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The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice

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... A scientific appraisal of this ubiquity can be found in some academic disciplines such as psychology, sociology and criminology. For example, social psychology highlights respect's ubiquity as particularly significant in cooperative and compliant behavior (Lind and Tyler 1988;Tyler and Steven L. Blader 2000). This is less so in politology (or political science/international relations) even as many foreign leaders cite disrespect as a reason for bad relations (The Economist 2009; Wolf 2014) or even war (Homer 1899). ...
... 161-62). If this is so, then it might be important to better understand that this trust is often a post-condition, i.e., the respect of citizenry for the laws, customs and law enforcement institutions(Bladder and Tyler 2000;Lind and Tyler 1988). This respect often comes from the commitment of state and regional leaders to providing security and stability. ...
Thesis
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Eine Analyse der Nachrichtenmedien wird wahrscheinlich zeigen, dass mehr Forderungen an den Respekt von internationalen Anführern als an Vertrauen gestellt wird. Diese Studie analysiert die Mikrodynamik der palästinensisch-israelischen Friedensgespräche in Oslo (1993) sowie die accra-liberianischen Friedensgespräche (2003) mit dem Fokus auf die Frage: Was ist Respekt und inwieweit könnte ‚Respekt‘—als kritischer Katalysator für Friedensprozesse und deren spätere Vereinbarungen—die Interaktion zwischen Konfliktparteien, die zu Verhandlungen bereit sind, beeinflüßen? Die Fallauswahl erfolgte mittels Prozessverfolgung, während der ‚Respekt‘ in den beiden Ereignis-Transkripten aus den Gesprächen durch qualitative Inhaltsanalyse—unter Verwendung der Software MAXQDA—abgebildet und identifiziert wurde. Darüber hinaus wurden Interviews mit 15 Mediatoren—darunter ein nigerianischer Präsident und ein amerikanischer Botschafter—geführt und in die Analyse mitaufgenommen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen die Wesentlichkeit der Rolle des Respekts bei Friedensprozessen auf; sie weisen darauf hin, dass ‚Respekt‘ mindestens eine gleichrangige oder sogar noch eine größere Bedeutung als Vertrauen aufweist. Zwei Disziplinen der Sozialwissenschaften – Kriminologie und Politologie – sind der interdisziplinäre Rahmen, in dem diese Studie ihren Anwendungsbereich operationalisierte. Restorative Justice (Kriminologie) ist eine vorherrschende Alternative im Strafjustizsystem, die Treffen zwischen "Opfern", "Tätern" und deren Gemeinschaften mit anerkennenswerten Ergebnissen ermöglicht. Die Theorie des Respekts in den internationalen Beziehungen (Politologie) stellt dar, dass die angemessene Berücksichtigung eines politischen Gegners ein kooperatives Verhalten fördern kann. Der Zusammenfluss dieser beiden Konzepte verdeutlicht den Begriff des Respekts und unterscheidet ihn vom Vertrauen. Darüber hinaus erzeugt dieser Zusammenfluss drei Typologien, mit denen ‚Respekt‘ in Friedensprozessen bewertet werden kann:Respekt als Modellierungsverhalten (RasMB); Respekt als Gleichgewicht (RasB); Respekt als gemeinsame Erfahrung (RasSE). Diese Typologien werden als Pfade von Respekt-Mapping eingesetzt, um die Verknüpfungen zwischen Respekt und den Vereinbarungen in den Gesprächen aufzuzeigen. Was die Konflikte und ihre Lösung betrifft, so bietet diese Studie drei Beiträge für die Sozialwissenschaften. Erstens liefert sie einen theoretischen und methodischen Rahmen, um Respekt zu verstehen und anzuwenden. Dieser war in der akademischen Welt bisher recht vage. Zweitens zeigen die Ergebnisse der Untersuchung, dass Respekt dem Vertrauen vorausgeht, während die Rolle und der Einfluss des Respekts auf Mediationsakteure herausgearbeitet wird. Drittens stellen die drei Wege (Pfade) den Mediatoren ein einfacheres Rahmenwerk zur Verfügung, mit denen mit Konflikten und deren Antagonisten umgegangen werden kann. Dadurch wird weniger Komplexität beim Herbeiführen und Halten von Antagonisten am Tisch ermöglicht.
... While the primary goal of this study is to better understand the role emotions play in police-citizen encounters, the results will also speak to the utility of GST in explaining emotionality and coping in the context of policing. judgments of fairness in legal processes as key drivers of how people perceive them (Lind & Tyler, 1988;Tyler, 2006). For example, individuals who are treated in a procedurally just manner are more likely to evaluate social control agents favorably. ...
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Objectives Drawing on Agnew’s (2006) general strain theory, this study tested the direct effects of police procedural injustice on participants’ emotionality and behavioral coping intentions. The mediating effects of emotionality were also assessed. Methods Data come from factorial vignettes depicting citizen-initiated encounters that were administered to a university-based sample in 2018 (N = 525). The procedural injustice stimuli reflected police behavior that violated the principles of procedural justice. Four emotional responses—angry, disgusted, happy, and appreciative—were assessed, and behavioral coping intentions were operationalized using two measures: immediate compliance with police directives and willingness to call the police in the future. Results Procedural injustice was directly associated with participants’ emotionality and their behavioral coping intentions. The relationships between procedural injustice and behavioral coping intentions were partially mediated by emotionality. Conclusions These findings underscore the negative consequences of procedural injustice during citizen-initiated police encounters.
... Third, distributive justice relates primarily to the fair allocation of scarce resources across aggregate social groups (although some have defined distributive justice as perceptions of individual-level outcome fairness, see Mclean 2020;Lind & Tyler, 1988;van den Bos et al., 1997). To put it another way, people ask themselves whether the benefits and impositions of policing are distributed in ways matched to underlying needs (e.g. ...
Article
Police departments regularly conduct public opinion surveys to measure attitudes towards the police. The results of these surveys can be used to shape and evaluate policing policy and practice. Yet the extant evidence base is hampered when people use different methods and when there is no common data standard. In this paper we present a set of 13 core national indicators that can be used by police services across Canada to ensure measurement quality and draw proper comparisons between regions and over time. Having identified a set of 50 survey questions through an expert consultation process, we field those items on a quota sample of 2527 Canadians. Our analysis of the survey data has three stages. First, we use confirmatory factor analysis to assess scale properties. Second, we use substitution analysis to identify 13 single indicators that ‘best stand in’ for each scale. Third, we use the set of 50 and the sub-set of 13 measures to test procedural justice theory for the first time in the Canadian context. Overall, those commissioning and managing public attitudes surveys can use the 13 core indicators as a conceptually-rich and empirically-validated tool through which to understand local survey data in the context of other municipal, provincial, territorial and national contexts.
... Following the inability of equity theory and other models of distributive justice (e.g., Crosby, 1976;Deutsch, 2010) to explain and predict individuals' reactions to perceived injustice, research expanded its conceptualization toward procedural justice, which refers to the perceived fairness of the process by which outcomes are determined (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001). Studies in this area showed that the distribution of rewards (i.e., distributive justice) is sometimes less relevant to determining perceived fairness than the process itself by which rewards were allocated (Cohen et al., 1989). Lastly, interactional justice represents an extension of procedural justice that emphasizes the influence of the interpersonal treatment that customers or employees experience during a process of exchange (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001). ...
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Although consumers and experts often express concerns regarding the questionable business practices of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing services (e.g., reselling of consumers' genetic data), the DTC genetic testing market keeps expanding rapidly. We employ retail fairness as our theoretical lens to address this seeming paradox and conduct a discrete choice experiment with 16 attributes to better understand consumers' fairness perceptions of DTC genetic testing business models. Our results suggest that, while consumers perceive privacy-preserving DTC genetic testing services fairer, price is the main driver for fairness perception. We contribute to research on consumer perceptions of DTC genetic testing by investigating consumer preferences of DTC genetic testing business models and respective attributes. Further, this research contributes to knowledge about disruptive business models in healthcare and retail fairness by contextualizing the concept of retail fairness in the DTC genetic testing market. We also demonstrate how to utilize discrete choice experiments to elicit perceived fairness. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12525-022-00571-x.
... One factor which has been found to impact on perceived coercion is the concept of 'procedural justice' which refers to how much an individual feels that he or she is part of the decision making process in hospital admission. Service users report perceiving procedural justice when they feel; that they are able to express their views, their views are considered in clinical decisions, they are treated with respect and they are given accurate, relevant information about the procedures they are involved in (Lind, Kanfer, & Earley, 1990;Lind & Tyler, 1988). Research investigating the link between procedural justice and a subjective perception of coercion has found a strong correlation between perceptions of procedural justice and perceptions of coercion, with a strong sense of procedural justice minimising the experience of coercion . ...
Thesis
p>The first part of this thesis contains a review of the literature relating to service users’ experiences of psychiatric hospitalisation. The majority of the research discussed investigated perceived coercion and the review considers how this narrow focus has not allowed for the collection of data on other elements of people’s treatment experiences. The review highlights how there have been no published studies exploring NHS service users’ experiences of being sectioned, which suggests that this is an area that needs to be researched. The second part of the thesis contains a qualitative research study, which aimed to provide an understanding of how service users described their experiences of being sectioned under the Mental Health Act. Narratives were elicited in semi-structured interviews with seven individuals who had been sectioned in the past five years. The interviews were analysed using narrative analysis techniques and the narratives were categorised within four genres of escape , rescue , enlightenment and endurance . The narratives highlighted a complex mixture of negative and positive aspects of being sectioned. The results are discussed in relation to previous research findings and the implications for future research and clinical practice are explored. Particular attention is drawn to the clinical implications of the research considering the planned reforms to the Mental Health Act (1983), which means that non-medically trained professionals will become involved in sectioning procedures.</p
... In some cases, irreversible (unavoidable) mistakes can be made. Procedural justice arises as a result of the mistakes experienced in the process about how the results are reached and the methods of compensation (Lind and Tyler, 1988). In communicative justice, it refers to situations related to how the client should be treated (Bies and Moag, 1986). ...
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The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale for determining health service errors. Within the scope of this purpose, as a result of literature review and interviews with health institution managers, a question pool consisting of 57 statements was created. The pilot implementation was conducted as a result of interviews with the health service manager and academicians who are experts in their fields. Data were collected by convenience sampling method from 392 individuals with a total of 53 statements remaining in the item pool. reliability and validity tests were performed in the analysis of the questionnaires collected by hand-away method. Eight dimensions emerged as a result of the exploratory factor analysis. These dimensions include "pricing errors"; "errors related to violation of rights"; "service delivery errors" "behavioral errors" "errors related to physical infrastructure" "e-service error" "privacy related errors" and "accessibility errors". In addition, it was determined that the model fit values for the confirmatory factor analysis met the specified criteria.
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This article presents the results of survey‐based research which explores if licensed aircraft maintenance engineers working in Norway, Sweden, and Portugal experience regulated “just culture” as procedural justice‐infused processes when occurrence reporting in European Union (EU) civil aviation. Drawing on Tylerian procedural justice theory, the study finds that, perceived procedural justice is more strongly associated with legitimacy (perceived as support for rules and authority) than legal anxiety among the maintenance engineers. Country‐based results reveal differences in engineers' legal experiences of occurrence reporting with perceived procedural justice strongest in Sweden and legal anxiety most influential in Portugal. The article contributes with a first exploration of “just culture” as a procedural justice‐infused legal intervention to improve compliance to regulated occurrence reporting by negating legal anxiety in a European aviation context.
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Policy support matters for the success of public policies. It is still unclear how governments can garner support for policies with high costs. Using a conjoint experiment in China, we demonstrate that governments can encourage policy support by offering institutional services and material interests to policy targets. In particular, citizens become more willing to support policies when governments timely disclose policy information and respond to and incorporate their voices in the policy design. Government subsidies in both the short and long runs also increase citizens’ policy support. In addition, government transparency and long‐run subsidies are complementary to enhancing policy support; the role of institutions is strengthened when citizens are exposed to severe policy problems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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