Effect of Theobromine on Enamel Surface Hardness: An in-vitro Study
Objectives: This study investigated the effect of Theobromine (Theobroma cacao) with two concentrations on the surface microhardness of human enamel. Methods: Freshly extracted human third molars were collected and stored in distilled water with 0.1 percent thymol solution at room temperature prior to the experiments. After cleaning the tooth surfaces from soft tissues, twenty-four enamel blocks of 3x2 mm were sectioned from the labial surfaces of the teeth under cooling and embedded in epoxy resin. They were then randomly divided into 3 groups. The enamel specimens were treated with one coat of theobromine at two concentrations (100 mg/l of water or 200 mg/l) for the duration of 5 min. The specimens were randomly assigned into three groups (n=15). After baseline microhardness measurements, they were incubated either in 100mg/l or 200 mg/l Theobromine for 5 min. Microhardness of enamel surface was determined for each specimen initially before artificial demineralization. After demineralization each group was incubated in 100mg/l and 200 mg/l Teobromine and remineralizing solution for control. Results: Surface microhardness (SMH) was measured at baseline, after demineralization and after teobromine 100 ml, 200 mg/l and remineralization, SMH showed statistically significant differences between baseline, after demineralization and teobromine 100 mg/l (p=0.0023) and teobromine 200mg/l application (p=0.0016). SMH showed that 200 mg/l Theobromine protected enamel specimens greater than 100 mg/l(p < 0.05). Conclusion: Microhardness alterations are directly associated with mineral changes in superficial layers. Theobromine 200 mg/l may seem to have positive effect on enamel remineralization.