phytochemical studies reveals that it contains limonene, carvacrol, carvone, carvenone,-terpinene, [-pinene, linalool, and p-cymene etc. Total of twenty seven Unani classical books were referred. Thirty one different experimental and clinical studies were recognised. These studies prove the effect of Zeera siyah (Carum carvi Linn).
... Cardiovascular diseases contributed to approximately a third of entire global deaths, It is expected that it will become the leading cause of death and disability worldwide [2] . Hyperlipidemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis -Associated conditions such as coronary heart diseases (CHD), ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular diseases [3] . Atherosclerosis referred to as a "silent killer" is one of the leading causes of death in the developed countries and is on the rise in developing countries like India [4]. ...
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Hyperlipidemia is major risk factor for the atherosclerosis. Other complications are coronary heart disease, ischemic cerebro vascular disease, hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Although many efficacious lipid-lowering synthetic drugs exist, none is effective for all lipoprotein disorders, and all such agents are associated with some adverse effects. Now day’s synthetic drugs have been associated with number of side effects but herbal medicines have lipid lowering activities without any side effects. Some traditionally herbs like Allium sativum, Terminalia arjuna, Cassia angustifolia, Cinnamomum tamala, Gymnema sylvestre, Hibiscus cannabinus, Mimosa pudica, Moringa oleifera, Sida cordifolia, Hemidesmus indicu, Terminalia pallid, etc. are used as antihyperlipidemic drug as per Unani and Ayurvedic literature. The article is undertaken to investigate the herbal plants for Antihyperlipidemic activity and models use in this investigation. This review is given on the antihyperlipidemic activity of the most familiar medicinal plants of medicine. This matter may be helpful for the researchers, academician and preclinical about the potential herbs having antihyperlipidemic activity. Keywords: hypolipidemic agents, hypolipidemic medicinal plants
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Flavonoid content in the roots of caraway plants cv. Ko�czewicki and the antioxidant activity of extracts from those roots were determined in the first year of cultivation. The experiment revealed a significant relationship between the concentration of flavonoid compounds and the age of caraway roots. During the vegetative season the concentration of flavonoids in caraway roots gradually increased and ranged from an average level of 0.153 mg�g-1 of air-dry matter (a.d.w.) in June to 0.512 mg�g-1 a.d.w. in October. The largest amounts of these compounds were contained in the roots of the plants grown in 2006 (an average of 0.312 mg�g-1 a.d.w.). The ability to scavenge the DPPH radical by the extracts from caraway roots increased in direct proportion to the length of the vegetative period, flavonoid content and extract concentration.
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Cuminum cyminum and Carum carvi are the sources of cumin and caraway seeds respectively, which have been used since antiquity for the treatment of various indications in traditional healing systems in wide geographical areas. Cumin and caraway seeds are rich sources of essential oils and have been actively researched for their chemical composition and biological activities. In recent times (especially during the last 3 years) considerable progress has been made regarding validation of their acclaimed medicinal attributes by extensive experimental studies. In this attempt many novel bioactivities have been revealed. This review highlights the significance of cumin and caraway as potential source of diverse natural products and their medicinal applications.
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To assess the effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi seeds in experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rodents, we studied 48 adult male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: normal controls (group A), diabetes positive control (group B), and experimental (groups C and D). They received Carum carvi extract as a renoprotective agent. Rats having fasting blood glucose levels over 280 mg/dL were included in this study. Group C rats received STZ (60 mg/kg) and aqueous extract of Carum carvi at 30 mg/kg of body weights. On the other hand group D rats received STZ (60 mg/kg) and aqueous extract of Carum carvi at 60 mg/kg of body weight. Blood samples were collected on the 60 th day, and kidneys were also extracted for examination. The diabetic group rats showed a variable increase in the serum levels of glucose, urea, creatinine, total urinary protein and microalbuminuric levels. Body weight decreased and urine volume increased in the diabetic groups. 30 mg/kg body weight of Carum carvi dose decreased the levels of these parameters in rats. On the other hand, 60 mg/kg body weight of Carum carvi dose significantly decreased the levels of the biochemical parameters. The morphological examination of group C rats showed no changes whereas the rats in group D showed moderate changes. Carum carvi constituents, especially flavonoids and carvone have strong anti-oxidant activity, which provides reno-protection against diabetes and its complications. In conclusion, high dose of Carum carvi aqueous seeds extract (60 mg/kg) showed reno-protection against STZ induced dia-betic nephropathy in rats.
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The effect of Carum carvi L. pretreatment on gastric mucosal injuries caused by NaCl, NaOH, ethanol and pylorous ligation accumulated gastric acid secretions was investigated in rats. Pretreatment at oral doses of 250 and 500 mg kg<sup>-1</SUP>, body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the (i) ulcerogenic effects of different necrotizing agents (ii) ethanol-induced histopathological lesions, depletion of stomach wall mucus and Nonprotein Sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH) and (iii) pylorous ligated accumulation of gastric acid secretions. The protective effect of Carum carvi against ethanol-induced damage of the gastric tissue appears to be related with the free-radical scavenging property of its constituents. The exact mechanism of action of the gastroprotective activity is not known. However, it might be due to flavonoid related suppression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) which are known to convert xenobiotics and endogenous compounds to toxic metabolites.
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In this study, the medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiac diseases were inventoried based on the ethnopharmacological survey in south-eastern Morocco: Tafilalet region. Seven hundred persons including 320 diabetic patients and 380 patients with hypertension and cardiac disorders and 20 traditional herbal healers were interviewed in different areas of Tafilalet. The results indicated that 80% of patients interviewed used medicinal plants to treat diabetes, hypertension and cardiac diseases because they state that phytotherapy is cheaper (58%), more efficient (40%) and better (65%) than modern medicine. In this ethnobotanic enquiry, about 92 medicinal plants were cited. A lot of them are cited for the first time in Morocco. Many parameters have been evaluated such as knowledge of the toxic plants, doses, parts used, etc. Also, we have reported that 75% of type 2 diabetic patients used medicinal plants in association with modern drugs, while 10% of type 1 diabetic patients regularly used medicinal plants combined with insulin treatment. Some toxic plants have also been reported. In conclusion Tafilalet region disposes of a large phytotherapy knowledge which must be scientifically investigated especially in treating diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiac diseases.