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Objectives: This study investigated the effect of Theobromine (Theobroma cacao) with two concentrations on the surface microhardness of human enamel. Methods: Freshly extracted human third molars were collected and stored in distilled water with 0.1 percent thymol solution at room temperature prior to the experiments. After cleaning the tooth surfaces from soft tissues, twenty-four enamel blocks of 3x2 mm were sectioned from the labial surfaces of the teeth under cooling and embedded in epoxy resin. They were then randomly divided into 3 groups. The enamel specimens were treated with one coat of theobromine at two concentrations (100 mg/l of water or 200 mg/l) for the duration of 5 min. The specimens were randomly assigned into three groups (n=15). After baseline microhardness measurements, they were incubated either in 100mg/l or 200 mg/l Theobromine for 5 min. Microhardness of enamel surface was determined for each specimen initially before artificial demineralization. After demineralization each group was incubated in 100mg/l and 200 mg/l Teobromine and remineralizing solution for control. Results: Surface microhardness (SMH) was measured at baseline, after demineralization and after teobromine 100 ml, 200 mg/l and remineralization, SMH showed statistically significant differences between baseline, after demineralization and teobromine 100 mg/l (p=0.0023) and teobromine 200mg/l application (p=0.0016). SMH showed that 200 mg/l Theobromine protected enamel specimens greater than 100 mg/l(p < 0.05). Conclusion: Microhardness alterations are directly associated with mineral changes in superficial layers. Theobromine 200 mg/l may seem to have positive effect on enamel remineralization.
... 16 Kekerasan permukaan email gigi berhubungan dengan pertukaran mineral pada lapisan permukaan email dan teobromin 200mg/L memiliki efek positif pada remineralisasi email. 17 Hasil ini diperkuat dengan penelitian berikutnya yang menyimpulkan bahwa teobromin dari tanaman kakao dapat memberikan proteksi yang sangat hebat pada permukaan email gigi. 18 Sebuah penelitian in vitro menunjukkan efektivitas teobromin terhadap kekerasan permukaan email dan proses remineralisasi sama dengan gel Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride (APF) serta krim CCP-ACP. ...
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Dental caries is still a dental health problem in Indonesia. Fluoride, one of the dental caries prevention material, but its safety and the danger of fluorosis is still debated. Theobromine is an alkaloid compound contained in cocoa beans. Theobromine is believed to increase enamel microhardness with mineral changes in the enamel superficial layer. Objectives: To determine the influence of theobromine on the enamel surface microhardness. Methods: This study used 40 premolar tooth crown pieces that were embedded in epoxy resin. Furthermore specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups, which were control (distilled water), theobromine 100 mg/L (T100), theobromine 500 mg/L (T500) and theobromine 1000 mg/L (T1000). Specimens were immersed for 15 minutes and microhardness test was performed using Knoop microhardness tester. Results: Increasing enamel microhardness was observed after treatment with four different theobromine concentrations. The highest icreased of enamel microhardness was shown in T1000 group and difference compared to other groups were statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: theobromine is a potential dental caries prevention material due to its effect in improving the microhardness of tooth enamel.
... Sadeghpour reported that theobromine in chocolate powder has better anticariogenic effect than fluoride in reducing enamel solubility (Sadeghpour, 2007). Kargul et al. claimed that the hardness of enamel was related to the mineral exchange on the surface of enamel and that Thebromine 200mg/l has positive effects on enamel remineralization (Kargul et al., 2010). This result is supported by research conducted by Grace et al., which claimed that theobromine was a material that can prevent potential dental caries because of its ability to increase the hardness of enamel (Grace et al., 2012). ...
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