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Mitra, B., Lewin-Jones, J., Barrett, H. & Williamson, S. (2010) ‘The use of video to enable deep learning’, Research in Post-compulsory Education 15(4) pp.405-414

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Research in Post-Compulsory Education
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The use of video to enable deep
Barbara Mitra a , Jenny LewinJones a , Heather Barrett b & Stella
Williamson a
a Institute of Humanities and Creative Arts , University of
Worcester , Worcester, UK
b Institute of Science and the Environment , University of
Worcester , Worcester, UK
Published online: 13 Dec 2010.
To cite this article: Barbara Mitra , Jenny LewinJones , Heather Barrett & Stella Williamson (2010)
The use of video to enable deep learning, Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 15:4, 405-414,
DOI: 10.1080/13596748.2010.526802
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Research in Post-Compulsory Education
Vol. 15, No. 4, December 2010, 405–414
ISSN 1359-6748 print/ISSN 1747-5112 online
© 2010 Further Education Research Association
DOI: 10.1080/13596748.2010.526802
The use of video to enable deep learning
Barbara Mitraa*, Jenny Lewin-Jonesa, Heather Barrettb and Stella Williamsona
aInstitute of Humanities and Creative Arts, University of Worcester, Worcester, UK; bInstitute
of Science and the Environment, University of Worcester, Worcester, UK
Taylor and FrancisRPCE_A_526802.sgm
(Received 16 March 2010; final version received 14 July 2010)
10.1080/13596748.2010.526802Research in Post-Compulsory Education1359-6748 (print)/1747-5112 (online)Review Article2010Taylor & Francis154000000December 2010Dr
Videos (including commercial films, films made for teaching and films on public
websites) are being used in higher education in many different subject areas. With
the arrival of websites such as YouTube, students can access material of varying
quality and content on numerous topics. The purpose of this research has been to
investigate student perceptions of the use of video in lectures and seminars in
order to assess whether video can enhance student learning and encourage critical
engagement with topics. Based on feedback from 134 questionnaires and 20 semi-
structured interviews, we highlight some key issues in using video in teaching and
learning. Overall, it will be suggested that video can provide useful material for
students to engage with, but it needs to be used as part of an overall blended
learning approach.
Keywords: video; blended learning; higher education; student perceptions;
Whilst we may think of video as relatively recent in the field of learning and teaching,
Shephard (2003, 295) noted that ‘video has been used in different ways for many years
to support student learning in all branches of education.’ However, the introduction of
websites such as YouTube, Google video and TeacherTube has led to much greater and
easier access to a wealth of video material, most of which is freely available to
students and lecturers. There are also numerous videos that have been specifically
made for educational purposes, many by academics themselves, and indeed our
research interest in this topic stems from our own production of video material.
Similarly we have found that many of our academic colleagues have also made use of
the vast resources available through commercial DVDs and the internet. We use the
term video here as an umbrella term to include all media with moving pictures and
There are few examples of the evaluated use of video in learning and teaching in
higher education, as Shephard (2003) has pointed out. The research that does exist in
this area has often focused on lecturers’ experiences and views of using video and the
practical details of how to use such technology in higher education (see Cook-Sather
2003; Lee and Sharma 2008). However, we seek to establish and highlight student
viewpoints in order to gain fresh insight into the use and experience of video in teach-
ing and learning in higher education. Our research aims to investigate how students
*Corresponding author. Email:
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406 B. Mitra et al.
experience video being used in their courses by their lecturers, how they use video
themselves, and how this might impact on their learning.
Sceptics of the use of video in education might argue that the use of video material
is leading to a decline in intellectual rigour through oversimplification and an empha-
sis on entertainment and passivity. Conversely, through our research we aim to show
that video can be a very valuable educational tool (see also Bashman and Treadwell
1995), and that when used appropriately video can actively engage students and lead
to deep learning as part of an overall blended learning approach.
Literature review
In the early days of using audiovisual resources in education, Dale (1969, 140) noted
that ‘Properly prepared audiovisual materials can help us teach our subject matter with
increasing effectiveness at all levels.’ When used in a focused manner, video clips can
bring themes to life and stimulate student interest in topics (O’Hagan 2001). It is
generally agreed that one key use of video is to present new information to students
in a way that enables them to engage actively with the subject. Whether students find
video material themselves or are directed to it, they may use video to orientate new
material and gain background information.
As well as encouraging active learning, video has also been seen as promoting
deeper learning. This could partly be due to the visual images in video. It has been
shown that, for example, memory of pictures is much better than memory of verbal
names of those pictures (Bashman and Treadwell 1995). When used critically, video
makes use of both audio and visual processing, leading to more engagement with the
content than when only one sensory system is used.
However, researchers have emphasised that there is more to video than purely
being shown a series of visual images. Video can be used to reinforce learning by
enabling students to relate images from video material to other situations. For exam-
ple, Cherrett et al. (2009) developed an interactive video for undergraduate civil engi-
neering students studying health and safety on construction sites. Students had to
engage individually with the learning content, identifying various hazards and offer-
ing ways to minimise the impact. Cherrett et al. (2009) concluded that when students
are encouraged to engage directly with problems and have to apply, and use, their
learning then this facilitates deep learning. It is argued that video adds contextual and
emotional information which enables such links to be made. These types of connec-
tions may also facilitate deeper learning in a way that is sometimes otherwise difficult
to achieve in the lecture theatre or seminar room (Craik and Lockhart 1972). White,
Easton and Anderson (2000, 174) in their study of distance learners of Spanish also
highlighted ‘the rich contextual background provided by video’, which adds to an
enhanced and rich learning environment. In this way, video may enable deeper learn-
ing outside the teaching space.
The importance of taking a blended approach has been emphasised, with video
being used alongside other teaching resources. Indeed, it was suggested by Sherwood
et al. (1987) that new information is likely to be perceived as significant by learners
when presented on video in combination with text. Some of their experiments with
segments of popular films highlighted this ‘synergistic relationship between video and
text’ (Sherwood et al. 1987, 103). They suggested that the use of video and text
together can facilitate greater comprehension. Similarly, Beard, Wilson and
McCarter’s (2007, 10) survey of postgraduate students studying hospitality, leisure
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Research in Post-Compulsory Education 407
and tourism indicated that ‘the integration of video and text did have a positive effect
on learning’. They suggested that their use of video and supporting text, provided on
CD-Rom, created a ‘more holistic approach to the learning process’ (Beard, Wilson,
and McCarter 2007, 12). The different needs of the learners have also been high-
lighted. Hussein (2005, 18) stated that as learners learn in different ways ‘good learn-
ing materials should deliver the learning in a variety of ways to suit a range of learning
styles.’ Coffield et al. (2004, 3) referred to teachers developing a type of ‘pedagogic
sheep dip’ in order to be inclusive of different learning styles. With this in mind, we
suggest that there needs to be synergy between video and other material for it to be
As well as considering why video can be an effective tool, there has also been
discussion about how it should be used. This is part of a wider debate about the use of
technology in education. Nichols (2003, 4) has pointed out that ‘poor implementation
of technology must reflect poorly implemented pedagogy, or an over-estimation in
technology’s potential (or a blend of the two)’. Similarly, ineffective use of video can
result from a lack of consideration about its application in the teaching setting.
O’Hagan (2001) suggested that video should be used in short segments to maximise
learner concentration, as this is more effective than playing programmes in their
entirety. Hussein’s (2005) guide to tutors designing their own e-learning materials
emphasized that lecturers have to establish why and how the materials are being used,
so that they clearly explain the purpose of the video material. We seek to explore
whether we as lecturers could make further adjustments to the ways in which we use
video, and how we can encourage students to use video effectively.
In this research we are adhering to constructivist approaches (see Vygotsky 1978;
Bruner 1990; Tobin 1993) where learning is understood to be collaborative and inter-
active. Slevin (2008, 119) noted that learners are encouraged as well to be ‘responsi-
ble, autonomous and critical, and go beyond any information that they are given.’
Hence, we seek to investigate whether students experience video being used in an
interactive way in lectures and seminars, and if they are being encouraged to use video
material independently.
The research was a year-long funded project, through the Herefordshire and Worces-
tershire Lifelong Learning Network. The funding enabled us to employ a researcher
who distributed questionnaires and conducted semi-structured interviews with
students. There were 134 respondents to the questionnaire from the following subject
areas: English Language and Modern Foreign Languages (21%), Geography/
Archaeology (36%) and Media and Cultural Studies/Film Studies (43%). Whilst one
might expect video to be used in subjects such as Film Studies, we felt it was impor-
tant to investigate the use of video across departments and subject areas to see if video
was being used in these areas. We also wanted to investigate how video was being
used, to what purpose and the effect, if any, on students’ learning. The respondents
were also fairly evenly divided in terms of their year of study, with 35% being first
year, 34% being second year and 31% being third year undergraduates.
The questionnaire itself was administered by the researcher during lectures and
seminar sessions. The researcher introduced the questionnaire and collected them in
herself. The researcher did not teach on any of these modules and was herself a recent
graduate. Our opinion was that the students would respond better to someone who was
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408 B. Mitra et al.
not connected with the academic staff on these courses. The students were assured that
all information would remain confidential and anonymous and that the researcher
would compile the information from the questionnaires. This further dissociated the
lecturers from the questionnaire in order for students to be comfortable about what
they were writing on the questionnaires.
The questionnaire itself consisted of a mixture of open and closed questions.
Closed questions were used to find out how many students had experienced video
being used in seminars and in lectures. Demographic information was sought such as
students’ age and gender. The open-ended questions asked for information about how
video had been used in lectures and seminars, and sought their opinions about this in
relation to their learning. For example, one question asked students to give details of
watching video clips in their seminars: ‘Have you watched videos in preparation for a
seminar?’ and ‘Have you watched video clip(s) during a seminar?’ Students were also
asked how they might like to see video being used in their courses. At the end of the
questionnaire there was a detachable sheet for students to fill in their contact details if
they wished to participate in the semi-structured interviews.
In order to gain more in-depth insight, the researcher was also tasked with
conducting semi-structured interviews. This approach was seen as preferable to that
of structured interviews or surveys as it allowed for flexibility in coverage, enabling
participants to identify the important issues in relation to the topic area. Twenty
students volunteered to take part in the interviews and all were selected. Since the
interview process took place towards the end of the academic year, the participants
were mostly first and second years due to the assessment pressures on third years. The
timing of this study meant that it was difficult to compare the experience of students
in different year groups. Seven students were from Media and Cultural Studies/Film
Studies, five were from Geography, and eight were from a range of subjects including
Psychology, English and Business Management. The researcher was flexible in terms
of when and where these interviews took place, but most occurred on campus at the
convenience of the student. In order to find out as much as possible, a mix of questions
was used with ‘cued invitations’ (Hershkowitz 2001), such as ‘tell me about…’. The
semi-structured nature of the interviews meant that questions were not always asked
in sequential order. The researcher had a series of questions to provoke discussion
about the use of video and whether the students perceived it had any impact on their
learning. These included student experiences of video being used in lectures, seminars
and the virtual learning environment. Students were asked to give specific details
about how video was used, for example, to introduce a topic or stimulate discussion
in a lecture. They were also asked about their own independent use of video material.
The interviews lasted from about 30 minutes to over an hour depending on the amount
of time available to the student. The researcher then transcribed the interviews and all
names were erased before any information was passed on to the research team. The
process of data analysis then followed that of Braun and Clarke (2006) where inter-
views were recorded and then transcribed, during which notes of points in relation to
our research questions were highlighted.
Five main themes emerged from the majority of the responses to the questionnaires
and the interviews. The first three themes relate to why video can be valuable as an
educational tool. These themes are active learning, links with existing knowledge, and
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Research in Post-Compulsory Education 409
video as part of an overall blended learning approach. The final two themes relate to
how video can be used in post compulsory education. This is divided into two parts –
how students would like video to be used, and learning points for lecturers.
Active learning
There were a variety of responses from students as to how video had helped with their
learning. Analysis of the questionnaires revealed that a significant majority of students
(89%) thought videos were useful. They liked the examples that they could see on video
and said that such material enabled better understanding and clarification of topics.
Students specifically referred to video as aiding their recall of various themes and defi-
nitions, as well as providing alternative viewpoints which challenged previously held
ideas. Hence, video can be used to stimulate students to challenge preconceptions.
Students have often had mixed experiences of video being used in their learning
during secondary school and this previous experience often colours their reaction to
and reception of video being used in higher education. Our research suggests that
some students have had very positive experience of educational videos being used
whilst others had very negative experiences of video being used. Students who had a
more positive memory of video being used in school felt that it had supported their
prior learning: ‘It’s something that’s helping me learn throughout my entire school
career – they have always used videos.’ Those who held a negative view had often
experienced video purely for entertainment rather than for educational purposes. For
example, one student noted ‘I remember a not too … committed English teacher read-
ing us half of Jane Eyre and then saying nuts to it, let’s watch the film … there’s a
general feeling at college that the use of video was a sort of treat.’
Equally, if video is used in a passive manner in higher education then this will also
influence student response to video material generally: ‘Students aren’t stupid … if
you’re just popping a video in just for the sake of it, they’re going to cotton on to that
very quickly.’ Equally, students noted that the relevance of video was often lost when
there was an inadequate introduction or a lack of activity associated with it. One
student commented:
A few people mention like that they are not relevant but they probably are, but if they
are not explained … sometimes [it is] not obvious and we’ve just sort of watched a three
minute clip and we’ll sit there like, we don’t quite get what this was.
Thus the importance of highlighting the relevance of videos to students cannot be over-
emphasized. Our research suggested that students thought it useful to have questions
to address when watching the video: ‘it’s quite possible for students to switch off …
so maybe you could overcome that by putting certain questions up at the beginning
that students need to answer from watching a video or something.’ Students liked being
encouraged to discuss the content of the videos. Another student commented that they
‘watched videos on a specific city then discussed issues raised in the video.’ In another
subject area, extracts of Gladiator were watched in a seminar to begin discussion.
Links with existing knowledge
Video can help students to link between new ideas and existing knowledge. One
student commented: ‘you can see it in real life and link it with what [you] already
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410 B. Mitra et al.
know about something.’ Students also suggested that because their interest in topics
had been stimulated by video material, this also led them to read about that particular
topic. Enabling students to access video material encourages them to follow up themes
and topics, which may then encourage deeper learning. The questionnaires also
suggested that students like video to be used to highlight examples on specific topics.
One student noted that video had been used ‘to show an example of something we’re
learning about [to] gain an opinion to put in an assignment or for extra information.’
They felt that this helped their understanding and may actually benefit them in terms
of doing better in their assignments.
Part of this deeper learning could also be facilitated by having video material
available later for private study alongside the social interaction in the classroom. This
could be through a virtual learning environment or through such sites as YouTube.
This is highlighted by the comments of one student:
Our lecturer puts them [video] onto Blackboard [a VLE] and we can sort of dip in and
out as an when we want to. I personally look at them at home so that I can familiarise
myself with what’s coming up … or to reiterate what I have been learning the week
Being able to see videos in their own time on their own computers (e.g. through the
VLE) means that students can control their interaction with the video, such as being
able to repeat sections as required: ‘I could keep going over it and keep going back to
it. I just like to be able to pause things, fast forward things and go back to things.’
Another student noted ‘when I watched it at home on my own later, I found out things
that I missed out before.’ Thus video can be used to encourage students to take control
over their learning and to foster deep learning about specific issues.
Part of an overall blended learning approach
We maintain that it is essential for video to be used as part of an overall blended learn-
ing approach. Students themselves perceived that different learning methods were
I think they really help you understand where the lecturer is coming from … and it’s
good to have visual aids because some people learn differently, in different ways and
I personally feel I learn better with a combination of like writing and discussing as well
as visuals aids and stuff like DVDs.
The synergy between text and video highlighted in research into video was referred to
by the students in our study, even though they did not use the word ‘synergy’ them-
selves. For example, one student commented on a video they had watched on the topic
of semiotics:
We were looking at semiotics … and I did run through that sort of two or three times to
get more of an idea. Because semiotics isn’t really an easy thing to grasp. But I did find
that useful because I could keep going over it and keep going back to it and then it helped
me … when I was reading in books it sort of clicked with what it was saying. So I could
relate it better from seeing that particular YouTube video.
Hence, the video and text together reinforced learning to facilitate understanding of a
topic. So rather than video replacing written text, it offers an additional medium to be
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Research in Post-Compulsory Education 411
used alongside text. Another example of this synergistic relationship is where one of
the authors made a short video to explain a difficult topic. This was then used along-
side written text in preparation for a seminar to focus discussion and gauge under-
standing. There was much positive feedback about the use of text and video material
Video can also offer access to experts in the field or to situations that are difficult
to replicate in the classroom. As one student notes:
Sometimes the lecturer will show clips of particular theorists such as Bourdieu or some-
one like that and they’ll be talking about themselves and it is easy to relate to what
they’re talking about if the person is actually saying it themselves.
Again, this is not to replace textbooks, but to add to the range of different sources
about a topic. It is important however, that students need to view videos critically
rather than seeing these as authoritative.
Yet there is a vast amount of material available on the internet and much is of vary-
ing quality and content. However, students do seem to engage with these sites regard-
less of whether lecturers are using them or not. One student commented ‘I suppose
I look at things that end up not being very relevant. I could end up getting the wrong
end of the stick.’ Students were, therefore, concerned about accessing appropriate
resources and having the knowledge to identify which sources are valid.
There is still a debate to be had regarding the use of video material and assessment.
Students are unsure how to make use of video material in assignments. One student
commented ‘I’ve been sometimes afraid to use them because I don’t really know how
to like quote from a video clip.’ Hence, students want clear guidelines as to whether
they can use such material in assignments and, if so, how they should reference such
How students would like video to be used
Students also made suggestions about how they would like video to be used, from
highlighting examples to having shorter clips shown more frequently. They also
wanted video material to be used alongside other methods to reinforce learning.
Hence, despite perceptions that students may see video as passive, students realise the
potential that video has for enhancing their learning.
Students themselves suggested they preferred shorter clips rather than long ones.
‘If the video you want to show is rather long, then it is useful to make it accessible
later and to show only a short clip in the lecture or seminar.’ In fact, students liked
having a short section of a clip shown in the lecture or seminar so that they know
which video material to watch later. Students noted that reliable, short and relevant
clips added excitement and interest to the topic being studied. Showing a short clip
from a longer video also guides students in what they should watch. Students are
keen to get as much out of the time they have in seminars and lectures, so careful
planning in how much of a video to show is essential. For example, a student
commented that
…they can be 12 or 14 minutes, or even longer. Well out of an hour or a couple of hours
lecture that’s quite a long time when you’ve got other videos as well. And if the relevant
part is just taken out and shown to us in the lecture, if we want to take it further as
students then that’s up to us.
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412 B. Mitra et al.
Students also noted that by using video material it actually kept their attention more
focused, by breaking up the lecture into shorter sessions. However, the overuse of
video can have a negative influence on student learning and engagement with video
Maybe sometimes they’re overused. Like when they have a clip for every point they are
trying to make when it wasn’t needed and sometimes, I mean, obviously clips reinforce
the point don’t they – whereas not every point needs to be reinforced.
Students become frustrated if time is wasted trying to get videos to work: ‘Sometimes
clips haven’t come up and they’ve wasted quite a lot of time trying to get it to work
when it clearly isn’t going to.’ If a great deal of time is spent trying to get the video
to work it actually becomes a barrier and a hindrance to learning. It may make students
sceptical of video material rather than stimulating their interest in a topic.
Learning points for lecturers
It is essential that the purpose and relevance of the video be communicated with
students. One cannot assume that students have made the connection between the
video and its relevance. As Jeffries (2003) maintains, the learning technology needs
to be properly integrated into a course for students to engage with it properly. Hence,
the lecturer needs to guide students in order for them to become critical in watching
video material and to approach it with a questioning mind.
Lecturers have to facilitate student response to video by enabling them to engage
with content material in a critical manner, so that they are not seen as purely for enter-
tainment, but for questioning, provoking discussion, reinforcing learning or challeng-
ing previously held conceptions. Otherwise students with prior negative experience of
video use may be more passive in their response to video being used in lectures and
seminars in higher education. It may also enable learning more if there is variety in
how and when video material is used, rather than only beginning sessions with a video
clip to stimulate discussion. Thus, it is essential for video to be used as part of an over-
all blended learning approach in order to achieve maximum benefit.
Video clips can be made available on virtual learning environments for students to
watch in their own time. In fact, if appropriate, seminars can be based around the prior
watching of specific videos with questions to provoke thinking and discussion about
topics. This could also be used alongside written text to deepen student understanding
of a topic. What is important though is that rather than simply putting links on to a
virtual learning environment, students are introduced to the video – even if it is just a
few seconds in a lecture or seminar setting – and are encouraged to watch it in a crit-
ical manner.
It is also important for lecturers to be familiar with the video material in order to
highlight certain points or to set questions for discussion before showing the video.
Lecturers must also ensure that they are familiar with the technology and if it does not
work then they need to be prepared to move on rather than wasting time trying to get
a video to work.
To conclude, our research suggests that video can be very useful for enhancing deep
learning and for stimulating interest in topics. However, lecturers need to enable
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Research in Post-Compulsory Education 413
students to engage critically with video through questioning and discussions about the
video material. The relevance of the video being shown also needs to be highlighted
to students, even if the relevance seems obvious to lecturers. Students need to be
taught how to engage critically with video material and to question the content, espe-
cially where academics are talking about their subject area. Hence, the attitude of the
lecturer to video material will largely determine the attitude of the student to that mate-
rial. Where a lecturer clearly sets out the purpose of watching the video and uses it to
provoke thought and or discussion, then it will be less likely that students remain
passive. However, if a lecturer passively uses a video as a replacement for an entire
lecture then it is likely that students will passively view the video, unless specific tasks
are highlighted before the video is watched. How lecturers themselves use video will
determine whether or not the video is an effective learning tool or simply a passive
time filler for students. When used critically and as part of a blended learning
approach, video can be an important element in Higher Education. Students are brows-
ing the internet and sites such as YouTube in order to find video material on topics they
are studying, and, as lecturers, we need to teach them how to engage critically in the
reading of video material.
Notes on contributors
Barbara Mitra is a Senior Lecturer in Media and Cultural Studies at the University of Worces-
ter. She has research interests in the use of technology in learning and teaching, as well as focus-
ing on gender and the media.
Jenny Lewin-Jones is a Senior Lecturer in the Language Centre at the University of Worcester.
Her research interests lie in the fields of new technology in language teaching, widening parti-
cipation in language learning and English Language usage.
Heather Barrett is a Principal Lecturer in Geography, Archaeology and Heritage Studies at the
University of Worcester. Her research interests lie in the areas of new technology, employabil-
ity and Urban Geography.
Stella Williamson is currently working as a research assistant in Psychology and Counselling
at Newman University College.
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... Videos can be 'talking heads' clips, voice-over presentations and multimedia-enabled lectures (Guo et al., 2014). Aligned with lecture content and resources, videos can present information to learners in an interesting way (Cherrett et al., 2009), reinforce learning by facilitating both visual and audio engagement with content (Balslev et al., 2005) and engage students in 'real-life' simulations (Fearing et al., 2010), boosting their problem-solving skills and critical thinking (Mitra et al., 2010) Video-based learning has been used in education for decades; however, the question of what type of videos are better for learning, and how students engage with video components of their study, remains a topical issue. With videos ranging from those professionally made and those recorded using personal capture software, the impact of video production value on student learning remains uncertain (Hansch et al., 2015). ...
... What is known, however, is that lecture capture and picture--in--picture videos are superior to the voice--over videos (Chen & Wu, 2015), while shorter videos (under five minutes) are more engaging to learners than longer ones (Guo et al., 2014). Evidence from neuroscience (Bashman & Treadwell, 1995), showed that because visual memory is overall better than verbal memory, videos can make a significant difference in the information recall, especially if both audio and visual processing are engaged (Mitra et al., 2010). To avoid split--attention effect, using one type of video delivery over several is better as it reduces cognitive overload; while a lecturer's visual presence in the video gives learners a sensation of interaction, fostering the sense of belonging (Chen & Wu, 2015). ...
... Students perceive videos as useful in improving understanding, clarifying difficult topics, improving information recall and stimulating critical thinking (Mitra et al., 2010;Loch et al., 2014;Henderson et al., 2015). Students' prior experiences can influence their engagement with videos: if at school students were exposed to videos that were effectively integrated into the educational context, they come to expect the same pattern of use when in university (Mitra et al., 2010). ...
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This mixed method study involved twenty students enrolled in three consecutive intakes of an Australian Bachelor of Laws program's introductory unit. Pioneering a multi-element blended design, the unit featured three key elements: summary videos, self-test online quizzes and interactive discussion boards. These elements were chosen based on evidence-based research into digital tools found effective in enhancing students' face-to-face learning experience in blended and fully online designs. The study's main goal was to evaluate how students utilized these elements and in what ways their previous experiences with blended designs influenced their learning process in this unit. A focus-group and online surveys were used to collect data. Based on literature review, four areas of student experience with this blended designs formed a particular focus of this study: student expectations, support, resources, and collaboration. It was found that students extensively used videos and quizzes for catch-up, revision, and clarification, while discussion boards were not perceived as useful, with students preferring to have discussions face-to-face, in and out of classroom. Findings also indicated that students' expectations of and previous experiences with blended learning can be leveraged to strengthen blended designs.
... This was supported by teaching staff who indicated that students were better informed and that the quality of learning in laboratory sessions was greatly increased as a result. This finding correlates with previous studies in which students reported that video helped them to comprehend and recall information, stimulated their interest in the material and increased their knowledge (Mitra et al. 2010;Kay and Kletskin 2012). Videos have also been reported to increase student satisfaction and engagement (Yousef, Chatti and Schroeder 2014;Carmichael, Reid and Karpicke 2018), which in turn boosts achievement, while students have reported enjoying the independence provided by video, with control over the location and pace of their learning (Kay and Kletskin 2012). ...
Video-based learning is an increasingly important methodology in higher education and has particular value in practical teaching. In order to enhance learning and promote student engagement in our undergraduate microbiology programme, we designed and produced a suite of teaching videos which demonstrate laboratory techniques core to the syllabus. The methods were demonstrated by PhD students and the professionally-produced videos were made widely available via the free YouTube channel Microbiology teaching videos at NUI Galway (, which accumulated over 40 000 views across 47 countries in its first 15 months online. A survey of students who used the videos in their teaching and learning identified a greatly increased understanding of experimental principles and ability to carry out techniques; greater engagement with practical teaching sessions; particular benefits for visual learners; and increased confidence in teaching and in communicating science amongst undergraduate teaching assistants. The videos will be central to microbiology teaching at NUI Galway over the coming decade and will benefit many 3rd level institutions exploring online and blended learning approaches in the coming years.
... A pesar de que en pleno siglo XXI las posibilidades educativas de lo audiovisual (ya sea documental, cine, televisión o multimedia) parecen estar fuera de dudas e incluso superadas y que, en general, los medios audiovisuales son muy utilizados en la enseñanza desde hace ya muchas décadas (Dale, 1969;Fairgrieve, 1932), la realidad es que la investigación empírica sobre las posibilidades educativas de muchos de estos recursos aún está en construcción (Mayer, 2009;Mitra, Lewin-Jones, Barrett & Williamson, 2010). Al respecto, es paradigmático el caso de la serie de estudios realizados sobre el programa infantil «Barrio Sésamo» (Anderson, 1998;Ball & Bogatz, 1970;Cole & Lee, 2016;Connell & Palmer, 1971;Fisch, 2004). ...
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Abstract: The broad literature on the use of audiovisual aids in teaching has paid little attention to how specific resources may promote learning of social sciences among secondary students. This study analyzed the extent to which a number of audiovisual resources used in documentaries contributed to student understanding of specific contents. A sample of 120 secondary education students (44,1% males, 55,9% females; mean age: 15.7) from three high schools in southeast Spain watched a 15-minute excerpt of three documentaries on historical or geographical topics, and completed an ad hoc questionnaire with open-ended comprehension questions. The results showed that students best recalled facts introduced by a presenter or reader, o by means of visual resources such as maps, photographs, timelines or graphs, which support findings of similar studies on retention through video-based multimedia instruction. Nevertheless, an overload of information presented in a video in a short period of time may prove counterproductive and have a negative effect on understanding and learning, thus causing the so-called redundancy effect. Future research is needed and should focus on examining the impact of specific audiovisual resources (combined or in isolation) used in history and/or geography documentaries on students’ ability to retain and recall contents. Resumen: Las posibilidades educativas de los audiovisuales son hoy día incuestionables, si bien su uso, utilidad y cómo influyen determinados recursos visuales en la enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales, concretamente de la Historia y la Geografía, cuenta aún con escasos estudios. La presente investigación de corte evaluativo analizó los recursos empleados en tres audiovisuales que diferían entre sí en temática, enfoque y estilo. Una muestra de 120 estudiantes de Educación Secundaria (edad media: 15.7 años) seleccionados por conveniencia visionó un fragmento de aproximadamente 15 minutos de cada uno de los tres audiovisuales, todos ellos de tipo documental y contenido histórico y patrimonial. El objetivo fue identificar qué recursos ayudaban más a los estudiantes a entender determinados contenidos y, por lo tanto, favorecían el recuerdo de los mismos. Tras cada visualización los participantes cumplimentaron un instrumento compuesto de preguntas abiertas que medían la comprensión y recuerdo de aspectos históricos o geográficos y de contenidos conceptuales asociados al uso de determinadas estrategias. Los resultados mostraron que los participantes recordaban mejor aquellos elementos enunciados por un locutor/presentador pero acompañados de soporte gráfico, si bien un exceso de información presentada en un breve espacio de tiempo podía ser contraproducente para el aprendizaje (redundacy effect). Este estudio concluye pues la importancia de introducir la información, previamente seleccionada, por diversas vías, siendo los apoyos gráficos el mejor acompañamiento al discurso oral emitido
... A pesar de que en pleno siglo XXI las posibilidades educativas de lo audiovisual (ya sea documental, cine, televisión o multimedia) parecen estar fuera de dudas e incluso superadas y que, en general, los medios audiovisuales son muy utilizados en la enseñanza desde hace ya muchas décadas (Dale, 1969;Fairgrieve, 1932), la realidad es que la investigación empírica sobre las posibilidades educativas de muchos de estos recursos aún está en construcción (Mayer, 2009;Mitra, Lewin-Jones, Barrett & Williamson, 2010). Al respecto, es paradigmático el caso de la serie de estudios realizados sobre el programa infantil «Barrio Sésamo» (Anderson, 1998;Ball & Bogatz, 1970;Cole & Lee, 2016;Connell & Palmer, 1971;Fisch, 2004). ...
... al. ( , p.1567 found that students found the most useful and supportive aspects of digital technology were the "watching and re-watching video lectures, and preferring to look at diagrams, animations and images as opposed to engaging with the written or spoken word". Further, Mitra, Lewin-Jones, Barrett, Williamson (2010) found that students were using video to better understand and clarify key concepts and course topics. This points to the significant growth in the integration of video content in online courses and in education more broadly (Kaltura, 2017). ...
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This doctoral study explores the nature of the learning experience with an eportfolio and whether it enhances the development of critical thinking among online distance learners. The project adopts a case study approach, following twenty-four online distance learners over the course of one academic year. The study focuses on the case of the learner experience of eportfolio based learning and the process of developing critical thinking. The research question for the study is: Can eportfolios enhance the nature of the learning experience and the development of critical thinking among online distance learners? Data were generated using the participant eportfolio entries and two-time semi structured interviews. The participants were interviewed with their eportfolio, written, visual and physical artefacts from the participant’s eportfolio were used as stimulus during the interviews. The analytical approach for the study was thematic analysis, a data led approach following the Braun & Clarke (2006) six phases of thematic analysis. The findings were presented into five themes, which demonstrated the multifaceted nature of learning experiences with an eportfolio and its relationship with the development of critical thinking for online distance learners. The themes were; being an online distance learner, the experience of learning with an eportfolio, my approach to learning, thinking critically in my eportfolio, the sociology discipline context. Findings indicate that learning with an eportfolio can enhance the nature of the learning experience by providing learners with a personal space to evaluate their own learning, to process their thoughts and experiences and to document their lives and learning in an authentic and meaningful way. In addition, the findings suggest that learning with an eportfolio can enhance the development of critical thinking skills and dispositions within a disciplinary context.
... However, users of non-meal preparation lessons benefited to a similar extent as users of meal preparation lessons when they used Health eKitchen before completing their lesson, suggesting that the content of the video may be less important than the arousal or level of engagement that may be incited in the learner following video viewing. A previous study on the use of video and its ability to enable deep learning that touched on the subject reported that the relevance of the video with a learning objective should be carefully considered and clear to the user [28]. In contrast, the current study indicated that the use of video may have a positive impact regardless of whether it is specifically related to a behavior change focus. ...
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Background: The impact of integrating video into health education delivery has been extensively investigated; however, the effect of integrating video on a learner's subsequent performance in an online educational setting is rarely reported. Results of the relationship between the learner's online video viewing and subsequent progression toward health behavior change in a self-directed online educational session are lacking.
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Despite the prevalence of educational videos in today’s schools and classrooms, limited work has examined the strategies students use when comprehending videos. The aim of this study is to compare pre-service teachers’ strategy use when they are presented with information via text vis-à-vis via video. The study used a 2 × 2 experimental design with students assigned either to read or view each of two information sources. The study found strategy use to differ across mediums of information presentation, as determined through both self-report and log data. Additionally, comprehension was found to differ according to medium of information presentation, with text conferring an advantage. At the same time, students were found to have limited integration of multiple sources of information, across mediums of information presentation. Conclusions and implications for instruction and future work are discussed.
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This research study focused on the creation of flipped instructional material that can be used by chemistry teachers in their lesson following the flipped classroom model. It was noted that adoption and implementation of flipped classroom by teachers was of great help to address the problems of DepEd. The study sought to determine the different aspects of flipped instructional materials and reasons for inclusions to be considered in creating flipped instructional materials. Using Technology, Pedagogy and Content Knowledge (TPACK), the researcher collaboratively worked with science teachers of Binan Integrated National High School in developing a flipped lesson plan to become instructional materials that teachers can used and followed in implementing flipped classroom model. This resulted to careful choosing and keen selection of different activities that would augment the lecture in flipped classroom models. The study used descriptive research design. The study was divided into three stages with the identification of learning objectives, the writing of the lesson plan and the editing for grammatical correctness. A collaborative effort made the lesson planning and development of instructional material to be “moderately” suitable for all aspects of flipped classroom. Revisions were made based from the assessment made by the teachers and an improved flipped instructional material for science was then created as the final product of this study.
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Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different epistemological and ontological positions. We then provide clear guidelines to those wanting to start thematic analysis, or conduct it in a more deliberate and rigorous way, and consider potential pitfalls in conducting thematic analysis. Finally, we outline the disadvantages and advantages of thematic analysis. We conclude by advocating thematic analysis as a useful and flexible method for qualitative research in and beyond psychology.
This article examines the way in which e‐learning is transforming the nature of social interaction in higher education. In this new educational environment, radical societal transitions and the opportunities afforded by modern communication technologies together produce formidable challenges. Significant as these challenges may be, concentration upon problems of a practical kind draws attention away from the more theoretical concerns in understanding e‐learning. By drawing together developments in social, educational and communicational theory and Gilly Salmon’s hands‐on approach to teaching and learning online, this article reveals some unintended consequences: e‐moderation and the use of e‐tivities may perpetuate the very conditions that limit our chances of dealing successfully with the challenges posed by e‐learning. While theory may muddle what might otherwise be communicated meaningfully to those in search of practical answers, theoretical developments provide concepts and frameworks that can be placed in the service of a critical understanding of e‐learning and the transformation of social interaction in higher education.
This paper reports on a study of the use of video by learners in a multimedia language course, their perceptions of the contribution of video to learning and the affective evaluations they ascribe to video vs print sources. The subjects for the study were tertiary learners of Spanish enrolled in the first semester of a distance learning programme. Data was gathered relating to students' choices of when and how to use video, how they represented video in the development of language skills, and affective responses to video vs. print sources. Results reveal that video is used primarily to orient students to new material, and to gain background, into which subsequent material can be integrated. Video was perceived as aiding the acquisition of listening and speaking skills, and pronunciation, and as assisting recall of the language by means of the visual setting and contextual features. Affective evaluations of video sources are related to a discussion of ‘enjoyment’, anxiety and mental effort in language learning.La perception par les étudiants d'une vidéo dans un cours des langues multimédiaCette communication rapporte une étude de l'emploi fait par les apprenants de l' élément vidéo d'un cours multimédia de langue étrangère. Il s'agit de leurs perceptions de la contribution apportée par la vidéo à leur apprentissage et leurs évaluations affectives comparative de la vidéo vis-à-vis des matériaux imprimés incorporés au cours. Les sujets de l' étude étaient des apprenants à distance inscrits au niveau débutant dans un programme universitaire de langue espagnole. Les informations recueillies se rapportaient aux choix exercés par les étudiants sur quand et comment ils se servaient de la vidéo, leur appréciation du rôle de la vidéo dans le développement de leurs capacités linguistiques, et leurs réponses affectives à la vidéo comparés aux matériaux imprimés. Les résultats révèlent que la vidéo sert en premier lieu à orienter les éudiants dans l'accès de nouveaux élèments de l'étude, et à leur fournir un cadre pour l'intégration d'éléments subséquents. On apercevait la vidéo comme une aide très pratique pour l'apprentissage de l' écoute et de l'expression orale et la prononciation, et pour le rappel de structures et de vocabulaire par l'effet du cadre visuel at du contexte narratif et sociolinguistique. L'appréciation affective de la vidéo se rapporte aux niveaux d'agrément, d'anxiété et d'effort mental associés à l'apprentissage des langues.Studenten eines Multimedia-Sprachkurses erfahren den Wert von VideonutzungDieses Papier berichtet über eine Studie über den Gebrauch von Video durch Teilnehmer an einem Multimediasprachkurs, ihren Wahrnehmungen des Beitrags von Video zum Lernen und den affektiven Bewertungen von Videonutzung gegenüber gedruckten Materialien. Die Teilnehmer an der Studie waren Erwachsene im ersten Semester eines Spanisch Lehrgangs per Distance Learning. Daten wurden in bezug auf die Wahl der Kursteilnehmer, wann und wie sie Video benutzt haben, wie sie Video bei der Entwicklung von Sprachfertigkeiten eingesetzt haben, gesammelt und die affektiven Eindrücke von Bildschirm im Gegensatz zu Druckmedien festgestellt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Video hauptsächlich genutzt wird, um sich über neues Material zu orientieren und um Hintergrundwissen zur Integration neuer Lerninhalte zu gewinnen. Video wurde auch zur Unterstützung bei der Entwicklung von Hör- und Sprechfähigkeit sowie der Aussprache benutzt, ebenso als Hilfe bei der Erinnerung visueller Einstellungen und von Kontexteigenschaften. Affektive Auswertungen der Videobeiträge hängen mit Begriffen wie Vergnügen , Angst und geistiger Anstrengung beim Sprachenlernen zusammen.
Watching a video often results in passive learning and does not actively engage students. In this study, a class of 20 HSC Physics students were introduced to a teaching model that incorporated active learning principles with the watching of a video that explored the Meissner Effect and superconductors. Students would watch short sections of the structured video and then participate in guided group work, discussing and presenting their ideas to the class. The students received the treatment enthusiastically and the feedback from the classroom teacher was positive and encouraging. This teaching model showed a successful way in which constructivist theory could be applied to improve the active participation and learning of students watching a video. Further work is needed to verify whether the engagement and interest of the students can be replicated with other subject matter. (Contains 2 figures.)
Fifty 4- to 13-year-olds were interviewed about incidents of sexual abuse that they had allegedly experienced. The interviewers employed an unusually high number of open-ended prompts, and the analyses focused on the effectiveness of different types of open-ended inquiries. Open-ended prompts yielded significantly longer and more detailed responses than did focused prompts. The main invitation, which initiated the children's narratives, elicited the longest and most detailed responses. Invitations remained superior to focused questions throughout the interview. The effectiveness of invitations did not vary depending on whether they followed focused or open-ended prompts. There were no age differences in the effectiveness of any types of invitations.
For more information, go to editor's website : Excerpts available on Google Books.
The rapid expansion of networking capabilities and growing potential of access to such facilities is stimulating an exponential growth in the interest to develop technological resources to facilitate and enhance the learning experience within Higher Education. Thus, educational institutions are increasingly being encouraged to experiment with tools that promote collaborative working, which are, in turn, perceived to help in the development of more autonomous, responsible learners. This paper therefore seeks briefly to explore the theoretical underpinnings that usually prompt the adoption of such tools as Asynchronous Computer Conferencing (ACC) technology for collaborative working in an educational environment. The research will then go on to question the traditional approach of the 'moderated' implementation of such technology as well as reporting on some findings gained from fieldwork studies undertaken with campus-based undergraduates using ACC for supporting Computer Supported Collaborative Learning as an integral part of their learning experience within a Higher Education environment.